Science.gov

Sample records for environmental water account

  1. An Integrated Environmental and Water Accounting and Analytical Framework for Accountable water Governance: a Case Study for Haihe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. This is especially urgent in Haihe basin with poor water availability of 305 m3 per capita basis. With the rapid economic development and associated increases in water demand, the river basin has been enduring increasing water stress. Water for the ecosystem use has been compromised and the environment has been deteriorating. Water shortage and environmental degradation have become a bottleneck to the further development of the economy and society. On one side, previous water resource managers have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. On the other side, environmental managers have usually ignored the importance of pollutant assimilating capacity of water flows for the wastewater control. It is especially important to measure the impacts of both water withdrawn and wastewater discharge on the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. Water quantity and quality of return flows should also become the important components of such an environmental and water account. Because return flow from upstream sites represents an externality to downstream uses, which can be positive as an additional source and negative as a pollutant source. In this paper we present an integrated environmental and water accounting and analytical approach based on a distributed hydrological model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) combined with a simple water quality model. Our environmental and water accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution from the human system and water flows passing the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Keywords: Environmental accounting; Water accounting; Water

  2. Accounting for environmental flow requirements in global water assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, A. V.; Ludwig, F.; Biemans, H.; Hoff, H.; Kabat, P.

    2014-12-01

    As the water requirement for food production and other human needs grows, quantification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) is necessary to assess the amount of water needed to sustain freshwater ecosystems. EFRs are the result of the quantification of water necessary to sustain the riverine ecosystem, which is calculated from the mean of an environmental flow (EF) method. In this study, five EF methods for calculating EFRs were compared with 11 case studies of locally assessed EFRs. We used three existing methods (Smakhtin, Tennant, and Tessmann) and two newly developed methods (the variable monthly flow method (VMF) and the Q90_Q50 method). All methods were compared globally and validated at local scales while mimicking the natural flow regime. The VMF and the Tessmann methods use algorithms to classify the flow regime into high, intermediate, and low-flow months and they take into account intra-annual variability by allocating EFRs with a percentage of mean monthly flow (MMF). The Q90_Q50 method allocates annual flow quantiles (Q90 and Q50) depending on the flow season. The results showed that, on average, 37% of annual discharge was required to sustain environmental flow requirement. More water is needed for environmental flows during low-flow periods (46-71% of average low-flows) compared to high-flow periods (17-45% of average high-flows). Environmental flow requirements estimates from the Tennant, Q90_Q50, and Smakhtin methods were higher than the locally calculated EFRs for river systems with relatively stable flows and were lower than the locally calculated EFRs for rivers with variable flows. The VMF and Tessmann methods showed the highest correlation with the locally calculated EFRs (R2=0.91). The main difference between the Tessmann and VMF methods is that the Tessmann method allocates all water to EFRs in low-flow periods while the VMF method allocates 60% of the flow in low-flow periods. Thus, other water sectors such as irrigation can withdraw

  3. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  4. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. An operative environmental accounting framework for forest land blue water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Leandri, Marc; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We present a conceptual framework for the economic valuation of the water flows occurring in the forest lands. This framework is an extension of the criteria developed in the System of Environmental Economic Accounting-Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) and provides a practical tool for the assessment of national or regional environmental assets. In terms of environmental policy, our accounting framework aims at valuing the contribution of forest lands to fresh water supply, contributing to a more complete valuation of the environmental asset value of forest land. Thanks to a combination of hydrological and economic models, our approach allows organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent manner, constituting an informed tool to support the design of efficient incentives for forest-owners to manage their land cover towards more water-friendly options. As an example, we apply our hydro-economic model to a real life case study of two reservoirs in Andalusia, Spain, that differ significantly in their use of water. We use available hydrologic and economic data for evaluating the water environmental income at each site. We discuss on the differences found between the two sites and between vegetation types, and we present a sensitivity analysis regarding the main assumptions made in our calculations.

  6. The use of AQUATOOL DSS applied to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Jiménez-Fernández, Pedro; Solera, Abel; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Currently, water accounts are one of the next steps to be implemented in European River Basin Management Plans. Building water accounts is a complex task, mainly due to the lack of common European definitions and procedures. For their development, when data is not systematically measured, simulation models and estimations are necessary. The main idea of this paper is to present a new approach which enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS) to fill in the physical water supply and use tables and the asset accounts presented in the System of Economic and Environmental Accounts for Water (SEEAW). The case study is the Vélez River Basin, located in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain. In addition to obtaining the physical water supply and use tables and the asset accounts in this river basin, we present here the indicators as a result thereof. These indicators cover many critical aspects of water management, showing a general description of the river basin and allowing decision-makers to characterise the pressures on water resources. As a general conclusion, the union of AQUATOOL DSS and SEEAW will provide more complete information to decision-makers and it enables to introduce these methodological decisions in order to guarantee consistency and comparability of the results between different river basins.

  7. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  8. Application of the system of environmental economic accounting for water SEEAW to the Spanish part of the Duero basin: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Vicente, D J; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L; Garrote, L; Sánchez, R

    2016-09-01

    The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) consists of an agreed international framework for organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent and consistent manner. The methodology yields to the SEEA-W physical tables focusing on the quantitative assessment of the stocks and their changes in a river basin during the accounting period. For that purpose, the information on the abstraction and water discharge is linked with the environment water stocks, which assesses how current levels of abstraction and discharge affect such water stocks. This study presents the methodology and results to fill out the SEEAW tables for asset accounts on the Spanish Duero basin. Duero is a transboundary river between Spain and Portugal where 80% of its basin area (78,860km(2)) runs into the Spanish territory. The Spanish part is divided in five zones and 13 management systems. The methodology applied the three models used by the Spanish Water Authorities for the planning and allocation of water resources in Spain: 'SIMPA' model (rainfall-runoff model), 'ASTER' model (hydro-meteorological model related to snow processes) and 'SIMGES' model (water management simulation model). The required information was collected with the support from the Duero River basin Authority and the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture. Special care was paid to issues such as: inter-annual variability, the selection of spatial and temporal scale, seasonality, disaggregation of human abstractions into use's type, and transboundary agreements. The results highlighted some drawbacks in the SEEAW methodology for the Duero basin. However, the developed balances are a valuable tool to support the decisions of the Spanish Duero basin Authority on the management and allocation of water in the basin and in the transboundary area with Portugal. Finally, the paper outlines some recommendations for future work. PMID:27203366

  9. Environmental Accountability: Who's Kidding Whom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Julia; Alabaster, Tony; Jones, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    International declarations and charters have been produced to encourage and support higher education institutions (HEIs) to address their environmental responsibilities. This paper discusses the results of a critical examination of a range of international HEIs that have signed the global environmental Talloires Declaration. It also assesses the Talloires Secretariat (University Leaders for a Sustainable Future, ULSF) and the extent to which this has been a primary stimulus. An international survey was undertaken and the results presented in a discursive format in order to highlight key driving forces, barriers, and opportunities for environmental responsibility in HEIs. Analysis reveals that they occur on two distinct and evolving levels: the macro national framework level and the micro institutional framework level. Survey responses revealed that none of the HEIs have an embedded institutional environmental culture and most did not have all the micro institutional mechanisms in place for an integrated university-wide environmental response. Many of the institutional barriers to environmental responsibility occurred as a result of this lack of strategy. The most significant institutional opportunity cited was enthusiastic individuals, particularly those at senior management or directorate level, and these individuals were found to be a key driving force. Results also showed that environmental reporting along the lines developed by the private sector is a flexible mechanism that can stimulate progress internally and externally and can be cost effectively disseminated via the World Wide Web. Moreover the survey results indicate that ULSF is not currently a primary stimulus for institution wide action.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC ACCOUNTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, suggestions have been made for revising or supplementing national economic accounts so that they reflect welfare changes associated with the degradation of environmental goods and natural resources. This project will provide a comprehensive theoretical examination of po...

  11. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-19

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.

  12. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  13. Optimization of environmental water purchases with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinshead, Sarah P.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-08-01

    Water managers are turning increasingly to market solutions to meet new environmental demands for water in fully allocated systems. This paper presents a three-stage probabilistic optimization model that identifies least cost strategies for staged seasonal water purchases for an environmental water acquisition program given hydrologic, operational, and biological uncertainties. Multistage linear programming is used to minimize the expected cost of long-term, spot, and option water purchases used to meet uncertain environmental demands. Results prescribe the location, timing, and type of optimal water purchases and illustrate how least cost strategies change as information becomes available during the year. Results also provide sensitivity analysis, including shadow values that estimate the expected cost of additional dedicated environmental water. The model's application to California's Environmental Water Account is presented with a discussion of its utility for planning and policy purposes. Model limitations and sensitivity analysis are discussed, as are operational and research recommendations.

  14. USING FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The idea that the methods and models of accounting and bookkeeping might be useful in describing, understanding, and managing environmental systems is implicit in the title of H.T. Odum's book, Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Decision Making. In this paper, I ...

  15. Environmental Accounting Using Emergy: Evaluation of Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often questions related to environmental policy are difficult to resolve successfully, because robust solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. To accomplish this end the socioeconomic and environmental effects of policies must be expre...

  16. Protection of the Water: Who Is Accountable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Patricia; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a teaching activity consisting of a problem-solving story about a company in a small town that is burying hazardous material which may create future problems for the community. The activity challenges students to address ethical issues relative to responsibility and accountability for protection of the water supply. (PR)

  17. Environmental Accounting Coverage in the Accounting Curriculum: A Survey of U.S. Universities and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakhou, Mehenna; Dorweiler, Vernon P.

    2002-01-01

    In a survey of accounting department chairs (122 of 660 responded), only 11% thought that environmental issues should be a standalone course; only four schools had such a course. Environmental topics rated highest were managerial and cost accounting and external reporting and auditing. Respondents believed that integrating topics into courses…

  18. CHAPTER 14: FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of the concepts of emergy and transformity established a medium (emergy) for accounting that made it possible to express economic and environmental work of all kinds on a common basis as solar emjoules. Environmental accounting using emdollars, a combined emergy-monet...

  19. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  20. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2012-11-01

    Coping with the issue of water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links hydrological flows to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. Analogous to financial accounting, WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) a consumption sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarize the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g. climate change) and internal influences (e.g. infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used for 3 out of the 4 sheets, but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  1. Environmental accounting and reporting of energy utility companies. Research notes

    SciTech Connect

    Heiskanen, E.; Heininen, M.; Heurlin, E.; Lovio, R.; Paenkaelaeinen, M.

    1997-09-01

    The research note consists of articles written by a number of authors. The aim of the articles is to describe general development trends of environmental accounting and reporting from the point of view of the energy sector.

  2. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2013-07-01

    Coping with water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links depletion to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper, we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use and landscape evapotranspiration on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) an evapotranspiration sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarise the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g., climate change) and internal influences (e.g., infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used to acquire a vast amount of required data but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  3. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  4. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability". PMID:26030377

  5. Mainstreaming wastewater through water accounting: The example of Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arntzen, Jaap W.; Setlhogile, Tshepo

    Botswana is moving towards integrated water resource management, but wastewater is still not treated as an economic good. This is surprising as water scarcity is growing, the costs of conventional supply sources are rising and wastewater becomes more abundant due to improved sewerage and sanitation systems. Mainstreaming wastewater makes economic, social and environmental sense. Botswana first developed water accounts (WA) in 2000 as a resource planning tool. However, wastewater was excluded from the WA. This paper demonstrates how wastewater can be incorporated into the WA and what the results are for the period 1992-2003. The paper further explores the possible benefits of several re-use and recycling options. While re-use for irrigation may be the safest short term destination for re-use, it does not yield the highest economic returns, and therefore additional re-use and recycling options need to be explored. The paper argues that re-use of wastewater is likely to reduce future water tariff increases, increasing international competitiveness. Finally, the paper shows that WA can be used to identify essential data gaps and focus future data collection on key Integrated water resource management issues.

  6. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  7. A Blue/Green Water-based Accounting Framework for Assessment of Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Gupta, H. V.; Mendiondo, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, including provisioning and support for freshwater ecosystem services, water footprint, water scarcity, and water vulnerability, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) flows defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here, we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provisioning and demand (in terms of water footprint) for BW and GW ecosystem services can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 sq.km) within the Cantareira water supply system in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision-making, we compute the BW provision using three different hydrological-based methods for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs) for 23 year-period. The current BW-Footprint was defined using surface water rights for reference year 2012. Then we analyzed the BW- and GW-Footprints against long-term series of monthly values of freshwater availability. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin, and help to distinguish between human and natural reasons (drought) for conditions of insecurity. The Blue/Green water-based accounting framework developed here can be benchmarked at a range of spatial scales, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise. Future investigation will be necessary to better understand the intra-annual variability of blue water demand and to evaluate the impacts of uncertainties associated with a) the water rights database, b) the effects of climate change projections on blue and green freshwater provision.

  8. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions. PMID:27161139

  9. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  10. The environmental account of obesity: a case for feminist skepticism.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Anna

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus among public health advocates that combating obesity is best done by restructuring the environment rather than by stigmatizing individuals. Although feminist scholars have not been major participants in debates over antiobesity policy, recently there has been a move toward adopting the environmental account of obesity as a feminist solution because of its potential to respond to health inequalities along race, class, and gender lines. This article aims to trouble the embrace of the environmental approach by feminist scholars, however, and to resurrect and redirect feminist criticism toward attendant problems of moralism, backlash, and the surveillance and rehabilitation of poor women of color. Despite its overwhelming popularity among policy elites and health researchers, I argue that the environmental account of obesity is not likely to promote structural change and broad redistributions. Rather it makes problematic assumptions about the relationship between health and fat and about the efficacy of intervention strategies, masks moralism with health discourse, and legitimizes punitive, ineffective, and patronizing interventions. PMID:21114084

  11. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  12. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  13. Space Station Freedom Water Recovery test total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Michael W.; Slivon, Laurence; Sheldon, Linda; Traweek, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Water Recovery Test (WRT) addresses the concept of integrated hygiene and potable reuse water recovery systems baselined for Space Station Freedom (SSF). To assess the adequacy of water recovery system designs and the conformance of reclaimed water quality to established specifications, MSFC has initiated an extensive water characterization program. MSFC's goal is to quantitatively account for a large percentage of organic compounds present in waste and reclaimed hygiene and potable waters from the WRT and in humidity condensate from Spacelab missions. The program is coordinated into Phase A and B. Phase A's focus is qualitative and semi-quantitative. Precise quantitative analyses are not emphasized. Phase B's focus centers on a near complete quantitative characterization of all water types. Technical approaches along with Phase A and partial Phase B investigations on the compositional analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Accountability are presented.

  14. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity. PMID:25594103

  15. Natural resources accounting: A tool for water resources management in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambira, Wame L.

