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Sample records for environmentally triggered setting

  1. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  2. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  3. Setting Environmental Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  4. Unconsciously triggered response inhibition requires an executive setting.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Aron, Adam R

    2014-02-01

    Much research on response inhibition has focused on a consciously triggered variety (i.e., outright stopping of action). However, recent studies have shown that response inhibition can also be triggered unconsciously. For example, van Gaal, Ridderinkhof, Scholte, and Lamme (2010) showed that an unconscious no-go prime slowed down ongoing behavior, at least when outright stopping was sometimes required (i.e., in an executive setting). Here we replicated that result but also went further by including a condition with no executive setting. Then there was no slowing following a no-go prime. These results support the hypothesis that an executive setting is necessary for unconsciously triggered inhibition. We speculate that this arises from the fact that when the context includes outright stopping, the brain network for response inhibition is primed, and it can be triggered by the unconscious prime. The result has theoretical implications for the distinction between conscious and unconscious response inhibition and also clinical implications for how to train response inhibition so that it is instantiated automatically. PMID:23317085

  5. Environmental triggers for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD; Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)] are chronic immunologically mediated diseases that are due to a dysregulated immune response to intestinal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Despite advances in genetics, the likelihood of occurrence of disease remains incompletely explained and there appears to be a strong role for the environment in mediating risk of disease. Smoking remains the most widely studied and replicated risk factor, contributing to increased risk and severity of CD while conferring protection against UC. Recent data has suggested novel risk factors. Lower plasma vitamin D is associated with an increased risk of Crohn's disease, and vitamin D supplementation may prevent relapse of disease. Several medications including oral contraceptives, post-menopausal hormone replacement, aspirin, NSAIDs, and antibiotics may increase risk of CD or UC with the mechanisms of effect remaining inadequately defined. There is continuing evidence that depression and psychosocial stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of both CD and UC, while at the same time also increasing risk for disease flares. There is also a growing understanding of the role of diet on IBD, in particular through its effect on the microbiome. Animal protein intake and n-6 fatty acids may increase risk of UC while n-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber may confer protection. The effect of diet on established disease remains poorly studied. There is need for routine measurement of a spectrum of environmental exposures in prospective studies to further our understanding. PMID:23250702

  6. A Potential Link between Environmental Triggers and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have registered an alarming rise worldwide in recent years. Accumulated evidence indicates that the immune system's ability to distinguish self from nonself is negatively impacted by genetic factors and environmental triggers. Genetics is certainly a factor, but since it normally takes a very long time for the human genetic pattern to change enough to register on a worldwide scale, increasingly the attention of studies has been focused on the environmental factors of a rapidly changing and evolving civilization. New technology, new industries, new inventions, new chemicals and drugs, and new foods and diets are constantly and rapidly being introduced in this fast-paced ever-changing world. Toxicants, infections, epitope spreading, dysfunctions of immune homeostasis, and dietary components can all have an impact on the body's delicate immune recognition system. Although the precise etiology and pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases are still unknown, it would appear from the collated studies that there are common mechanisms in the immunopathogenesis of multiple autoimmune reactivities. Of particular interest is the citrullination of host proteins and their conversion to autoantigens by the aforementioned environmental triggers. The identification of these specific triggers of autoimmune reactivity is essential then for the development of new therapies for autoimmune diseases. PMID:24688790

  7. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  8. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  9. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  10. Core Mechanisms Regulating Developmentally Timed and Environmentally Triggered Abscission.

    PubMed

    Patharkar, O Rahul; Walker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Drought-triggered abscission is a strategy used by plants to avoid the full consequences of drought; however, it is poorly understood at the molecular genetic level. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to elucidate the pathway controlling drought-triggered leaf shedding. We further show that much of the pathway regulating developmentally timed floral organ abscission is conserved in regulating drought-triggered leaf abscission. Gene expression of HAESA (HAE) and INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is induced in cauline leaf abscission zones when the leaves become wilted in response to limited water and HAE continues to accumulate in the leaf abscission zones through the abscission process. The genes that encode HAE/HAESA-LIKE2, IDA, NEVERSHED, and MAPK KINASE4 and 5 are all necessary for drought-induced leaf abscission. Our findings offer a molecular mechanism explaining drought-triggered leaf abscission. Furthermore, the ability to study leaf abscission in Arabidopsis opens up a new avenue to tease apart mechanisms involved in abscission that have been difficult to separate from flower development as well as for understanding the mechanistic role of water and turgor pressure in abscission. PMID:27468996

  11. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  12. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: Environmental effects, seismic triggering thresholds and geologic legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark C.; Hughes, Matthew W.; Bradley, Brendon A.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reid, Catherine; Morgenroth, Justin; Horton, Travis; Duffy, Brendan; Pettinga, Jarg R.

    2016-03-01

    characteristics. However, the severity of a given environmental response at any given site related predominantly to ground shaking characteristics (PGA, peak ground velocities) and site conditions (water table depth, soil type, geomorphic and topographic setting) rather than earthquake Mw. In most cases, the most severe liquefaction, rockfall, cliff collapse, subsidence, flooding, tree damage, and biologic habitat changes were triggered by proximal, moderate magnitude (Mw ≤ 6.2) earthquakes on blind faults. CES environmental effects will be incompletely preserved in the geologic record and variably diagnostic of spatial and temporal earthquake clustering. Liquefaction feeder dikes in areas of severe and recurrent liquefaction will provide the best preserved and potentially most diagnostic CES features. Rockfall talus deposits and boulders will be well preserved and potentially diagnostic of the strong intensity of CES shaking, but challenging to decipher in terms of single versus multiple events. Most other phenomena will be transient (e.g., distal groundwater responses), not uniquely diagnostic of earthquakes (e.g., flooding), or more ambiguous (e.g. biologic changes). Preliminary palaeoseismic investigations in the CES region indicate recurrence of liquefaction in susceptible sediments of ~ 100 to 300 yr, recurrence of severe rockfall event(s) of ca. 6000 to 8000 yr, and recurrence of surface rupturing on the largest CES source fault of ca. 20,000 to 30,000 yr. These data highlight the importance of utilising multiple proxy datasets in palaeoearthquake studies. The severity of environmental effects triggered during the strongest CES earthquakes was as great as or equivalent to any historic or prehistoric effects recorded in the geologic record. We suggest that the shaking caused by rupture of local blind faults in the CES comprised a 'worst case' seismic shaking scenario for parts of the Christchurch urban area. Moderate Mw blind fault earthquakes may contribute the highest

  13. Environmental Trigger(s) of Type 1 Diabetes: Why So Difficult to Identify?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases with childhood onset, and the disease has increased two- to fivefold over the past half century by as yet unknown means. T1D occurs when the body's immune system turns against itself so that, in a very specific and targeted way, it destroys the pancreatic β-cells. T1D results from poorly defined interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental determinants. In contrast to the rapid progress in finding T1D genes, identification and confirmation of environmental determinants remain a formidable challenge. This review article will focus on factors which have to be evaluated and decision to take before starting a new prospective cohort study. Considering all the large ongoing prospective studies, new and more conclusive data than that obtained so far should instead come from international collaboration on the ongoing cohort studies. PMID:25883954

  14. Epigenetics changes associated to environmental triggers in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos A; Cañas, Felipe; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Ospina, Fabio E; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens and represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organs in different systems. While the pathogenesis of AID remains unclear, its aetiology is multifunctional and includes a combination of genetic, epigenetic, immunological and environmental factors. In AIDs, several epigenetic mechanisms are defective including DNA demethylation, abnormal chromatin positioning associated with autoantibody production and abnormalities in the expression of RNA interference (RNAi). It is known that environmental factors may interfere with DNA methylation and histone modifications, however, little is known about epigenetic changes derived of regulation of RNAi. An approach to the known environmental factors and the mechanisms that alter the epigenetic regulation in AIDs (with emphasis in systemic lupus erythematosus, the prototype of systemic AID) are showed in this review. PMID:26369426

  15. Infection as an Environmental Trigger of Multiple Sclerosis Disease Exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in identifying factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and have culminated in the approval of some effective therapeutic strategies for disease intervention. However, the mechanisms by which environmental factors, such as infection, contribute to the pathogenesis and/or symptom exacerbation remain to be fully elucidated. Relapse frequency in MS patients contributes to neurological impairment and, in the initial phases of disease, serves as a predictor of poor disease prognosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence that supports a role for peripheral infection in modulating the natural history of this disease. Evidence supporting a role for infection in promoting exacerbation in animal models of MS is also reviewed. Finally, a few mechanisms by which infection may exacerbate symptoms of MS and other neurological diseases are discussed. Those who comprise the majority of MS patients acquire approximately two upper-respiratory infections per year; furthermore, this type of infection doubles the risk for MS relapse, underscoring the contribution of this relationship as being potentially important and particularly detrimental. PMID:26539193

  16. Infection as an Environmental Trigger of Multiple Sclerosis Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in identifying factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and have culminated in the approval of some effective therapeutic strategies for disease intervention. However, the mechanisms by which environmental factors, such as infection, contribute to the pathogenesis and/or symptom exacerbation remain to be fully elucidated. Relapse frequency in MS patients contributes to neurological impairment and, in the initial phases of disease, serves as a predictor of poor disease prognosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence that supports a role for peripheral infection in modulating the natural history of this disease. Evidence supporting a role for infection in promoting exacerbation in animal models of MS is also reviewed. Finally, a few mechanisms by which infection may exacerbate symptoms of MS and other neurological diseases are discussed. Those who comprise the majority of MS patients acquire approximately two upper-respiratory infections per year; furthermore, this type of infection doubles the risk for MS relapse, underscoring the contribution of this relationship as being potentially important and particularly detrimental. PMID:26539193

  17. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  18. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  19. Using Natural Settings for Environmental Education: Perceived Benefits and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    Teachers judged four types of outdoor settings for potential benefits and barriers to their use in environmental education. Factor analysis or responses showed six benefit and barrier factors: (1) appropriateness of teaching setting; (2) teacher confidence; (3) worries; (4) need for training; (5) hazards; and (6) difficulty of teaching…

  20. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  1. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  2. Recent advances in environmental controls outside the home setting

    PubMed Central

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It has been well studied that aeroallergen, mold, and airborne pollutant exposure in the inner-city home environment is associated with significant childhood asthma morbidity. Although the home environment has been extensively studied, the school environment is less well understood. Recent findings In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school and daycare environment and pediatric asthma morbidity and novel environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity. Summary Studies assessing environmental exposures outside the home environment and interventions to mitigate these exposures have the potential to reduce pediatric asthma morbidity. Further study in this area should focus on the complex cost benefit analyses of environmental interventions outside the home setting, while controlling for the home environment. PMID:26859366

  3. Small-scale Testing of RFID in a Hospital Setting: RFID as Bed Trigger

    PubMed Central

    Kannry, Joseph; Emro, Susan; Blount, Marion; Ebling, Maria

    2007-01-01

    RFID technology shows significant potential for transforming healthcare, yet few studies assess this potential. Our study measured the effectiveness of using RFID as a bed trigger: a tool to accelerate identification of empty beds. We made a small alteration in the discharge process to associate RFID tags with patients and created an RFID-based system that automatically determined discharge time. For each patient, we evaluated the difference in the discharge times recorded manually by the current process and the RFID-based system. The study was conducted on 86 patients over 2 months in 2 physically separate multi-specialty units. Compared to the preexisting process, the RFID-based system identified empty beds >20 minutes earlier 67% of the time with an average of 25 minutes and median of 9 minutes earlier. Hospital leadership defined an improvement of ~10 minutes as significant. With minimal investment, our small-scale study lead hospital leadership to begin planning RFID deployment. PMID:18693863

  4. An alert system for triggering different levels of coastal management urgency: Tunisia case study using rapid environmental assessment data.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Jaoui, K; Pearson, M P; Jeudy de Grissac, A

    2014-03-15

    Rapid environmental assessment (REA) involves scoring abundances of ecosystems/species groups and magnitude of pressures, concurrently, using the same logarithmic (0-6) assessment scale. We demonstrate the utility of REA data for an alert system identifying different levels of coastal management concern. Thresholds set for abundances/magnitudes, when crossed, trigger proposed responses. Kerkennah, Tunisia, our case study, has significant natural assets (e.g. exceptional seagrass and invertebrate abundances), subjected to varying levels of disturbance and management concern. Using REA thresholds set, fishing, green algae/eutrophication and oil occurred at 'low' levels (scores 0-1): management not (currently) necessary. Construction and wood litter prevailed at 'moderate' levels (scores 2-4): management alerted for (further) monitoring. Solid waste densities were 'high' (scores 5-6): management alerted for action; quantities of rubbish were substantial (20-200 items m⁻¹ beach) but not unprecedented. REA is considered a robust methodology and complementary to other rapid assessment techniques, environmental frameworks and indicators of ecosystem condition. PMID:24512758

  5. Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Culton, Donna A; Jeong, Joseph S; Trupiano, Nicole; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Diaz, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. FS patients and healthy individuals from endemic regions show an autoreactive IgM response that starts in early childhood and becomes restricted to IgG4 autoantibodies in FS patients. In searching for triggering environmental antigens, we have found that IgG4 and IgE autoantibodies from FS patients cross-react with a salivary antigen from sand flies. The presence of these cross-reactive antibodies and antibody genetic analysis confirming that these antibodies evolve from the same naïve B cells provides compelling evidence that this non-infectious environmental antigen could be the initial target of the autoantibody response in FS. Consequently, FS serves as an ideal model to study the impact of environmental antigens in the development of autoimmune disease. PMID:27396816

  6. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

  7. Dietary exposure to an environmental toxin triggers neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cox, Paul Alan; Davis, David A; Mash, Deborah C; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2016-01-27

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and β-amyloid plaques are the neurological hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and an unusual paralytic illness suffered by Chamorro villagers on the Pacific island of Guam. Many Chamorros with the disease suffer dementia, and in some villages one-quarter of the adults perished from the disease. Like Alzheimer's, the causal factors of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) are poorly understood. In replicated experiments, we found that chronic dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin present in the traditional Chamorro diet, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), triggers the formation of both NFT and β-amyloid deposits similar in structure and density to those found in brain tissues of Chamorros who died with ALS/PDC. Vervets (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fed for 140 days with BMAA-dosed fruit developed NFT and sparse β-amyloid deposits in the brain. Co-administration of the dietary amino acid l-serine with l-BMAA significantly reduced the density of NFT. These findings indicate that while chronic exposure to the environmental toxin BMAA can trigger neurodegeneration in vulnerable individuals, increasing the amount of l-serine in the diet can reduce the risk. PMID:26791617

  8. Dietary exposure to an environmental toxin triggers neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Paul Alan; Davis, David A.; Mash, Deborah C.; Metcalf, James S.; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and β-amyloid plaques are the neurological hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and an unusual paralytic illness suffered by Chamorro villagers on the Pacific island of Guam. Many Chamorros with the disease suffer dementia, and in some villages one-quarter of the adults perished from the disease. Like Alzheimer's, the causal factors of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) are poorly understood. In replicated experiments, we found that chronic dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin present in the traditional Chamorro diet, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), triggers the formation of both NFT and β-amyloid deposits similar in structure and density to those found in brain tissues of Chamorros who died with ALS/PDC. Vervets (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fed for 140 days with BMAA-dosed fruit developed NFT and sparse β-amyloid deposits in the brain. Co-administration of the dietary amino acid l-serine with l-BMAA significantly reduced the density of NFT. These findings indicate that while chronic exposure to the environmental toxin BMAA can trigger neurodegeneration in vulnerable individuals, increasing the amount of l-serine in the diet can reduce the risk. PMID:26791617

  9. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools. PMID:19643655

  10. Two sets of RNAi components are required for heterochromatin formation in trans triggered by truncated transgenes.

    PubMed

    Götz, Ulrike; Marker, Simone; Cheaib, Miriam; Andresen, Karsten; Shrestha, Simon; Durai, Dilip A; Nordström, Karl J; Schulz, Marcel H; Simon, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Across kingdoms, RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to control gene expression at the transcriptional- or the post-transcriptional level. Here, we describe a mechanism which involves both aspects: truncated transgenes, which fail to produce intact mRNA, induce siRNA accumulation and silencing of homologous loci in trans in the ciliate Paramecium We show that silencing is achieved by co-transcriptional silencing, associated with repressive histone marks at the endogenous gene. This is accompanied by secondary siRNA accumulation, strictly limited to the open reading frame of the remote locus. Our data shows that in this mechanism, heterochromatic marks depend on a variety of RNAi components. These include RDR3 and PTIWI14 as well as a second set of components, which are also involved in post-transcriptional silencing: RDR2, PTIWI13, DCR1 and CID2. Our data indicates differential processing of nascent un-spliced and long, spliced transcripts thus suggesting a hitherto-unrecognized functional interaction between post-transcriptional and co-transcriptional RNAi. Both sets of RNAi components are required for efficient trans-acting RNAi at the chromatin level and our data indicates similar mechanisms contributing to genome wide regulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27085807

  11. Two sets of RNAi components are required for heterochromatin formation in trans triggered by truncated transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Ulrike; Marker, Simone; Cheaib, Miriam; Andresen, Karsten; Shrestha, Simon; Durai, Dilip A.; Nordström, Karl J.; Schulz, Marcel H.; Simon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Across kingdoms, RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to control gene expression at the transcriptional- or the post-transcriptional level. Here, we describe a mechanism which involves both aspects: truncated transgenes, which fail to produce intact mRNA, induce siRNA accumulation and silencing of homologous loci in trans in the ciliate Paramecium. We show that silencing is achieved by co-transcriptional silencing, associated with repressive histone marks at the endogenous gene. This is accompanied by secondary siRNA accumulation, strictly limited to the open reading frame of the remote locus. Our data shows that in this mechanism, heterochromatic marks depend on a variety of RNAi components. These include RDR3 and PTIWI14 as well as a second set of components, which are also involved in post-transcriptional silencing: RDR2, PTIWI13, DCR1 and CID2. Our data indicates differential processing of nascent un-spliced and long, spliced transcripts thus suggesting a hitherto-unrecognized functional interaction between post-transcriptional and co-transcriptional RNAi. Both sets of RNAi components are required for efficient trans-acting RNAi at the chromatin level and our data indicates similar mechanisms contributing to genome wide regulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27085807

  12. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms in Parkinson's disease: Potential environmental triggers, pathways, and targets for early therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, Malú G.; McCoy, Melissa K.; Frank-Cannon, Tamy C.

    2013-01-01

    Most acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions are accompanied by neuroinflammation; yet the exact nature of the inflammatory processes and whether they modify disease progression is not well understood. In this review, we discuss the key epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence implicating inflammatory processes in the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) nigrostriatal pathway and their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that interplay between genetics and environment are likely to contribute to risk for development of idiopathic PD, recent data showing interactions between products of genes linked to heritable PD that function to protect DA neurons against oxidative or proteolytic stress and inflammation pathways will be discussed. Cellular mechanisms activated or enhanced by inflammatory processes that may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, or apoptosis of dopaminergic (DA) neurons will be reviewed, with special emphasis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) signaling pathways. Epigenetic factors which have the potential to trigger neuroinflammation, including environmental exposures and age-associated chronic inflammatory conditions, will be discussed as possible ‘second-hit’ triggers that may affect disease onset or progression of idiopathic PD. If inflammatory processes have an active role in nigrostriatal pathway degeneration, then evidence should exist to indicate that such processes begin in the early stages of disease and that they contribute to neuronal dysfunction and/or hasten neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Therapeutically, if anti-inflammatory interventions can be shown to rescue nigral DA neurons from degeneration and lower PD risk, then timely use of anti-inflammatory therapies should be investigated further in well-designed clinical trials for their ability to prevent or delay the progressive loss of

  13. Luminex and Other Multiplex High Throughput Technologies for the Identification of, and Host Response to, Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    She, Jin-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between a series of environmental factors and genes result in progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood. Several studies have yielded associations of certain foods, infections, and immunizations with the onset and progression of diabetes autoimmunity, but most findings are still inconclusive. Environmental triggers are difficult to identify mainly due to (i) large number and complex nature of environmental exposures, including bacteria, viruses, dietary factors, and environmental pollutants, (ii) reliance on low throughput technology, (iii) less efforts in quantifying host response, (iv) long silent period between the exposure and clinical onset of T1D which may lead to loss of the exposure fingerprints, and (v) limited sample sets. Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner. However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of multiplex high throughput technologies in identification of environmental triggers and host response in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25883955

  14. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure. PMID:26752412

  15. Indicators of environmental health in the urban setting.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    The North American population is approximately 80% urbanized and spends almost 90% of the time indoors. Accordingly, the built environment is the most important--one might almost say "natural"--human environment. Urban settlements incorporate within their boundaries natural ecosystems of plant and animal life (often highly adapted to the urban environment), and are in turn incorporated within wider bioregions and global ecosystems. But urban settlements are not just built and natural physical environments, they are social, economic, cultural and political environments; the whole constitutes an urban ecosystem. These ecosystems have profound implications for the physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual well-being of their human inhabitants, as well as for human beings remote from these urban ecosystems. Therefore, this paper discusses urban ecosystems and human health and presents a framework for indicators of environmental health in the urban setting based on such an understanding. The concepts of environmental viability, ecological sustainability, urban livability, community conviviality, social equity, and economic adequacy are discussed in relation to human health and are used to organize proposed candidate indicators for urban ecosystems and public health. PMID:12425175

  16. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure. PMID:26752412

  17. Allergens in school settings: results of environmental assessments in 3 city school systems.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Stuart L; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P; Bartholomew, L Kay; Joseph, Christine L M; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-08-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children. PMID:16918848

  18. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  19. Can environmental conditions trigger cyanobacterial surfaces and following carbonate formation: implication for biomineralization and biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, C.; Dittrich, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview what kind of the factors may trigger carbonate formations at the cell surfaces under a variety of environmental conditions. As examples, we will present the results from our recent studies on formation of calcium carbonates, dolomites and bio-cements. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Synechococcuscell envelope are recognized key players in the nucleation of carbonates in marine and freshwater environments. Yet, little is known about a nutrient contents control over the molecular composition of Synechococcus cell envelope, and consequently, biomineralization. In the first study, we investigated how a variation of the phosphorus (P) in the growth media can lead to changes in the surface reactivity of the cells and impact their ability to form carbonates. The objective of the second study is to gain insights into the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial EPS and dolomite from different sediment layers of Khor Al-Adaid sabkha (Qatar). Here, we characterized microbial mats on molecular level in respect of organic and inorganic components using in-situ 2D Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used. Additionally, 2D chemical maps of sediment layers documented spectral characterizations of minerals and organic matter of microbial origins at high spatial resolution. Finally, we will show the results from the experiments with auto-phototrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa PCC73106, which habitat on the monument surfaces, towards its application for bio-concrete, a product of microbial carbonate precipitation. We studied the biomineralization in biofilm forming Gloeocapsa PCC73106 on the concrete surface as a pre-requirement for microbial carbonate precipitation. Biomineralization on the concrete surface by live cells and killed cells were compared with that under the abiotic condition. Our experiments allow us to conclude that environmental conditions play a significant role in the control of

  20. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-01-01

    The effective utilization of Education in Environmental Chemistry (EEC) in addressing global and societal environmental problems requires integration between educational, technical, financial, ethical and societal considerations. An interdisciplinary approach is fundamental to efforts to achieve long-term solutions.