    Natural Resource Accounting (NRA) has become an important environmental/natural resources management tool in recent years. It provides information on stocks of a resource available at a particular point in time and what activities the resource is being used for. The conventional System of National Income Accounts (SNA) normally does not capture the cost of depletion, degradation or pollution of natural resources. This encourages unsustainable use of natural resources since the costs are not reflected when assessing the country’s economic performance or development progress. NRA is thus an attempt to integrate environmental issues into the conventional national accounts. The water sector is one sector that could greatly benefit from this natural resource management tool. Botswana has adopted NRA as a natural resource management tool and has so far developed accounts for minerals, livestock and water. The focus of this paper is on Water Accounting (WA) in relation to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM is concerned with coordinated development and management of water in order to maximise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. WA helps fill data gaps since it provides the required information for IWRM to be achieved. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate the Water Accounts of Botswana Report of 2006 to determine the extent to which it can contribute to integrated water resources management. The paper is based on literature review and the results show that: the available water stocks vary depending on rainfall patterns, well fields are over utilised, there has been growth in consumption, and more than 80% of the waste water produced is not being put to use. These results calls for changes in policies, role of institutions and practices pertaining to water resources management which is what IWRM is all about hence the paper concludes that indeed WA can contribute to the realisation of IWRM.

  16. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    This poster will highlight a series of project based activities carried out at Hammond Elementary School in Laurel, Maryland, USA. All of the featured projects revolve around the school's Green School Initiative or an integral part of the science curricula. The Maryland Green School program was developed by a diverse team of educators representing the Maryland Association for Environmental and Outdoor Education (MAEOE), Office of the Governor, the Maryland Association of Student Councils, Maryland Department of Education, Department of Natural Resources and Maryland Department of the Environment. The program is administered through the Maryland Association for Environmental and Outdoor Education. The Maryland Green Schools Award Program recognizes Maryland schools that include environmental education in the curricula, model best management practices at the school and address community environmental issues. Among these numerous projects water is a common thread. Hammond Elementary School lies within the Chesapeake Bay watershed which stretches across 64,000 square miles and encompasses the entire District of Columbia. Educational components address habitats, tributaries and, the estuary system. The projects being highlighted in the poster will include: Trout to Streams Project: This 4th grade project focuses on the natural filtration system that area trout provide to the local and global waterways. As students learn about the importance of various fish to the watershed, they come to understand the effect of changes in the population of fish species due to consumption and pollution. The service learning project highlighted teaches students about water quality as they raise trout eggs and monitor their development into hatching and later stream release. Buffer Streams Tree Planting Projects: This 5th grade science service learning project allows students to investigate the water quality and conditions of local area streams. This project teaches students the positive

  17. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  18. Generation of SEEAW asset accounts based on water resources management models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the XXI century is related with the sustainable use of water. This is due to the fact that water is an essential element for the life of all who inhabit our planet. In many cases, the lack of economic valuation of water resources causes an inefficient water use. In this regard, society expects of policymakers and stakeholders maximise the profit produced per unit of natural resources. Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to achieve this goal. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW) is displayed as a tool for water allocation which enables the building of water balances in a river basin. The main concern of the SEEAW is to provide a standard approach which allows the policymakers to compare results between different territories. But building water accounts is a complex task due to the difficulty of the collection of the required data. Due to the difficulty of gauging the components of the hydrological cycle, the use of simulation models has become an essential tool extensively employed in last decades. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a database that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL DSSS to fill in the SEEAW tables. This research is framed within the Water Accounting in a Multi-Catchment District (WAMCD) project, financed by the European Union. Its main goal is the development of water accounts in the Mediterranean Andalusian River Basin District, in Spain. This research pretends to contribute to the objectives of the "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources". It is noteworthy that, in Spain, a large part of these methodological decisions are included in the Spanish Guideline of Water Planning with normative status guaranteeing consistency and comparability of the results.

  19. Integrating a distributed hydrological model and SEEA-Water for improving water account and water allocation management under a climate change context.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Almeida, Carina; Simionesei, Lucian; Ramos, Tiago; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    The crescent demand and situations of water scarcity and droughts are a difficult problem to solve by water managers, with big repercussions in the entire society. The complexity of this question is increased by trans-boundary river issues and the environmental impacts of the usual adopted solutions to store water, like reservoirs. To be able to answer to the society requirements regarding water allocation in a sustainable way, the managers must have a complete and clear picture of the present situation, as well as being able to understand the changes in the water dynamics both in the short and long time period. One of the available tools for the managers is the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-Water), a subsystem of SEEA with focus on water accounts, developed by the United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD) in collaboration with the London Group on Environmental Accounting, This system provides, between other things, with a set of tables and accounts for water and water related emissions, organizing statistical data making possible the derivation of indicators that can be used to assess the relations between economy and environment. One of the main issues with the SEEA-Water framework seems to be the requirement of large amounts of data, including field measurements of water availability in rivers/lakes/reservoirs, soil and groundwater, as also precipitation, irrigation and other water sources and uses. While this is an incentive to collecting and using data, it diminishes the usefulness of the system on countries where this data is not yet available or is incomplete, as it can lead to a poor understanding of the water availability and uses. Distributed hydrological models can be used to fill missing data required by the SEEA-Water framework. They also make it easier to assess different scenarios (usually soil use, water demand and climate changes) for a better planning of water allocation. In the context of the DURERO project (www

  20. Accounting for metal bioavailability in assessing water quality: A step change?

    PubMed

    Merrington, Graham; Peters, Adam; Schlekat, Christian E

    2016-02-01

    Bioavailability of metals to aquatic organisms can be considered to be a combination of the physicochemical factors governing metal behavior and the specific pathophysiological characteristics of the organism's biological receptor. Effectively this means that a measure of bioavailability will reflect the exposures that organisms in the water column actually "experience". This is important because it has long been established that measures of total metal in waters have limited relevance to potential environmental risk. The concept of accounting for bioavailability in regard to deriving and implementing environmental water quality standards is not new, but the regulatory reality has lagged behind the development of scientific evidence supporting the concept. Practical and technical reasons help to explain this situation. For example, concerns remain from regulators and the regulated that the efforts required to change existing systems of metal environmental protection that have been in place for over 35 yr are so great as not to be commensurate with likely benefits. However, more regulatory jurisdictions are now considering accounting for metal bioavailability in assessments of water quality as a means to support evidence-based decision-making. In the past decade, both the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Commission have established bioavailability-based standards for metals, including Cu and Ni. These actions have shifted the debate toward identifying harmonized approaches for determining when knowledge is adequate to establish bioavailability-based approaches and how to implement them. PMID:26808908

  1. A New Global Metric of Water Scarcity Accounting for the Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.; Gaupp, F.; Dadson, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world's 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 680 'basin-country units' (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. We find that, so far, storage capacity in most basins is able to buffer inter- and intra-annual water variability . However, when hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into basin-country units enabled assessment of upstream dependency in trans-boundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardising environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  2. WATER: Water Activities Teaching Environmental Responsibility: Teacher Resource, Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This activity book was developed as part of an effort to protect water quality of the Stillwater River, Ohio, through a Watershed Protection Project. It is designed to raise teachers' and students' awareness and trigger a sense of stewardship towards the preservation of water resources. The activities are generally appropriate for elementary age…

  3. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. Allocating more flow to the environment though can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows can vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydro-economic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse river basin in Eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10 to 15% loss in economic benefits.

  4. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  5. Trading water to improve environmental flow outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Franklin, Brad; Loch, Adam; Kirby, Mac; Wheeler, Sarah Ann

    2013-07-01

    As consumptive extractions and water scarcity pressures brought about by climate change increase in many world river basins, so do the risks to water-dependent ecological assets. In response, public or not for profit environmental water holders (EWHs) have been established in many areas and bestowed with endowments of water and mandates to manage water for ecological outcomes. Water scarcity has also increasingly spawned water trade arrangements in many river basins, and in many instances, EWHs are now operating in water markets. A number of EWHs, especially in Australia, begin with an endowment of permanent water entitlements purchased from irrigators. Such water entitlements typically have relatively constant interannual supply profiles that often do not match ecological water demand involving flood pulses and periods of drying. This article develops a hydrologic-economic simulation model of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray-Darling Basin to assess the scope of possibilities to improve environmental outcomes through EWH trading on an annual water lease market. We find that there are some modest opportunities for EWHs to improve environmental outcomes through water trade. The best opportunities occur in periods of drought and for ecological outcomes that benefit from moderately large floods. We also assess the extent to which EWH trading in annual water leases may create pecuniary externalities via bidding up or down the water lease prices faced by irrigators. Environmental water trading is found to have relatively small impacts on water market price outcomes. Overall our results suggest that the benefits of developing EWH trading may well justify the costs.

  6. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  7. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  8. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  9. Environmental Education Compendium for Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Interdisciplinary by nature, environmental education is appropriate in any subject area and many educators often integrate environmental concepts into their lesson plans. This compendium of 109 collections of curriculum materials has been developed to assist educators in their selection of materials focusing on water resources. Curricula cover…

  10. Statistical Accounting for Uncertainty in Modeling Transport in Environmental Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models frequently are used to predict the future extent of ground-water contamination, given estimates of their input parameters and forcing functions. Although models have a well established scientific basis for understanding the interactions between complex phenomena and for g...

  11. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined. PMID:24624819

  12. New direction for environmental water management.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    Japan experienced severe environmental problems including water pollution and damages to aquatic organisms and fishery industry through and after the high economic growth period in the 1960s. One of the countermeasures to address these problems was the Total Pollutant Load Control System (TPLCS), which has been implemented with the aim of reducing the total amount of pollutant loads, specifically targeting Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The TPLCS has significantly improved the quality of the coastal sea water. However, while the accumulated pollutant loads from the past industrialization have still remained, new environmental concerns have arisen. Our new environmental policies are thus to deal with conservation of biological diversity and other related marine environmental issues. Japan has entered a new phase of environmental management, setting the new direction and framework toward a beautiful, bio-diverse, bustling-with-people and bountiful sea. PMID:26952992

  13. Considering environmental water demands in global-scale water stress assessments: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doell, P.; Shmaktin, V.; Revenga, C.

    2003-04-01

    Freshwater ecosystems need certain water flow regimes to sustain their animal and plant communities. Thus, there is not only a human demand for water (i.e. for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes) but also a demand by freshwater ecosystems, here called environmental water demand. In order to achieve a sustainable development of river basins, both human and environmental water demands need to be taken into account in water management. For a comparative global-scale analysis of freshwater scarcity, it is therefore useful to compute river- basin specific budgets which contain the following terrestrial water flows (or rather flow components): 1) total renewable water resources (runoff), 2) human water withdrawals (and consumptive water uses) and 3) environmental water demands. In a pilot study, the global water availability and use model WaterGAP 2 (spatial resolution 0.5 degree) was used to derive such budgets for all river basins of the worlds. Its sectoral water use modules estimate human water withdrawals and consumptive water uses, while its hydrological module WGHM computes monthly values of surface runoff, groundwater recharge and river discharge. WGHM calculates both natural and actual discharge by simulating the reduction of river discharge by human water consumption. It is tuned against observed discharge at 724 gauging stations (representing about 50% of the global land area) to achieve a good simulation of the long-term average river discharge. Validation efforts have shown than WGHM can satisfactorily simulate the 90% reliable monthly discharge Q90 of river basins larger than 20,000 km2. Based on these capabilities of WaterGAP 2, a first estimate of basin-specific annual environmental water demands was derived as the sum of a low flow and a high flow requirement. Drawing on experience from South Africa, Q90 was assumed to represent the low flow that the ecosystems can tolerate, as it is the flow value that is not reached in 1 out of 10 months

  14. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  15. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation. PMID:26987378

  16. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  17. Searching Simkania negevensis in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Leonardo Martín; Codony, Francesc; Ríos, Karina; Peñuela, Gustavo; Adrados, Bárbara; Fittipaldi, Mariana; de Dios, Gregori; Morató, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Simkania negevensis is an obligate intracellular bacterium grouped into the order Chlamydiales. This new amoeba-resistant bacterium represents a novel aetiologic agent of bronchiolitis and community-acquired pneumonia in both adults and children. It has been suggested that Simkania could be an ubiquitous microorganism presented in water environments. In the natural history of infections with amoeba-related bacteria encountered in aquatic habitats, the transmissions by environmental aerosols or contaminated water/air systems have been extensively recognized. Therefore, understanding the feasibility of Simkania infection by these or similar routes is relevant. In the present work, we investigated the prevalence of this novel disease-associated microorganism in water samples from different sources by real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show Simkania detection in 5 of 185 water analyzed samples (2.7%: 2 of 88 cooling towers and 3 of 8 waste water samples). However, no Simkania was detected in a drinking water. PMID:22135095

  18. River of Life. Water: The Environmental Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preudhomme, Leroy L.

    This is the sixth in a series of Conservation Yearbooks prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior as environmental reports to the public concerning problems of water resources in the United States. Information presented includes descriptive information, statistical data, and extensive color photographs. The methods of presenting information…

  19. Environmental auditing and the role of the accountancy profession: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Moor, Philippe; de Beelde, Ignace

    2005-08-01

    This review of the literature on environmental auditing and the potential role of accountants distinguishes between compliance audits and audits of the environmental management system. After an extensive introduction to the concept, this review focuses on the similarities and differences between an environmental audit and a financial statement audit. The general approach to both types of audits is similar, except that environmental audits are largely unregulated. Both audits place an emphasis on the evaluation of control systems, which is an argument in favor of external auditors playing a role in environmental audits. Another argument for including external accountants is their code of ethics. However, these professionals seem to be reluctant to enter the field of environmental auditing. It is argued that this reluctance is because of a lack of generally accepted principles for conducting environmental audits. If external accountants are engaged in environmental auditing, they should be part of multidisciplinary teams that also include scientists and engineers to avoid a too strong focus on procedures. Rather than treating these audits as totally different, it is proposed that there be a move towards integrated, or even universal, audits. PMID:15995890

  20. Accountability in Higher Education: Bridge over Troubled Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Currie, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of accountabiity on higher education policies in Europe and the United States. We describe how the accountability movement relates to other policy trends in higher education, providing empirical data on how accountability was implemented and how academics and managers in four universities perceived these policies.…

  1. An evaluation of water-quality data from Hydrologic Accounting Unit 051100, Green River Basin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leist, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet from 37 sites in the Green River basin were compared to data from the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) Station, Green River near Beech Grove, Kentucky. This comparison was used to determine variability of water quality data throughout the basin, and to determine if water quality data from the NASQAN station were representative of water quality data upstream. Water quality concentrations, yields, and trends were studied. Water quality data from the NASQAN station were fairly representative conditions throughout the basin for specific conductance, pH, phosphorus and nitrogen, but were not representative for chloride, sulfate, iron, and water temperature. Water quality characteristics which were not representative can generally be attributed to impacts of specific land uses such as coal mining or oil production. Mean concentrations of suspended sediment were similar, but extreme concentrations varied throughout the basin. There were no temporal trends detected in instantaneous streamflow, sulfate, or total iron concentrations. Specific conductance was increasing at three stations and decreasing at one, chloride was increasing at two stations and decreasing at one, phosphorus was increasing at two stations, dissolved iron was increasing at one station and decreasing at one, pH was increasing at three stations and decreasing at two, suspended sediment was increasing at one station and decreasing at one, and water temperature was decreasing at two stations. The NASQAN station had increasing trends in chloride, phosphorus, pH, and suspended sediment, and a decreasing trend in water temperature with time. (Author 's abstract)

  2. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Michihiro; Tsuruta, Takashi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    Sewage works facilities consist of various assets groups. And there are many kinds of financial resources. In order to optimize the maintenance plan, and to secure the stability and sustainability of sewage works management, it is necessary to carry out financial simulation based on the life-cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, it is important to develop management accounting system that is interlinked with the financial accounting system, because many sewage administration bodies have their financial accounting systems as public enterprises. In this paper, a management accounting system, which is designed to provide basic information for asset management of sewage works facilities, is presented. Also the applicability of the management accounting system presented in this paper is examined through financial simulations.