  1. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  2. Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems: An Example of Environmentally Triggered ESSENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept—maltreatment associated psychiatric problems (MAPP)—a syndrome of overlapping complex neurodevelopmental problems in children who have experienced abuse or neglect in early life. Children with MAPP are a hidden population in the community and, in clinical settings, their problems can seem overwhelming. Individual disorders associated with maltreatment are discussed as well as the overlap between these disorders and their shared environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Because of the complex and overlapping nature of MAPP, with symptoms emerging in early life, I argue that it should be considered an example of ESSENCE. Children presenting with likely MAPP should receive a comprehensive assessment, probing for symptoms of all of the ESSENCE disorders and leading to the use of evidence-based treatments where these are available. PMID:23710133

  3. Maltreatment-associated psychiatric problems: an example of environmentally triggered ESSENCE?

    PubMed

    Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept-maltreatment associated psychiatric problems (MAPP)-a syndrome of overlapping complex neurodevelopmental problems in children who have experienced abuse or neglect in early life. Children with MAPP are a hidden population in the community and, in clinical settings, their problems can seem overwhelming. Individual disorders associated with maltreatment are discussed as well as the overlap between these disorders and their shared environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Because of the complex and overlapping nature of MAPP, with symptoms emerging in early life, I argue that it should be considered an example of ESSENCE. Children presenting with likely MAPP should receive a comprehensive assessment, probing for symptoms of all of the ESSENCE disorders and leading to the use of evidence-based treatments where these are available. PMID:23710133

  4. Setting boundaries of participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Geoffrey H.; Hoberg, George

    2014-02-15

    Public participation processes are touted as an effective way to increase the capacity and legitimacy of environmental assessment and the regulatory process that rely on them. Recent changes to the Canadian environmental assessment process narrowed the criteria for who can participate in environmental assessments from any who were interested to those who were most directly affected. This article examines the potential consequences of this change by exploring other areas of Canadian regulatory law where a similar directed affected test has been applied. This new standard risks institutionalizing the long-understood representational bias confronted by more diffuse interest like environmental protection. Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow a test for processes like environmental assessment that are designed to determine the public interest. -- Highlights: • Public participation can improve the legitimacy of environmental assessments. • New Canadian rules narrow the range of eligible participants. • Similar rules in Alberta have excluded environmental representation. • The new rules may institutionalize bias against more diffuse interests. • Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow.

  5. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  6. Deccan Volcanism: a main trigger of environmental changes leading to the KTB mass extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, Thierry; Fantasia, Alicia; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Keller, Gerta; Gertsch, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The nature and causes of mass extinctions in the geological past have remained topics of intense scientific debate for the past three decades. Central to this debate is the question of whether the eruption of large igneous provinces (LIP) was the primary mechanism driving the environmental changes that are commonly regarded as the proximate causes for four of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. Model results predict that Deccan Traps emplacement was responsible for a strong increase in atmospheric pCO2 accompanied by rapid warming of 4°C that was followed by global cooling. During the warming phase, increased continental weathering of silicates associated with consumption of atmospheric CO2 likely resulted in the drawdown of greenhouse gases that reversed the warming trend leading to global cooling at the end of the Maastrichtian. Massive CO2 input together with massive release of SO2 may thus have triggered the mass extinctions in the marine realm as a result of ocean acidification leading to a carbon crisis and in the terrestrial realms due to acid rains. Global stress conditions related to these climatic changes are well known and documented in planktic foraminifera by a diversity decrease, species dwarfing, dominance of opportunistic species and near disappearance of specialized species. Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of Deccan trap eruptions (Phase-2) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, whereas multiproxy studies from central and southeastern India place the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction near the end of this main phase of Deccan volcanism suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. In India a strong floral response is observed as a direct response to Deccan volcanic phase-2. In Lameta (infratrappean) sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions

  7. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  8. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    PubMed

    Rivaud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  9. PANDAS: the search for environmental triggers of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Lessons from rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M A; Giedd, J; Swedo, S E

    1998-09-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a relatively new diagnostic construct applied to children or adolescents who develop, and have repeated exacerbations of, tic disorders and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder following group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. The proposed pathophysiology is that the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteria trigger antibodies that cross-react with the basal ganglia of genetically susceptible hosts leading to obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tics. This is similar to the etiologic mechanisms proposed for Sydenham's chorea, in which group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal antibodies cross-react with the basal ganglia and result in abnormal behavior and involuntary movements. When first proposed, there was much controversy about the idea that streptococcal infections were etiologically related to rheumatic fever. In a like manner, discussion has arisen about the concept of infection-triggered obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorders. We review the historical background to these controversies, give an update on the findings provided by research on PANDAS, and address areas of future study. PMID:9733286

  10. Seasonal movements and environmental triggers to fall migration of Sage Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fesenmyer, K.A.; Knick, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Post-breeding ecology of shrubland passerines prior to onset of migration is unknown relative to dynamics of breeding areas. We radiomarked and monitored 38 Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli ssp. nevadensis) at one site in Oregon and two in Nevada from September to mid-November 2007 to track local movements, estimate seasonal range sizes, and characterize weather patterns triggering onset of migration. Median area used by Sage Sparrows monitored between 3 and 18 days during or prior to migration was 14 ha; maximum daily movement was 15 km. Radio-marked Sage Sparrows at each location departed individually, rather than en masse, corresponding with passage of cold front weather systems. Conventional telemetry techniques limited our ability to monitor Sage Sparrows beyond pre-migratory periods and precluded detecting and tracking actual movements during migration. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  11. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  12. Environmental setting of the San Joaquin-Tulare basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, JoAnn A.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.; Burow, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    among basins and specific land use settings, as well as within and among study units at the national level.

  13. Environmental triggers for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Brodie, Jon E

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we postulate a unique environmental triggering sequence for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS, Acanthaster planci) on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia). Notably, we extend the previous terrestrial runoff hypothesis, viz. nutrient-enriched terrestrial runoff → elevated phytoplankton 'bloom' concentrations → enhanced COTS larval survival, to include the additional importance of strong larvae retention around reefs or within reef groups (clusters) that share enhanced phytoplankton concentrations. For the central GBR, this scenario is shown to occur when El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) linked hydrodynamic conditions cause the 'regional' larval connectivity network to fragment into smaller 'local' reef clusters due to low ocean current velocities. As inter-annual variations in hydrodynamic circulation patterns are not amenable to direct management intervention, the ability to reduce the future frequency of COTS outbreaks on the central GBR is shown to be contingent on reducing terrestrial bioavailable nutrient loads ~20-40%. PMID:26460182

  14. Environmental Indicators. A Preliminary Set = Indicateurs d'environnement. Une etude pilote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document provides a preliminary set of environmental indicators by which to measure environmental performance. The indicators are patterned on the outline of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Report on the State of the Environment," a companion volume published in the same year. This volume is comprised of 18…

  15. Diet and specific microbial exposure trigger features of environmental enteropathy in a novel murine model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric M.; Wlodarska, Marta; Willing, Benjamin P.; Vonaesch, Pascale; Han, Jun; Reynolds, Lisa A.; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Uhrig, Marco; Scholz, Roland; Partida, Oswaldo; Borchers, Christoph H.; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine and has a profound impact on the persistence of childhood malnutrition worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease remains unknown and no animal model exists to date, the creation of which would aid in understanding this complex disease. Here we demonstrate that early-life consumption of a moderately malnourished diet, in combination with iterative oral exposure to commensal Bacteroidales species and Escherichia coli, remodels the murine small intestine to resemble features of EE observed in humans. We further report the profound changes that malnutrition imparts on the small intestinal microbiota, metabolite and intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, along with the susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings provide evidence indicating that both diet and microbes combine to contribute to the aetiology of EE, and describe a novel murine model that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms behind this understudied disease. PMID:26241678

  16. Diet and specific microbial exposure trigger features of environmental enteropathy in a novel murine model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric M; Wlodarska, Marta; Willing, Benjamin P; Vonaesch, Pascale; Han, Jun; Reynolds, Lisa A; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Uhrig, Marco; Scholz, Roland; Partida, Oswaldo; Borchers, Christoph H; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine and has a profound impact on the persistence of childhood malnutrition worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease remains unknown and no animal model exists to date, the creation of which would aid in understanding this complex disease. Here we demonstrate that early-life consumption of a moderately malnourished diet, in combination with iterative oral exposure to commensal Bacteroidales species and Escherichia coli, remodels the murine small intestine to resemble features of EE observed in humans. We further report the profound changes that malnutrition imparts on the small intestinal microbiota, metabolite and intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, along with the susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings provide evidence indicating that both diet and microbes combine to contribute to the aetiology of EE, and describe a novel murine model that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms behind this understudied disease. PMID:26241678

  17. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children. PMID:26627214

  18. Recurrent environmentally triggered thrombophlebitis: a five-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, W.J.; Peters, D.W.; Smiley, R.E.; Edgar, R.; Greenberg, M.; Fenyves, E.

    1981-11-01

    Twenty disabled patients with recurrent intractable nontraumatic phlebitis were studied. The patients were divided into two groups and matched for age and severity. The control group was continued on their standard anticoagulant regime, bed rest and support hose. The other group was placed in an especially designed Environmental Control Unit (ECU) where all air, food and water could be controlled. These patients were taken off all medication and not fed until the leg pain and swelling disappeared, which was four to seven days. The patients then showed specific sensitivities to foods and ambient subthreshold doses of inhaled chemicals such as formaldehyde less than 0.2 ppm, phenol less than 0.0024 ppm, chlorine less than 0.33 ppm, petroleum alcohol less than 0.5 ppm and pesticide (2,4 DNP) less than 0.0134 ppm under controlled double-blind challenges. Eight out of 10 patients had their phlebitis reproduced in this manner. When in the symptom-free state, these patients were required to ride an exercycle at 150 kpm for one mile daily to demonstrate absence of phlebitis (none could walk across the room prior to examination). The five-year follow-up in the group showed two 48-hour episodes of phlebitis cleared by home bed rest and food abstenance. In contrast, the control group had more than 60 episodes of phlebitis at home and 41 episodes in the hospital. Medical costs in these comparable groups are discussed.

  19. Bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds in copepods: environmental triggers and sources of intra-specific variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarese, H. E.; García, P.; Diéguez, M. D.; Ferraro, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature are two globally important abiotic factors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Planktonic organisms have developed a battery of counteracting mechanisms to minimize the risk of being damaged by UVR, which respond to three basic principles: avoid, protect, repair. Copepods are among the most successful zooplankton groups. They are highly adaptable animals, capable of displaying flexible behaviors, physiologies, and life strategies. In particular, they are well equipped to cope with harmful UVR. Their arsenal includes vertical migration, accumulation of photoprotective compounds, and photorepair. The preference for a particular strategy is affected by a plethora of environmental (extrinsic) parameters, such as the existence of a depth refuge, the risk of visual predation, and temperature. Temperature modifies the environment (e.g. the lake thermal structure), and animal metabolism (e.g., swimming speed, bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds). In addition, the relative weight of UVR-coping strategies is also influenced by the organism (intrinsic) characteristics (e.g., inter- and intra-specific variability). The UV absorbing compounds, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), are widely distributed among freshwater copepods. Animals are unable to synthesize MAAs, and therefore depend on external sources for accumulating these compounds. Although copepods may acquire MAAs from their food, for the few centropagic species investigated so far, the main source of MAAs are microbial (most likely prokaryotic) organisms living in close association with the copepods. Boeckella gracilipes is a common centropagic copepod in Patagonian lakes. We suspected that its occurrence in different types of lakes, hydrologically unconnected, but within close geographical proximity, could have resulted in different microbial-copepod associations (i.e., different MAAs sources) that could translate into intra-specific differences in the accumulation

  20. Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.

  1. The outdoor air quality flag program in central California: a school-based educational intervention to potentially help reduce children's exposure to environmental asthma triggers.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Rawling, Mary-Michal; Foster, Christine; Bohlke, Alicia; Edwards, Bobbie; Rico, Susie A; Felix, Justina; Eaton, Sandra; Moen, Stephanie; Roberts, Eric M; Love, Mary Beth

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a novel school-based, visual environmental public health educational intervention intended to help reduce the exposure of children-and adults-to outdoor air pollution, including known environmental asthma triggers like ozone and particles. The overarching goal was to enhance the learning, recreational, and work environments of students and staff. The specific purpose of the Asthma-Friendly Outdoor (Ambient) Air Quality Flag Program was to establish an education and communication tool for Central California communities that would accomplish two things: (1) Establish permanent local policy change to existing operating procedures in school districts and schools to help reduce the exposure of students, teachers, staff, and nearby communities to outdoor environmental asthma triggers and (2) provide education on air quality and potential health effects of exposure to air pollutants. Data on the program from its initial years are presented. To date, the following important lessons have been learned: (1) Science-based, simple, visual, low-cost school-based educational interventions to help reduce human exposure to outdoor environmental asthma triggers (i.e., ozone, particles, and pollens) can work in socioeconomically and ethnically diverse urban and rural or agricultural communities, and (2) local health and environmental justice groups such as asthma coalitions can successfully lead school-based environmental interventions to help improve children's quality of life. PMID:17941400

  2. Freddie Fish. A Primary Environmental Study of Basic Numerals, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraynak, Ola

    This teacher's guide and study guide are an environmental approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the numerals 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…

  3. Changes in Mobility of Children with Cerebral Palsy over Time and across Environmental Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, Beth L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; O'Neil, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined changes in mobility methods of children with cerebral palsy (CP) over time and across environmental settings. Sixty-two children with CP, ages 6-14 years and classified as levels II-IV on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were randomly selected from a larger data base and followed for three to four years. On each…

  4. Mother-Child Joint Writing in an Environmental Print Setting: Relations with Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    Mother-child dyads (N = 35) were videoed as they wrote a shopping list in an environmental print-rich grocery shop play setting. The children (M age = 4.3 years) were assessed on emergent literacy skills (letter name and sound knowledge, print concepts, phonological awareness, and letter and name writing). Mothers' general level of print and…

  5. Effects of Variations in the Nursery School Setting on Environmental Constraints and Children's Modes of Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Laura E.

    Schoggen's description of environmental force units (EFU), actions or constraints upon a child, was the focus of this study. Since those EFU's under investigation conflicted with the child's immediate intentions and desires, they are referred to as conflict EFU's. The study asks how specific characteristics of preschool settings affect the natural…

  6. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D. PMID:26766792

  7. A cross-disciplinary understanding of incipient motion for effective environmental flow setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverman, Andrew; Fuller, Ian; Death, Russell; Procter, Jon; Singh, Ranvir

    2016-04-01

    Environmental flow setting as a tool for maintaining ecological health in rivers has been a focus of debate for many years. Environmental flow setting often involves the establishment of base flow levels below impoundment structures as well as setting flushing flows in order to control excess periphyton accrual and sedimentation. The role of bedload transport and substrate stability is recognised as an integral part of effectively managing benthic communities, but environmental flow regulations often do not focus on managing sediment processes. Environmental flows which fail to scour periphyton have been attributed to increased biomass accumulation through increasing nutrient supply to periphyton mats. It may therefore be more effective to establish environmental flow models based on incipient motion thresholds. The aim of these models would be to establish target near-bed velocities as opposed to discharges. Establishment of such models requires an accurate understanding of the threshold conditions for incipient motion. Despite decades of incipient motion studies scientists are unable to consistently and accurately predict bedload transport in natural channels. Incipient motion results from a complex set of geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological interactions operating over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Direct measurement of these processes can be difficult and time consuming, and has been restricted by a lack of suitable high spatio-temporal resolution methods in the past. This paper presents a cross-disciplinary approach to the study of incipient motion to develop effective environmental flow targets. Recent developments in remote sensing and 3D point cloud analysis are used to characterise substrate surfaces. Groundwater head pressures are measured during floods to examine changes in threshold velocities under different seepage conditions. The onset of bedload transport is recorded using impact plate sensors to relate transport initiation to near

  8. Environmental Settings of Selected Streams Sampled for Mercury in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Amanda H.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted studies investigating mercury biogeochemistry and food-web bioaccumulation in eight streams from three distinct geographic areas of the United States. These streams varied greatly in environmental characteristics, including land-cover, hydrologic, climatic, and chemical characteristics. They ranged from a clear-water, high-gradient, low-percentage wetland stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, to an urban stream near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to a low-gradient, blackwater stream draining the Okefenokee and Pinhook Swamps along the Georgia-Florida border. This report summarizes the environmental settings of these eight streams.

  9. Integrating hypermedia into the environmental education setting: Developing a program and evaluating its effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Tehri Davenport

    1997-09-01

    This study designed, implemented, and evaluated an environmental education hypermedia program for use in a residential environmental education facility. The purpose of the study was to ascertain whether a hypermedia program could increase student knowledge and positive attitudes toward the environment and environmental education. A student/computer interface, based on the theory of social cognition, was developed to direct student interactions with the computer. A quasi-experimental research design was used. Students were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group used the hypermedia program to learn about the topic of energy. The control group received the same conceptual information from a teacher/naturalist. An Environmental Awareness Quiz was administered to measure differences in the students' cognitive understanding of energy issues. Students participated in one on one interviews to discuss their attitudes toward the lesson and the overall environmental education experience. Additionally, members of the experimental group were tape recorded while they used the hypermedia program. These tapes were analyzed to identify aspects of the hypermedia program that promoted student learning. The findings of this study suggest that computers, and hypermedia programs, can be integrated into residential environmental education facilities, and can assist environmental educators in meeting their goals for students. The study found that the hypermedia program was as effective as the teacher/naturalist for teaching about environmental education material. Students who used the computer reported more positive attitudes toward the lesson on energy, and thought that they had learned more than the control group. Students in the control group stated that they did not learn as much as the computer group. The majority of students had positive attitudes toward the inclusion of computers in the camp setting, and stated that they were a good

  10. Assessing the Potential Adoption and Usefulness of Concurrent, Action-Oriented, Electronic Adverse Drug Event Triggers Designed for the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Hillary J.; Rosen, Amy K.; Shimada, Stephanie L.; Rivard, Peter E.; Nordberg, Brian; Long, Brenna; Hoffman, Jennifer M.; Leecaster, Molly; Savitz, Lucy A.; Shanahan, Christopher W.; Helwig, Amy; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug event (ADE) detection is an important priority for patient safety research. Trigger tools have been developed to help identify ADEs. In previous work we developed seven concurrent, action-oriented, electronic trigger algorithms designed to prompt clinicians to address ADEs in outpatient care. Objectives: We assessed the potential adoption and usefulness of the seven triggers by testing the positive predictive validity and obtaining stakeholder input. Methods: We adapted ADE triggers, “bone marrow toxin—white blood cell count (BMT-WBC),” “bone marrow toxin - platelet (BMT-platelet),” “potassium raisers,” “potassium reducers,” “creatinine,” “warfarin,” and “sedative hypnotics,” with logic to suppress flagging events with evidence of clinical intervention and applied the triggers to 50,145 patients from three large health care systems. Four pharmacists assessed trigger positive predictive value (PPV) with respect to ADE detection (conservatively excluding ADEs occurring during clinically appropriate care) and clinical usefulness (i.e., whether the trigger alert could change care to prevent harm). We measured agreement between raters using the free kappa and assessed positive PPV for the trigger’s detection of harm, clinical usefulness, and both. Stakeholders from the participating health care systems rated the likelihood of trigger adoption and the perceived ease of implementation. Findings: Agreement between pharmacist raters was moderately high for each ADE trigger (kappa free > 0.60). Trigger PPVs for harm ranged from 0 (Creatinine, BMT-WBC) to 17 percent (potassium raisers), while PPV for care change ranged from 0 (WBC) to 60 percent (Creatinine). Fifteen stakeholders rated the triggers. Our assessment identified five of the seven triggers as good candidates for implementation: Creatinine, BMT-Platelet, Potassium Raisers, Potassium Reducers, and Warfarin. Conclusions: At least five outpatient ADE triggers

  11. Common Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bedding on the hottest water setting. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can ... your newspaper to plan your activities for when air pollution levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  12. Environmental Setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 Basins, Washington, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Karen L.; Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Granger Drain and DR2 basins are located in the Yakima River basin in south central Washington. These agricultural basins are one of five areas in the United States selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate Study. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Granger Drain and DR2 basins were selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because they represent the irrigated agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Washington. These basins are located in one of the most productive agricultural areas in the United States. This report describes the environmental setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 basins in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes.

  13. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action. A Workshop Report Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-08-01

    Worldwide, the essence of the current reform in science education is a paradigm shift from algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) teaching to higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) learning. In the context of education in environmental chemistry (EEC), the ultimate goal is to educate students to be science technology environment society (STES)-literate, capable of evaluative thinking, decision making, problem solving and taking responsible action accordingly. Educators need to translate this goal into effective courses that can be implemented: this includes developing teaching strategies and assessment methodologies that are consonant with the goal of HOCS learning. An international workshop—"Environmental Chemistry Education in Europe: Setting the Agenda"—yielded two main recommendations for those undertaking educational reform in science education, particularly to promote meaningful EEC. The first recommendation concerns integration of environmental sciences into core chemistry courses as well as the development and implementation of HOCS-promoting teaching strategies and assessment methodologies in chemical education. The second emphasizes the development of students' HOCS for transfer, followed by performance assessment of HOCS. This requires changing the way environmental chemistry is typically taught, moving from a narrowly focused approach (applied analytical, ecotoxicological, or environmental engineering chemistry) to an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Influence of trigger factors on the efficacy of almotriptan as early intervention for the treatment of acute migraine in a primary care setting: the START study.

    PubMed

    Leone, Massimo; Vila, Carlos; McGown, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    In a large observational general practice study (the Standardized Study with Almotriptan in Early Treatment of Migraine [START]), 12.5 mg almotriptan administered within 1 h of pain onset and when pain was mild significantly improved pain-related outcomes, compared with later treatment or when pain was more severe. Migraine triggers at baseline and during treatment were recorded, and it was examined whether trigger factors could affect almotriptan-induced headache improvement. More than 400 patients were enrolled, and 1174 attacks were assessed. At baseline, patients reported a mean of 2.6 types of triggers related to the start of their previous migraine attacks. During the trial, a mean of 1.5 trigger factors for each attack was recorded. The most frequent trigger during the study was stress (37% of migraine attacks), with poor sleep (34%), fatigue (32%) and menses (19%) also being widely reported. Stress and fatigue and/or poor sleep were the most frequent trigger combinations. Early treatment with almotriptan improved clinical outcomes, regardless of the trigger factors involved. Similar results were observed for nonearly administration, although this was less efficacious than early intervention. An exception in the nonearly group was that migraines triggered by poor sleep had better responses than attacks in which sleep disorder was not a factor. Almotriptan maintained its efficacy irrespective of trigger factors in migraine patients treated in everyday clinical practice and, as shown in other studies, it was most effective in reducing pain-free rates when administered early, when pain was still mild. PMID:20819011

  15. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed Central

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  16. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  17. Partitioning of trace elements in contaminated estuarine sediments: the role of environmental settings.

    PubMed

    Shaike, Mohmmad M; Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin F

    2014-12-01

    Estuarine sedimentary environments safeguard aquatic ecosystem health by attenuating and transforming catchment-derived contaminants. Currently these environments are under severe stress from trace element contamination due to urbanization. Sediments of Sydney estuary (Australia) are highly elevated in a range of metals due to a long period of intense urbanization and industrialization, which has had a considerable influence on coastal ecosystem health and functioning. A three-stage sequential procedure following Bureau Communautaire de Référence (Community Bureau of Reference-BCR) technique was applied to sediments collected from Sydney estuary to determine their quality, elemental partitioning and ecosystem risk in three human-impacted environmental settings (i.e., mangrove-dominated, stormwater-dominated and industrial-dominated sites) and a control site in this coastal ecosystem. In all three environmental settings, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines-High (ISQG-High) values and were mostly associated with the reducible and acid soluble fractions, respectively. Copper and Cr also exceeded ISQG-High values (especially in the industrial-dominated site), however the majority of these metals were associated with the oxidizable fraction. Arsenic and Ni concentrations were mostly below ISQG-High values (except one of the stormwater-dominated sites) and were associated with the residual fraction. These results suggest that the most easily mobilized metal was Zn followed by Pb and these metals together presented a risk to estuarine ecosystems in the three selected environmental settings. However, these metals are not always the most abundant in tissue of mangroves, oysters or prawns suggesting other mechanisms are important in a complex uptake process. PMID:25265026

  18. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  19. Engaging novice teachers in semiotic inquiry: considering the environmental messages of school learning settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    Katherine Fogelberg's insightful study of the messages of zoo signs describes the complex, sometimes contradictory nature of the messages they communicate. The construction and content of signs are influenced by institutional power. Fogelberg argues that the creation of zoo signage designed to inform the public can, through its messages, silence a perspective of care and compassion for animals. The research presented in the following article extends discussion about the value of critical considerations of cultural and institutional messages created and read in another type of setting designed to educate and inform, the school learning setting. The article reports on a project that engaged novice teachers in explorations of the nature and types of environmental messages found in learning settings. During our inquiry work together, novice teachers suggested areas of particular concern to them, and began to construct ideas about aspects of their work in which they plan to take action or engage in future inquiry. The research also reveals some of the challenges involved when novice educators first begin the process of engaging in semiotic interpretive readings of learning settings.

  20. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  1. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  2. Core set of recommendations for patients with ankylosing spondylitis concerning behaviour and environmental adaptations.

    PubMed

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Lind-Albrecht, Gudrun; Rudwaleit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Advice concerning behaviour and adaptations of living and working environment is considered an unmet need by patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to develop a core set of recommendations to be given to patients by their rheumatologists. A systematic literature research of scientific and patient-oriented literature revealed 70 raw recommendations. These recommendations were evaluated and ranked at a meeting of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation (ASIF, 26 participants including 19 patients with AS, 5 rheumatologists and 2 physiotherapists from 13 countries) in November 2011. Thereafter, the 59 remaining recommendations were extensively discussed, supplemented, reworded, condensed and voted on during a meeting of local branch leaders of the AS patient organisation in Germany (Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, DVMB) with 80 participants (95 % of whom with AS), 2 rheumatologists and 1 occupational therapist in March 2012. The core set of final recommendations comprises (1) a general statement regarding living with AS which was considered highly important by patients and (2) the following domains: sitting position, walking, sleeping, at work, exercises, sports and recreational activities, diet and lifestyle, sexuality and pregnancy, fall prevention, car driving and advantages of membership in an AS-specific patient organisation. Most recommendations are relevant already in early disease, others concern advanced AS (e.g. fall prevention and car driving). The selected recommendations received high agreements (80-100 %). A first core set of recommendations for the behaviour and environmental adaptations of patients with AS was established under participation of many patients. PMID:23539272

  3. Water quality assessment of the Sacramento River Basin, California; environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Knifong, Donna L.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Majewski, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the environmental setting and investigative activities of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is one of 60 study units located throughout the United States that has been scheduled for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is the most important source of freshwater in California. Water quality studies in the Sacramento River Basin study unit focus on the Sacramento Valley because it is here that the principal uses of water and potential impacts on water quality occur. Investigative activities include a network of surface water sites, where water chemistry and aquatic biological sampling are done, and a variety of ground water studies. In addition, investigations of the cycling and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the urban environment and the distribution of total and methyl mercury in the Sacramento River and tributaries will be completed.

  4. 40 CFR 227.3 - Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS General § 227.3 Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B. If the material proposed for ocean dumping does not satisfy...

  5. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    Karst is a unique environment on Earth, characterized by a variety of peculiar geological and hydrological features, that are expressed by typical landforms at the surface (doline, ponor, polje, etc.) and underground (single cave, sinkhole, complex hypogean systems consisting of sequences of pits and galleries, etc.). Among the main characters of karst, the direct connection between the surface and the underground is at the origin of the fragility of karst settings, and the related high vulnerability. Many different types of natural geological hazards (or geo-hazards) may potentially affect karst lands, with sinkholes and flash floods being the most frequent and typical. In addition, karst is exposed to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances as well, including loss of natural landscapes, destruction of caves and speleothems, and contamination and pollution problems. At this latter regard, it has to be reminded that karst aquifers host high quality groundwaters, that are used as source of drinking water worldwide, with estimates indicating that the supply of drinking water from karst is going to have a significant increase in the next decades, From all of this, the importance in fully defining the karst setting, and in a detail examination of all the natural and anthropogenic events that may cause negative effects on it, comes out. Uniqueness of karst has been acknowledged since a long time, but only in recent years efforts have been made to develop approaches and methods specifically dedicated to this peculiar environment. Such approaches represent definitely a mandatory step in the correct management of karst terranes, providing useful elements to stakeholders, land managers and people living in karst lands about their fragility, and the need to safeguard them and the natural resources therein contained. Starting from these considerations, in this contribution we review the main environmental indices dedicated to karst that have been recently proposed in the

  6. Environmental toxins trigger PD-like progression via increased alpha-synuclein release from enteric neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan-Montojo, Francisco; Schwarz, Mathias; Winkler, Clemens; Arnhold, Mike; O'Sullivan, Gregory A.; Pal, Arun; Said, Jonas; Marsico, Giovanni; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Gille, Gabriele; Funk, Richard H. W.; Reichmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Pathological studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggest that PD pathology progresses from the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the olfactory bulb into the central nervous system. We have previously shown that environmental toxins acting locally on the ENS mimic this PD-like pathology progression pattern in mice. Here, we show for the first time that the resection of the autonomic nerves stops this progression. Moreover, our results show that an environmental toxin (i.e. rotenone) promotes the release of alpha-synuclein by enteric neurons and that released enteric alpha-synuclein is up-taken by presynaptic sympathetic neurites and retrogradely transported to the soma, where it accumulates. These results strongly suggest that pesticides can initiate the progression of PD pathology and that this progression is based on the transneuronal and retrograde axonal transport of alpha-synuclein. If confirmed in patients, this study would have crucial implications in the strategies used to prevent and treat PD. PMID:23205266

  7. Compensatory density feedback of Oncomelania hupensis populations in two different environmental settings in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent strategy for schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China aims to reduce the likelihood of environmental contamination of schistosome eggs. Despite considerable progress, it is believed that achievements would be further consolidated with additional intermediate host snail control measures. We provide an empirical framework for discerning the relative contribution of intrinsic effects (density feedback) from other extrinsic drivers of snail population dynamics. Methods We set up experiments in two study locations to collect reproduction data of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. We applied a set of four population dynamic models that have been widely used to study phenomenological time-series data to examine the properties of demographic density feedback patterns from abundance data. We also contrasted the obtained results with the component feedback of density on survival rate to determine whether adult survival was the principal driver of the demographic feedback observed. Results Demographic density feedback models (Ricker- and Gompertz-logistic) accounted for > 99% of Akaike's information criterion model weight, with the Gompertz ranking highest in all O. hupensis population groups. We found some evidence for stronger compensatory feedback in the O. hupensis population from Sichuan compared to a Jiangsu population. Survival rates revealed strong component feedback, but the log-linear relationships (i.e. Gompertz) had less support in the demographic feedback analysis. Conclusions Our findings indicate that integrated schistosomiasis control measures must continue to reduce parasite abundance further because intermediate host snail populations tend to grow exponentially at low densities, especially O. hupensis populations in mountainous regions. We conclude that density feedback in adult survival is the principal component contribution to the demographic phenomenon observed in the

  8. Environmental setting of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Stewart, J.S.; Lenz, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in land use/land cover, and riparian vegetation and instream habitat characteristics are presented. Summaries of field measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, dissolved ammonium, nitrate plus nitrte as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, and atrazine are listed. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen for the sampled streams ranged from 6 A to 14.3 and met the standards set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) for supporting fish and aquatic life. Specific conductance ranged from 98 to 753 u,Scm with values highest in RHU's 1 and 3, where streams are underlain by carbonate bedrock. Median pH did not vary greatly among the four RHU's and ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 also meeting the WDNR standards. Concentrations of total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, dissolved ammonium, total phosphorus, and dissolved orthophosphate show little variation between streams and are generally low, compared to concentrations measured in agriculturally-affected streams in the same RHU's during the same sampling period. Concentrations of the most commonly used pesticide in the study unit, atrazine, were low in all streams, and most concentrations were below trn 0.1 u,g/L detection limit. Riparian vegetation for the benchmark streams were characterized by lowland species of the native plant communities described by John T. Curtis in the "Vegetation of Wisconsin." Based on the environmental setting and water-quality information collected to date, these streams appear to show minimal adverse effects from human activity.

  9. An environmental data set for vector-borne disease modeling and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  10. An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  11. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  12. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    Karst is a unique environment on Earth, characterized by a variety of peculiar geological and hydrological features, that are expressed by typical landforms at the surface (doline, ponor, polje, etc.) and underground (single cave, sinkhole, complex hypogean systems consisting of sequences of pits and galleries, etc.). Among the main characters of karst, the direct connection between the surface and the underground is at the origin of the fragility of karst settings, and the related high vulnerability. Many different types of natural geological hazards (or geo-hazards) may potentially affect karst lands, with sinkholes and flash floods being the most frequent and typical. In addition, karst is exposed to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances as well, including loss of natural landscapes, destruction of caves and speleothems, and contamination and pollution problems. At this latter regard, it has to be reminded that karst aquifers host high quality groundwaters, that are used as source of drinking water worldwide, with estimates indicating that the supply of drinking water from karst is going to have a significant increase in the next decades, From all of this, the importance in fully defining the karst setting, and in a detail examination of all the natural and anthropogenic events that may cause negative effects on it, comes out. Uniqueness of karst has been acknowledged since a long time, but only in recent years efforts have been made to develop approaches and methods specifically dedicated to this peculiar environment. Such approaches represent definitely a mandatory step in the correct management of karst terranes, providing useful elements to stakeholders, land managers and people living in karst lands about their fragility, and the need to safeguard them and the natural resources therein contained. Starting from these considerations, in this contribution we review the main environmental indices dedicated to karst that have been recently proposed in the

  13. DNA alterations triggered by environmentally relevant polymetallic concentrations in marine clams Ruditapes philippinarum and polychaete worms Hediste diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Dedeh, Amina; Ciutat, Aurélie; Tran, Damien; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-01

    We exposed marine clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and aquatic worms (Hediste diversicolor) to environmentally relevant concentrations of two metal mixtures each containing three divalent metals [(C₁ in µg/L) cadmium (Cd) 1, mercury (Hg) 0.1, and lead (Pb) 4] and [C₂ in µg/L) Cd 17, Hg 1.1, and Pb 55]. Animals collected in the Arcachon Bay were exposed for 8 days in microcosms made up of a mixed biotope consisting of a water column and natural marine sediment both taken up from the Arcachon Bay. Bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant increase of Cd, Hg, and Pb in clams, particularly at C₂ concentration in the water column reaching, in soft body, 2.3 ± 0.3 µg Cd/g, 0.7 ± 0.2 µg Hg/g, and 45 µg Pb/g dry weight (dw). DNA alterations and upregulation of the cox1 mitochondrial gene were also observed in clam gill after exposure to the metal blend. For worms exposed to the C₂ metal blend, DNA alterations and significant increase of Cd and Hg concentrations were observed reaching 0.5 ± 0.1 µg Cd/g and 2 ± 0.6 µg Hg/g dw. PMID:24998356

  14. Pharmacological evaluation of the mechanisms involved in increased adiposity in zebrafish triggered by the environmental contaminant tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Ouadah-Boussouf, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    One proposed contributing factor to the rise in overweight and obesity is exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an organotin, induces adipogenesis in cell culture models and may increases adipose mass in vivo in vertebrate model organisms. It has been hypothesized that TBT acts via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ-dependent pathway. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of TBT exposure on in vivo adipose tissue metabolism remain unexplored. Semitransparent zebrafish larvae, with their well-developed white adipose tissue, offer a unique opportunity for studying the effects of toxicant chemicals and pharmaceuticals on adipocyte biology and whole-organism adiposity in a vertebrate model. Within hours, zebrafish larvae, treated at environmentally-relevant nanomolar concentrations of TBT, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity linked to adipocyte hypertrophy. Under the experimental conditions used, we also demonstrated that zebrafish larvae adipose tissue proved to be highly responsive to selected human nuclear receptor agonists and antagonists. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers and RXR/liver X receptor heterodimers were suggested to be in vivo effectors of the obesogenic effect of TBT on zebrafish white adipose tissue. RXR/PPARγ heterodimers may be recruited to modulate adiposity in zebrafish but were not a necessary requirement for the short term in vivo TBT obesogenic effect. Together, the present results suggest that TBT may induce the promotion of triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes via RXR-dependent pathways without necessary using PPAR isoforms. PMID:26812627

  15. STATE TRANSITION7-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Modulated by Changing Environmental Conditions, and Its Absence Triggers Remodeling of Photosynthetic Protein Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Sonja Verena; Scholz, Martin; Trompelt, Kerstin; Barth, Johannes; Gäbelein, Philipp; Steinbeck, Janina; Xue, Huidan; Clowez, Sophie; Fucile, Geoffrey; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In plants and algae, the serine/threonine kinase STN7/STT7, orthologous protein kinases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively, is an important regulator in acclimation to changing light environments. In this work, we assessed STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation under high light in C. reinhardtii, known to fully induce the expression of LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX STRESS-RELATED PROTEIN3 (LHCSR3) and a nonphotochemical quenching mechanism, in relationship to anoxia where the activity of cyclic electron flow is stimulated. Our quantitative proteomics data revealed numerous unique STT7 protein substrates and STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation variations that were reliant on the environmental condition. These results indicate that STT7-dependent phosphorylation is modulated by the environment and point to an intricate chloroplast phosphorylation network responding in a highly sensitive and dynamic manner to environmental cues and alterations in kinase function. Functionally, the absence of the STT7 kinase triggered changes in protein expression and photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and resulted in the remodeling of photosynthetic complexes. This remodeling initiated a pronounced association of LHCSR3 with PSI-LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX I (LHCI)-ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductase supercomplexes. Lack of STT7 kinase strongly diminished PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, while PSII core complex phosphorylation and accumulation were significantly enhanced. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that the regulation of protein phosphorylation is critical for driving successful acclimation to high light and anoxic growth environments and gives new insights into acclimation strategies to these environmental conditions. PMID:25858915

  16. A Review of Research on Environmental Education in Non-Traditional Settings in Turkey, 2000 and 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Bahar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to collect and analyze the research on environmental education in non-traditional settings in Turkey undertaken with various subjects (e.g. students, graduates and teachers) and published over the years of 2000-2011. For systematic analysis, selected data-bases and journals were scrutinized across five…

  17. Adult Learning in Free-Choice, Environmental Settings: What Makes It Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Horr, E. Elaine T.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental learning, or how individuals make sense and meaning about nature, the environment, ecology, and environmental issues, is best understood as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep (Banks and others, 2007). Lifelong learning refers to acquisition of skills, competencies, attitudes, and knowledge over time; life-wide is learning across…

  18. Environmental Health in the School Setting: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…

  19. The green choices project: integrating environmental health education into reproductive health care settings.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Sandra; Armstrong, Kay; Debevec, Elie

    2010-01-01

    A national reproductive health organization developed the Green Choices project to educate staff and clients about how to live in healthier environments by reducing potentially harmful environmental exposures to toxicants. An advisory group, comprised of experts in environmental and reproductive health and literacy, defined the project's scope and common environmental exposures to address. The following educational materials were developed: an online staff environmental health 101 curriculum, an environmental health assessment tool for clients to identify their potential risks, and information sheets for each environmental exposure that described potential risks and ways to reduce risks. Beta-testing methods included baseline and follow-up surveys, one-on-one interviews, focus groups, and recommendations from experts. Staff and client feedback on the educational materials resulted in increased clarity, sensitivity, relevancy, and appeal. Environmental health experts ensured accuracy of information, and reading experts lowered the reading level from 12th to 6th grade. A campaign to disseminate environmental health information and educational materials nationally is under way. PMID:20838173

  20. Comparing environmental changes and habitability settings in the geological history of Sahara and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Sabbadini, R.; Komatsu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions (with savanna-type environments) to dry conditions (with hot desert environments). Therefore, since the late Miocene (?), Sahara experienced periods with rivers, lakes, deltas, and swamps alternated with dry periods with strong aeolian activity and the formation of deflation surface and sand seas. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits formed during humid periods have been strongly reworked by wind processes during the dry periods leaving only the coarse-grained portion of the sediments (conglomerate to rudite). This highly efficient reworking eeolian mechanism affected both of the fluvial and deltaic channel deposits and the large inland lakes, flood plains and other waterlogged areas. The former occurs, at present day, as morphological features and coarse-grained remnants of large fluvial systems whereas the latter are mostly buried below sand seas such as Grand Erg Oriental, Erg Chech, and Azawad. While the sand to silt material accumulated (mostly by saltation) in the sand seas and sand sheets, the finer portion (able to enter the wind as suspended material) was probably swallowed in the large- scale atmospheric circulation redistributed in Sahara itself, in adjacent continents (mostly Europe and South America), and oceans. This geological setting is similar to the one of Mars where fluvial deposits and morphologies abound as largely eroded discontinuous remains. Large-scale alluvial basins and terminal lakes or waterlogged areas (such as the allucial plain in Zephyria) have been largely present in the Martian Noachian-Hesperian time (and possibly even later) but relatively scanty sedimentary deposits testify their existence. When deposits are present they are basically coarse-grained (e.g. the meandering channels of the Eberswalde deltaic plain) due to the long lasting aeolian erosion similarly than the Sahara example. The wind, that dominated the long

  1. Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Matteuzzo, Marcela C; Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecília; Varajão, Angélica F D C; Varajão, César A C; Alexandre, Anne; Guadagnin, Demetrio L; Almeida, Ariana C S

    2015-01-01

    Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments. PMID:26628027

  2. Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

  3. Developmental effects on dopamine projections and hippocampal cell proliferation in the rodent model of postweaning social and physical deprivation can be triggered by brief changes of environmental context.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Konrad; Grund, Thorsten; Bagorda, Anja; Bagorda, Francesco; Grafen, Keren; Winter, York; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud

    2009-12-14

    Periadolescence is a critical period during which environmental stimuli modulate developmental neural plasticity. This includes the density of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) projections and the mitotic dynamic in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, both involved in central structures for emotional and cognitive functioning. Behavioural tests suggest that even short periods of stimulation can have lasting developmental effects on cognitive and emotional measures. We therefore exposed animals kept in isolation to brief daily context changes during periadolescence (postnatal days 30-60). We assessed the effects on neural development after animals had reached adulthood at postnatal day 90 by measuring the density of dopamine fibres in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (core and shell), olfactory tubercle, and amygdala (basolateral and central), and by labelling mitoses in the dentate gyrus by BrdU. In experimental animals as compared to deprived controls, dopamine fibre densities were increased in the PFC and basolateral amygdala, decreased in the central amygdala, but not altered in the ventral striatum. Hippocampal cell proliferation was decreased. These results show that even a low level of experimental sensory stimulation during periadolescence triggers neural developmental processes, with lasting effects into adulthood. PMID:19631238

  4. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE RESEARCH IN A SCHOOL SETTING

    PubMed Central

    GUIDRY, VIRGINIA T.; LOWMAN, AMY; HALL, DEVON; BARON, DOTHULA; WING, STEVE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students’ academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants’ immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health. PMID:25085828

  5. Setting the PAS, the role of circadian PAS domain proteins during environmental adaptation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Julia H. M.; Schippers, Jos H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The per-ARNT-sim (PAS) domain represents an ancient protein module that can be found across all kingdoms of life. The domain functions as a sensing unit for a diverse array of signals, including molecular oxygen, small metabolites, and light. In plants, several PAS domain-containing proteins form an integral part of the circadian clock and regulate responses to environmental change. Moreover, these proteins function in pathways that control development and plant stress adaptation responses. Here, we discuss the role of PAS domain-containing proteins in anticipation, and adaptation to environmental changes in plants. PMID:26217364

  6. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  7. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  8. ROBUST ESTIMATION OF MEAN AND VARIANCE USING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists, especially environmental scientists often encounter trace level concentrations that are typically reported as less than a certain limit of detection, L. Type 1, left-censored data arise when certain low values lying below L are ignored or unknown as they cannot be mea...