  3. 21st Century Water Asset Accounting: Implications Report (WERF Report INFR6R12b)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is an important first step towards developing water industry standards and accounting protocols for green infrastructure that could be adopted by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) to promote green infrastructure investment. Green infrastructure, the ...

  4. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  5. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  6. Stability of explosives in environmental water and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Tomkins, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of HMX, RDX, TNT, and DNT explosives in environmental water and soil samples. The study was carried out over a one year time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: (1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and (2) and to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times for quality assurance purposes. The experimental design consisted of three water samples and three soil samples. The water samples were distilled-in-glass water, a ground water, and surface water. The soil samples were a US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency soil, a Captina silt loam from Roane County, Tennessee, and a McLaurin sandy loam from Stone County, Mississippi. The analytes consisted of four explosives HMX, RDX, TNT and DNT. Several approaches were taken to estimate the MHTs for each explosive because a standard definition for MHT has not been adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). First, a procedure recommended by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) was modified and applied to the data base. Secondly, a procedure developed by Environmental Science and Engineering (ESE) for the analysis of a similar data base was applied. This report is intended to summarize the findings of the study in such a way as to allow individual decisions to be made regarding the quality of environmental data. The use of the data base may well be different for analyses conducted under RCRA, for example, than for those conducted under NPDES permit requirements. For this reason, the summary statistics for each replicate analysis is presented in the appendices of this report. 18 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect

  8. Purposes, paradigms and pressure groups: Accountability and sustainability in EU environmental assessment, 1985-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sheate, William R.

    2012-02-15

    Twenty five years since the introduction of the European Union (EU) environmental impact assessment (EIA) Directive in 1985 this paper reflects on the extent to which environmental assessment (EA) processes, over the course of their evolution over the last 25 years in the EU, have provided a platform for enhancing accountability and sustainability. Surprisingly-in the context of legal mandates for EA-there is little reference in the EA literature explicitly to the literature on accountability and the role EA may play in this increasingly important aspect of governance. The paper explores EA implementation principally from an environmentalist perspective and particularly the way in which NGOs and other advocates for the environment in the UK and EU have used the EA legislation as a lever for increasing democratic, corporate and professional accountability of proponents and decision-makers alike. From an a historical analysis, including two historical EIA case studies and two contemporary SEA case studies, it becomes clear that EA has had an important role to play-at the legislative level in providing the requirements for accountability, and at the implementation level as the lever that can be used to hold individuals, organisations and authorities to account for their actions. The relationship with the shift to sustainability is a close one, since sustainable development demands greater public involvement in decision-making and greater accountability of executive decisions to the public. The lessons from this analysis allow the development of a nascent policy-oriented theory regarding EA's role in accountability, which provides a framework for a distinctive new area of EA research and policy analysis. Moreover, an accountability perspective on EA could help re-frame EA for policy makers from being purely an informational and procedural instrument to one which promotes better accountability and sustainability simultaneously. - Highlights: Black

  9. Environmental mycobacteriosis and drinking water: what are the connections?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: During the last 20 years, incidence rates of pulmonary environmental mycobacteriosis appear to be increasing in the US and other developed countries. Environmental mycobacteria have been detected in multiple media: soil, ground and surface waters, water aerosols and t...

  10. Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment Accounting for Human Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs are one of the main infrastructures that provide resilience against extremes (e.g., floods and droughts) and they play a key role in water resources management. Based on International Commission of Large Dams (ICOLD 2003) records, the total volume of reservoirs is over 6200 km3, which is twice larger than the global annual water use estimated as 3000 km3. Just a simple comparison of the two numbers indicates the importance of reservoirs and their role in providing resilience for water security. On the other hand, man-made reservoirs change the water distribution throughout the year. Most climate change impact studies ignore the role of reservoirs in water availability studies. However, water availability cannot be properly assessed without a thorough assessment of reservoir conditions. By combining classical methods for climate variability assessment (top-down approach) and influence assessment (bottom-up approach), this study offers a hybrid framework that integrates different drivers of water storage vulnerability. Final index is termed as the Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). This index investigates the adaptive capacity of the reservoir and exposure of the system to variable conditions. MSRRI has been investigated over several major reservoirs in Australia and California, United States. This presentation reviews recent findings and discusses reservoir conditions in Australia and California using MSRRI under different climatic change scenarios.

  11. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    PubMed

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater). PMID:23013466

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  13. Accounting for water-column variability in shallow-water waveguide characterizations based on modal eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Kyle M.; Ballard, Megan S.

    2010-09-06

    The influence of water-column variability on the characterization of shallow-water waveguides using modal eigenvalue information is considered. This work is based on the relationship between the acoustic pressure field in shallow water and the depth-dependent Green's function through the Hankel transform. In many practical situations, the Hankel transform can be approximated by a Fourier transform, in which case the Green's function is approximated by a horizontal wave number spectrum with discrete peaks corresponding with individual modal eigenvalues. In turn, the wave number data can be used in inverse algorithms to determine geoacoustic properties of the waveguide. Wave number spectra are estimated from measurements of a point-source acoustic field on a horizontal aperture array in the water column. For range-dependent waveguides, techniques analogous to using a short-time Fourier transform are employed to estimate range-dependent wave number spectra. In this work, water-column variability due to linear internal waves and mesoscale features are considered. It will be shown that these two types of variability impact the estimation of range-dependent modal eigenvalues in different ways. Approaches for accounting for these different types of variability will be discussed as they apply to waveguide characterization.

  14. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  15. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  16. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  17. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  18. ASUD2- decision support system on Dnieper reservoirs operations taking into account environmental priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iritz, L.; Zheleznyak, M.; Dvorzhak, A.; Nesterov, A.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2003-04-01

    basis of the different optimisation criteria minimum of the distance to the trajectory of the water level given by decision of the Joint River Commission, minimum value of the water contamination parameters (DO, nutrients, phosphorus), maximum energy production, taking into account limitations from fishery, water intakes of irrigation and transport channels etc; -water releases from the reservoirs to maintain the recommended dynamics in the whole Dnieper Cascade; -integrated water quality parameters for all reservoirs and distributed water quality parameters for the two largest reservoirs (Kremenchug and Kachovka). The analyses based on economical criteria provides the cost-benefit evaluation for different reservoir management alternatives. The assessment takes into account energy production, industry, agriculture as well as the costs associated with ecological damages.

  19. Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jiquan; Liu Yi; Chen Jining

    2010-07-15

    The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

  20. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  1. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    PubMed

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. PMID:25168183

  2. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section 1700.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water...

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  4. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources. PMID:24660893

  5. The influence of environmental water on the hydrogen stable isotope ratio in aquatic consumers.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Christopher T; Cole, Jonathan J; Doucett, Richard R; Pace, Michael L; Preston, Nicholas D; Smith, Laura E; Weidel, Brian C

    2009-08-01

    Aquatic food webs are subsidized by allochthonous resources but the utilization of these resources by consumers can be difficult to quantify. Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (deuterium:hydrogen; deltaD) potentially distinguish allochthonous inputs because deltaD differs between terrestrial and aquatic primary producers. However, application of this tracer is limited by uncertainties regarding the trophic fractionation of deltaD and the contributions of H from environmental water (often called "dietary water") to consumer tissue H. We addressed these uncertainties using laboratory experiments, field observations, modeling, and a literature synthesis. Laboratory experiments that manipulated the deltaD of water and food for insects, cladoceran zooplankton, and fishes provided strong evidence that trophic fractionation of deltaD was negligible. The proportion of tissue H derived from environmental water was substantial yet variable among studies; estimates of this proportion, inclusive of lab, field, and literature data, ranged from 0 to 0.39 (mean 0.17 +/- 0.12 SD). There is a clear need for additional studies of environmental water. Accounting for environmental water in mixing models changes estimates of resource use, although simulations suggest that uncertainty about the environmental water contribution does not substantially increase the uncertainty in estimates of resource use. As long as this uncertainty is accounted for, deltaD may be a powerful tool for estimating resource use in food webs. PMID:19471971

  6. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  7. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  8. Environmental Controls on Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, L.; Maltby, J.; Engbersen, N.; Zopfi, J.; Bange, H. W.; Elvert, M.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Kock, A.; Lehmann, M. F.; Treude, T.; Niemann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Large quantities of the greenhouse gas CH4 are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, and later into the atmosphere. Indeed, coastal seas account for more than 75% of global oceanic CH4 emissions. Yet, aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB) consume an important part of CH4 in the water column, thus mitigating CH4 release to the atmosphere. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic systems, in particular with regard to the variability of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentrations, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine the most important controlling factors, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of CH4, MOx, the composition of the MOB community, and physicochemical water column parameters in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Eckernförde(E-) Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, seasonal stratification leads to hypoxia in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Methane is produced year-round in the sediments, resulting in accumulation of methane in bottom waters, and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were a) perturbations of the water column caused by storm events, currents or seasonal mixing, b) temperature and c) oxygen concentration. a) Perturbations of the water column led to a sharp decrease in MOx within hours, probably caused by replacement of 'old' water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of MOB. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though CH4 was abundant at all depths, MOx was highest in bottom waters (1-5 nM/d), which usually contain the lowest O2 concentrations. Lab-based experiments with adjusted O2

  9. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  10. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  11. Basin-wide water accounting based on remote sensing data: an application for the Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The paper demonstrates the application of a new water accounting plus (WA+) framework to produce information on depletion of water resources, storage change, and land and water productivity in the Indus basin. It shows how satellite-derived estimates of land use, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in addition to measured basin outflow, for water accounting with WA+. It is demonstrated how the accounting results can be interpreted to identify existing issues and examine solutions for the future. The results for one selected year (2007) showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (501 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The water storage systems that were effected are groundwater storage (30 km3), surface water storage (9 km3), and glaciers and snow storage (2 km3). Evapotranspiration of rainfall or "landscape ET" was 344 km3 (69 % of total depletion). "Incremental ET" due to utilized flow was 157 km3 (31% of total depletion). Agriculture depleted 297 km3, or 59% of the total depletion, of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. Due to excessive soil evaporation in agricultural areas, half of all water depletion in the basin was non-beneficial. Based on the results of this accounting exercise loss of storage, low beneficial depletion, and low land and water productivity were identified as the main water resources management issues. Future scenarios to address these issues were chosen and their impacts on the Indus Basin water accounts were tested using the new WA+ framework.

  12. An accounting system for water and consumptive use along the Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Raymond, Lee H.

    1996-01-01

    An accounting system for estimating and distributing consumptive use of water by vegetation to water users was developed for the Colorado River to meet the requirements of a U.S. Supreme Court decree and used with data from calendar year 1984. The system is based on a water-budget method to estimate total consumptive use by vegetation which is apportioned to agricultural users by using percentages of total evapotranspiration by vegetation estimated from digital-image analysis of satellite data.

  13. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  14. Accounting for environmental variability, modeling errors, and parameter estimation uncertainties in structural identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmanesh, Iman; Moaveni, Babak

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a Hierarchical Bayesian model updating framework to account for the effects of ambient temperature and excitation amplitude. The proposed approach is applied for model calibration, response prediction and damage identification of a footbridge under changing environmental/ambient conditions. The concrete Young's modulus of the footbridge deck is the considered updating structural parameter with its mean and variance modeled as functions of temperature and excitation amplitude. The identified modal parameters over 27 months of continuous monitoring of the footbridge are used to calibrate the updating parameters. One of the objectives of this study is to show that by increasing the levels of information in the updating process, the posterior variation of the updating structural parameter (concrete Young's modulus) is reduced. To this end, the calibration is performed at three information levels using (1) the identified modal parameters, (2) modal parameters and ambient temperatures, and (3) modal parameters, ambient temperatures, and excitation amplitudes. The calibrated model is then validated by comparing the model-predicted natural frequencies and those identified from measured data after deliberate change to the structural mass. It is shown that accounting for modeling error uncertainties is crucial for reliable response prediction, and accounting only the estimated variability of the updating structural parameter is not sufficient for accurate response predictions. Finally, the calibrated model is used for damage identification of the footbridge.

  15. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  16. DETECTION OF VIRUSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS, SEWAGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many different groups of viruses that will be found in environmental waters. These include the many types of viruses whose hosts are natural aquatic organisms. There are also groups of viruses present in environmental waters which represent exogenous contaminants, whose...

  17. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section 1700.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and Environmental Programs. The State...

  18. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion.

    PubMed

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered. PMID:22099926

  19. Introduction To Water Resources and Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulkley, Jonathan W.

    2011-04-01

    Water is an essential life-sustaining resource whose existence and availability for human use are often taken for granted. It is often utilized by people who are unaware of where the water originated and what happens to the water following use. Beyond meeting direct human use, water enables all living species to survive and flourish and is a renewable natural resource. The authors' preface frames the context for this book; namely, it is to make the subject of water, water resources, and water's interactions in the environment understandable, approachable, and relevant to a wide range of students.

  20. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  1. Improved but unsustainable: accounting for sachet water in post-2015 goals for global safe water.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin

    2012-12-01

    The advent and rapid spread of sachet drinking water in West Africa presents a new challenge for providing sustainable access to global safe water. Sachet water has expanded drinking water access and is often of sufficient quality to serve as an improved water source for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring purposes, yet sachets are an unsustainable water delivery vehicle due to their overwhelming plastic waste burden. Monitoring of primary drinking water sources in West Africa generally ignores sachet water, despite its growing ubiquity. Sub-Saharan Africa as a region is unlikely to meet the MDG Target for drinking water provision, and post-2015 monitoring activities may depend upon rapid adaptability to local drinking water trends. PMID:23051893

  2. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  3. Statistical approaches to account for false-positive errors in environmental DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Tingley, Reid

    2016-05-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is prone to both false-positive and false-negative errors. We review statistical methods to account for such errors in the analysis of eDNA data and use simulations to compare the performance of different modelling approaches. Our simulations illustrate that even low false-positive rates can produce biased estimates of occupancy and detectability. We further show that removing or classifying single PCR detections in an ad hoc manner under the suspicion that such records represent false positives, as sometimes advocated in the eDNA literature, also results in biased estimation of occupancy, detectability and false-positive rates. We advocate alternative approaches to account for false-positive errors that rely on prior information, or the collection of ancillary detection data at a subset of sites using a sampling method that is not prone to false-positive errors. We illustrate the advantages of these approaches over ad hoc classifications of detections and provide practical advice and code for fitting these models in maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks. Given the severe bias induced by false-negative and false-positive errors, the methods presented here should be more routinely adopted in eDNA studies. PMID:26558345

  4. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. WATER/WASTEWATER PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of post-secondary education/training entries presents those programs which are classified as intersecting both environmental areas of potable water and wastewater. Programs categorized as applicable to either potable water or to waste-water, solely, will be found in th...