  9. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  10. The Environmental and Ecological Awareness Potential in the Organized Camp Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Bradley R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an organized camp experience resulted in elementary school students having a higher level of environmental and ecological awareness than elementary students who had not had an organized camp experience. A letter of intent was circulated throughout all elementary schools in the Anchorage, Alaska school…

  11. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  12. Eco-innovation of a wooden childhood furniture set: an example of environmental solutions in the wood sector.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Moreira, M Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The environmental profile of a set of wood furniture was carried out to define the best design criteria for its eco-design. A baby cot convertible into a bed, a study desk and a bedside table were the objects of study. Two quantitative and qualitative environmental approaches were combined in order to propose improvement alternatives: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE). In the first case Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to identify the hot spots in the product system. As a next step, LCA information was used in eco-briefing to determine several improvement alternatives. A wood products company located in Catalonia (NE Spain) was assessed in detail, dividing the process into three stages: assembly, finishing and packaging. Ten impact categories were considered in the LCA study: abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidant formation. Two processes can be considered the key environmental factors: the production of the wooden boards and electricity, with contributions of 45-68% and 14-33% respectively depending on the impact categories. Subsequently, several improvement alternatives were proposed in the eco-design process (DfE) to achieve reductions in a short-medium period of time in the environmental impact. These eco-design strategies could reduce the environmental profile of the setup by 14%. The correct methodological adaptation of the concept of eco-briefing, as a tool for communication among environmental technicians and designers, the simplification of the analytical tool used and the LCA, could facilitate the environmental analysis of a product. The results obtained provide information that can help the furniture sector to improve their environmental performance. PMID:22542234

  13. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  14. Experiential benefits, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a national scenic trail.

    PubMed

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M; Stein, Taylor V

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups. PMID:25579621

  15. Kawasaki disease in two sets of monozygotic twins: Is the etiology genetic or environmental?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Sun, Jinghui; Zhai, Shubo; Yang, Sirui

    2013-01-01

    Two sets of monozygotic (MZ) twins with Kawasaki disease (KD) from two different families are reported. Twin set 1, previously healthy 71-day-old MZ twin girls were diagnosed with incomplete KD and pneumonia. The symptoms occurred at the same time in both girls. Both girls had ectasia of right coronary arteries. In twin set 2, the younger of 18-month-old MZ twin boys was diagnosed with KD and bronchitis. After 53 days, his elder brother was diagnosed with the same disease. The symptoms occurred at different time, but were almost identical. Neither boy displayed coronary artery changes. These findings support the hypothesis that genes susceptible to KD and coronary-artery lesions may exist in families. The different clinical characteristics among MZ twins from different families also suggest diverse and complex nature of KD. PMID:24353547

  16. Determination of Glucocorticoids in UPLC-MS in Environmental Samples from an Occupational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Negri, Sara; Bellinzona, Massimo; Martino, Silvia; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to glucocorticoids are still a neglected issue in some work environments, including pharmaceutical plants. We developed an analytical method to quantify simultaneously 21 glucocorticoids using UPLC coupled with mass spectrometry to provide a basis to carry out environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from air, hand-washing tests, pad-tests and wipe-tests. This paper reports the contents of the analytical methodology, along with the results of this extensive environmental and personal monitoring of glucocorticoids. The method in UPLC-MS turned out to be suitable and effective for the aim of the study. Wipe-test and pad-test desorption was carried out using 50 mL syringes, a simple technique that saves time without adversely affecting analyte recovery. Results showed a widespread environmental pollution due to glucocorticoids. This is of particular concern. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by each worker and identification of a biomarker for occupational exposure will contribute to assessment and prevention of occupational exposure. PMID:25821468

  17. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  18. Management and display of four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Santek, David; Suomi, Verner E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past four years, great strides have been made in the areas of data management and display of 4-D meteorological data sets. A survey was conducted of available and planned 4-D meteorological data sources. The data types were evaluated for their impact on the data management and display system. The requirements were analyzed for data base management generated by the 4-D data display system. The suitability of the existing data base management procedures and file structure were evaluated in light of the new requirements. Where needed, new data base management tools and file procedures were designed and implemented. The quality of the basic 4-D data sets was assured. The interpolation and extrapolation techniques of the 4-D data were investigated. The 4-D data from various sources were combined to make a uniform and consistent data set for display purposes. Data display software was designed to create abstract line graphic 3-D displays. Realistic shaded 3-D displays were created. Animation routines for these displays were developed in order to produce a dynamic 4-D presentation. A prototype dynamic color stereo workstation was implemented. A computer functional design specification was produced based on interactive studies and user feedback.

  19. Interactive access and management for four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in the following areas are presented: (1) enhancements to the visualization of 5-D data sets (VIS-5D); (2) development of the visualization of global images (VIS-GI) application; (3) design of the Visualization for Algorithm Development (VIS-AD) System; and (4) numerical modeling applications. The focus of current research and future research plans is presented and the following topics are addressed: (1) further enhancements to VIS-5D; (2) generalization and enhancement of the VIS-GI application; (3) the implementation of the VIS-AD System; and (4) plans for modeling applications.

  20. Setting priorities for environmental sanitation interventions based on epidemiological criteria: a Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico A; Antunes, Carlos M F

    2005-09-01

    The present study addresses the use of analytical epidemiologic approaches to subsidize the establishment of priorities in environmental sanitation interventions. An epidemiological investigation was carried out in 1993 in the urban area of Betim, a southeast Brazilian City of 160,000 inhabitants. The case-control 'inclusive' (or case-cohort) design, with a sample of 997 cases and 999 controls, was employed. Cases were defined as children of less than five years of age presenting diarrhoea episodes, while controls were randomly selected among children of the same age, living in the study area. After logistic regression adjustment, 11 of several exposure variables analysed were significantly associated with diarrhoea. Four different criteria, using as risk measures the relative risk, the attributable risk, the standardized coefficient of the logistic regression and the cost standardized coefficient, were used in order to define intervention priorities. PMID:16209031

  1. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  2. Environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Carducci, A; Verani, M; Lombardi, R; Casini, B; Privitera, G

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. Direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. The aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis C virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with measurements of total bacterial count and haemoglobin presence. In total, 114 surface and 62 air samples were collected. Bacterial contamination was very low (<1 cfu/cm(2)) on surfaces, whereas the 'medium' detected value in air was 282 cfu/m(3). Overall, 19 (16.7%) surface samples tested positive for viral nucleic acids: one for norovirus, one for human adenovirus and 17 (14.9%) for torque teno virus (TTV). Only this latter virus was directly detected in 10 air samples (16.1%). Haemoglobin was found on two surfaces. No relationship was found between viral, biochemical or bacterial indicators. The data obtained confirm the difficulty of assessing viral contamination using bacterial indicators. The frequent detection of TTV suggests its possible use as an indicator for general viral contamination of the environment. PMID:21277649

  3. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  4. Environmental testing of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a set of diode-laser-arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Lesh, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of the environmental test of a compact, rigid and lightweight diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser module are discussed. All optical elements are bonded onto the module using space applicable epoxy, and two 200 mW diode laser arrays for pump sources are used to achieve 126 mW of CW output with about 7 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency. This laser assembly and a set of 20 semiconductor diode laser arrays were environmentally tested by being subjected to vibrational and thermal conditions similar to those experienced during launch of the Space Shuttle, and both performed well. Nevertheless, some damage to the laser front facet in diode lasers was observed. Significant degradation was observed only on lasers which performed poorly in the life test. Improvements in the reliability of the Nd:YAG laser are suggested.

  5. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  6. Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical Environmental Parameters and Beach Water Quality in a Subtropical Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Wang, J. D.; Elmir, S.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Wright, M. E.; Abdelzaher, A.

    2006-12-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria(FIB) are found in high concentrations in sewage water, and thus are used to indicate whether there is fecal material related pathogen present and to determine whether a beach is safe for recreational use. Studies have shown, however, in subtropical regions, FIB concentrations above EPA standards may be present in the absence of known point sources of human or animal waste, thus reducing the efficacy of FIB beach monitoring programs. An interdisciplinary study is being conducted in Miami, Florida , the goal is to understand the sources and behavior of FIB on a beach without point source loads and also to improve beach health hazard warnings in subtropical regions. This study, examines relationship between enterococci (EPA recommended FIB for use in marine water) and physical environmental parameters such as rain, tide and wind. FIB data employed include Florida Department of Health weekly beach monitoring enterococci (ENT) data during a five year period and a two-day experiment with hourly sampling at Hobie Cat Beach on Virginia Key in the Miami metropolitan area. The environmental data consist of wind from a nearby CMAN tower, and local rain and tide. The analysis also includes data from nearby beaches monitored by the Health Department. Results show the correlation coefficient between ENT and tide at Hobie Cat Beach is positive but not significant(r=0.17). Rain events have a significant influence on ENT at Hobie Cat Beach, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.7 while at other beaches the correlation is less than 0.2. Reasons for this aberration are being investigated. Although this is the only beach allowing dogs there are other factors of possible importance, such as tidal flats frequented by birds and weaker water circulation and exchange at this beach facing a bay rather than the ocean. Higher ENT levels (> 300CFU/100ml water) are more likely (67% of the time) to be associated with periods of onshore winds, which may affect the

  7. Interactive access and management for four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant has fundamentally changed the way that meteorologists look at the output of their atmospheric models, through the development and wide distribution of the Vis5D system. The Vis5D system is also gaining acceptance among oceanographers and atmospheric chemists. Vis5D gives these scientists an interactive three-dimensional movie of their very large data sets that they can use to understand physical mechanisms and to trace problems to their sources. This grant has also helped to define the future direction of scientific visualization through the development of the VisAD system and its lattice data model. The VisAD system can be used to interactively steer and visualize scientific computations. A key element of this capability is the flexibility of the system's data model to adapt to a wide variety of scientific data, including the integration of several forms of scientific metadata.

  8. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F; Gallagher, Daniel J; Barton, Jo L

    2016-04-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  9. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  10. Interplay of diverse environmental settings and their influence on the plankton community off Myanmar during the Spring Intermonsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Win, Ni Ni; Shenoy, D. M.; Swe, U. Tint; Pratik, M.; Thwin, Swe; Jagadeesan, L.

    2014-11-01

    The northern Andaman Sea including the Myanmar waters is one of the least studied regions of the northern Indian Ocean. The freshwater and suspended sediments carried by Ayeyawady/Irrawaddy, the peculiar surface circulation, coastline morphology and shallow bathymetry in the Gulf of Mottama facilitate several diverse environmental settings in the study region. In order to understand the environmental settings and their linkages to the plankton community in the study region, this paper combined in situ data of 'First India-Myanmar Joint Oceanographic Expedition' with satellite oceanography observations. The study period was the Spring Intermonsoon (March-May), which was characterized by high tidal activity in the Gulf of Mottama region (tidal height 6-8 m) causing strong tidal currents and re-suspension of sediments. The tidal currents and eastward advection of Ayeyawady influx caused the lowest salinity, highest concentration of nutrients, suspended sediments and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mottama region. Conversely, high salinity, highest temperature, lowest nutrients and suspended sediments prevalent in the offshore waters of the northern Andaman Sea induced a massive bloom of Trichodesmium erythraeum, which was mostly in the declining phase during the observation. The in situ and satellite remote sensing data clearly showed that the T. erythraeum bloom observed in the offshore waters was closely linked to a warm core eddy. The decomposition of the bloom favored swarms of siphonophores and hydromedusae through a trophic link involving copepods and appendicularians. Aided by satellite remote sensing data and multivariate statistical tools, five diverse environmental settings have been identified in the study domain. The analysis showed a close coupling between phytoplankton biomass and nutrients with their higher values in the Gulf of Mottama, off Rakhine, Ayeyawady and Thanintharyi region as compared to the offshore waters in the northern Andaman Sea. The

  11. WebGL Visualisation of 3D Environmental Models Based on Finnish Open Geospatial Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooks, A.; Kahkonen, J.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.; Karjalainen, M.; Honkavaara, E.

    2014-08-01

    Recent developments in spatial data infrastructures have enabled real time GIS analysis and visualization using open input data sources and service interfaces. In this study we present a new concept where metric point clouds derived from national open airborne laser scanning (ALS) and photogrammetric image data are processed, analyzed, finally visualised a through open service interfaces to produce user-driven analysis products from targeted areas. The concept is demonstrated in three environmental applications: assessment of forest storm damages, assessment of volumetric changes in open pit mine and 3D city model visualization. One of the main objectives was to study the usability and requirements of national level photogrammetric imagery in these applications. The results demonstrated that user driven 3D geospatial analyses were possible with the proposed approach and current technology, for instance, the landowner could assess the amount of fallen trees within his property borders after a storm easily using any web browser. On the other hand, our study indicated that there are still many uncertainties especially due to the insufficient standardization of photogrammetric products and processes and their quality indicators.

  12. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints

  13. Palaeo-environmental variations in eastern Mediterranean sediments: a multidisciplinary approach in a prehistoric setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Van Santvoort, P. J. M.; Langereis, C.; Thomson, J.; Corselli, C.; Michard, A.; Rossignol-Strick, M.; Paterne, M.; Anastasakis, G.

    1999-08-01

    Not only the occurrence of distinct organic-rich intervals (sapropels), but also the relative contents of key major and minor elements and isotopes in the sediments of the eastern Mediterranean, appear to be cyclic and to be astronomically associated. Interpretations of the environmental conditions leading to sapropel formation are based on results from sedimentological, micropalaeontological and geochemical studies of the dark-coloured layers and the cream/brownish sediments that occur above and below them. Part of the signal may be removed by early diagenetic processes. The extent and direction of these processes are ultimately controled by the amount and reactivity of organic matter. The interval of dark colour associated with a sapropel is often somewhat thicker than that defined by the >2% C org definition and usually has a sharp colour change at upper and lower boundaries. A grey so-called ‘proto-sapropel’ layer of variable thickness underlies most sapropel layers. A few centimeters above the most recent sapropel S1, is usually found a clear dark-brown layer 2-3 cm thickness is usually found, which has a diffuse, often mottled, upper boundary and a relatively abrupt colour transition at its lower boundary. The colour is characteristic of Mn oxyhydroxide enrichments. In the interval from the dark-brown layer to the visible upper S1 boundary, there is usually an increasingly red-brownish colour. The distinct upper manganese Marker-Bed has been related to the Santorini (Minoan) eruption in 3356±18 BP ( Bruins, H. J., & Van Der Plicht, J. (1996). The Exodus enigma. Nature, London, 382, 213-214 ), but is more likely to be associated with a Basin-wide re-ventilation event induced by changing climatic (humidity) conditions. Using barite-Ba as a paleo-productivity indicator, enhanced fluxes, and hence increases in accumulation rates of organic carbon to the seafloor, must have occurred from approximately 9 to 5 ky BP. The perfect correlations between observed C

  14. Environmental setting of deep-water oysters in the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rooij, D.; De Mol, L.; Le Guilloux, E.; Wisshak, M.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Moeremans, R.; Henriet, J.-P.

    2010-12-01

    We report the northernmost and deepest known occurrence of deep-water pycnodontine oysters, based on two surveys along the French Atlantic continental margin to the La Chapelle continental slope (2006) and the Guilvinec Canyon (2008). The combined use of multibeam bathymetry, seismic profiling, CTD casts and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) made it possible to describe the physical habitat and to assess the oceanographic control for the recently described species Neopycnodonte zibrowii. These oysters have been observed in vivo in depths from 540 to 846 m, colonizing overhanging banks or escarpments protruding from steep canyon flanks. Especially in the Bay of Biscay, such physical habitats may only be observed within canyons, where they are created by both long-term turbiditic and contouritic processes. Frequent observations of sand ripples on the seabed indicate the presence of a steady, but enhanced bottom current of about 40 cm/s. The occurrence of oysters also coincides with the interface between the Eastern North Atlantic Water and the Mediterranean Outflow Water. A combination of this water mass mixing, internal tide generation and a strong primary surface productivity may generate an enhanced nutrient flux, which is funnelled through the canyon. When the ideal environmental conditions are met, up to 100 individuals per m² may be observed. These deep-water oysters require a vertical habitat, which is often incompatible with the requirements of other sessile organisms, and are only sparsely distributed along the continental margins. The discovery of these giant oyster banks illustrates the rich biodiversity of deep-sea canyons and their underestimation as true ecosystem hotspots.

  15. A comparison of the influences of urbanization in contrasting environmental settings on stream benthic algal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potapova, M.; Coles, J.F.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of stream benthic algal assemblages along urbanization gradients were investigated in three metropolitan areas-Boston (BOS), Massachusetts; Birmingham (BIR), Alabama; and Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah. An index of urban intensity derived from socioeconomic, infrastructure, and land-use characteristics was used as a measure of urbanization. Of the various attributes of the algal assemblages, species composition changed along gradients of urban intensity in a more consistent manner than biomass or diversity. In urban streams, the relative abundance of pollution-tolerant species was often higher than in less affected streams. Shifts in assemblage composition were associated primarily with increased levels of conductivity, nutrients, and alterations in physical habitat. Water mineralization and nutrients were the most important determinants of assemblage composition in the BOS and SLC study areas; flow regime and grazers were key factors in the BIR study area. Species composition of algal assemblages differed significantly among geographic regions, and no particular algal taxa were found to be universal indicators of urbanization. Patterns in algal biomass and diversity along urban gradients varied among study areas, depending on local environmental conditions and habitat alteration. Biomass and diversity increased with urbanization in the BOS area, apparently because of increased nutrients, light, and flow stability in urban streams, which often are regulated by dams. Biomass and diversity decreased with urbanization in the BIR study area because of intensive fish grazing and less stable flow regime. In the SLC study area, correlations between algal biomass, diversity, and urban intensity were positive but weak. Thus, algal responses to urbanization differed considerably among the three study areas. We concluded that the wide range of responses of benthic algae to urbanization implied that tools for stream bioassessment must be region specific. ?? 2005 by the

  16. Nutrients in streams during baseflow in selected environmental settings of the Potomac River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Denis, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Brakebill, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A regional assessment of water quality in small streams was conducted within four areas of distinct physiography and lithology in the upper Potomac River Basin. The Potomac River is a major tributary to the Chesapeake Bay, and this study provides new insight on the relationships between nutrient concentrations in small streams and watershed characteristics within this river basin. Nutrient concentrations were compared to land-use data including categories for agriculture (cropland and pasture), urban areas, and forests. Among agricultural areas, streams draining areas of intense row cropping typically contained higher nitrate concentrations than did those draining pastures. Streams draining forested areas typically had the lowest nutrient concentrations. Streams in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock were more likely to contain elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and potassium than did streams in areas underlain by fractured siliciclastic or crystalline rocks, and we suggest that this is a physical phenomenon related to high hydraulic conductivities in carbonate ground-water systems. The median nitrate concentrations were highest in the Great Valley portion of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province, particularly in watersheds that have both carbonate bedrock and intensive row cropping. Values of nitrate in these streams ranged up to 8.99 mg/L as nitrogen. The soluble phosphorus concentrations during baseflow were generally low in all subunits, even in some settings with potential for high phosphorus inputs such as urban areas with municipal point sources or agricultural areas. The mobility of phosphorus in these environments may be hindered by adsorption and geochemical reactions.

  17. Environmental setting and water-quality issues in the lower Tennessee River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program are to describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources, identify water-quality changes over time, and identify the primary natural and human factors that affect water quality. The lower Tennessee River Basin is one of 59 river basins selected for study. The water-quality assessment of the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit began in 1997. The lower Tennessee River Basin study unit encompasses an area of about 19,500 square miles and extends from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Paducah, Kentucky. The study unit had a population of about 1.5 million people in 1995.The study unit was subdivided into subunits with relatively homogeneous geology and physiography. Subdivision of the study unit creates a framework to assess the effects of natural and cultural settings on water quality. Nine subunits were delineated in the study unit; their boundaries generally coincide with level III and level IV ecoregion boundaries. The nine subunits are the Coastal Plain, Transition, Western Highland Rim, Outer Nashville Basin, Inner Nashville Basin, Eastern Highland Rim, Plateau Escarpment and Valleys, Cumberland Plateau, and Valley and Ridge.The lower Tennessee River Basin consists of predominantly forest (51 percent) and agricultural land (40 percent). Activities related to agricultural land use, therefore, are the primary cultural factors likely to have a widespread effect on surface- and ground-water quality in the study unit. Inputs of total nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural activities in 1992 were about 161,000 and 37,900 tons, respectively. About 3.7 million pounds (active ingredient) of pesticides was applied to crops in the lower Tennessee River Basin in 1992.State water-quality agencies identified nutrient enrichment and pathogens as water-quality issues affecting both surface and ground water in the lower Tennessee River Basin. Water-quality data collected by State

  18. Structure, diversity and environmental role of foraminiferal assemblages from reefal settings of Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajemila, Olugbenga; Langer, Martin R.