  5. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  6. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  7. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  8. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  9. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  10. Water. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is a student resource unit to be used in teaching high school vocational agriculture students about water. The hydrologic cycle and natural processes are described, with particular attention to evaporation, precipitation, and runoff. Sources of water pollution are found in industries, municipalities, individual action, and…

  11. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  12. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a life cycle assessment (LCA) for pig farming systems that would account for uncertainty and variability in input data and allow systematic environmental impact comparisons between production systems. The environmental impacts of commercial pig production for 2 regions in Canada (Eastern and Western) were compared using a cradle-to-farm gate LCA. These systems had important contrasting characteristics such as typical feed ingredients used, herd performance, and expected emission factors from manure management. The study used detailed production data supplied by the industry and incorporated uncertainty/variation in all major aspects of the system including life cycle inventory data for feed ingredients, animal performance, energy inputs, and emission factors. The impacts were defined using 5 metrics-global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential (EP), abiotic resource use, and nonrenewable energy use-and were expressed per kilogram carcass weight at farm gate. Eutrophication potential was further separated into marine EP (MEP) and freshwater EP (FEP). Uncertainties in the model inputs were separated into 2 types: uncertainty in the data used to describe the system (α uncertainties) and uncertainty in impact calculations or background data that affects all systems equally (β uncertainties). The impacts of pig production in the 2 regions were systematically compared based on the differences in the systems (α uncertainties). The method of ascribing uncertainty influenced the outcomes. In eastern systems, EP, MEP, and FEP were lower (P < 0.05) when assuming that all uncertainty in the emission factors for leaching from manure application was β. This was mainly due to increased EP resulting from field emissions for typical ingredients in western diets. When uncertainty in these emission factors was assumed to be α, only FEP was lower in eastern systems (P < 0.05). The environmental impacts for

  13. The microelectronic wireless nitrate sensor network for environmental water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Braunschweig, Björn; Chang, Te-Wei; Moinzadeh, Parya; Minsker, Barbara S; Agha, Gul; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Keefer, Laura L; Liu, Gang Logan

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative monitoring of water conditions in a field is a critical ability for environmental science studies. We report the design, fabrication and testing of a low cost, miniaturized and sensitive electrochemical based nitrate sensor for quantitative determination of nitrate concentrations in water samples. We have presented detailed analysis for the nitrate detection results using the miniaturized sensor. We have also demonstrated the integration of the sensor to a wireless network and carried out field water testing using the sensor. We envision that the field implementation of the wireless water sensor network will enable "smart farming" and "smart environmental monitoring". PMID:23138753

  14. Environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Matugina, E. G.; Bagamaev, B. M.; Tokhov, Yu M.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Gorchakov, E. V.; Sotnikova, T. V.; Shilova, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar (Uspensky and Novokubansky districts) and Stavropol (Kochubeyevsky District) Territories was conducted. In the course of study, various elements and compounds harmful to animals and humans, which exceed maximum permissible concentrations, were identified.

  15. Fish and Water Temperature, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of this series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. This particular unit illustrates the interrelationship…

  16. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  17. Environmental equity as a criterion for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Galvão, C.; Miranda, L.; Rufino, I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental equity is a concept derived from the (un)equal exposure to environmental degradation by different social groups, usually minorities and low-income people exposed to major environmental risks, also known as environmental justice. It is assumed that no group of people, independent of race, ethnicity or socio-economic class, should support, either in concentrated or unevenly distributed form, the negative environmental impacts resulting from industrial, agricultural, commercial and infrastructure activities or government programs and policies. In this paper the concept of environmental equity is explored as a criterion for water management through the analysis of a typical coupled human-natural system: the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Inefficient water resource management has caused unequal access to water by the population, particularly during drought periods. However, census data indicate that population have practically the same access to water, which actually is not able to reflect the actual picture. This study argues that environmental equity can be an additional criterion to improve water management.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRAL RNA EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY FROM ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of PCR by environmental factors is a common problem affecting the sensitive detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental waters. This inhibition is caused by one of three mechanisms: 1) failure to lyse the microorganism, 2) degradation or sequestering of the...

  19. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  20. LABORATORY ANALYSES: WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To be presented at the Workshop for Improving the Recognition, Investigation, and Reporting of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking, Recreational and Other Waters in Nashville, TN, May 29 - June 1, 2007

  1. Impact of environmental traders on water markets: An experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdell, John G.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which an environmental agency with a stochastic demand function enters an existing water market to buy or sell water for instream use. Previous experimental studies have examined the use of tenders to reduce water extractions and social suasion to maintain aggregate flow levels and compared imposing minimum flow restrictions with subsidizing downstream water use and the allocation of tradeable minimum flow rights. The important contribution of this paper is that it explores the consequence of having an environmental agency enter an existing water market. In this paper we explore the consequences of (1) formally allocating tradeable water rights to the environmental agency, (2) allocating funding to purchase water as required, and (3) having the trading actions of the environmental agency a matter of public record. The research, while contextualized to water markets in this paper, addresses an important and timely issue that could have implication beyond water markets. In pollution permit markets, for example, there is the question of what the impact on the market would be if a government agency were to begin buying back permits, particularly if this represented a relatively large volume of trades and entered into such purchases on a needs basis.

  2. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  3. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  4. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  5. Students' Developing Understanding of Water in Environmental Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covitt, Beth A.; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a framework of empirically grounded curricular goals for water-science literacy and documented the challenges that students face in achieving these goals. Water-related environmental science literacy requires an understanding of connected natural and human-engineered systems at multiple scales ranging from atomic-molecular…

  6. ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

  7. Bifidobacteria in Feces and Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifidobacteria have been recommended as potential indicators of human fecal pollution in surface waters even though very little is known about their presence in nonhuman fecal sources. The objective of this research was to shed light on the occurrence and molecular diversity of t...

  8. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. PMID:21486685

  9. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfriend, G.A.; Magaritz, M.; Gat, J.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in {sup 18}O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in {sup 18}O by ca. 1-2% relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate {sup 18}O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall {sup 18}O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  10. The Significance of Accounting Order for Evapotranspiration and Recharge in Monthly and Daily Threshold-Type Water Budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2008-01-01

    Most threshold-type water-budget models account for the loss of water by evapotranspiration before accounting for recharge. Recharge estimates can differ substantially, depending on whether recharge is counted before or after evapotranspiration in the water budget. This disparity is the source of uncertainty and is most pronounced for areas where soil-moisture storage capacity is small or for water budgets computed using a large time interval (such as monthly). Water budgets that account for recharge before evapotranspiration provide higher estimates of recharge and lower estimates of evapotranspiration relative to water budgets that account for evapotranspiration before recharge. The choice of accounting method is less significant for a daily computation interval than for a monthly computation interval. In general, uncertainty in recharge estimates is least for water budgets computed using the shortest computation interval that the data allow and that is consistent with the physical processes being represented. If the data only allow for long (weekly or monthly) computation intervals, then selecting the appropriate accounting order for the study area may be critical. For monthly water budgets, accounting for recharge before evapotranspiration is most appropriate in areas where rainfall occurs infrequently, whereas accounting for evapotranspiration before recharge is most appropriate where rainfall occurs relatively uniformly throughout the month.

  11. Multi-scale environmental accounting: methodological lessons from the application of NAMEA at sub-national levels.

    PubMed

    Dalmazzone, Silvana; La Notte, Alessandra

    2013-11-30

    Extending the application of integrated environmental and economic accounts from the national to the local level of government serves several purposes. They can be used not only as an instrument for communicating on the state of the environment and reporting the results of policies, but also as an operational tool - for setting the objectives and designing policies - if made available to the local authorities who have responsibility over the administration of natural resources, land use and conservation policies. The aim of the paper is to test the feasibility of applying hybrid flow accounts at the intermediate and local government levels. As an illustration, NAMEA for air emissions and wastes is applied to a Region, a Province and a Municipality, thus covering the three nested levels of local government in Italy. The study identifies the main issues raised by multi-scale environmental accounting and provides an applied discussion of feasible solutions. PMID:24141065

  12. Challenging Hydrological Panaceas: Water poverty governance accounting for spatial scale in the Niger River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, John; Kaczan, David

    2014-11-01

    Water poverty in the Niger River Basin is a function of physical constraints affecting access and supply, and institutional arrangements affecting the ability to utilise the water resource. This distinction reflects the complexity of water poverty and points to the need to look beyond technical and financial means alone to reduce its prevalence and severity. Policy decisions affecting water resources are generally made at a state or national level. Hydrological and socio-economic evaluations at these levels, or at the basin level, cannot be presumed to be concordant with the differentiation of poverty or livelihood vulnerability at more local levels. We focus on three objectives: first, the initial mapping of observed poverty, using two health metrics and a household assets metric; second, the estimation of factors which potentially influence the observed poverty patterns; and third, a consideration of spatial non-stationarity, which identifies spatial correlates of poverty in the places where their effects appear most severe. We quantify the extent to which different levels of analysis influence these results. Comparative analysis of correlates of poverty at basin, national and local levels shows limited congruence. Variation in water quantity, and the presence of irrigation and dams had either limited or no significant correlation with observed variation in poverty measures across levels. Education and access to improved water quality were the only variables consistently significant and spatially stable across the entire basin. At all levels, education is the most consistent non-water correlate of poverty while access to protected water sources is the strongest water related correlate. The analysis indicates that landscape and scale matter for understanding water-poverty linkages and for devising policy concerned with alleviating water poverty. Interactions between environmental, social and institutional factors are complex and consequently a comprehensive

  13. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Rushforth, Richard; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2014-10-01

    In complex coupled natural-human systems (CNH), multitype networks link social, environmental, and economic systems with flows of matter, energy, information, and value. Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) is a systems analysis framework that includes the indirect connections of a multitype CNH network. ERA is conditioned on perceived system boundaries, which may vary according to the accountant's point of view. Both direct and indirect impacts are implicit whenever two subnetworks interact in such a system; the ratio of two subnetworks' impacts is the embedded intensity. For trade in the services of water, this is understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as "virtual water" trade. ERA is a generalization of input-output, footprint, and substance flow methods, and is a type of life cycle analysis. This paper presents results for the water and electrical energy system in the western U.S. This system is dominated by California, which outsources the majority of its water footprint of electrical energy. Electricity trade increases total water consumption for electricity production in the western U.S. by 15% and shifts water use to water-stressed Colorado River Basin States. A systemic underaccounting for water footprints occurs because state-level processes discount a portion of the water footprint occurring outside of the state boundary.

  14. Do water-saving technologies improve environmental flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Charles; Reddy, V. Ratna; Linstead, Conor; Dhar, Murli; Roy, Sumit; May, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be ‘saved’ by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved” runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows.

  15. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1990 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data for calendar year 1990 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, reported Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1990 (Evans et al. 1992) and mental Report for Calendar Year 1990 (Woodruff and Hanf 1991). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  16. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  17. Environmental Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Brook Waters

    PubMed Central

    Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P. J.; Väänänen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of mycobacteria in the water ranged from 10 to 2,200 CFU/liter. The counts correlated positively (P < 0.001) with the presence of peatlands, precipitation data, chemical oxygen demand, water color, and concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Co, and Cr. The mycobacterial counts correlated negatively (P < 0.001) with water pH, whereas other heterotrophic bacterial counts lacked any correlation with pH. A linear regression model with four independent variables (i.e., peatlands in the drainage area, chemical oxygen demand, concentration of potassium, and pH) explained 83% of the variation in mycobacterial counts in brook waters. Our results suggest that acidification may enhance the growth of environmental mycobacteria. PMID:16348866

  18. Application of an environmental decision support system to a water quality trading program affected by surface water diversions.

    PubMed

    Obropta, Christopher C; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon's (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions. PMID:18592303

  19. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  20. Water chlorination: An enigma for modern-day environmental chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Jolley, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of modern-day water chlorination is to reap the benefits of chlorine's excellent disinfection efficacy while minimizing its environmental impacts and byproduct toxicity. Chemists, biologists, and engineers need to work together to identify, quantify, and use most effectively the disinfectant forms of chlorine to maximize disinfection, while at the same time they also need to identify, quantify, and minimize the toxic forms of by-products produced by chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds found in water. To the extent that this is possible, we can enjoy the benefits of chlorine disinfection and minimize the human and environmental impacts of chlorination by-products. 22 refs.

  1. Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A.

    2008-09-15

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

  2. Management and Accounting in English Higher Education Influenced by Environmental and Academia-Specific Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Alberti-Alhtaybat, Larissa; Al-Htaybat, Khaldoon; Hutaibat, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    This article originates from a longitudinal study of management and accounting practices in the English higher education sector. The processes of strategic management and strategic management accounting in several English higher education institutions were investigated, from planning to assessment, and their meaning to members of staff. The study…

  3. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain. PMID:22795621

  4. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  5. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  6. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  8. Environmental and Water Decision-Making in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2006-04-01

    Understanding and responding to the impacts of climate variability and change on water and environmental systems requires analysis, modeling methodologies, and tools that accommodate incomplete knowledge and uncertainty that themselves evolve over time. The broad scope of this problem necessitates a multidimensional dialogue among research and policy groups that span disciplinary boundaries. Integration of this knowledge is required to develop adaptive capacity (i.e., necessary knowledge, preparedness, and reliable decision-making capacity to act by all partners in the information chain) and resilience. In this context, resilience can be taken to mean the degree to which the environmental system can absorb both abrupt and gradual changes and build capacity for learning and adaptation. As part of the 2005 AGU Fall Meeting, the session ``Integrated environmental and water decision-making in a changing climate'' was convened under the primary sponsorship of the Global Environmental Change Focus Group, with cosponsorship from other sections. The session served as a venue for a discussion of case studies, conceptual frameworks, and modeling that examined one or more components of the connected climate-water-environmental systems on local, regional, and continental scales. Combining analyses of historical hydroclimatic variations and trends with 21st-century climate change scenarios to quantify uncertainties and associated geographical sensitivities was also a key area of interest.

  9. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes--and therefore pollutants, or ``chemical threats''--can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These ``self-powered remediation systems'' could be seen as a new generation of ``smart devices'' for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  10. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes—and therefore pollutants, or “chemical threats”—can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These “self-powered remediation systems” could be seen as a new generation of “smart devices” for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future. PMID:24752489

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY: EVALUATION OF THE STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, questions related to environmental policy have been difficult to solve, because solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. In addition, there has been no good way to express the socioeconomic and environmental effects of p...

  12. A Primer on Fresh Water: The Environmental Citizenship Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Water is the lifeblood of the environment as no organisms can survive without it. This reference booklet is designed to help people make environmentally responsible decisions. The primer is targeted at the general public (grade 8 to post-secondary) to be used by educators, communities and organizations as well as individuals, as part of a learning…

  13. Environmental Research In Practice: Restoration And Protection Of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is tasked to protect human health and the environment. To carry out this task, the EPA makes use of technical expertise within its Office of Research and Development. Restoration and protection of water resources is one area of tec...

  14. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  15. TECHNIQUES USED IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of laboratory and field assessment techniques are used to evaluate the environmental condition of estuaries. Acute and chronic toxicity tests have been conducted with as many as 25 species to evaluate the effects of surface water and sediment on algae, invertebrates and...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  17. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-24

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA’s ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  18. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    PubMed

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  19. Derivation of an ambient water quality criterion for mercury: taking account of site-specific conditions.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Richardson, G Mark

    2003-12-01

    Mercury is considered to be a serious risk to wildlife. As a result, the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative and others have developed ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of wildlife. These AWQC have been controversial, however, because the AWQC were single values that did not account for site-specific conditions, derivation of the AWQC relied on a single no-observed-adverse-effect level, and the AWQC had an unknown level of conservatism because of reliance on both average and conservative assumptions and uncertainty factors. Rather than develop a single-value AWQC for total mercury, we derived an AWQC model that explicitly incorporates factors controlling bioavailability, methylation rates, and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment (e.g., pH, dissolved organic carbon). To derive our AWQC model, field data were collected from 31 lakes in Ontario and an additional 10 lakes in Nova Scotia (North America). In the field study, levels of total and methylmercury in water and fish as well as levels of key water quality variables were determined. We conducted multiple-regression analysis to derive a model that estimates mercury levels in prey of mink. Mink are very sensitive to mercury exposure. An independent dataset consisting of 51 water bodies in the United States was then used to confirm the validity and robustness of the AWQC model. Next, we combined the results of chronic-feeding studies with similar protocols and endpoints in a meta-analysis to derive a dose-response curve for mink exposed to mercury in the diet. In the final step, we used a probabilistic risk model to estimate the concentrations of methylmercury in water that would lead to levels in fish sufficient for a 10% probability of exceeding the lethal dose affecting 5% of the mink population. The result is an AWQC equation for mercury for the protection of wildlife that can be used with a variety of site-specific conditions. PMID:14713052

  20. An Environmental Management Model of Thermal Waters in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Mársico Daniel; Luís, Díaz Eduardo; Ivana, Zecca; Oscar, Dallacosta; Antonio, Paz-González

    2015-04-01

    Deep exploratory drillings, i.e. those with more than 500 meters depth, have been performed in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina, in order to ascertain the presence of thermal water. Drilling began in 1994, and until now there have been 18 polls with very variable results in terms of mineralization, resource flow, and temperature. The aim of this study was to present a management model, which should allow operators of thermal complexes to further develop procedures for safeguarding the biodiversity of the ecosystems involved, both during exploration and exploitation activities. The environmental management Plan proposed is constituted by a set of technical procedures that are formulated and should be performed during the stages of exploration and exploitation of the resource, and consists of: environmental monitoring, environmental audit, public information and contingency programs. This Plan describes the measures and proposals aimed at protecting environmental quality in the area of influence of a thermal complex project, ensuring that its execution remains environmentally responsibly, and allowing implementation of specific actions to prevent or correct environmental impacts, as predicted in the evaluation of the Environmental Program. The audit of environmental impact includes and takes into account natural factors, such as water, soil, atmosphere, flora and fauna, and also cultural factors. The technical audit Plan was prepared in order to get a systematic structure and organization of the verification process, and also with regard to document the degree of implementation of the proposed mitigation measures. Finally, an environmental contingency program was implemented, and its objective was to consider the safeguarding of life and its natural environment. Thus, a guide has been developed with the main actions to be taken on a contingency, since forecast increases the efficiency of the response. The methodology developed here was adopted as the procedure

  1. Oxygen isotope correlation of cetacean bone phosphate with environmental water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    1991-01-01

    The variation with time in the oxygen isotope ratio of the oceans is of prime interest in a variety of research fields. An excellent correlation between oxygen isotope ratios of cetacean (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) bone phosphate and their environmental water is found in this study. Bone phosphate samples of dolphins living in fresh waters are more depleted in oxygen 18 than those of cetaceans living in the oceans, reflecting the clear difference in the isotope composition of water. Cetaceans distributed in the higher latitudes in the oceans are more depleted in oxygen 18 than those distributed in the lower latitudes where seawater is slightly enriched in oxygen 18 relative to that in the higher latitudes. The present results provide a promising tool for estimating the oxygen isotope ratio of the oceanic water of the past without assuming water temperature.

  2. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY: EVALUATION OF THE STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was developed by energy systems ecologists from NHEERL's Atlantic Ecology Division. This research was conducted to provide methods and information to support a variety of regulatory and governance decisions that encompass environmental, economic and social issues. T...

  4. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  5. Perfluorooctane sulphonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Rumsby, Paul C; McLaughlin, Clare L; Hall, Tom

    2009-10-13

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are chemicals that have been used for many years as surfactants in a variety of industrial and consumer products. Owing to their persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) characteristics, PFOS has been phased out by its principal producer and the use of PFOA has been reduced. This PBT potential and a number of pollution incidents have led in recent years to an increase in studies surveying the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in environmental waters worldwide. This paper reviews the results of these studies, as well as the monitoring that was conducted after the pollution incidents. The results of surveys suggest that PFOS and PFOA are found in environmental waters worldwide at low levels. In general, these levels are below health-based values set by international authoritative bodies for drinking water. There have been limited measurements of these chemicals in drinking water, but again these are below health-based values, except in some cases following pollution incidents. Monitoring studies suggested that where PFOS and PFOA were detected, they were at similar levels in both source and drinking water, suggesting that drinking water treatment does not remove these chemicals. However, new data show that PFOS and PFOA are effectively removed by granular activated carbon absorbers in practice. Further research is required on the newer perfluorinated chemicals that appear to be safer, but their degradation products have not as yet been fully studied. PMID:19736236

  6. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing. PMID:24599657

  7. Effects of Environmental Factors on Microbial Populations in Brackish Waters off the Southern Coast of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Väätänen, Pentti

    1980-01-01

    The roles played by environmental factors in seasonal changes in microbial populations were investigated in the Tvärminne area, off the southern coast of Finland. Surface-layer samples were collected at 1- or 2-week intervals in 1976-78, and 14 microbiological and 10 environmental parameters were determined. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explain seasonal variation in the microbiological parameters. Separate analyses were made of the data from the open-water and ice-cover periods. In analyses of data from both periods, the environmental factors included accounted for a significant proportion of the variation in the parameters for community respiration (90%) and bacterial spores (80%), and a smaller proportion (60 to 65%) of the variation in total counts of bacteria and plate counts of psychrophiles and yeasts. Lower values (40 to 55%) were obtained for the variation in the other microbiological parameters. The environmental factors with maximal contributions were organic matter, water temperature, chlorophyll a, and salinity, but rainfall and winds also explained part of the variation in some microbiological parameters. In the winter analysis the results differed from those obtained for the other seasons, the variation being governed by parameters indicating freshwater outflows, namely, humic matter, salinity, water temperature (positive regression coefficient), and rainfall (negative regression coefficient). PMID:16345595

  8. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. PMID:26257354

  9. Grid-cell-based crop water accounting for the famine early warning system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, J.; Klaver, R.

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall monitoring is a regular activity of food security analysts for sub-Saharan Africa due to the potentially disastrous impact of drought. Crop water accounting schemes are used to track rainfall timing and amounts relative to phenological requirements, to infer water limitation impacts on yield. Unfortunately, many rain gauge reports are available only after significant delays, and the gauge locations leave large gaps in coverage. As an alternative, a grid-cell-based formulation for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) was tested for maize in Southern Africa. Grids of input variables were obtained from remote sensing estimates of rainfall, meteorological models, and digital soil maps. The spatial WRSI was computed for the 1996-97 and 1997-98 growing seasons. Maize yields were estimated by regression and compared with a limited number of reports from the field for the 1996-97 season in Zimbabwe. Agreement at a useful level (r = 0.80) was observed. This is comparable to results from traditional analysis with station data. The findings demonstrate the complementary role that remote sensing, modelling, and geospatial analysis can play in an era when field data collection in sub-Saharan Africa is suffering an unfortunate decline. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Toward integrated environmental management for challenges in water environmental protection of Lake Taihu basin in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin'Geng; Gu, Gang; Higano, Yoshiro

    2006-05-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China. It serves many social, economic, and ecological purposes in the drainage basin. Unfortunately, the water has been heavily polluted due to rapid industrialization and urbanization during the last two decades. Notwithstanding great efforts made so far to improve the water quality, the environmental situation is still far from being optimistic. The basin and the lake are facing a range of severe environmental challenges: rapid socio-economic development continues to place great pressures on the environment, current pollution control projects have many problems from the viewpoint of effectiveness and efficiency of their implementations, and the non-point sources of pollution such as agricultural fields, for which control is more difficult than for industrial point sources, have become the main contributors to serious eutrophication of the lake. Considering the characteristics of the environmental challenges and problems confronting the basin and the lake, we focus on integrated environmental management (IEM) as a promising and effective approach to overcome these predicaments. Current practices and problems of environmental management in the basin are examined, and potential future developments are discussed. Three aspects of the IEM are emphasized: institutional cooperation, public participation, and internalization of environmental externalities. We think these are the most critical for not only the basin but also for the whole of China to achieve a sustainable society. PMID:16508802

  11. Environmental and human impacts on Bangalore's regional water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arkavathy River Basin adjacent to Bangalore, India, faces a multitude of challenges driven by water demands from urbanization and intensification of agriculture. In the Arkavathy Basin, the two major reservoirs that historically supplied water to Bangalore now receive little to no inflow. Recent research has resulted in multiple plausible hypotheses attributing streamflow reductions in the Arkavathy to (1) increased evapotranspiration due to a boom in eucalyptus plantations and irrigated agriculture, and (2) increased deep drainage from surface soils due to long-term, excessive groundwater extraction. Current knowledge of Bangalore's water scarcity is largely based on anecdotal evidence and the sparse environmental data for this region is insufficient to definitively test these hypotheses. To bridge the gap between provincial and academic knowledge and better understand the nature of regional water resource depletion, we utilize a range of methods to integrate information across spatial and temporal scales. We use the full history of Landsat satellite imagery to approximate post-monsoon water storage in tanks and construct a spatially-explicit, historical record of surface water. We combine stable isotope mixing models, traditional field methods, and kite photography to build a deeper understanding of rainfall-runoff processes. Remote-sensing results confirm reductions of surface water in many of the tanks in the upper reaches of the watershed. We also observe an increase in surface water availability downstream of Bangalore, where imported water results in large waste flows. Field methods reveal considerable contributions of Hortonian overland flow due to soils with low hydraulic conductivity, mitigating changes in the subsurface water balance. We conclude that surface water availability is strongly related to spatial patterns of urban and agricultural water demand overlaid on a template defined by topography, soil, and climate.

  12. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  13. Environmental control on cold-water carbonate mounds development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Raddatz, J.; Flögel, S.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Exp. 307 Scientific Party, Iodp

    2009-04-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are very abundant along the European continental margin in intermediate water depths and are able to build up large mound structures. These carbonate mounds particularly occur in distinct mound provinces on the Irish and British continental margins. Previous investigations resulted in a better understanding of the cold-water coral ecology and the development of conceptual models to explain carbonate mound build-up. Two different hypotheses were evoked to explain the origin and development of carbonate mounds, external versus internal control (e.g., Freiwald et al. 2004 versus e.g. Hovland 1990). Several short sediment cores have been obtained from Propeller Mound, Northern Porcupine Seabight, indicating that cold-water corals grew during interglacial and warm interstadial periods of the Late Pleistocene controlled by environmental and climatic variability supporting the external control hypothesis (e.g. Dorschel et al. 2005, R

  14. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms. PMID:25496738

  15. The History of Water on Venus: a Scenario Accounting for Present Neon and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmann, C.; Chassefiere, E.; Lognonne, P.

    2009-12-01

    In order to study the evolution of the primitive atmosphere of Venus, we developped a time dependent model of hydrogen hydrodynamic escape powered by solar EUV (Extreme UV) flux and solar wind, and accounting for oxygen frictional escape We study specifically the isotopic fractionation of noble gases resulting from hydrodynamic escape. The fractionation’s primary cause is the effect of diffusive/gravitational separation between the homopause and the base of the escape. Heavy noble gases such as Kr and Xe are not fractionated. Ar is only marginally fractionated whereas Ne is moderately fractionated. We also take into account oxygen dragged off along with hydrogen by hydrodynamic process. In that case, most of the available energy is consumed by oxygen and the amount of energy available for the escape of hydrogen is reduced by one order of magnitude. We find nonetheless scenarios that are compatible with present-day Ne and Ar fractionation in Venus atmosphere. Our model suggests that during the first 100 Myr of the planetary accretion of Venus, no more than the content of five terrestrial oceans (5 TO) of water have been lost to space. Our preferred scenario shows that around 60% of the oxygen contained in this water was left behind in the atmosphere. During the end of the accretion, the atmospheric water vapor pressure could have been maintained at the value required to maintain the surface temperature above the liquidus. We argue that hydrodynamic escape could have controlled the solidification rate of the magma ocean during the end of the accretion period by pumping the water out of the magma, through the atmosphere, remaining at a pressure of around 300 bar. After most of the water in the magma has been extracted, the atmosphere progressively dried up, and the magma ocean crystallized, leading to a final collapse of the hydrodynamic escape. The end of the hydrodynamic escape phase and the crystallization of the primitive magma ocean would thus roughly coincide

  16. Using FRAMES to Manage Environmental and Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Millard, W. David; Gelston, Gariann M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Pelton, Mitch A.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Lee, Cheegwan; Sivaraman, Chitra; Stephan, Alex J.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Castleton, Karl J.

    2007-05-16

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems FRAMES) is decision-support middleware that provides users the ability to design software solutions for complex problems. It is a software platform that provides seamless and transparent communication between modeling components by using a multi-thematic approach to provide a flexible and holistic understanding of how environmental factors potentially affect humans and the environment. It incorporates disparate components (e.g., models, databases, and other frameworks) that integrate across scientific disciplines, allowing for tailored solutions to specific activities. This paper discusses one example application of FRAMES, where several commercialoff-the-shelf (COTS) software products are seamlessly linked into a planning and decision-support tool that helps manage water-based emergency situations and sustainable response. Multiple COTS models, including three surface water models, and a number of databases are linked through FRAMES to assess the impact of three asymmetric and simultaneous events, two of which impact water resources. The asymmetric events include 1) an unconventional radioactive release into a large potable water body, 2) a conventional contaminant (oil) release into navigable waters, and 3) an instantaneous atmospheric radioactive release.