    2015-04-01

    Reefal and shallow lagoonal environments around the island Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia) offer a spectacular variety of microhabitats providing a multitude niches and ideal settings for rich assemblages of tropical benthic foraminifera. The Society Islands are located near the hotspot of tropical marine diversity and represent a transitional location between the high diversity assemblages of the coral triangle and the low diversity biotas of the eastern Pacific. This area constitutes an important biogeographic link and stepping stone between the eastern and western biotas of the tropical Pacific Ocean. We have analyzed the structure, diversity and composition of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from around Moorea to document the composition, species richness and environmental role of larger and smaller benthic foraminifera from within the lagoonal system, the mangrove habitats and fore-reef sites. Foraminifera are prominent producers of calcium carbonate and contribute significantly to structures in reefal settings of the tropical Pacific. We evaluate the potential of larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera as environmental engineers and apply the FORAM-Index as proxy to assess the conditions around Moorea Island. We also evaluate the role of the Society Islands as stepping stone between biogeographic regions of the Pacific Ocean.

  19. Using earthquake-triggered landslides as a hillslope-scale shear strength test: Insights into rock strength properties at geomorphically relevant spatial scales in high-relief, tectonically active settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean; Clark, Marin; Godt, Jonathan; Lowe, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    The material strength of rock is known to be a fundamental property in setting landscape form and geomorphic process rates as it acts to modulate feedbacks between earth surface processes, tectonics, and climate. Despite the long recognition of its importance in landscape evolution, a quantitative understanding of the role of rock strength in affecting geomorphic processes lags our knowledge of the influence of tectonics and climate. This gap stems largely from the fact that it remains challenging to quantify rock strength at the hillslope scale. Rock strength is strongly scale dependent because the number, size, spacing, and aperture of fractures sets the upper limit on rock strength, making it difficult to extrapolate laboratory measurements to landscape-scale interpretations. Here we present a method to determine near-surface rock strength at the hillslope-scale, relying on earthquake-triggered landslides as a regional-scale "shear strength" test. We define near-surface strength as the average strength of rock sample by the landslides, which is typically < 10 m. Based on a Newmark sliding block model, which approximates slope stability during an earthquake assuming a material with frictional and cohesive strength, we developed a coseismic landslide model that is capable of reproducing statistical characteristics of the distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides. We present results from two well-documented case-studies of earthquakes that caused widespread mass-wasting; the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China and the 1994 Mw. 6.8 Northridge Earthquake, CA, USA. We show how this model can be used to determine near-surface rock strength and reproduce mapped landslide patterns provided the spatial distribution of local hillslope gradient, earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA), and coseismic landsliding are well constrained. Results suggest that near-surface rock strength in these tectonically active settings is much lower than that

  20. Rock magnetic properties of soils from different environmental settings: Implications for the anthropogenic impact on the environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.; Vedrines, H.; Schramm, W.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a property of soils that is easily, rapidly, and inexpensively determined. It provides a highly sensitive measurement of the compositional changes of mineral materials in the soil. The objective of our study is to detect the presence of magnetic anthropogenic particles related to environmental pollution by measuring the magnetic signature of soil samples. Our main goals are (1) to generate a magnetic susceptibility map of the topsoil and the shallow subsurface, (2) to determine the concentration of magnetic carriers, their grain size, and mineralogy, and (3) to relate these results to natural and anthropogenic factors. Based on the idea that topsoil contains a higher concentration of magnetic particles than the subsoil because of the settling of airborne anthropogenic pollutants, magnetic susceptibility has the potential for mapping anthropogenic heavy metal concentrations in soils. Magnetic susceptibility is also influenced by natural lithological heavy metal content as well as soil type. It is therefore crucial to distinguish the anthropogenically-enhanced susceptibility from the natural susceptibility. In this large-scale study, we sampled an area of 260 km2 in and around Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in small 2.6 km2 subsets, and attempted to cover a wide variety of environmental settings, from rural city outskirts to the more industrialized parts of the inner city. This area was selected because industrial, rural, metropolitan, and suburban settings coexist in close proximity and allow for a direct comparison of results without significant changes in pedological, climatic, or other parameters that influence the magnetic susceptibility signal. Topsoil and subsoil samples were collected for detailed analysis at an accessible and undisturbed random location within each sampling square. At each site, shallow cores were taken, and a statistically significant number of susceptibility measurements were obtained with a field probe, and deeper

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K.M.; Thiros, S.A.; Giddings, E.M.; Hadley, H.K.; Stephens, D.W.; Gerner, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

  2. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  3. Evaluation of statistical treatments of left-censored environmental data using coincident uncensored data sets: I. Summary statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    The main classes of statistical treatment of below-detection limit (left-censored) environmental data for the determination of basic statistics that have been used in the literature are substitution methods, maximum likelihood, regression on order statistics (ROS), and nonparametric techniques. These treatments, along with using all instrument-generated data (even those below detection), were evaluated by examining data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known. It was found that for data sets with less than 70% censored data, the best technique overall for determination of summary statistics was the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier technique. ROS and the two substitution methods of assigning one-half the detection limit value to censored data or assigning a random number between zero and the detection limit to censored data were adequate alternatives. The use of these two substitution methods, however, requires a thorough understanding of how the laboratory censored the data. The technique of employing all instrument-generated data - including numbers below the detection limit - was found to be less adequate than the above techniques. At high degrees of censoring (greater than 70% censored data), no technique provided good estimates of summary statistics. Maximum likelihood techniques were found to be far inferior to all other treatments except substituting zero or the detection limit value to censored data.

  4. Texting and walking: effect of environmental setting and task prioritization on dual-task interference in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Apple, Sarah; Dowd, Colleen; Keith, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment. Texting and walking were assessed in single-task and three dual-task conditions (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in the lab and a University Student Center, in 32 healthy young adults. Dual-task effects on gait speed, texting speed, and texting accuracy were significant, but did not significantly differ between the two environments. Young adults were able to flexibly prioritize their attention between texting and walking, according to specific instruction, and this ability was not influenced by environmental setting. In the absence of instructions, young adults prioritized the texting task in the low-distraction environment, but displayed more equal focus between tasks in the real world. The finding that young adults do not significantly modify their texting and walking behavior in high-distraction environments lends weight to growing concerns about cell phone use and pedestrian safety. PMID:25193796

  5. Environmental setting and water-quality issues of the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Kidd, Robert E.; Journey, Celeste A.; Zappia, Humbert; Atkins, J. Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mobile River Basin is one of over 50 river basins and aquifer systems being investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This basin is the sixth largest river basin in the United States, and fourth largest in terms of streamflow, encompassing parts of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Almost two-thirds of the 44,000-square-mile basin is located in Alabama. Extensive water resources of the Mobile River Basin are influenced by an array of natural and cultural factors. These factors impart unique and variable qualities to the streams, rivers, and aquifers providing abundant habitat to sustain the diverse aquatic life in the basin. Data from Federal, State, and local agencies provide a description of the environmental setting of the Mobile River Basin. Environmental data include natural factors such as physiography, geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecoregions, and aquatic ecology, and human factors such as reservoirs, land use and population change, water use, and water-quality issues. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the Mobile River Basin and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. The Mobile River Basin encompasses parts of five physiographic provinces. Fifty-six percent of the basin lies within the East Gulf section of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The remaining northeastern part of the basin lies, from west to east, within the Cumberland Plateau section of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. Based on the 1991 land-use data, about 70 percent of the basin is forested, while agriculture, including livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine), row crops (cotton, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and

  6. Global Trigger Upgrade firmware architecture for the level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaran, B.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Wittmann, J.; Matsushita, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Global Trigger (GT) is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements the ``menu'' of triggers, which is a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects (such as muons, electrons or jets) to trigger the readout of the detector and serve as basis for further calculations by the High Level Trigger. Operational experience in developing trigger menus from the first LHC run has shown that the requirements increased as the luminosity and pile-up increased. The new GT (μGT) is designed based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs, which combine unsurpassed flexibility with regard to scalability and high robustness. Furthermore, a custom board which receives signals from legacy electronics and basic binary inputs from less complex trigger sources is presented. Additionally, this paper describes the architecture of a distributed testing framework and the Trigger Menu Editor.

  7. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy. PMID:24864393

  8. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... system to a normally harmless substance called an allergen. A variety of environmental allergens, such as pollen and animal dander, can trigger ... allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April 22, 2015 CONNECT WITH NIAID ...

  9. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  10. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  11. Use of an urban intensity index to assess urban effects on streams in three contrasting environmental settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effects of urbanization on assemblages (fish, invertebrate, and algal), physical habitat, and water chemistry, we investigated the relations among varying intensities of basin urbanization and stream ecology in three metropolitan areas: the humid northeastern United States around Boston, Massachusetts; the humid southeastern United States around Birmingham, Alabama; and the semiarid western United States around Salt Lake City, Utah. A consistent process was used to develop a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) based on locally important variables (land-use/land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables) in each study area and a common urban intensity index (CUII) based on a subset of five variables common to all study areas. The UII was used to characterize 30 basins along an urban gradient in each metropolitan area. Study basins were located within a single ecoregion in each of the metropolitan areas. The UII, ecoregions, and site characteristics provided a method for limiting the variability of natural landscape characteristics while assessing the magnitude of urban effects. Conditions in Salt Lake City (semiarid climate and water diversions) and Birmingham (topography) required nesting sites within the same basin. The UII and CUII facilitated comparisons of aquatic assemblages response to urbanization across different environmental settings. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. A generalized watershed disturbance-invertebrate relation applicable in a range of environmental settings across the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that urbanization can affect ecological conditions in aquatic systems; numerous studies have identified impervious surface cover as an indicator of urban intensity and as an index of development at the watershed, regional, and national scale. Watershed percent imperviousness, a commonly understood urban metric was used as the basis for a generalized watershed disturbance metric that, when applied in conjunction with weighted percent agriculture and percent grassland, predicted stream biotic conditions based on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness across a wide range of environmental settings. Data were collected in streams that encompassed a wide range of watershed area (4.4-1,714 km), precipitation (38-204 cm/yr), and elevation (31-2,024 m) conditions. Nevertheless the simple 3-landcover disturbance metric accounted for 58% of the variability in EPT richness based on the 261 nationwide sites. On the metropolitan area scale, relationship r ranged from 0.04 to 0.74. At disturbance values 15. Future work may incorporate watershed management practices within the disturbance metric, further increasing the management applicability of the relation. Such relations developed on a regional or metropolitan area scale are likely to be stronger than geographically generalized models; as found in these EPT richness relations. However, broad spatial models are able to provide much needed understanding in unmonitored areas and provide initial guidance for stream potential.

  13. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  14. Semaphorin and neuropilin co-expression in motoneurons sets axon sensitivity to environmental semaphorin sources during motor axon pathfinding.

    PubMed

    Moret, Frédéric; Renaudot, Christelle; Bozon, Muriel; Castellani, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    Class III semaphorins (SemaIIIs) are intercellular cues secreted by surrounding tissues to guide migrating cells and axons in the developing organism. This chemotropic activity is crucial for the formation of nerves and vasculature. Intriguingly, SemaIIIs are also synthesized by neurons during axon pathfinding, but their function as intrinsic cues remains unknown. We have explored the role of Sema3A expression in motoneurons during spinal nerve development. Loss- and gain-of-function in the neural tube of the chick embryo were undertaken to target Sema3A expression in motoneurons while preserving Sema3A sources localized in peripheral tissues, known to provide important repulsive information for delineating the routes of motor axons towards their ventral or dorsal targets. Strikingly, Sema3A overexpression induced defasciculation and exuberant growth of motor axon projections into these normally non-permissive territories. Moreover, knockdown studies showed that motoneuronal Sema3A is required for correct spinal nerve compaction and dorsal motor axon extension. Further analysis of Sema3A gain- and loss-of-function in ex vivo models revealed that Sema3A in motoneurons sets the level of sensitivity of their growth cones to exogenous Sema3A exposure. This regulation is associated with post-transcriptional and local control of the availability of the Sema3A receptor neuropilin 1 at the growth cone surface. Thus, by modulating the strength of Sema3A-mediated environmental repulsive constraints, Sema3A in motoneurons enables axons to extend more or less far away from these repulsive sources. Such interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic Sema3A may represent a fundamental mechanism in the accurate specification of axon pathways. PMID:18039974

  15. Stay away from asthma triggers

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  16. Effect of environmental setting on sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental settings were defined, through an overlay process, as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables - land use, surficial geology, and soil drainage characteristics. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area. This study's findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin's environmental setting. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region, a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors, such as point-source discharges, and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality, may lead to water-quality goals that are over- or underprotective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection.

  17. Effect of environmental setting on sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, G.; Harned, D.A.

    1998-11-01

    Environmental settings were defined, through an overlay process, as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables--land use, surficial geology, and soil drainage characteristics. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area. This study`s findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin`s environmental setting. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region, a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors, such as point-source discharges, and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality, may lead to water-quality goals that are over- or underprotective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection.

  18. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  19. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  20. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A; Santoro, M Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820-1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies. PMID:27560499

  1. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A.; Santoro, M. Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820–1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies. PMID:27560499

  2. Combining Environmental and Individual Weight Management Interventions in a Work Setting Results From the Dow Chemical Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Parker, Kristin M.; Padilla, Heather M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Roemer, Enid C.; Goetzel, Ron Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of environmental weight loss interventions alone versus in combination with an individual intervention. Methods A quasiexperimental design compared with outcomes for two levels of environmental interventions and for participants who did or did not simultaneously self-select into an individually focused weight loss intervention (YW8). ANCOVA and logistic regression techniques were used to examine risk outcomes. Results Employees who participated in YW8 were no more successful at losing weight than those exposed to only the environmental interventions. Approximately, 13.5% of each group lost at least 5% of their body weight; overall changes in mean body weight and body mass index were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Simple worksite environmental modifications may help with weight maintenance, but are not likely to result in substantial weight reductions even when combined with low-intensity individual interventions. PMID:21346636

  3. An ecofeminist conceptual framework to explore gendered environmental health inequities in urban settings and to inform healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical exploration is an attempt to conceptualize the link between gender and urban environmental health. The proposed ecofeminist framework enables an understanding of the link between the urban physical and social environments and health inequities mediated by gender and socioeconomic status. This framework is proposed as a theoretical magnifying glass to reveal the underlying logic that connects environmental exploitation on the one hand, and gendered health inequities on the other. Ecofeminism has the potential to reveal an inherent, normative conceptual analysis and argumentative justification of western society that permits the oppression of women and the exploitation of the environment. This insight will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying gendered environmental health inequities and inform healthy public policy that is supportive of urban environmental health, particularly for low-income mothers. PMID:18476856

  4. Analysis of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards through the dynamic integration of remotely sensed, modeled and in situ environmental factors in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric Ross

    Landslides pose a persistent threat to El Salvador's population, economy and environment. Government officials share responsibility in managing this hazard by alerting populations when and where landslides may occur as well as developing and enforcing proper land use and zoning practices. This thesis addresses gaps in current knowledge between identifying precisely when and where slope failures may initiate and outlining the extent of the potential debris inundation areas. Improvements on hazard maps are achieved by considering a series of environmental variables to determine causal factors through spatial and temporal analysis techniques in Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. The output is a more dynamic tool that links high resolution geomorphic and hydrological factors to daily precipitation. Directly incorporable into existing decision support systems, this allows for better disaster management and is transferable to other developing countries.

  5. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  6. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  7. New Design Strategy for Development of Specific Primer Sets for PCR-Based Detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in Environmental Samples▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  8. New design strategy for development of specific primer sets for PCR-based detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  9. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  10. FINAL REPORT. INVESTIGATIONS OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONTINUOUS AIR MONITORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH DUST LOADING IN ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective was to carry out studies to improve the detection of plutonium aerosols by environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs), particularly in dusty environments. A number of alpha-particle ECAMs are used at DOE sites such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONTINUOUS AIR MONITORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH DUST LOADING IN ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation is an in-depth exploration of environmental influences that can cause degradation of the performance (sensitivity, alarm functionality, etc.) of Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs), such as the LANL/Canberra alpha-particle CAM, and a study of techniques to correct fo...

  12. THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN A SECOND-BEST SETTING. (R825313)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to examine the significance of pre-existing factor taxes for the costs of pollution reduction under a wide range of environmental policy instruments. Pre-existing taxes imply significantly ...

  13. A set of scientific issues being considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding pollinator risk assessment framework.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 11-14, 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the Office of Pesticides Program’s (OPP) proposed “Pollinator Risk Assessment Framework”. Several sources have reporte...

  14. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS USING DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS AS INCORPORTED IN PROUCL 4.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nondetect (ND) or below detection limit (BDL) results cannot be measured accurately, and, therefore, are reported as less than certain detection limit (DL) values. However, since the presence of some contaminants (e.g., dioxin) in environmental media may pose a threat to human he...

  15. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  16. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  17. CLUSTERING PROPERTIES OF BzK-SELECTED GALAXIES IN GOODS-N: ENVIRONMENTAL QUENCHING AND TRIGGERING OF STAR FORMATION AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Lihwai; Wang Weihao; Yan, Chi-Hung; Dickinson, Mark; Jian, Hung-Yu; Merson, A. I.; Baugh, C. M.; Helly, John; Lagos, Claudia del P; Scott, Douglas; Meger, Nicole; Foucaud, Sebastien; Yan Haojing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Guo Yicheng; Pope, Alexandra; Kirsten, Franz; Koo, David C.; Simard, Luc; and others

    2012-09-01

    Using a sample of BzK-selected galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified from the CFHT/WIRCAM near-infrared survey of GOODS-North, we discuss the relation between star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and stellar mass (M{sub *}), and the clustering of galaxies as a function of these parameters. For star-forming galaxies (sBzKs), the UV-based SFR, corrected for extinction, scales with the stellar mass as SFR{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}{sub *} with {alpha} = 0.74 {+-} 0.20 down to M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, indicating a weak dependence on the stellar mass of the SFR efficiency, namely, SSFR. We also measure the angular correlation function and hence infer the correlation length for sBzK galaxies as a function of M{sub *}, SFR, and SSFR, as well as K-band apparent magnitude. We show that passive galaxies (pBzKs) are more strongly clustered than sBzK galaxies at a given stellar mass, mirroring the color-density relation seen at lower redshifts. We also find that the correlation length of sBzK galaxies ranges from 4 to 20 h {sup -1} Mpc, being a strong function of M{sub K} , M{sub *}, and SFR. On the other hand, the clustering dependence on SSFR changes abruptly at 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1}, which is the typical value for 'main-sequence' star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2. We show that the correlation length reaches a minimum at this characteristic value, and is larger for galaxies with both smaller and larger SSFRs; a dichotomy that is only marginally implied from the predictions of the semi-analytical models. Our results suggest that there are two types of environmental effects at work at z {approx} 2. Stronger clustering for relatively quiescent galaxies implies that the environment has started to play a role in quenching star formation. At the same time, stronger clustering for galaxies with elevated SSFRs ({sup s}tarbursts{sup )} might be attributed to an increased efficiency for galaxy interactions and

  18. Applying low-molecular weight supramolecular gelators in an environmental setting - self-assembled gels as smart materials for pollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Okesola, Babatunde O; Smith, David K

    2016-07-25

    This review explores supramolecular gels as materials for environmental remediation. These soft materials are formed by self-assembling low-molecular-weight building blocks, which can be programmed with molecular-scale information by simple organic synthesis. The resulting gels often have nanoscale 'solid-like' networks which are sample-spanning within a 'liquid-like' solvent phase. There is intimate contact between the solvent and the gel nanostructure, which has a very high effective surface area as a result of its dimensions. As such, these materials have the ability to bring a solid-like phase into contact with liquids in an environmental setting. Such materials can therefore remediate unwanted pollutants from the environment including: immobilisation of oil spills, removal of dyes, extraction of heavy metals or toxic anions, and the detection or removal of chemical weapons. Controlling the interactions between the gel nanofibres and pollutants can lead to selective uptake and extraction. Furthermore, if suitably designed, such materials can be recyclable and environmentally benign, while the responsive and tunable nature of the self-assembled network offers significant advantages over other materials solutions to problems caused by pollution in an environmental setting. PMID:27241027

  19. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  20. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  1. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  2. Dynamic Triggering Stress Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    It has been well established that static (permanent) stress changes can trigger nearby earthquakes, within a few fault lengths from the causative event, whereas triggering by dynamic (transient) stresses carried by seismic waves both nearby and at remote distances has not been as well documented nor understood. An analysis of the change in the local stress caused by the passing of surfaces waves is important for the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, we modeled the change in the stress that the passing of Rayleigh and Loves waves causes on a fault plane of arbitrary orientation, and applied a Coulomb failure criteria to calculate the potential of these stress changes to trigger reverse, normal or strike-slip failure. We preliminarily test these model results with data from dynamically triggering earthquakes in the Australian Bowen Basin. In the Bowen region, the modeling predicts a maximum triggering potential for Rayleigh waves arriving perpendicularly to the strike of the reverse faults present in the region. The modeled potentials agree with our observations, and give us an understanding of the dynamic stress orientation needed to trigger different type of earthquakes.

  3. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  4. A Degenerate Primer MOB Typing (DPMT) Method to Classify Gamma-Proteobacterial Plasmids in Clinical and Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Transmissible plasmids are responsible for the spread of genetic determinants, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence traits, causing a large ecological and epidemiological impact. Transmissible plasmids, either conjugative or mobilizable, have in common the presence of a relaxase gene. Relaxases were previously classified in six protein families according to their phylogeny. Degenerate primers hybridizing to coding sequences of conserved amino acid motifs were designed to amplify related relaxase genes from γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. Specificity and sensitivity of a selected set of 19 primer pairs were first tested using a collection of 33 reference relaxases, representing the diversity of γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. The validated set was then applied to the analysis of two plasmid collections obtained from clinical isolates. The relaxase screening method, which we call “Degenerate Primer MOB Typing” or DPMT, detected not only most known Inc/Rep groups, but also a plethora of plasmids not previously assigned to any Inc group or Rep-type. PMID:22792321

  5. Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Determining the Early Lexicon: Evidence from a Set of Tri-Zygotic Quadruplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Capone, Nina C.

    2004-01-01

    A set of tri-zygotic quadruplets, three girls and one boy, participated in weekly observations from 1;2 to 1;10 (years;months), a period of transition from prelinguistic gesture to 50 words. In the study, one girl served as a genetic mate to her identical twin and a biological risk mate to her fraternal sister. The biological risk mates achieved…

  6. Impact of three common post-depositional environmental settings on siliceous sinter diagenesis: An eight year experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynne, Bridget Y.

    2015-02-01

    Samples of newly-formed, opal-A, filamentous siliceous sinter were placed inside three contrasting environments to assess their effect on sinter diagenesis: (1) an actively discharging fumarole; (2) buried in steaming vegetation; (3) buried in soil in a non-thermal area. Each setting was chosen to represent common, sinter post-depositional environments. The sinter remained in these settings for eight years, during which time, samples were taken from the sinter and examined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These techniques enabled changes in the silica phase mineralogy and morphology to be tracked over time. While all three sinters remained as opal-A during the eight years, minor but significant silica phase changes did take place and were reflected by the increase in maximum intensity value and shift in apex position on the XRPD trace. Silica phase transitions were greatest in the sinter buried in the steaming vegetation, followed by the sinter in the fumarole. The sinter buried in the non-thermal garden, revealed almost no change. Throughout the duration of the experiment, in all three settings, the filamentous nature of the sinter was preserved. Botryoidal clusters and new generations of opal-A spheres were observed in samples, from all three sites. At various time periods, in all environments, silicified filaments formed smooth, non-porous ridges separated by a more open arrangement of silicified filaments. Major, minor and no dissolution textures were observed in the sinter buried in the steaming vegetation, non-thermal soil and the fumarole settings respectively. Rows on aligned, opal-A spheres were only present in the fumarole sinter at 33 weeks. Tracking sinter diagenesis in three commonly found, post-sinter formation environments, contributes to our understanding of the preservation potential of siliceous sinters and the influence steam, meteoric water and organics have on sinter diagenesis.

  7. Heat resistance in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli may favor environmental survival in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Boll, Erik J; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Olesen, Bente; Krogfelt, Karen A; Struve, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are a major concern worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify bacterial factors promoting survival and persistence of these organisms in the nosocomial environment. Here, we describe the presence of a gene cluster, containing the Clp ATPase ClpK, within a collection of Danish ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. The cluster conferred thermoprotection upon the isolates, and thus might facilitate survival on medical devices exposed to semi-high temperatures in a hospital setting. PMID:26946311

  8. The barriers to environmental sustainability in post-disaster settings: a case study of transitional shelter implementation in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Disaster recovery operations that do not account for environmental sustainability (ES) risk exacerbating the impact of the disaster and hindering long-term recovery efforts. Yet aid agencies do not always consider ES. This research is a case study of the recovery that followed the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Using timber and concrete procurement as proxies for broader post-disaster operations, research examined perceptions of ES as well as attempts at and barriers to incorporating it into programming. Identified barriers can be grouped into two categories: (1) prioritisations and perceptions within the disaster response sector that resulted in limited enthusiasm for incorporating ES into programming, and (2) structural and organisational barriers within the disaster response framework that impeded ES attempts and served as a further disincentive to incorporating ES into programming. As a result of those barriers, incorporation of ES was sporadic and inconsistent and often depended on the capacity and motivation of specific implementers. PMID:24601931

  9. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental stratification consists of dividing the study unit into subareas with homogeneous characteristics to assess natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality. The assessment of water quality in streams and in aquifers is based on the sampling design that compares water quality within homogeneous subareas defined by subbasins or aquifer boundaries. The study unit is stratified at four levels for the surface-water component: glacial deposit composition, surficial geology, general land use and land cover, and secondary land use. Ground-water studies emphasize shallow ground water where quality is most likely influenced by overlying land use and land cover. Stratification for ground-water sampling is superimposed on the distribution of shallow aquifers. For each aquifer and surface-water basin this stratification forms the basis for the proposed sampling design used in the Upper Mississippi River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment.

  10. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  11. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  12. Dark-matter halo assembly bias: Environmental dependence in the non-Markovian excursion-set theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Chung-Pei; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-02-10

    In the standard excursion-set model for the growth of structure, the statistical properties of halos are governed by the halo mass and are independent of the larger-scale environment in which the halos reside. Numerical simulations, however, have found the spatial distributions of halos to depend not only on their mass but also on the details of their assembly history and environment. Here we present a theoretical framework for incorporating this 'assembly bias' into the excursion-set model. Our derivations are based on modifications of the path-integral approach of Maggiore and Riotto that models halo formation as a non-Markovian random-walk process. The perturbed density field is assumed to evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale and exhibits correlated walks in the presence of a density barrier. We write down conditional probabilities for multiple barrier crossings and derive from them analytic expressions for descendant and progenitor halo mass functions and halo merger rates as a function of both halo mass and the linear overdensity δ {sub e} of the larger-scale environment of the halo. Our results predict a higher halo merger rate and higher progenitor halo mass function in regions of higher overdensity, consistent with the behavior seen in N-body simulations.

  13. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. PMID:26803668

  14. Distribution and structure of the upper sublittoral macrobenthic communities of Tróia sand beaches (Setúbal, Portugal) and their relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Vale, Maria; Cabral, Henrique; Andrade, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined-(1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin. PMID:20383379

  15. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  16. Patient-centered care: antecedents, triggers, and mediators.

    PubMed

    Galland, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Functional medicine is essentially patient centered, rather than disease centered. A structure is presented for uniting a patient-centered approach to diagnosis and treatment with the fruits of modern clinical science (which evolved primarily to serve the prevailing model of disease-centered care). The core scientific concepts of disease pathogenesis are antecedents, triggers, and mediators. Antecedents are factors, genetic or acquired, that predispose to illness; triggers are factors that provoke the symptoms and signs of illness; and mediators are factors, biochemical or psychosocial, that contribute to pathological changes and dysfunctional responses. Understanding the antecedents, triggers, and mediators that underlie illness or dysfunction in each patient permits therapy to be targeted to the needs of the individual. The conventional diagnosis assigned to the patient may be of value in identifying plausible antecedents, triggers or mediators for each patient, but is not adequate by itself for the designing of patient-centered care. Applying the model of person-centered diagnosis to patients facilitates the recognition of disturbances that are common in people with chronic illness. Diet, nutrition, and exposure to environmental toxins play central roles in functional medicine because they may predispose to illness, provoke symptoms, and modulate the activity of biochemical mediators through a complex and diverse set of mechanisms. Explaining those mechanisms is a key objective of the Textbook of Functional Medicine (from which this article is excerpted). A patient's beliefs about health and illness are critically important for self-care and may influence both behavioral and physiological responses to illness. Perceived self-efficacy is an important mediator of health and healing. Enhancement of patients' self-efficacy through information, education, and the development of a collaborative relationship between patient and healer is a cardinal goal in all clinical

  17. The environmental rule in the shape of soft-sediment deformation structures in the shelf to base of slope settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnerat de Oliveira, Carlos M.

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) can be divided into in situ and detached structures. The latter include slides, slumps, and debrites (mass transport deposits) and dominate the literature compared to processes and products of deformation that takes place in situ. This study addresses in detail the origin and development of in situ SSDS and their stratigraphic and depositional context in well exposed shelf edge and upper to lower slope successions of the Karoo and the Neuquén basins. In the study areas, in situ SSDS occur preferentially in shelf-edge/upper-slope settings, but can also develop in middle and lower slope settings in association with detached structures. Flame and load structures are the most common in situ features and a systematic quantitative study of flame structures shows that they are elongated and have preferential orientation. The relationship between morphometric parameters, such as height, width and spacing, is statistically proven to be independent of the scale of occurrence and depositional environment in the majority of the cases. This indicates that similar physical and rheological conditions occurred during their formation in both shallow and deepwater environments. Divergence in the trends can indicate changes in the boundary conditions. Comparison of statistical results from Karoo and Neuquén datasets indicates a grain size influence on the dimension of structures; the greater the grain size the shorter the flame structures. Morphology of flame structures is independent of outcrop scale, as shown by statistical relationships. This characteristic allows prediction of the dimension/geometry of flame structures at outcrop scale. Extrapolation to scales below or above the range of outcrop limits must be done with care. The methodological basis for the evaluation of these out of outcrop scale situations are initiated here but still need to be effectively evaluated.

  18. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  19. TOTEM Trigger System Firmware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopal, Josef

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the TOTEM Trigger System Firmware that is operational at LHC since 2009. The TOTEM experiment is devoted to the forward hadronic physics at collision energy from 2.7 to 14TeV. It is composed of three different subdetectors that are placed at 9, 13.5, and 220m from the Interaction Point 5. A time-critical-logic firmware is implemented inside FPGA circuits to review collisions and to select the relevant ones to be stored by the Data Acquisition (DAQ). The Trigger system has been modified in the 2012-2013 LHC runs allowing the experiment to take data in cooperation with CMS.

  20. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  1. Relationship of basic research in toxicology to environmental standard setting: the case of polybrominated biphenyls in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Aust, S D; Millis, C D; Holcomb, L

    1987-01-01

    The accidental contamination of dairy cattle feed in Michigan in 1973-74 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the contamination of cattle and people consuming their products. This led to an extensive animal and product monitoring and disposal program conducted by the Michigan Department of Agriculture and the Department of Natural Resources. It also led to several studies of the people of Michigan, extensive research on the chemicals, and an unprecedented establishment by the Legislature of a Toxic Substance Control Commission. Only a few relatively minor components of the PBB mixture that contaminated Michigan are metabolized and another group of minor components seem responsible for the toxicity, which, similar to that caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), includes induction of microsomal enzymes, liver hypertrophy, thymic involution, porphyria, anorexia and chloracne. PBB were found to produce the "dioxin-like" toxicity with roughly 0.01% the potency of TCDD. Both non-toxic as well as toxic congeners were found to be tumor promotors. To date it is impossible to unequivocally conclude that any human health effects can be attributed to PBB. The Toxic Substance Control Commission was established as an independent oversight body with responsibility to gather information, investigate, coordinate and make recommendations concerning toxic substances and the handling of toxic substances incidents. The Commission has declared two toxic substances emergencies and made several recommendations for regulating and solving toxic substances problems but its major activities have evolved towards a role as an environmental ombudsman. PMID:3039942

  2. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  3. Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplace and away from work settings: A 16 city case study

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Guerin, M.R.; Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    A large study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air are collected, and subsequently analyzed for both particle phase and gas phase markers of ETS, including respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), UV-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status may be determined using salivary cotinine. Participants are segregated into a 2{times}2 factorial study design: smoking and non-smoking homes and workplaces. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the United States indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. The data indicates that median 8-hour or 16-hour exposure levels are considerably lower than those which would be extrapolated from short duration area measurements. Median exposure levels of nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and RSP were 0.034, 0.029, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} respectively in non-smoking workplaces, vs. 0.21, 0.16, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in workplaces where smoking was observed. Median 16-hour exposure levels for these same components away from work where subjects observed tobacco products in use were 0.36, 0.25, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, compared with 0.024, 0.019, and 15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} when no tobacco products were observed.

  4. A concept of integrated environmental approach for building upgrades and new construction: Part 1—setting the stage

    SciTech Connect

    Bomberg, Mark; Gibson, Michael; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-31

    This article highlights the need for an active role for building physics in the development of near-zero energy buildings while analyzing an example of an integrated system for the upgrade of existing buildings. The science called either Building Physics in Europe or Building Science in North America has so far a passive role in explaining observed failures in construction practice. In its new role, it would be integrating modeling and testing to provide predictive capability, so much needed in the development of near-zero energy buildings. The authors attempt to create a compact package, applicable to different climates with small modifications of some hygrothermal properties of materials. This universal solution is based on a systems approach that is routine for building physics but in contrast to separately conceived sub-systems that are typical for the design of buildings today. One knows that the building structure, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and moisture management all need to be considered to ensure durability of materials and control cost of near-zero energy buildings. These factors must be addressed through contributions of the whole design team. The same approach must be used for the retrofit of buildings. As this integrated design paradigm resulted from demands of sustainable built environment approach, building physics must drop its passive role and improve two critical domains of analysis: (i) linked, real-time hygrothermal and energy models capable of predicting the performance of existing buildings after renovation and (ii) basic methods of indoor environment and moisture management when the exterior of the building cannot be modified.

  5. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  6. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  7. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  8. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  9. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    , geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  10. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land

  11. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  12. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  13. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Band, D.; Kippen, M.

    2004-09-28

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  14. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  16. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  17. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  18. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  19. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  20. Triggered Codeswitching between Cognate Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2009-01-01

    This study shows further evidence for triggered codeswitching. In natural speech from a Dutch-English bilingual, codeswitches occurred more often directly next to a cognate (or "trigger word") than elsewhere. This evidence from typologically related, cognate languages extends previous evidence for triggering between typologically unrelated…

  1. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  2. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. PMID:27463140

  3. Video event trigger and tracking system using fuzzy comparators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A video observation method and apparatus, the apparatus having a frame storage mechanism, a dividing mechanism, a plurality of fuzzy comparators and a trigger signal mechanism. The frame storage mechanism stores at least one non-current video frame of a viewing field. The dividing mechanism divides a current video frame of the viewing field and the at least one non-current video frame into a plurality of corresponding trigger sections. The plurality of fuzzy comparators each compare and detect a fuzzy logic difference between one trigger section of the current video frame and the corresponding trigger sections of the at least one non-current video frame, the number of fuzzy comparators being selected so that every trigger section of the current video frame is compared. The trigger signal mechanism provides a trigger signal when a fuzzy logic difference is detected between any of the corresponding current and non-current trigger sections. A video observation mechanism and data reducing mechanism may be included with the above apparatus or alone with only a frame storage mechanism, a single generic comparator and a trigger signal mechanism. The video observation mechanism provides a video data stream, wherein each pixel of each frame of a viewing field is provided as multiple bits of data. The data reducing mechanism reduces each set of multiple bits of data which correspond to each pixel to one bit of binary data based on whether the pixel has a level of grey which is above or below a threshold level of grey.

  4. Effector triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria produce virulence factors called effectors, which are important components of the infection process. Effectors aid in pathogenesis by facilitating bacterial attachment, pathogen entry into or exit from the host cell, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression. Effectors also have the ability to subvert host cellular processes, such as hijacking cytoskeletal machinery or blocking protein translation. However, host cells possess an evolutionarily conserved innate immune response that can sense the pathogen through the activity of its effectors and mount a robust immune response. This “effector triggered immunity” (ETI) was first discovered in plants but recent evidence suggest that the process is also well conserved in metazoans. We will discuss salient points of the mechanism of ETI in metazoans from recent studies done in mammalian cells and invertebrate model hosts. PMID:25513770

  5. Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River basin, Alabama and Tennessee, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting were evaluated at 20 streams in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River Basin during the spring of 1999. Sites were selected to represent a gradient of cropland densities in basins draining about 30 to 100 square miles. Fish communities were sampled by using a combination of seining and electrofishing techniques. A total of 10,550 individual fish, representing 63 species and 15 families, were collected during the study and included the families Cyprinidae (minnows), 18 species; Percidae (perch and darters), 12 species; and Centrarchidae (sunfish), 12 species. Assessments of environmental characteristics, including instream and terrestrial data and land-cover data, were conducted for each site. Instream measurements, such as depth, velocity, substrate type, and embeddedness, were recorded at 3 points across 11 equidistant transects at each site. Terrestrial measurements, such as bank angle, canopy angle, and canopy closure percentage, were made along the stream bank and midchannel areas. Water-quality data collected included pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, water temperature, nutrients, and fecal-indicator bacteria. Substrate embeddedness was the only variable correlated with both cropland density and fish communities (as characterized by ordination scores and several community level metrics). Multivariate and nonparametric correlation techniques were used to evaluate fish-community responses to physical and chemical factors associated with a cropland-density gradient, where the gradient was defined as the percentage of the basin in row crops. Principal component analysis and correspondence analysis suggest that the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion is composed of three subgroups of sites based on inherent physical and biological differences. Data for the subgroup containing the largest number of sites were then re-analyzed, revealing that several

  6. Mirror-image trigger thumb in dichorionic identical twins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eric D; Xu, Xiaoti; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-06-01

    The congenital vs acquired etiology of pediatric trigger thumb is the subject of considerable debate. Existing case reports of bilateral presentation in identical twins and first-degree familial association support the congenital hypothesis. However, prospective studies have yet to report a neonate presenting with this anomaly at birth. This article describes the first known set of dichorionic, monozygotic identical twins with unilateral trigger thumbs, affecting contralateral (mirror-image) hands and with asynchronous age at presentation (11 months and 18 months, respectively).Pediatric trigger thumb is caused by a mismatch between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and its A1 synovial pulley. Four sets of twins have been previously reported in the literature with trigger thumb. Of these, 3 sets were monozygotic twins who had bilaterally affected thumbs. Together with the absence of trauma, a congenital etiology was suggested. The fact that pediatric trigger thumb is generally seen several months after birth was felt to be due to infants holding their thumbs clutched in their palms until 6 months. However, no confirmed cases of trigger thumb have been diagnosed at birth in several large prospective studies of newborns.In the current case, the asynchronous presentation of unilateral trigger thumbs in identical twins does not support a solely congenital cause. Furthermore, the mirror-image presentation contradicts current embryological understanding of the temporal course of twinning and the determination of laterality. Thus, a multifactorial etiology is supported with both a genetic and acquired component affecting the development of this condition. PMID:22691680

  7. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  8. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  9. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  10. Protein environmental effects on iron-sulfur clusters: A set of rules for constructing computational models for inner and outer coordination spheres.

    PubMed

    Harris, Travis V; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    The structural properties and reactivity of iron-sulfur proteins are greatly affected by interactions between the prosthetic groups and the surrounding amino acid residues. Thus, quantum chemical investigations of the structure and properties of protein-bound iron-sulfur clusters can be severely limited by truncation of computational models. The aim of this study was to identify, a priori, significant interactions that must be included in a quantum chemical model. Using the [2Fe-2S] accessory cluster of the FeFe-hydrogenase as a demonstrative example with rich electronic structural features, the electrostatic and covalent effects of the surrounding side chains, charged groups, and backbone moieties were systematically mapped through density functional theoretical calculations. Electron affinities, spin density differences, and delocalization indexes from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules were used to evaluate the importance of each interaction. Case studies for hydrogen bonding and charged side-chain interactions were used to develop selection rules regarding the significance of a given protein environmental effect. A set of general rules is proposed for constructing quantum chemical models for iron-sulfur active sites that capture all significant interactions from the protein environment. This methodology was applied to our previously used models in galactose oxidase and the 6Fe-cluster of FeFe-hydrogenase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117497

  11. Pathways of Pb and Mn observed in a 5-year longitudinal investigation in young children and environmental measures from an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Taylor, Alan; Korsch, Michael; Davis, J Michael; Louie, Honway; Wu, Michael; Gomez, Laura; Antin, Luminita

    2014-08-01

    We monitored 108 children ≤5 years on a 6-month basis for up to 5 years in a major urban setting. Samples (n ∼ 7000) included blood, urine, handwipes (interior, and after exterior playing), 6-day duplicate diet, drinking water, interior house and day care dust-fall accumulation using petri dishes, exterior dust-fall accumulation, exterior dust sweepings, paint, soil and urban air. The geometric mean blood Pb (PbB) was 2.1 μg/dL and blood Mn (MnB) was 10.0 μg/L. Following a path modelling approach, mixed model analyses for a fully adjusted model showed the strongest associations for PbB were with interior house dust and soil; for MnB there were no significant associations with any predictors. Predictor variables only explained 9% of the variance for Pb and 0.7% for Mn. Relationships between environmental measures and PbB in children are not straightforward; soil and dust sweepings contribute only about 1/5th of the amounts to PbB found in other studies. PMID:24792883

  12. Improvement of the identification of four heavy metals in environmental samples by using predictive decision tree models coupled with a set of five bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Sulivan; Durand, Marie-José; Courcoux, Philippe; Blusseau, Thomas; Thouand, Gérald

    2011-04-01

    A primary statistical model based on the crossings between the different detection ranges of a set of five bioluminescent bacterial strains was developed to identify and quantify four metals which were at several concentrations in different mixtures: cadmium, arsenic III, mercury, and copper. Four specific decision trees based on the CHAID algorithm (CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector type) which compose this model were designed from a database of 576 experiments (192 different mixture conditions). A specific software, 'Metalsoft', helped us choose the best decision tree and a user-friendly way to identify the metal. To validate this innovative approach, 18 environmental samples containing a mixture of these metals were submitted to a bioassay and to standardized chemical methods. The results show on average a high correlation of 98.6% for the qualitative metal identification and 94.2% for the quantification. The results are particularly encouraging, and our model is able to provide semiquantitative information after only 60 min without pretreatments of samples. PMID:21355529

  13. Triggering with the LHCb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Regis; LHCb Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC has been conceived to pursue high precision studies of CP violation and rare phenomena in b hadron decays. The online selection is crucial in LHCb and relies on the calorimeters to trigger on high transverse energy electrons, photons, π0 and hadrons. In this purpose a dedicated electronic has been realized. The calorimeter trigger system has been commissioned and is used to trigger on cosmic muons before beams start circulating in the LHC. When the LHC will start, it will also provide a very useful interaction trigger.