  17. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  18. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  19. Socio-hydrological water balance for water allocation between human and environmental purposes in catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S.; Huang, Y.; Wei, Y.; Wang, G.

    2015-08-01

    Rebalancing water allocation between human consumptive uses and the environment in water catchments is a global challenge. This paper proposes a socio-hydrological water balance framework by partitioning catchment total evapotranspiration (ET) into ET for society and ET for natural ecological systems, and establishing the linkage between the changes of water balance and its social drivers and resulting environmental consequences in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia, over the period 1900-2010. The results show that the 100-year period of water management in the MDB could be divided into four periods corresponding to major changes in basin management within the socio-hydrological water balance framework: period 1 (1900-1956) - expansion of water and land use for the societal system, period 2 (1956-1978) - maximization of water and land use for the societal system, period 3 (1978-2002) - maximization of water use for the societal system from water diversion, and period 4 (2002-present) - rebalancing of water and land use between the societal and ecological systems. Most of management changes in the MDB were passive and responsive. A precautionary approach to water allocation between the societal and ecological systems should be developed. The socio-hydrological water balance framework could serve as a theoretical foundation for water allocation to evaluate the dynamic balance between the societal and ecological systems in catchments.

  20. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these

  1. Design of a leaching test framework for coal fly ash accounting for environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Russell, Nigel V

    2007-08-01

    Fly ash from coal combustion contains trace elements which, on disposal or utilisation, may leach out, and therefore be a potential environmental hazard. Environmental conditions have a great impact on the mobility of fly ash constituents as well as the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash. Existing standard leaching methods have been shown to be inadequate by not representing possible disposal or utilisation scenarios. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results estimated are not reliable as they are not able to be extrapolated to the application scenario. In order to simulate leaching behaviour of fly ash in different environmental conditions and to reduce deviation between measurements in the fields and the laboratories, it is vital to study sensitivity of the fly ash constituents of interest to major factors controlling leachability. pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, leachant type and redox potential are parameters affecting stability of elements in the fly ash. Sensitivity of trace elements to pH and liquid to solid ratio (as two major overriding factors) has been examined. Elements have been classified on the basis of their leaching behaviour under different conditions. Results from this study have been used to identify leaching mechanisms. Also the fly ash has been examined under different standard batch leaching tests in order to evaluate and to compare these tests. A Leaching Test Framework has been devised for assessing the stability of trace elements from fly ashes in different environments. This Framework assists in designing more realistic batch leaching tests appropriate to field conditions and can support the development of regulations and protocols for the management and disposal of coal combustion by-products or other solid wastes of environmental concern. PMID:17171257

  2. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    PubMed

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures. PMID:23454664

  3. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water. PMID:9380841

  4. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  5. Water management of Luanda region. A health and environmental characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto Santos, C.

    2009-04-01

    The river system in the Luanda region is made by the Cuanza River in the south and the northern with Bengo River. The water resources are abundant and seem to be an advantage in the development of the city, at a time when access to water is very critical as in the African continent. A sharing of angles, both the Men and animals use the flows of rivers together. After all that there is availability of water for the city's population, given the large number of other animal species also depend directly or indirectly these rivers. In order to contribute to the knowledge of this resource in the region, we want to characterize a health and environmental point of this river system of Luanda, Angola.

  6. Smoking at the workplace: Effects of genetic and environmental causal accounts on attitudes towards smoking employees and restrictive policies

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Zuckerman, Miron; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People hold diverse beliefs regarding the etiologies of individual and group differences in behaviors which, in turn, might affect their attitudes and behaviors. It is important to establish how perceived etiologies for smoking might affect the effectiveness of policy initiatives and prevention efforts. The present study assessed whether exposure to genetic vs. environmental accounts for smoking affects attitudes towards a) workplace-related smoking policies and b) smokers at the workplace. Results indicate that exposure to a genetic explanation led to stronger objections to a smoking restrictive policy compared with a non-genetic explanation. Additionally, participants in the genetic condition were more accepting of a smoker in the workplace than in the environmental condition. Evidently, beliefs about the etiology of smoking influence a range of attitudes related to smokers and smoking related policies. PMID:25530710

  7. Spatial assessment of water use in an environmentally sensitive wetland.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Mohsin; Abbas, Akhtar; Ahmad, Aftab

    2009-05-01

    system, there is a need to upgrade measuring and reporting infrastructure by strengthening the institutional and management arrangements to better gauge the efficiency of environmental and consumptive water use. The state-of-the-art technology of remote sensing-based SEBAL modeling proved to have potential for measuring actual water use with reliable accuracy and can be used for assessing the environmental and productive use of water from wetlands in other regions of Australia. PMID:19580033

  8. Revised framework for pesticide aquatic environmental exposure assessment that accounts for vegetative filter strips.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, George J; Fox, Garey A; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Lenz, Mark F

    2010-05-15

    For pesticides that do not pass higher-level environmental exposure assessments, vegetated filter strips (VFS) are often mandated for use of the compound. However, VFS physiographic characteristics (i.e., width) are not currently specified based on predictive modeling of VFS performance. This has been due to the lack of predictive tools that can explain the wide range of field-reported efficacies. This research hypothesizes that mechanistic modeling of VFS runoff and sediment trapping, integrated with an empirical, regression-based pesticide trapping equation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) exposure framework, is able to effectively derive these VFS characteristics. To test this hypothesis, a well-tested process-based model for VFS (VFSMOD) was coupled with the pesticide trapping equation and integrated with EPA's PRZM/EXAMS exposure package. The revised framework was applied to a prescribed U.S. EPA assessment scenario for four hypothetical pesticides: more mobile (i.e., organic carbon (OC) sorption coefficients, K(oc), of 100 L/kg OC) and less mobile (2000 L/kg OC) pesticides that are fast degrading or stable (i.e., 10 or 10,000 d aquatic dissipation half-lives). A nonlinear and complex relationship was observed between pesticide reduction, VFS length, and rainfall plus runon event size. The impact of VFS on environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) was found to be dependent on the pesticide sorption and dissipation half-life and whether calculating an acute or chronic EEC. While acute and chronic EECs were equivalent for stable pesticides, for fast degrading pesticides the acute EEC depended on specific loading events. Therefore, while VFS may reduce the cumulative pesticide loading, a corresponding reduction in the acute EEC may not always be observed. Such results emphasize the need to incorporate physically based modeling of VFS reductions for pesticides that do not pass the current U.S. EPA exposure assessment framework. PMID:20394426

  9. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  10. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  11. Accounting for water management issues within hydrological simulation: Alternative modelling options and a network optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Nalbantis, Ioannis; Rozos, Evangelos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    In mixed natural and artificialized river basins, many complexities arise due to anthropogenic interventions in the hydrological cycle, including abstractions from surface water bodies, groundwater pumping or recharge and water returns through drainage systems. Typical engineering approaches adopt a multi-stage modelling procedure, with the aim to handle the complexity of process interactions and the lack of measured abstractions. In such context, the entire hydrosystem is separated into natural and artificial sub-systems or components; the natural ones are modelled individually, and their predictions (i.e. hydrological fluxes) are transferred to the artificial components as inputs to a water management scheme. To account for the interactions between the various components, an iterative procedure is essential, whereby the outputs of the artificial sub-systems (i.e. abstractions) become inputs to the natural ones. However, this strategy suffers from multiple shortcomings, since it presupposes that pure natural sub-systems can be located and that sufficient information is available for each sub-system modelled, including suitable, i.e. "unmodified", data for calibrating the hydrological component. In addition, implementing such strategy is ineffective when the entire scheme runs in stochastic simulation mode. To cope with the above drawbacks, we developed a generalized modelling framework, following a network optimization approach. This originates from the graph theory, which has been successfully implemented within some advanced computer packages for water resource systems analysis. The user formulates a unified system which is comprised of the hydrographical network and the typical components of a water management network (aqueducts, pumps, junctions, demand nodes etc.). Input data for the later include hydraulic properties, constraints, targets, priorities and operation costs. The real-world system is described through a conceptual graph, whose dummy properties

  12. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  13. Optimized MPPT algorithm for boost converters taking into account the environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Pierre; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Maufay, Fabrice; Aillerie, Michel

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the specific behavior of the Boost DC-DC converters generally used for powering conversion of PV panels connected to a HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) Bus. It follows some works pointing out that converter MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is severely perturbed by output voltage variations due to physical dependency of parameters as the input voltage, the output voltage and the duty cycle of the PWM switching control of the MPPT. As a direct consequence many converters connected together on a same load perturb each other because of the output voltage variations induced by fluctuations on the HVDC bus essentially due to a not insignificant bus impedance. In this paper we show that it is possible to include an internal computed variable in charge to compensate local and external variations to take into account the environment variables.

  14. Social.Water - A crowdsourcing tool for environmental data acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Lowry, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Remote telemetry has a long history of use for collection of environmental measurements. With the rise of mobile phones and SMS text-messaging capacity, many members of the general pubic carry communications equipment in their pockets at all times. Enabling the general public to provide environmental data through text messages has the potential both to provide additional data to scientific projects and also to raise awareness of the projects through participation. Hydrologic measurements – some of which can be made without training, involve a single measurement, and are often made in rural areas – are well-suited to text-message conveyance. Many other environmental measurements are similarly well-suited for this technology. Social.Water is a software package, written in Python, that collects, parses, and categorizes text messages sent to a dedicated phone number, updates a simple database, and posts both graphical results and the database on the Web. Social.Water was designed as the backend to the Crowdhydrology project and is written in an object-oriented design that makes customization and modification straightforward.

  15. Water loss in insects: an environmental change perspective.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Sørensen, Jesper G; Terblanche, John S

    2011-08-01

    In the context of global environmental change much of the focus has been on changing temperatures. However, patterns of rainfall and water availability have also been changing and are expected to continue doing so. In consequence, understanding the responses of insects to water availability is important, especially because it has a pronounced influence on insect activity, distribution patterns, and species richness. Here we therefore provide a critical review of key questions that either are being or need to be addressed in this field. First, an overview of insect behavioural responses to changing humidity conditions and the mechanisms underlying sensing of humidity variation is provided. The primary sensors in insects belong to the temperature receptor protein superfamily of cation channels. Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels, or thermoTRPs, respond to a diverse range of stimuli and may be a primary integrator of sensory information, such as environmental temperature and moisture. Next we touch briefly on the components of water loss, drawing attention to a new, universal model of the water costs of gas exchange and its implications for responses to a warming, and in places drying, world. We also provide an overview of new understanding of the role of the sub-elytral chamber for water conservation, and developments in understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in preventing water loss. Because of an increasing focus on the molecular basis of responses to dehydration stress we touch briefly on this area, drawing attention to the role of sugars, heat shock proteins, aquaporins, and LEA proteins. Next we consider phenotypic plasticity or acclimation responses in insect water balance after initial exposures to altered humidity, temperature or nutrition. Although beneficial acclimation has been demonstrated in several instances, this is not always the case. Laboratory studies show that responses to selection for enhanced ability to

  16. Accounting for "hot spots" and "hot moments" in soil carbon models for water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Frances; Caylor, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in water-limited ecosystems are complicated by the stochastic nature of rainfall and patchy structure of vegetation, which can lead to "hot spots" and "hot moments" of high biological activity. Non-linear models that use spatial and temporal averages of forcing variables are unable to account for these phenomena and are likely to produce biased results. In this study we present a model of SOC abundance that accounts for spatial heterogeneity at the plant scale and temporal variability in soil moisture content at the daily scale. We approximated an existing simulation-based model of SOC dynamics as a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative noise that can be solved numerically for steady-state sizes of three SOC pools. We coupled this to a model of water balance and SOC input rate at a point for a given cover type, defined by the number of shrub and perennial grass root systems and canopies overlapping the point. Using a probabilistic description of vegetation structure based on a two dimensional Poisson process, we derived analytical expressions for the distribution of cover types across a landscape and produced weighted averages of SOC stocks. An application of the model to a shortgrass steppe ecosystem in Colorado, USA, replicated empirical data on spatial patterns and average abundance of SOC, whereas a version of the model using spatially averaged forcing variables overestimated SOC stocks by 12%. The model also successfully replicated data from paired desert grassland sites in New Mexico, USA, that had and had not been affected by woody plant encroachment, indicating that the model could be a useful tool for understanding and predicting the effect of woody plant encroachment on regional carbon budgets. We performed a theoretical analysis of a simplified version of the model to estimate the bias introduced by using spatial averages of forcing variables to model SOC stocks across a range of climatic conditions

  17. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  18. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components

  19. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a

  20. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  1. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-01-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  2. When private water rights become a public asset: Stakeholder perspectives on the fairness of environmental water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasiewicz, Anna; Dare, Melanie (Lain)

    2016-05-01

    This paper explores environmental water management as a social process of navigating conflicting interests through a distributive justice lens. Environmental water management can achieve substantial ecological outcomes and address ongoing river degradation caused by past management and climate change; however it also causes specific and substantial burdens and benefits to different groups of stakeholders. Given that in most developed countries the majority of land is under private tenure, environmental watering must have active cooperation of private landholders to achieve its ecological outcomes and thus it must effectively deal with an array of vested interests. Australia's reforms aimed at reallocating water from production to the environment have resulted in significant considerable volumes of environmental water. In the state of New South Wales, this water is managed by the state and national governments with the help of five Environmental Water Advisory Groups made up of a wide representation of interests. In this paper, we explore the perceptions of environmental, government, irrigator and grazing representatives, which demonstrate conflicting principles over how environmental water should be distributed. We detail how government water managers reconcile competing distributive principles of equity (ensuring that no one is disproportionally affected or benefits unduly), need (achieving environmental outcomes) and efficiency (prioritizing operational feasibility) in order to maintain the social acceptability of environmental water.

  3. Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in light water reactors (LWRs) are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or SCC cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Similar cracking has also occurred in upper shell-to-transition cone girth welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator vessels. Another concern is failure of reactor-core internal components after accumulation of relatively high fluence, which has occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Research during the past year focused on (1) fatigue and SCC of ferritic steels used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated BWR water in SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS, and (3) irradiation-assisted SCC in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs. Failure after accumulation of relatively high fluence has been attributed to radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of elements such as Si, P, Ni, and Cr. This document provides a summary of research progress in these areas.

  4. 21st Century Water Asset Accounting - Case Studies Report (WERF Report INFR6R12a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    America’s decaying water infrastructure presents significant financial and logistical challenges for water utilities. Green infrastructure has been gaining traction as a viable alternative and complement to traditional “grey” infrastructure for water management. Current accounti...