  14. Determination of dual parameter auto-sampling trigger thresholds for pollutant load monitoring in various land uses.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, Fidelia; Gurr, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Environmental pollutants are health hazards and are typically transported during runoff events. Monitoring the loadings of these pollutants with auto-samplers require precise trigger thresholds to effectively account for total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) entering natural water bodies. Traditionally, auto-samplers are triggered by delaying the start of sampling until pollutant wave is present during rainfall event. The rainfall-related triggers are typically limited to small watersheds, where lag and travel times are consistent and predictable. However, in large and more complex watersheds, flow or stage is typically used either by a set threshold on change in instantaneous flow rate or water level. Generally, trigger thresholds are difficult to establish due to seasonal fluctuations in stream flow and variations in rainfall. This study investigated dual parameter trigger based on instantaneous change and variance from a moving average for flow and stage. Nineteen auto-samplers, installed within six watersheds of varying land uses in City of Kissimmee, FL, were evaluated over 3-year period. The results suggested that using 20- to 30-min moving average of 5-min sampling interval for both parameters was sufficient to detect pollutant waves with minimal false triggers. Also, change from average flow rate (∆Qave) and a percent change from average stage (∆Have%) were found to the preferred parameters. The ∆Have% values ranging from -0.012 to 0.20% and ∆Qave ranging from 0.014 to 0.850 m(3)/s were found to give effective results for all stations in the study area. It was also observed that these trigger thresholds varied with land use, stream flow condition, and auto-sampler locations within the watershed. PMID:25838061

  15. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  16. Triggering of repeated earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Zakrzhevskaya, N. A.; Sobolev, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the world's earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.5 for 1960-2013, it is shown that they cause global-scale coherent seismic oscillations which most distinctly manifest themselves in the period interval of 4-6 min during 1-3 days after the event. After these earthquakes, a repeated shock has an increased probability to occur in different seismically active regions located as far away as a few thousand km from the previous event, i.e., a remote interaction of seismic events takes place. The number of the repeated shocks N( t) decreases with time, which characterizes the memory of the lithosphere about the impact that has occurred. The time decay N( t) can be approximated by the linear, exponential, and powerlaw dependences. No distinct correlation between the spatial locations of the initial and repeated earthquakes is revealed. The probable triggering mechanisms of the remote interaction between the earthquakes are discussed. Surface seismic waves traveling several times around the Earth's, coherent oscillations, and global source are the most preferable candidates. This may lead to the accumulation and coalescence of ruptures in the highly stressed or weakened domains of a seismically active region, which increases the probability of a repeated earthquake.

  17. Urinary trace element concentrations in environmental settings: is there a value for systematic creatinine adjustment or do we introduce a bias?

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; Deumer, Gladys; Bernard, Alfred; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Systematic creatinine adjustment of urinary concentrations of biomarkers has been a challenge over the past years because the assumption of a constant creatinine excretion rate appears erroneous and the issue of overadjustment has recently emerged. This study aimed at determining whether systematic creatinine adjustment is to be recommended for urinary concentrations of trace elements (TEs) in environmental settings. Paired 24-h collection and random spot urine samples (spotU) were obtained from 39 volunteers not occupationally exposed to TEs. Four models to express TEs concentration in spotU were tested to predict the 24-h excretion rate of these TEs (TEμg/24h) considered as the gold standard reference: absolute concentration (TEμg/l); ratio to creatinine (TEμg/gcr); TEμg/gcr adjusted to creatinine (TEμg/gcr-adj); and concentration adjusted to specific gravity (TEμg/l-SG). As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, V and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. There was no single pattern of relationship between urinary TEs concentrations in spotU and TEμg/24h. TEμg/l predicted TEμg/24h with an explained variance ranging from 0 to 60%. Creatinine adjustment improved the explained variance by an additional 5 to ~60% for many TEs, but with a risk of overadjustment for the most of them. This issue could be addressed by adjusting TE concentrations on the basis of the regression coefficient of the relationship between TEμg/gcr and creatinine concentration. SG adjustment was as suitable as creatinine adjustment to predict TEμg/24h with no SG-overadjustment (except V). Regarding Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Te, none of the models were found to reflect TEμg/24h. In the context of environmental exposure, systematic creatinine adjustment is not recommended for urinary concentrations of TEs. SG adjustment appears to be a more reliable alternative. For some TEs, however, neither methods appear suitable. PMID:25827313

  18. Fermi GBM Early Trigger Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Paciesas, Bill; Meegan, Charles

    2009-05-25

    Since the launch of the Fermi observatory on June 11 2008, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has seen approximately 250 triggers of which about 150 were cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GBM operates dozens of trigger algorithms covering various energy bands and timescales and is therefore sensitive to a wide variety of phenomena, both astrophysical and not.

  19. The role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato fruit set depends on successful pollination and fertilization, which trigger the fruit developmental programme through the activation of the auxin and gibberellin signalling pathways. However, the exact role of each of these two hormones is still poorly understood, probably because only few of the signalling components involved have been identified so far. Recent research on fruit set induced by hormone applications has led to new insights into hormone biosynthesis and signalling. The aim of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set. PMID:19321650

  20. Peptide motif analysis predicts alphaviruses as triggers for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hogeboom, Charissa

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops in response to both genetic and environmental factors. The strongest genetic determinant is HLA-DR, where polymorphisms within the P4 and P6 binding pockets confer elevated risk. However, low disease concordance across monozygotic twin pairs underscores the importance of an environmental factor, probably infectious. The goal of this investigation was to predict the microorganism most likely to interact with HLA-DR to trigger RA under the molecular mimicry hypothesis. A set of 185 structural proteins from viruses or intracellular bacteria was scanned for regions of sequence homology with a collagen peptide that binds preferentially to DR4; candidates were then evaluated against a motif required for T cell cross-reactivity. The plausibility of the predicted agent was evaluated by comparison of microbial prevalence patterns to epidemiological characteristics of RA. Peptides from alphavirus capsid proteins provided the closest fit. Variations in the P6 position suggest that the HLA binding preference may vary by species, with Ross River virus, Chikungunya virus, and Mayaro virus peptides binding preferentially to DR4, and peptides from Sindbis/Ockelbo virus showing stronger affinity to DR1. The predicted HLA preference is supported by epidemiological studies of post-infection chronic arthralgia. Parallels between the cytokine profiles of RA and chronic alphavirus infection are discussed. PMID:26476978

  1. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  2. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  3. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    PubMed

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans. PMID:24379158

  4. Low-power triggered data acquisition system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champaigne, Kevin (Inventor); Sumners, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-power triggered data acquisition system and method utilizes low-powered circuitry, comparators, and digital logic incorporated into a miniaturized device interfaced with self-generating transducer sensor inputs to detect, identify and assess impact and damage to surfaces and structures wherein, upon the occurrence of a triggering event that produces a signal greater than a set threshold changes the comparator output and causes the system to acquire and store digital data representative of the incoming waveform on at least one triggered channel. The sensors may be disposed in an array to provide triangulation and location of the impact.

  5. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  6. Pulsed thyristor trigger control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A trigger control circuit is provided for producing firing pulses for the thyristor of a thyristor control system such as a power factor controller. The control circuit overcomes thyristor triggering problems involved with the current lag associated with controlling inductive loads and utilizes a phase difference signal, already present in the power factor controller, in deriving a signal for inhibiting generation of a firing pulse until no load current is flowing from the preceding half cycle and thereby ensuring that the thyristor is triggered on during each half cycle.

  7. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  8. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar. PMID:16208360

  9. piRNAs Can Trigger a Multigenerational Epigenetic Memory in the Germline of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Alyson; Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Weick, Eva-Maria; Mitchell, Jacinth; Bagijn, Marloes P.; Cording, Amy C.; Doebley, Anna-Lisa; Goldstein, Leonard D.; Lehrbach, Nicolas J.; Le Pen, Jérémie; Pintacuda, Greta; Sakaguchi, Aisa; Sarkies, Peter; Ahmed, Shawn; Miska, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transgenerational effects have wide-ranging implications for human health, biological adaptation, and evolution; however, their mechanisms and biology remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a germline nuclear small RNA/chromatin pathway can maintain stable inheritance for many generations when triggered by a piRNA-dependent foreign RNA response in C. elegans. Using forward genetic screens and candidate approaches, we find that a core set of nuclear RNAi and chromatin factors is required for multigenerational inheritance of environmental RNAi and piRNA silencing. These include a germline-specific nuclear Argonaute HRDE1/WAGO-9, a HP1 ortholog HPL-2, and two putative histone methyltransferases, SET-25 and SET-32. piRNAs can trigger highly stable long-term silencing lasting at least 20 generations. Once established, this long-term memory becomes independent of the piRNA trigger but remains dependent on the nuclear RNAi/chromatin pathway. Our data present a multigenerational epigenetic inheritance mechanism induced by piRNAs. PMID:22738725

  10. The D0 upgrade trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Eno, S.

    1994-09-01

    The current trigger system for the D0 detector at Fermilab`s Tevatron will need to be upgraded when the Min Injector is installed and the Tevatron can operate at luminosities exceeding 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and with a crossing time of 132 ns. We report on preliminary designs for upgrades to the trigger system for the Main Injector era.

  11. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  12. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  13. Conformal Prediction Classification of a Large Data Set of Environmental Chemicals from ToxCast and Tox21 Estrogen Receptor Assays.

    PubMed

    Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott

    2016-06-20

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are critical to exploitation of the chemical information in toxicology databases. Exploitation can be extraction of chemical knowledge from the data but also making predictions of new chemicals based on quantitative analysis of past findings. In this study, we analyzed the ToxCast and Tox21 estrogen receptor data sets using Conformal Prediction to enhance the full exploitation of the information in these data sets. We applied aggregated conformal prediction (ACP) to the ToxCast and Tox21 estrogen receptor data sets using support vector machine classifiers to compare overall performance of the models but, more importantly, to explore the performance of ACP on data sets that are significantly enriched in one class without employing sampling strategies of the training set. ACP was also used to investigate the problem of applicability domain using both data sets. Comparison of ACP to previous results obtained on the same data sets using traditional QSAR approaches indicated similar overall balanced performance to methods in which careful training set selections were made, e.g., sensitivity and specificity for the external Tox21 data set of 70-75% and far superior results to those obtained using traditional methods without training set sampling where the corresponding results showed a clear imbalance of 50 and 96%, respectively. Application of conformal prediction to imbalanced data sets facilitates an unambiguous analysis of all data, allows accurate predictive models to be built which display similar accuracy in external validation to external validation, and, most importantly, allows an unambiguous treatment of the applicability domain. PMID:27152554

  14. Performance evaluation of trigger algorithm for the MACE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Kuldeep; Yadav, K. K.; Bhatt, N.; Chouhan, N.; Sikder, S. S.; Behere, A.; Pithawa, C. K.; Tickoo, A. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mitra, A. K.; Koul, R.

    The MACE (Major Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiment) telescope with a light collector diameter of 21 m, is being set up at Hanle (32.80 N, 78.90 E, 4200m asl) India, to explore the gamma-ray sky in the tens of GeV energy range. The imaging camera of the telescope comprises 1088 pixels covering a total field-of-view of 4.30 × 4.00 with trigger field-of-view of 2.60 × 3.00 and an uniform pixel resolution of 0.120. In order to achieve low energy trigger threshold of less than 30 GeV, a two level trigger scheme is being designed for the telescope. The first level trigger is generated within 16 pixels of the Camera Integrated Module (CIM) based on 4 nearest neighbour (4NN) close cluster configuration within a coincidence gate window of 5 ns while the second level trigger is generated by combining the first level triggers from neighbouring CIMs. Each pixel of the telescope is expected to operate at a single pixel threshold between 8-10 photo-electrons where the single channel rate dominated by the after- pulsing is expected to be ˜500 kHz. The hardware implementation of the trigger logic is based on complex programmable logic devices (CPLD). The basic design concept, hardware implementation and performance evaluation of the trigger system in terms of threshold energy and trigger rate estimates based on Monte Carlo data for the MACE telescope will be presented in this meeting.

  15. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  16. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  17. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  18. Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

    2009-06-11

    The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

  19. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  20. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  1. Know Your Smoking Triggers | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Triggers are the things that make you want to smoke. Different people have different triggers, like a stressful situation, sipping coffee, going to a party, or smelling cigarette smoke. Most triggers fall into one of these four categories: Emotional Pattern Social Withdrawal Knowing your triggers and understanding the best way to deal with them is your first line of defense.

  2. Integral magnetic ignition pickup trigger

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a trigger system for the ignition system of an internal combustion engine having a crankcase with a rotatable crankshaft therein, and a flywheel on one end of the crankcase connected to an end of the crankshaft. It comprises: a nonferromagnetic disk-shaped hub for connection to the crankshaft and rotatable therewith on the end opposite the flywheel; and a stationary sensor mounted adjacent the hub for detecting impulses from the magnetically responsive elements as the hub rotates and utilizing the impulses to trigger the ignition system.

  3. Detector array control and triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Bartolucci, M. |

    1998-08-01

    A commercial DSP-based board installed in a host-PC was employed for the fast, on-line and real-time computation of special algorithms, in order to perform event selection and operate as a 2nd level trigger. Moreover an ad hoc build interface, realized using PLDs with a view to connecting the DSP-board to the ADCs and to the data acquisition system, has been tested in order to evaluate the performances of these programmable devices used as a look-up-table and as a decisional part of a 1st level trigger.

  4. Alternative strategy for Alzheimer's disease: stress response triggers.

    PubMed

    Smith Sonneborn, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Stress resistance capacity is a hallmark of longevity protection and survival throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Latent pathway activation of protective cascades, triggered by environmental challenges to tolerate heat, oxygen deprivation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), diet restriction, and exercise provides tolerance to these stresses. Age-related changes and disease vulnerability mark an increase in damage, like damage induced by environmental challenges. An alternative approach to immunotherapy intervention in Alzheimer's Disease is the use of mimetics of stress to upregulate endogenous protective cascades to repair age damage, shift the balance of apoptosis to regeneration to promote delay of onset, and even progression of Alzheimer's disease memory dysfunction. Mimetics of environmental stress, hormetic agents, and triggers, endogenous or engineered, can "trick" activation of expression patterns of repair and rejuvenation. Examples of known candidate triggers of heat response, endogenous antioxidants, DNA repair, exercise, hibernation, and telomeres are available for AD intervention trials. Telomeres and telomerase emerge as major regulators in crossroads of senescence, cancer, and rejuvenation responsive to mimetics of telomeres. Lessons emerge from transgenic rodent models, the long-lived mole rat, clinical studies, and conserved innate pathways of stress resistance. Cross-reaction of benefits of different triggers promises intervention into seemingly otherwise unrelated diseases. PMID:22655213

  5. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  6. Estimation of health risks and safety margins due to inhalation of ultrafine particles and nanoparticles in selected occupational, consumer and environmental settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Otto; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Loh, Miranda; Stoeger, Tobias; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Schmid, Otmar; Peters, Annette

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit properties different from those of the same bulk materials leading to unknown toxicological implications that have evoked concern for (1) occupational, (2) consumer and (3) environmental safety. The current work utilizes epidemiological and toxicological data for screening level assessment of these risks using various suggested health relevant dose metrics (mass, particle number and surface area) to (i) quantify the potential risk levels and to (ii) compare the properties of these alternative risk assessment methods.

  7. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  8. Host defenses trigger salmonella's arsenal.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-03-17

    Salmonella survives in macrophages by using a molecular syringe to deliver proteins into the host-cell cytosol where they manipulate phagocyte physiology. Arpaia and colleagues (Arpaia et al., 2011) show that deployment of this virulence factor is triggered by the very responses that are intended to confer host resistance. PMID:21402352

  9. Using the Many-Faceted Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard Setting Judgments: An Illustration with the Advanced Placement Environmental Science Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela K.; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Reshetar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    The many-faceted Rasch (MFR) model has been used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR model for examining the quality of ratings obtained from a standard…

  10. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 2: PROCEDURES USED IN SETTING UP THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The procedures used in setting up the agricultural production model used in a study of alternatives for reducing insecticides on cotton and corn are described. The major analytical tool used is a spatial equilibrium model of U.S. agriculture. This is a linear programming model th...

  11. A Parameterization for the Triggering of Landscape Generated Moist Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Abramopoulos, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A set of relatively high resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations were produced to investigate the triggering of moist convection by landscape generated mesoscale circulations. The local accumulated rainfall varied monotonically (linearly) with the size of individual landscape patches, demonstrating the need to develop a trigger function that is sensitive to the size of individual patches. A new triggering function that includes the effect of landscapes generated mesoscale circulations over patches of different sizes consists of a parcel's perturbation in vertical velocity (nu(sub 0)), temperature (theta(sub 0)), and moisture (q(sub 0)). Each variable in the triggering function was also sensitive to soil moisture gradients, atmospheric initial conditions, and moist processes. The parcel's vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture perturbation were partitioned into mesoscale and turbulent components. Budget equations were derived for theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). Of the many terms in this set of budget equations, the turbulent, vertical flux of the mesoscale temperature and moisture contributed most to the triggering of moist convection through the impact of these fluxes on the parcel's temperature and moisture profile. These fluxes needed to be parameterized to obtain theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). The mesoscale vertical velocity also affected the profile of nu(sub 0). We used similarity theory to parameterize these fluxes as well as the parcel's mesoscale vertical velocity.

  12. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  13. Usage pattern-based exposure screening as a simple tool for the regional priority-setting in environmental risk assessment of veterinary antibiotics: a case study of north-western Germany.

    PubMed

    Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K

    2015-05-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely recognized as important environmental contaminants. Despite the extensive use of antibiotic agents in meat and poultry production and the known resistance problems in human and veterinary medicine, detailed knowledge about usage patterns of VAs in Germany is still scarce. This lack of knowledge severely impacts current research on the environmental risk of VAs, but it is expected that recently established surveillance programs for antimicrobial drug usage will close this knowledge gap. Therefore, a spatially more precise environmental risk assessment and management might become possible in the near future. In this study, a new usage pattern-based exposure screening (UPES) approach for the comprehensive environmental exposure assessment of veterinary antibiotics was preliminarily assessed using approximated scenarios of antimicrobial substance usage in German meat and poultry production. Resulting predicted manure concentrations covered seven orders of magnitude ranging from ng kg(-1) to g kg(-1) dry weight (dw). Beyond that 14 antibiotic substances of 10 different antimicrobial classes were predicted to have the potential to occur in soil concentrations higher than 100 μg kg(-1) dw. These findings raise further questions regarding the environmental exposure and risks of frequently used VAs, especially in regions with higher-than-average livestock density. With this case study we demonstrate that UPES simplifies to account for differing local agricultural factors and therefore facilitates priority-setting on a regional level. In this context a simple prioritization scheme for environmental assessment of VAs, considering both the expected environmental concentration and the frequency of application, is proposed in this paper. PMID:25655696

  14. Environmental setting of Lake Mead National Recreation Area: Chapter 2 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Kent; Rosen, Michael R.; Holdren, G. Chris; Goodbred, Steven L.; Twichell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Lakes Mead and Mohave provide opportunities for millions of regional, national, and international visitors to enjoy a wide array of water-based recreation in a spectacular desert setting. The national significance of the site’s recreational opportunities and scientific values led to its designation as the nation’s first National Recreation Area in 1964. The stark contrast of the deep blue lakes with spacious open water basins against a backdrop of mountain and canyon scenery creates a diversity of landscapes inviting recreation from the active to the contemplative (Maxon, 2009). The quality of the setting as a backdrop for the recreational experience has resulted in designation of approximately 200,000 acres of lands surrounding the lakes as wilderness (National Park Service, 2005).

  15. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  16. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  17. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  18. The L3 energy trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Cesaroni, F.; Gentile, S.; Lunadei, G.; Fukushima, M.; Herten, G.; Hebbeker, T.

    1989-11-01

    The L3 first-level energy trigger is based on energy measurements in electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and in luminosity monitors. The information from these detectors is evaluated and a decision is taken in about 20 μs (the time between two bunch crossings in LEP is 22 μs). This trigger makes use of 300 CAMAC modules: an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a BUS multiplexer (BS), a memory lookup table (MLU), a data stack (DS) and a fast encoding and readout ADC (FERA), each of them performing dedicated functions. The data are transmitted via front-panel ECL buses. The CAMAC data-way is used only for initialization and checking purposes. The system operates synchronously with a period of 60 ns.

  19. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  20. On the sensitivity of transtensional versus transpressional tectonic regimes to remote dynamic triggering by Coulomb failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2015-01-01

     Accumulating evidence, although still strongly spatially aliased, indicates that although remote dynamic triggering of small-to-moderate (Mw<5) earthquakes can occur in all tectonic settings, transtensional stress regimes with normal and subsidiary strike-slip faulting seem to be more susceptible to dynamic triggering than transpressional regimes with reverse and subsidiary strike-slip faulting. Analysis of the triggering potential of Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses incident on normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults assuming Andersonian faulting theory and simple Coulomb failure supports this apparent difference for rapid-onset triggering susceptibility.

  1. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  2. Ichnological evidence for the environmental setting of the Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Owen E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Bartels, Christoph

    1999-03-01

    Analysis of the ichnology and sedimentology of the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany, reveals that the distribution and preservation of the famous pyritized fauna were controlled by the deposition of fine-grained turbidites that formed a firm substrate. The nature of this substrate is evidenced by the preservation of laminae and the finest details of arthropod trackways. The trace fossils are dominated by two ecological groups: those made by epifaunal organisms and those involving burrow systems connected to the sediment-water interface. Trace makers that moved through the sediment are poorly represented. The diversity of in situ body fossils and epifaunal traces confirms that conditions within the water column remained well oxygenated, even though the sediment rapidly became inhospitable. The Hunsrück Slate Konservat-Lagerstätten are remarkable in preserving soft tissues where unusual geochemical conditions prevailed in the environment where the animals lived, rather than following transport to a different setting.

  3. A vertex trigger based on cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Bösiger, K.; Lindfeld, L.; Müller, K.; Robmann, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Steiner, S.; Straumann, U.; Szeker, K.; Truöl, P.; Urban, M.; Vollhardt, A.; Werner, N.; Baumeister, D.; Löchner, S.; Hildebrandt, M.

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the technical implementation and the performance of the z-vertex trigger (CIP2k), which is part of the H1-experiment at HERA. The HERA storage ring and collider was designed to investigate electron (and positron) proton scattering at a center-of-mass energy of 320 GeV. To improve the sensitivity for detecting non-standard model physics and other high momentum transfer phenomena, the HERA ring has been ungraded between 2000 and 2003 to increase the specific luminosity for the experiments. In order to cope with the increased event and background rate the experiments were upgraded, too. The CIP2k trigger system is based on a set of five cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout, and allows to distinguish between events induced by beam background and ep-interactions at the first trigger stage. The trigger decision is calculated dead-time free with a latency of 1.5 μs in parallel to the beam clock at 10.4 MHz. The trigger-logic is realized in large field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) using the hardware description language Verilog. The system is operational since October 2003. It suppresses background events with high efficiency and provides event timing information, as designed.

  4. The central trigger control system of the CMS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurok, A.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Eichberger, M.; Erö, J.; Hartl, Ch; Jeitler, M.; Kastner, K.; Mikulec, I.; Neuherz, B.; Padrta, M.; Sakulin, H.; Strauss, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Varela, J.; Smith, W. H.