  5. Systemic solutions for multi-benefit water and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Everard, Mark; McInnes, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The environmental and financial costs of inputs to, and unintended consequences arising from narrow consideration of outputs from, water and environmental management technologies highlight the need for low-input solutions that optimise outcomes across multiple ecosystem services. Case studies examining the inputs and outputs associated with several ecosystem-based water and environmental management technologies reveal a range from those that differ little from conventional electro-mechanical engineering techniques through methods, such as integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs), designed explicitly as low-input systems optimising ecosystem service outcomes. All techniques present opportunities for further optimisation of outputs, and hence for greater cumulative public value. We define 'systemic solutions' as "…low-input technologies using natural processes to optimise benefits across the spectrum of ecosystem services and their beneficiaries". They contribute to sustainable development by averting unintended negative impacts and optimising benefits to all ecosystem service beneficiaries, increasing net economic value. Legacy legislation addressing issues in a fragmented way, associated 'ring-fenced' budgets and established management assumptions represent obstacles to implementing 'systemic solutions'. However, flexible implementation of legacy regulations recognising their primary purpose, rather than slavish adherence to detailed sub-clauses, may achieve greater overall public benefit through optimisation of outcomes across ecosystem services. Systemic solutions are not a panacea if applied merely as 'downstream' fixes, but are part of, and a means to accelerate, broader culture change towards more sustainable practice. This necessarily entails connecting a wider network of interests in the formulation and design of mutually-beneficial systemic solutions, including for example spatial planners, engineers, regulators, managers, farming and other businesses, and

  6. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  7. Balancing the Budget: Accounting for Glucocorticoid Bioactivity and Fate during Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ai; Wu, Shimin; Daniels, Kevin D; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-03-15

    Numerous studies have identified the presence and bioactivity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) active substances in water; however, the identification and activity-balance of GR compounds remained elusive. This study determined the occurrence and attenuation of GR bioactivity and closed the balance by determining those substances responsible. The observed in vitro GR activity ranged from 39 to 155 ng dexamethasone-equivalent/L (ng Dex-EQ/L) in the secondary effluents of four wastewater treatment plants. Monochromatic ultraviolet light of 80 mJ/cm(2) disinfection dose was efficient for GR activity photolysis, whereas chlorination could not appreciably attenuate the observed GR activity. Ozonation was effective only at relatively high dose (ozone/TOC 1:1). Microfiltration membranes were not efficient for GR activity attenuation; however, reverse osmosis removed GR activity to levels below the limits of detection. A high-sensitivity liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was then developed to screen 27 GR agonists. Twelve were identified and quantified in effluents at summed concentrations of 9.6-21.2 ng/L. The summed Dex-EQ of individual compounds based on their measured concentrations was in excellent agreement with the Dex-EQ obtained from bioassay, which demonstrated that the detected glucocorticoids can entirely explain the observed GR bioactivity. Four synthetic glucocorticoids (triamcinolone acetonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, and fluticasone propionate) predominantly accounted for GR activity. These data represent the first known publication where a complete activity balance has been determined for GR agonists in an aquatic environment. PMID:26840181

  8. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant. PMID:19403964

  9. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Kf values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable Kf values. The range in reported Kf is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported Kf, such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of Kf, an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf for HOCs at conditions other than at 20 degrees or 25 degrees C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in Kf at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log Kf in distilled water at 25 degrees C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R2 = 0.94) between measured and predicted log Kf values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log Kf for HOCs whose experimental log Kf values are presently unavailable. Future

  10. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes). PMID:27074929

  11. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four EUROCOURSES that will be conducted under the title of ``Technologies for Envirommental Cleanup.`` This first course will address the needs of today`s environmental protection managers who must deal with the cleanup of soil and ground water contamination. It focuses on recent developments in the areas of policies and regulations, characterization. of.contaminants, subsurface transport and fate of contaminants, cleanup technologies, contaminant risk analysis, and cleanup strategies. Until the goal of acceptable cleanup is achieved, dissemination of information about available cleanup techniques is essential - through courses such as these developed by experts in the US and Europe especially for governmental and industrial managers throughout the world.

  12. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four EUROCOURSES that will be conducted under the title of Technologies for Envirommental Cleanup.'' This first course will address the needs of today's environmental protection managers who must deal with the cleanup of soil and ground water contamination. It focuses on recent developments in the areas of policies and regulations, characterization. of.contaminants, subsurface transport and fate of contaminants, cleanup technologies, contaminant risk analysis, and cleanup strategies. Until the goal of acceptable cleanup is achieved, dissemination of information about available cleanup techniques is essential - through courses such as these developed by experts in the US and Europe especially for governmental and industrial managers throughout the world.

  13. Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Rob ES; Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Pedley, Steve; Bartram, Jamie K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how data on water source quality affect assessments of progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on access to safe drinking-water. Methods Data from five countries on whether drinking-water sources complied with World Health Organization water quality guidelines on contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates in 2004 and 2005 were obtained from the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality project. These data were used to adjust estimates of the proportion of the population with access to safe drinking-water at the MDG baseline in 1990 and in 2008 made by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, which classified all improved sources as safe. Findings Taking account of data on water source quality resulted in substantially lower estimates of the percentage of the population with access to safe drinking-water in 2008 in four of the five study countries: the absolute reduction was 11% in Ethiopia, 16% in Nicaragua, 15% in Nigeria and 7% in Tajikistan. There was only a slight reduction in Jordan. Microbial contamination was more common than chemical contamination. Conclusion The criterion used by the MDG indicator to determine whether a water source is safe can lead to substantial overestimates of the population with access to safe drinking-water and, consequently, also overestimates the progress made towards the 2015 MDG target. Monitoring drinking-water supplies by recording both access to water sources and their safety would be a substantial improvement. PMID:22461718

  14. Determination of organic carbon and ionic accountability of various waste and product waters derived from ECLSS water recovery tests and Spacelab humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Cole, Harold; Habercom, Mark; Griffith, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The development of a closed-loop water recovery system for Space Station Freedom involves many technical challenges associated with contaminant removal. Attention is presently given to the characterization of contaminants constituting total organic carbon (TOC), and to the Hubaux and Vos (1970) statistical model for low level TOC that has been employed. A tabulation is given for TOC accountability in the case of both potable and hygiene waters.

  15. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Water Footprint Assessment is a quickly growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of water footprint estimates to changes in important input variables and quantifies the size of uncertainty in water footprint estimates. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat in the Yellow River Basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River Basin in the period considered. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis focused on the effects on water footprint estimates at basin level (in m3 t-1) of four key input variables: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), and crop calendar. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the water footprint of crops to fractional changes of individual input variables. Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by crop calendar and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0 was dominant compared to that of precipitation. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input uncertainties were on average ±26% (at 95% confidence level). The sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types, with highest sensitivities

  16. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  17. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1975 water year; based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, John C.; Ficke, John F.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a nationally uniform basis for continuously assessing the quality of U.S. rivers. Stations generally are at the downstream end of hydrologic accounting units in order to measure the quantity and quality of water flowing from the units. Data are available on a large number of water-quality constituents measured at 345 stations during the 1975 water year. Temperature data (usually continuous or daily measurements) from NASQAN stations were fitted to a first order harmonic equation and the parameters for the harmonic function are reported for each station. Considering chemical and biological characteristics of U.S. streams as described by NASQAN data, water quality is best (by many standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Many of these waters show the effects of pollution and carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients. High counts of indicator bacteria also show signs of local pollution. In the Northeast, some heavy metals are at moderate levels, but not above most water-quality criteria. Rivers of most of the Mid-Continent and Southwest reflect the arid or semi-arid climate, erodible soils, and agricultural activities. A special analysis was made to study the patterns of dissolved solids, major nutrients, phytoplankton, and zinc in the Mississippi River above Memphis, Tennessee. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Persistence of Avian Influenza Viruses in Various Artificially Frozen Environmental Water Types

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, Dany; Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the viable persistence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in various types of artificially frozen environmental water and evaluates the feasibility of similar occurrence taking place in nature, and allowing for prolonged abiotic virus survival, with subsequent biotic viral recirculation. Methods. Fresh, brackish, and salty water, taken in Japan from aquatic biotopes regularly visited by migratory waterfowl, were seeded with AIVs. We monthly monitored the viability of the seeded viruses in the frozen state at −20°C and −30°C, for 12 months. We also monitored virus viability following repeatedly induced freezing and thawing. Results. The viruses exhibited considerable viable persistence all along that period of time, as well as during freezing-thawing cycles. Appreciable, yet noncrucial variances were observed in relation to some of the parameters examined. Conclusions. As typical waterborne pathogens of numerous northerly aquatic birds, AIVs are innately adapted to both the body temperature of their hosts (40°C to 42°C) and, presumably, to subzero temperatures of frozen lakes (down to −54°C in parts of Siberia) occupied and virus-seeded by subclinically infected birds, prior to freezing. Marked cryostability of AIVs appears to be evident. Preservation in environmental ice has significant ecophylogenetic and epidemiological implications, potentially, and could account for various unexplained phenomena. PMID:23091712

  19. Accounting for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Cooperative Accountability Project.

    This publication reports on two Regional Educational Accountability Conferences on Techniques sponsored by the Cooperative Accountability Project. Accountability is described as an "emotionally-charged issue" and an "operationally demanding concept." Overviewing accountability, major speakers emphasized that accountability is a means toward…

  20. Water-Use Efficiency and Stable Carbon Isotopes: Accounting for Photosynthetic Refixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubierna Lopez, N.; Marshall, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    for Light plants decreased to 10% and the observed enrichment on δ13CLR was 1‰. Correspondingly, Shade plants showed a 37% level of refixation and 3.6‰ enrichment at PAR=20. Our findings support the hypothesis that leaves re-fix carbon under low-light intensity environments. The degree of refixation is proportional to light intensity, with higher refixation rates associated with higher light intensities and more depleted leaf biomass. The continuous refixation of the internal leaf carbon pool during leaf expansion together with diurnal refixation periods in mature leaves adds depleted biomass into the leaf that is likely to account for the patterns described in the literature (i.e. 2‰ depletion of leaf versus stem biomass). This can influence the interpretation of δ13C leaf biomass data of previous studies and can compromise the utility of δ13C from leaf tissue as a precise meter of water-use efficiency.

  1. Integrated water resources management of the Ichkeul basin taking into account the durability of its wetland ecosystem using WEAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabou, M.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Gastli, W.; Chakroun, H.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Oueslati, I.; Lasram, F.; Laajimi, R.; Shaiek, M.; Romdhane, M. S.; Mnajja, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Conservation of coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean area is generally faced with development issues. It is the case of Tunisia where the precipitation is irregular in time and space. For the equity of water use (drinking, irrigation), there is a planning at the national level allowing the possibility of water transfer from regions rich in water resources to poor ones. This plan was initially done in Tunisia without taking into account the wetlands ecosystems and their specificities. The main purpose of this study is to find a model able to integrate simultaneously available resources and various water demands within a watershed by taking into account the durability of related wetland ecosystems. It is the case of the Ichkeul basin. This later is situated in northern of Tunisia, having an area of 2080 km2 and rainfall of about 600 mm/year. Downstream this basin, the Ichkeul Lake is characterized by a double alternation of seasonal high water and low salinity in winter and spring and low water levels and high salinity in summer and autumn that makes the Ichkeul an exceptional ecosystem. The originality of this hydrological system of Lake-marsh conditions is related to the presence of aquatic vegetation in the lake and special rich and varied hygrophilic in the marshes that constitutes the main source of food for large migrating water birds. After the construction of three dams on the principle rivers that are feeding the Ichkeul Lake, aiming particularly to supply the local irrigation and the drinking water demand of cities in the north and the east of Tunisia, freshwater inflow to the lake is greatly reduced causing a hydrological disequilibrium that influences the ecological conditions of the different species. Therefore, to ensure the sustainability of the water resources management, it's important to find a trade off between the existing hydrological and ecological systems taking into account water demands of various users (drinking, irrigation fishing, and

  2. Accounting for intracell flow in models with emphasis on water table recharge and stream-aquifer interaction. 2. A procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, D.G.; Signor, D.C.; Imes, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Intercepted intracell flow, especially if cell includes water table recharge and a stream (sink), can result in significant model error if not accounted for. A procedure utilizing net flow per cell (Fn) that accounts for intercepted intracell flow can be used for both steady state and transient simulations. Germane to the procedure is the determination of the ratio of area of influence of the interior sink to the area of the cell (Ai/Ac). Ai is the area in which water table recharge has the potential to be intercepted by the sink. Determining Ai/Ac requires either a detailed water table map or observation of stream conditions within the cell. A proportioning parameter M, which is equal to 1 or slightly less and is a function of cell geometry, is used to determine how much of the water that has potential for interception is intercepted by the sink within the cell. Also germane to the procedure is the determination of the flow across the streambed (Fs) which is not directly a function of cell size, due to difference in head between the water level in the stream and the potentiometric surface of the aquifer underlying the streambed. -from Authors

  3. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  4. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  5. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2014-06-01

    Water Footprint Assessment is a fast-growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of and uncertainty in crop water footprint (in m3 t-1) estimates related to uncertainties in important input variables. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat at the scale of the Yellow River basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the crop water footprint to fractional changes of seven individual input variables and parameters: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), crop calendar (planting date with constant growing degree days), soil water content at field capacity (Smax), yield response factor (Ky) and maximum yield (Ym). Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates related to uncertainties in four key input variables: PR, ET0, Kc, and crop calendar were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types. In general, the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by the crop calendar. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint is, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0was dominant compared to that of PR. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input

  6. *Environmental mycobacteriosis and drinking water: an emerging problem for developed countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: Rates ofpulmonary environmental mycobacteriosis (EM) appear to be increasing among developed countries during the past 20 years. EM is caused by multiple species of pathogenic mycobacteria that have been recovered from soil, water, water aerosols, biofil...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  8. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  9. Communicating Environmental Information to the Public: A New Water Quality Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, David J.; Janardan, Konanur G.

    1977-01-01

    A water quality index developed by the authors and used by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency is described. It compares biological and chemical assessments of water quality. Sampling procedures and use of the index are described. (BT)

  10. On determining field water capacity and available water in uniform and layered soil profiles: Critical accounts and Proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceres, F.; Chirico, G. B.; Romano, N.

    2009-04-01

    Field water capacity and available water concepts are major agronomic parameters widely used for irrigation management, especially in Mediterranean zones facing with shortage of water. However, their definitions are still under discussion among scientists and practitioners. Field water capacity is often determined using empirical relationships (e.g. pedotransfer functions) or from water retention points obtained in the laboratory, thus underplaying or even ignoring the important role exerted by the actual evolution of water redistribution processes in a soil profile, especially if it is a layered one. An objective and replicable method for determining the field water capacity requires monitoring a water redistribution process evolving in a soil profile thoroughly wetted by a preliminary infiltration phase. Accordingly, in this study free drainage processes in soil profiles have been simulated by applying the numerical model developed by Romano et al. (1998) and verified by Brunone et al. (2003). This model solves Richards' equation by applying the Crank-Nicolson finite difference technique and uses a numerical algorithm specifically designed in case of layered soils for calculating the hydraulic conductivity between soil layers. In addition, to ensure a good correspondence between the analyses performed and actual situations, an extensive database of uniform and layered soil profiles have been employed. Outcome from the scenarios on uniform soils have shown that soil water content values under the condition of field capacity do not match water content values obtained from water retention point measured at preselected matric pressure head. Similar results have been obtained when using retention data points retrieved from the use of well-established pedotransfer functions (such as the HYPRES-PTF). In case of layered soil profiles, which actually represent the rule rather than an exception, the layer sequence and reciprocal differences in the soil hydraulic properties

  11. Environmentally assisted cracking of light-water reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of lightwater reactor (LWR) materials has affected nuclear reactors from the very introduction of the technology. Corrosion problems have afflicted steam generators from the very introduction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Shippingport, the first commercial PWR operated in the United States, developed leaking cracks in two Type 304 stainless steel (SS) steam generator tubes as early as 1957, after only 150 h of operation. Stress corrosion cracks were observed in the heat-affected zones of welds in austenitic SS piping and associated components in boiling-water reactors (BRWs) as early as 1965. The degradation of steam generator tubing in PWRs and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic SS piping in BWRs have been the most visible and most expensive examples of EAC in LWRs, and the repair and replacement of steam generators and recirculation piping has cost hundreds of millions of dollars. However, other problems associated with the effects of the environment on reactor structures and components am important concerns in operating plants and for extended reactor lifetimes. Cast duplex austenitic-ferritic SSs are used extensively in the nuclear industry to fabricate pump casings and valve bodies for LWRs and primary coolant piping in many PWRs. Embrittlement of the ferrite phase in cast duplex SS may occur after 10 to 20 years at reactor operating temperatures, which could influence the mechanical response and integrity of pressure boundary components during high strain-rate loading (e.g., seismic events). The problem is of most concern in PWRs where slightly higher temperatures are typical and cast SS piping is widely used.

  12. Accounting for Consumptive Use of Lower Colorado River Water in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Colorado River valley between the east end of Lake Mead and the international boundary with Mexico (see figure), the river is the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power generation, and recreational purposes. Water is stored in surface reservoirs and in the river aquifer---permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that fill the lower Colorado River valley and adjacent tributary valleys. The hydraulic connection between the river and the river aquifer, overbank flow prior to building of the dams, and infiltration as the reservoirs filled allowed the sediments and sedimentary rocks to become saturated with water from the river. Ratios of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water from wells indicate that most of the water in the river aquifer beneath the flood plain and in many places beneath the adjacent alluvial slopes originated from the river. The water table in the river aquifer extends from the river, beneath the flood plain, and under the alluvial slopes until it intersects bedrock. Precipitation in the surrounding mountains and inflow from tributary valleys also contribute small quantities of water to the river aquifer. Consumptive use of river water in the valley results from evapotranspiration by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain, pumpage from wells to meet domestic and municipal needs, and pumpage from the river for export to areas in California, Arizona, and Nevada outside of the river valley. Most crops are grown on the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the adjacent terraces has been cultivated. Crops were grown on about 70 percent of the total vegetated area in 1984. Phreatophytes---natural vegetation that obtains water from the river aquifer---covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped directly from the river and reservoirs. Most of the water used for domestic and municipal

  13. Accounting for hydro-climatic and water use variability in the assessment of past and future water balance at the basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses water stress by 2050 in river basins facing increasing human and climatic pressures, by comparing the impacts of various combinations of possible future socio-economic and climate trends. A modelling framework integrating human and hydro-climatic dynamics and accounting for interactions between resource and demand at a 10-day time step was developed and applied in two basins of different sizes and with contrasted water uses: the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) basins. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model (GR4j). A demand-driven reservoir management model was designed to account for streamflow regulations from the main dams. Urban water demand was estimated from time series of population and monthly unit water consumption data. Agricultural water demand was computed from time series of irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climate forcing. Indicators comparing water supply to demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed. This framework was successfully calibrated and validated under non-stationary human and hydro-climatic conditions over the last 40 years before being applied under four combinations of climatic and water use scenarios to differentiate the impacts of climate- and human-induced changes on streamflow and water balance. Climate simulations from the CMIP5 exercise were used to generate 18 climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. A baseline water use scenario for 2050 was designed based on demographic and local socio-economic trends. Results showed that projected water uses are not sustainable under climate change scenarios.

  14. Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: structural comparisons with environmental estrogens.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark

    2011-11-15

    The large volumes, acute toxicity, estrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity of process-affected waters accruing in tailings ponds from the operations of the Alberta oil sands industries pose a significant task for environmental reclamation. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) suggest that oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) may contain aromatic carboxylic acids, which are among the potentially environmentally important toxicants, but no such acids have yet been identified, limiting interpretations of the results of estrogenicity and other assays. Here we show that multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) of methyl esters of acids in an OSPW sample produces mass spectra consistent with their assignment as C(19) and C(20) C-ring monoaromatic hydroxy steroid acids, D-ring opened hydroxy and nonhydroxy polyhydrophenanthroic acids with one aromatic and two alicyclic rings and A-ring opened steroidal keto acids. High resolution MS data support the assignment of several of the so-called 'O3' species. When fractions of distilled, esterified, OSPW acid-extractable organics were examined, the putative aromatics were mainly present in a high boiling fraction; when examined by argentation thin layer chromatography, some were present in a fraction with a retardation factor between that of the methyl esters of synthetic monoalicyclic and monoaromatic acids. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of these fractions indicated the presence of benzenoid moieties. SFS of model octahydro- and tetrahydrophenanthroic acids produced emissions at the characteristic excitation wavelengths observed in some OSPW extracts, consistent with the postulations from ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. We suggest the acids originate from extensive biodegradation of C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons and offer a means of differentiating residues at different biodegradation stages in tailings ponds. Structural similarities with estrone and

  15. Infectivity of microsporidia spores stored in water at environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Palmer, R; Trout, J M; Fayer, R

    2003-02-01

    To determine how long waterborne spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem, and E. intestinalis could survive at environmental temperatures, culture-derived spores were stored in water at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 C and tested for infectivity in monolayer cultures of Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. At 10 C, spores of E. intestinalis were still infective after 12 mo, whereas those of E. hellem and E. cuniculi were infective for 9 and 3 mo, respectively. At 15 C, spores of the same species remained infective for 10, 6, and 2 mo, and at 20 C, for 7, 5, and 1 mo, respectively. At 25 C, spores of E. intestinalis and E. hellem were infective for 3 mo, but those of E. cuniculi were infective for only 3 wk. At 30 C, the former 2 species were infective for 3 wk and 1 mo, respectively, and the latter species for only 1 wk. These findings indicate that spores of different species of Encephalitozoon differ in their longevity and temperature tolerance, but at temperatures from 10 to 30 C, all 3 have the potential to remain infective in the environment long enough to become widely dispersed. PMID:12659327

  16. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Deinzer, M.; Schaumburg, F.; Klein, E.

    1978-01-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far. The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged. The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  17. A constitutive model for air-NAPL-water flow in the vadose zone accounting for immobile, non-occluded (residual) NAPL in strongly water-wet porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhard, Robert J.; Oostrom, Mart; Dane, J H.

    2004-07-01

    A hysteretic constitutive model describing relations among relative permeabilities, saturations, and pressures in fluid systems consisting of air, nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL), and water is modified to account for NAPL that is postulated to be immobile in small pores and pore wedges and as films or lenses on water surfaces. A direct outcome of the model is prediction of the NAPL saturation that remains in the vadose zone after long drainage periods (residual NAPL). Using the modified model, water and NAPL (free, trapped by water, and residual) saturations can be predicted from the capillary pressures and the water and total-liquid saturation-path histories. Relations between relative permeabilities and saturations are modified to account for the residual NAPL by adjusting the limits of integration in the integral expression used for predicting the NAPL relative permeability. When all of the NAPL is either residual or trapped (i.e., no free NAPL), then the NAPL relative permeability will be zero. We model residual NAPL using concepts similar to those used to model residual water. As an initial test of the constitutive model, we compare predictions to published measurements of residual NAPL. Furthermore, we present results using the modified constitutive theory for a scenario involving NAPL imbibition and drainage.

  18. A Constitutive Model for Air-NAPL-Water Flow in the Vadose Zone Accounting for Immobile, Non-Occluded (Residual) NAPL in Strongly Water-Wet Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Lenhard; M. Oostrom; J. H. Dane

    2004-07-01

    A hysteretic constitutive model describing relations among relative permeabilities, saturations, and pressures in fluid systems consisting of air, nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL), and water is modified to account for NAPL that is postulated to be immobile in small pores and pore wedges and as films or lenses on water surfaces. A direct outcome of the model is prediction of the NAPL saturation that remains in the vadose zone after long drainage periods (residual NAPL). Using the modified model, water and NAPL (free, entrapped by water, and residual) saturations can be predicted from the capillary pressures and the water and total-liquid saturation-path histories. Relations between relative permeabilities and saturations are modified to account for the residual NAPL by adjusting the limits of integration in the integral expression used for predicting the NAPL relative permeability. When all of the NAPL is either residual or entrapped (i.e., no free NAPL), then the NAPL relative permeability will be zero. We model residual NAPL using concepts similar to those used to model residual water. As an initial test of the constitutive model, we compare predictions to published measurements of residual NAPL. Furthermore, we present results using the modified constitutive theory for a scenario involving NAPL imbibition and drainage.

  19. A constitutive model for air-NAPL-water flow in the vadose zone accounting for immobile, non-occluded (residual) NAPL in strongly water-wet porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhard, Robert J.; Oostrom, Mart; Dane, J H.

    2004-09-01

    A hysteretic constitutive model describing relations among relative permeabilities, saturations, and pressures in fluid systems consisting of air, nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL), and water is modified to account for NAPL that is postulated to be immobile in small pores and pore wedges and as films or lenses on water surfaces. A direct outcome of the model is prediction of the NAPL saturation that remains in the vadose zone after long drainage periods (residual NAPL). Using the modified model, water and NAPL (free, entrapped by water, and residual) saturations can be predicted from the capillary pressures and the water and total-liquid saturation-path histories. Relations between relative permeabilities and saturations are modified to account for the residual NAPL by adjusting the limits of integration in the integral expression used for predicting the NAPL relative permeability. When all of the NAPL is either residual or entrapped (i.e., no free NAPL), then the NAPL relative permeability will be zero. We model residual NAPL using concepts similar to those used to model residual water. As an initial test of the constitutive model, we compare predictions to published measurements of residual NAPL. Furthermore, we present results using the modified constitutive theory for a scenario involving NAPL imbibition and drainage.

  20. VALUATION OF BENEFITS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT IN U.S. COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to estimate willingness to pay for water quality improvements in coastal waters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water is responsible for regulating and monitoring national water quality. In order to make sound policy d...

  1. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake. PMID:26545892

  2. Characterization of atmospheric trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core: a preliminary account of Tibetan Plateau environmental and contamination histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Asia is facing enormous challenges including large-scale environmental changes, rapid population growth and industrialization. The inherent generated pollution contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions that, when deposited to glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Third Pole region, leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Records of past atmospheric deposition preserved in snow and ice from Third Pole glaciers provide unique insights into changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and into the nature and intensity of the regional atmospheric circulation systems. The determination of the elemental composition of aeolian dust stored in Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau glaciers can help to qualify the potential contamination of glacial meltwater as a part of the greater fresh Asian water source. The 215 m long Puruogangri ice core retrieved in 2000 at 6500 m a.s.l. in central Tibetan Plateau (Western Tanggula Shan, China) provides one of the first multi-millennium-long environmental archives (spanning the last 7000 years and annually resolved for the last 400 years) obtained from the Tibetan Plateau region. The Puruogangri's area is climatologically of particular interest because of its location at the boundary between the monsoon (wet) and the westerly (dry) dominated atmospheric circulation. The major objective of this study is to determine the concentration of trace and ultra-trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core between 1600 and 2000 AD in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosols entrapped in the ice. Particular attention is given to assess the amount of trace elements originating from anthropogenic sources during both the pre-industrial and industrial periods. The distinction between the anthropogenic contribution and the crustal background may rely on the precise decoupling of the dry and wet seasons signals, the former being largely influenced by dust contribution.

  3. Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R.

    2006-07-01

    Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the

  4. Environmental Assessment. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Described is an hour-long learning session on environmental assessment that is designed to help citizen advisory groups improve decision making in water quality planning. The instructor's guide addresses: (1) environmental considerations in water quality planning, and (2) the identification of primary and secondary impacts of wastewater projects.…

  5. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Principles and Requirements into agency missions and programs. Per the March 27, 2013 notice, at 78 FR 18562... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Environmental Quality. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water...

  6. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Quality. ACTION: Draft guidelines with request for comments. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources.../initiatives/PandG . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine Shuman, Council on Environmental Quality...

  7. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies; Final AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Final... Quality at (202) 395-5750. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development...

  8. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors... and operate integral pressurized water reactors (iPWR). This guidance applies to environmental reviews... purchase copies of public documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555...

  9. Spatial evapotranspiration, rainfall and land use data in water accounting - Part 2: Reliability of water acounting results for policy decisions in the Awash Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Sood, A.; Hoogeveen, J.; Peiser, L.; Bastidas-Obando, E.; Dost, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a framework that summarizes complex hydrological processes and water management issues in river basins. The framework is designed to use satellite-based measurements of land and water variables and processes as input data. A general concern associated with the use of satellite measurements is their accuracy. This study focuses on the impact of the error in remote sensing measurements on water accounting and information provided to policy makers. The Awash Basin in the central Rift Valley in Ethiopia is used as a case study to explore the reliability of WA+ outputs, in the light of input data errors. The Monte Carlo technique was used for stochastic simulation of WA+ outputs over a period of 3 yr. The results show that the stochastic mean of the majority of WA+ parameters and performance indicators are within 5% deviation from the original WA+ values based on one single calculation. Stochastic computation is proposed as a standard procedure for WA+ water accounting because it provides the uncertainty bandwidth for every WA+ output, which is essential information for sound decision-making processes. The majority of WA+ parameters and performance indicators have a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 20%, which implies that they are reliable and provide consistent information on the functioning of the basin. The results of the Awash Basin also indicate that the utilized flow and basin closure fraction (the degree to which available water in a basin is utilized) have a high margin of error and thus a low reliability. As such, the usefulness of them in formulating important policy decisions for the Awash Basin is limited. Other river basins will usually have a more accurate assessment of the discharge in the river mouth.

  10. 76 FR 70444 - Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... AGENCY Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water... teleconference of the augmented SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee to provide early advice on the... that the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value...