    2011-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will deliver up to 32 million physics collisions per second. This rate is far too high to be processed by present-day computer farms, let alone stored on disk by the experiments for offline analysis. A fast selection of interesting events must therefore be made. In the CMS experiment, this is implemented in two stages: the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment uses custom-made, fast electronics, while the experiment's high-level trigger is implemented in computer farms. The Level-1 Global Trigger electronics has to receive signals from the subdetector systems that enter the trigger (mostly from muon detectors and calorimeters), synchronize them, determine if a pre-set trigger condition is fulfilled, check if the various subsystems are ready to accept triggers based on information from the Trigger Throttling System and on calculations of possible dead-times, and finally distribute the trigger decision (``Level-1 Accept'') together with timing signals to the subdetectors over the so-called ``Trigger, Timing and Control'' distribution tree of the experiment. These functions are fulfilled by several specialized, custom-made VME modules, most of which are housed in one crate. The overall control is exerted by the central ``Trigger Control System'', which is described in this paper. It consists of one main module and several ancillary boards for input and output functions.

  5. Setting Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  6. Heat shock triggers rapid protein phosphorylation in soybean seedings

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, H.B.; Pueppke, S.G.

    1987-10-29

    Heat shock arrests the synthesis of many cellular proteins and simultaneously initiates expression of a unique set of proteins, termed heat shock proteins. We have found that heat shock rapidly triggers phosphorylation of a set of proteins in soybean seedlings. Although the kinetics of phosphorylation and the heat shock response are similar, the major identified phosphorylation products do not comigrate with heat shock proteins on polyacrylamide gels. Cadmium, which is known to induce the heat shock response, stimulates phosphorylation of the same set of proteins. The rapidity of phosphorylation suggests that it may play a pivotal role in sensing and transducing elevated temperature stress in plants.

  7. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T.; Rodgers, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Improvement in understanding of the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (Environmental Continuous Air Monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAM''s with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions. As of May 1, 1998 (1/2 year into the project) the research-prototype 30-cm pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) is assembled and operational with an alpha particle energy resolution of better than 45 keV for 5-MeV alpha particles. Measurements of spectral resolution for alpha particles from radon decay products have been made as a function of filter type and dust loading conditions. So far, a study of ten filter types has found that the best combination of resolution and throughput is obtained with 3.0 \\265m Millipore fluoropore and 1.0 \\265m Corning FNMB filters. Experiments with gypsum and Portland cement dust in the size range 1 to 20 \\265m indicate significant degradation in alpha particle resolution for dust loading above about 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Study of metalized films for possible use as a PIC window indicate a minimum broadening of 5-MeV alpha particle peaks from 43 (no film) to 301 keV (with film) for AVR film type B8 (0.20 mg cm{sup -2} polycarbonate). A modified ECAM sampling head, equipped with an optical microscopy system feeding data to a high resolution video data capture and logging instrument, was constructed. This system will enable time-lapse study of dust build-up on ECAM filters and formation of dendrite structures that can reduce alpha-particle resolution.'

  8. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  9. Structural and functional diversity of Nematoda in relation with environmental variables in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons, Western Iberian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingels, Jeroen; Billett, David S. M.; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Wolff, George A.; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-12-01

    Samples collected at two different depths (ca. 3200 and ca. 4200 m) in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons off the Portuguese coast, during the HERMES RRS Charles Darwin cruise CD179, were analysed for (1) sediment biogeochemistry (TOC, TN) and (2) composition, and structural and trophic diversity of nematode communities. Multivariate PERMANOVA analysis on the nematode community data revealed differences between sediment layers that were greater than differences between canyons, water depths, and stations. This suggests that biogeochemical gradients along the vertical sediment profile are crucial in determining nematode community structure. The interaction between canyon conditions and the nematode community is illustrated by biogeochemical patterns in the sediment and the prevalence of nematode genera that are able to persist in disturbed sediments. Trophic analysis of the nematode community indicated that non-selective deposit feeders are dominant, presumably because of their non-selective feeding behaviour compared to other feeding types, which gives them a competitive advantage in exploiting lower-quality food resources. This study presents a preliminary conceptual scheme for interactions between canyon conditions and the resident fauna.

  10. Individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Pek Kei; McNeill, Ann; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Xu, Steve; Quah, Anne C. K.; Jiang, Yuan; Shahab, Lion

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the most prominent individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data come from Waves 1-3 (2006-2009) of the ITC China Survey, analysed cross-sectionally as person-waves (N=14,358). Measures included socio-demographic and smoking characteristics. Those who quit between waves (4.3%) were asked about triggers that “very much” led them to stop smoking, and continuing smokers about triggers that “very much” made them think about quitting. Triggers covered individual (personal health concerns, cigarette price, smoking restrictions, advertisements, warning labels) and interpersonal factors (family/societal disapproval of smoking, setting an example to children, concerns about second-hand smoke). Results Over a third of respondents (34.9%) endorsed at least one trigger strongly; quitters were more likely than smokers to mention any trigger. While similar proportions of smokers endorsed individual (24.4%) and interpersonal triggers (24.0%), quitters endorsed more individual (61.1%) than interpersonal (48.3%) triggers. However, the most common triggers (‘personal health concerns’; ‘setting an example to children’) were the same, endorsed by two-thirds of quitters and a quarter of smokers, as were the least common triggers (‘warning labels’; ‘cigarette price’), endorsed by one in ten quitters and one in twenty smokers. Lower dependence among smokers and greater education among all respondents were associated with endorsing any trigger. Conclusions Individual rather than interpersonal triggers appear more important for quitters. Major opportunities to motivate quit attempts are missed in China, particularly with regard to taxation and risk communication. Interventions need to focus on more dependent and less-educated smokers. PMID:25888422

  11. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  12. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  13. Star formation and its triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between star formation and gas density appears linear for galaxies on the main sequence, and when the molecular gas is considered. However, the star formation efficiency (SFE) defined as the ratio of SFR to gas surface densities, can be much higher when SF is triggered by a dynamical process such as galaxy interaction or mergers, or even secular evolution and cold gas accretion. I review recent work showing how the SFE can vary as a function of morphological type, environment, or redshift. Physical processes able to explain positive and negative feedback from supernovae or AGN are discussed.

  14. SETS. Set Equation Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Worrel, R.B.

    1992-01-13

    SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.

  15. Factors controlling present-day tufa dynamics in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Iberian Range, Spain): depositional environmental settings, sedimentation rates and hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.; Osácar, C.; Auqué, L.; Pardo, G.

    2010-07-01

    The tufa record and hydrochemical characteristics of the River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) were studied for 6 years. The mean discharge of this river was 1.22 m3/s. The water was supersaturated with calcium carbonate. The HCO3 -, Ca2+ and TDIC concentrations decreased along the 0.5-km-long studied stretch, whereas the calcite SI showed no systematic downstream or seasonal variation over the same stretch. Several sedimentary subenvironments exist in which four broad types of tufa facies form: (1) Dense laminated tufa (stromatolites), (2) Dense to porous, massive tufa, (3) Porous, coarsely laminated tufa with bryophytes and algae, and (4) Dense, hard, laminated deposits in caves. The half-yearly period thickness and weight of sediment accumulated on 14 tablets installed in several subenvironments showed that the deposition rate was greater in fast flowing river areas and in stepped waterfalls, and lower in slow flowing or standing river areas and in spray and splash areas. Mechanical CO2 outgassing is the main factor controlling calcite precipitation on the river bed and in waterfalls, but this process does not explain the seasonal changes in depositional rates. The deposition rates showed a half-yearly period pattern recorded in all fluvial subenvironments persistent over time (5.26 mm, 0.86 g/cm2 in warm periods; 2.26 mm, 0.13 g/cm2 in cool periods). Mass balance calculations showed higher calcite mass values in warm (21.58 mg/L) than in cool (13.68 mg/L) periods. This biannual variation is mainly attributed to the seasonal differences in temperature that caused changes in inorganic calcite precipitation rate and in biomass and the correlative photosynthetic activity. Tufa sedimentation was therefore controlled by both physicochemical and biological processes. The results of this study may help test depositional rates and their environmental controls and thus assess the climatic and hydrological significance of ancient tufas in semi

  16. Growth Dynamics of the Threatened Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis: Influence of Host Genotype, Symbiont Identity, Colony Size, and Environmental Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lirman, Diego; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Galvan, Victor; Drury, Crawford; Baker, Andrew C.; Baums, Iliana B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The drastic decline in the abundance of Caribbean acroporid corals (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata) has prompted the listing of this genus as threatened as well as the development of a regional propagation and restoration program. Using in situ underwater nurseries, we documented the influence of coral genotype and symbiont identity, colony size, and propagation method on the growth and branching patterns of staghorn corals in Florida and the Dominican Republic. Methodology/Principal Findings Individual tracking of> 1700 nursery-grown staghorn fragments and colonies from 37 distinct genotypes (identified using microsatellites) in Florida and the Dominican Republic revealed a significant positive relationship between size and growth, but a decreasing rate of productivity with increasing size. Pruning vigor (enhanced growth after fragmentation) was documented even in colonies that lost 95% of their coral tissue/skeleton, indicating that high productivity can be maintained within nurseries by sequentially fragmenting corals. A significant effect of coral genotype was documented for corals grown in a common-garden setting, with fast-growing genotypes growing up to an order of magnitude faster than slow-growing genotypes. Algal-symbiont identity established using qPCR techniques showed that clade A (likely Symbiodinium A3) was the dominant symbiont type for all coral genotypes, except for one coral genotype in the DR and two in Florida that were dominated by clade C, with A- and C-dominated genotypes having similar growth rates. Conclusion/Significance The threatened Caribbean staghorn coral is capable of extremely fast growth, with annual productivity rates exceeding 5 cm of new coral produced for every cm of existing coral. This species benefits from high fragment survivorship coupled by the pruning vigor experienced by the parent colonies after fragmentation. These life-history characteristics make A. cervicornis a successful candidate nursery species

  17. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest.

  18. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Gianelli, Michele; Martyniuk, Alex; Stelzer, Joerg; Stockton, Mark; Vazquez, Will

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger configuration system uses a centrally provided relational database to store the configurations for all levels of the ATLAS trigger system. The configuration used at any point during data taking is maintained in this database. A interface to this database is provided by the TriggerTool, a Java-based graphical user interface. The TriggerTool has been designed to work as both a convenient browser and editor of configurations in the database for both general users and experts. The updates to the trigger system necessitated by the upgrades and changes in both hardware and software during the first long shut down of the LHC will be explored.

  19. Landslides triggered by the earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The May 2 earthquake triggered landslides numbering in the thousands. Most numerous were rockfalls and rockslides that occurred mainly on slopes steeper than 60{degree} within sandstone, siltstone, and shale units of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Soil falls from cutbank slopes along streams were also numerous. Seven slumps in natural slopes were triggered, and minor liquefaction-induced lateral-spread failures occurred along Los Gatos Creek. Rockfalls and rockslides occurred as far as 34 km northwest, 15 km south, and 26 km southwest of the epicenter. There were few slope failures to the east of the epicenter, owing to the absence of steep slopes in that direction. Throughout the area affected, rockfalls and rockslides were concentrated on southwest-facing slopes; the failures on slopes facing in the southwest quadrant accounted for as much as 93% of all failures in some areas. Rockfalls and rockslides from ridge crests were predominantly from sandstone units. Along steeply incised canyons, however, failures in shale and siltstone units were also common. Small rockslides and soil slides occurred from cut slopes above oil-well pump pads in the oil fields; slumps were common in the outer parts of steep fill slopes of the pump pads. The distribution of seismically induced landslides throughout the entire earthquake-affected area was mapped from true-color airphotos taken on May 3, 1985.

  20. Membrane-triggered plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hong Gil; Seo, Pil Joon

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms to resist pathogen invasion. Upon the pathogen recognition, the host plants activate a variety of signal transduction pathways, and one of representative defense responses is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) that provides strong immunity against secondary infections in systemic tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that modulation of membrane composition contributes to establishing SAR and disease resistance in Arabidopsis, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a membrane-bound transcription factor (MTF) is associated with plant responses to pathogen attack. The MTF is responsive to microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered membrane rigidification at the levels of transcription and proteolytic processing. The processed nuclear transcription factor possibly regulates pathogen resistance by directly regulating PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes. Taken together, our results suggest that pathogenic microorganisms trigger changes in physico-chemical properties of cellular membrane in plants, and the MTF conveys the membrane information to the nucleus to ensure prompt establishment of plant immunity. PMID:25763708

  1. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  2. Triggers for the formation of porphyry deposits in magmatic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry ore deposits source much of the copper, molybdenum, gold and silver utilized by humankind. They typically form in magmatic arcs above subduction zones via a series of linked processes, beginning with magma generation in the mantle and ending with the precipitation of metals from hydrous fluids in the shallow crust. In this review, a hierarchy of four key "triggers" involved in the formation of porphyry deposits is outlined. Trigger 1 (100-1000 km scale) is a process of cyclic refertilization and enrichment of magmas in metals and volatiles in deep crustal sills trapped for long time periods in compressional tectonic settings. Trigger 2 (10 to 100 km scale) is the process of sulphide saturation in magmas that can both enhance and destroy ore-forming potential by stripping chalcophile metals from silicate melts, but also, in this way, pre-concentrating them. Trigger 3 (1-10 km scale) relates to the efficient transfer of metals into hydrothermal fluids exsolving from porphyry magmas, in particular the potential role of melt reduction in enhancing melt-volatile partitioning. Trigger 4 (1-5 km scale) identifies processes that are currently thought to be critical for the efficient precipitation of ore minerals in the deposit environment. Although all processes are required to a greater or lesser degree, it is argued that trigger 2, as an over-riding mechanism, can best explain the restriction of large porphyry deposits, highly enriched in chalcophile metals and sulphur, to specific arc segments and time periods. Consequently, recognition of the fingerprint of sulphide saturation in igneous rocks may help mineral exploration companies to identify parts of magmatic arcs particularly predisposed to porphyry ore formation.

  3. What triggers coronal mass ejections ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large clouds of highly magnetized plasma. They are ac-celerated from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space by the Lorentz force, which is associated to their strong current-carrying magnetic fields. Both theory and observations lead to the inevitable conclusion that the launch of a CME must result from the sudden release of free magnetic energy, which has slowly been accumulated in the corona for a long time before the eruption. Since the incomplete, but seminal, loss-of-equilibrium model was proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), a large variety of analytical and numerical storage-and-release MHD models has been put forward in the past 20 years or so. All these models rely on the slow increase of currents and/or the slow decrease of the restraining magnetic tension preceding the eruption. But they all put the emphazis on different physical mechanisms to achieve this preeruptive evolution, and to suddenly trigger and later drive a CME. Nevertheless, all these models actually share many common features, which all describe many individual observed aspects of solar eruptions. It is therefore not always clear which of all the suggested mecha-nisms do really account for the triggering of observed CMEs in general. Also, these mechanisms should arguably not be as numerous as the models themselves, owing to the common occurence of CMEs. In order to shed some light on this challenging, but unripe, topic, I will attempt to rediscuss the applicability of the models to the Sun, and to rethink the most sensitive ones in a common frame, so as to find their common denominator. I will elaborate on the idea that many of the proposed triggering mechanisms may actually only be considered as different ways to apply a "last push", which puts the system beyond its eruptive threshold. I will argue that, in most cases, the eruptive threshold is determined by the vertical gradient of the magnetic field in the low-β corona, just like the usual

  4. Home asthma triggers: barriers to asthma control in Chicago Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Thomas, Ann Marie; Mosnaim, Giselle; Greve, Matthew; Swider, Susan M; Rothschild, Steven K

    2013-05-01

    We sought objectively to measure, summarize, and contextualize the asthma triggers found in the homes of urban high-risk Puerto Rican children and adolescents with asthma in Chicago. Data were from the baseline home assessments of Project CURA. Research assistants interviewed caregivers, conducted a home visual inspection, and collected saliva samples for cotinine analysis. A trigger behavior summary score was created. The housing inspected was old with multiple units and obvious structural deficiencies. Many allergic and irritant triggers were observed. Having a controller medicine or private insurance was associated with lower trigger behavior summary scores; caregiver depression, caregiver perceived stress, and child negative life events were associated with high trigger scores. The final multivariate model retained had a controller medicine, private insurance, and caregiver perceived stress. The data from this high-risk cohort identified modifiable areas where environmental interventions could reduce morbidity in Puerto Rican children and adolescents. PMID:23728047

  5. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  6. Is osseointegration inflammation-triggered?

    PubMed

    Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hartl, Dominik; Hannig, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Bioinert endosteal implants cause a foreign body reaction, whereas bioactive ones cause osseointegration. However, the mechanisms responsible for the two modi of host response remain unclear. COX-2(-/-) animal models showed the dependence of osseointegration on prostaglandins. PGE2, a product of COX-2, augments Wnt signalling, a pathway that promotes the regeneration in many types of tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of bioactive implants to recruit neutrophils and to trigger neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are a potent source of PGE2. In bioinert implants no PGE2 release has been ascertained. Collectively, these findings suggest that osseointegration might be the host response to bioactive implants, novel and quite different to the so-called foreign body reaction. PMID:27372846

  7. Acoustic properties of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N.; Ramaekers, J.; Trevino, J.; Rassoul, H.; Lucia, R. J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic signatures from rocket-triggered lightning are measured by a 15m long, one-dimensional microphone array consisting of 16 receivers situated 90 meters from the lightning channel. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, FL during the summer of 2014. The linear array was oriented in an end-fire position so that the peak acoustic reception pattern can be steered vertically along the channel with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution, enabling us to sample the acoustic signatures from different portions along the lightning channel. We report on the characteristics of acoustic signatures associated with several return strokes in 6 measured flashes (total of 29 return strokes). In addition, we study the relationship between the amplitude, peak frequency, and inferred energy input of each stroke acoustic signature and the associated measured lightning parameters. Furthermore, challenges of obtaining acoustic measurements in thunderstorm harsh conditions and their countermeasures will also be discussed.

  8. A Mechanochemically Triggered "Click" Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-16

    "Click" chemistry represents one of the most powerful approaches for linking molecules in chemistry and materials science. Triggering this reaction by mechanical force would enable site- and stress-specific "click" reactions--a hitherto unreported observation. We introduce the design and realization of a homogeneous Cu catalyst able to activate through mechanical force when attached to suitable polymer chains, acting as a lever to transmit the force to the central catalytic system. Activation of the subsequent copper-catalyzed "click" reaction (CuAAC) is achieved either by ultrasonication or mechanical pressing of a polymeric material, using a fluorogenic dye to detect the activation of the catalyst. Based on an N-heterocyclic copper(I) carbene with attached polymeric chains of different flexibility, the force is transmitted to the central catalyst, thereby activating a CuAAC in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26420664

  9. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  10. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  11. Environmental Basis of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-06-01

    The three common themes that underlie the induction and perpetuation of autoimmunity are genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune regulation. Environmental factors have gained much attention for their role in triggering autoimmunity, with increasing evidence of their influence as demonstrated by epidemiological studies, laboratory research, and animal studies. Environmental factors known to trigger and perpetuate autoimmunity include infections, gut microbiota, as well as physical and environmental agents. To address these issues, we will review major potential mechanisms that underlie autoimmunity including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, bystander activation, polyclonal activation of B and T cells, infections, and autoinflammatory activation of innate immunity. The association of the gut microbiota on autoimmunity will be particularly highlighted by their interaction with pharmaceutical agents that may lead to organ-specific autoimmunity. Nonetheless, and we will emphasize this point, the precise mechanism of environmental influence on disease pathogenesis remains elusive. PMID:25998909

  12. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  13. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  14. A novel calorimeter trigger concept: The jet trigger of the H1 experiment at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Bob; Dubak-Behrendt, Ana; Kiesling, Christian; Reisert, Burkard; Aktas, Adil; Antunovic, Biljana; Bracinik, Juraj; Braquet, Charles; Brettel, Horst; Dulny, Barbara; Fent, Jürgen; Fras, Markus; Fröchtenicht, Walter; Haberer, Werner; Hoffmann, Dirk; Modjesch, Miriam; Placakyte, Ringaile; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas; Wassatsch, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jens

    2011-06-01

    We report on a novel trigger for the liquid argon calorimeter which was installed in the H1 Experiment at HERA. This trigger, called the "Jet Trigger", was running at level 1 and implemented a real-time cluster algorithm. Within only 800 ns, the Jet Trigger algorithm found local energy maxima in the calorimeter, summed their immediate neighbors, sorted the resulting jets by energy, and applied topological conditions for the final level 1 trigger decision. The Jet Trigger was in operation from the year 2006 until the end of the HERA running in the summer of 2007. With the Jet Trigger it was possible to substantially reduce the thresholds for triggering on electrons and jets, giving access to a largely extended phase space for physical observables which could not have been reached in H1 before. The concepts of the Jet Trigger may be an interesting upgrade option for the LHC experiments.

  15. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  16. Emergency Room Validation of the Revised Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-3): A Measure of a Hypothesized Suicide Trigger State

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Janki; Cohen, Lisa J.; Galynker, Igor I.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Suicide Trigger Scale (STS) was designed to measure the construct of an affective ‘suicide trigger state.’ This study aims to extend the inpatient setting validation study of the original Suicide Trigger Scale version 2 to the revised Suicide Trigger Scale version 3 (STS-3) in an acute psychiatric emergency room setting. Methods The 42-item STS-3 and a brief psychological test battery were administered to 183 adult psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation or attempt in the psychiatric emergency room, and re-administered to subjects at 1 year follow up. Factor analysis, linear and logistic regressions were used to examine construct structure, divergent and convergent validity, and construct validity, respectively. Results The STS-3 demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.94). Factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution, which explained 43.4% of the variance. Principal axis factor analysis was used to identify three reliable subscales: Frantic Hopelessness, Ruminative Flooding, and Near-Psychotic Somatization (Cronbach’s alphas 0.90, 0.80, and 0.76, respectively). Significant positive associations were observed between Frantic Hopelessness and BSI depression and anxiety subscales, between Ruminative Flooding and BSI anxiety and paranoia subscales, and Near Psychotic Somatization and BSI somatization subscales. Suicidal subjects with suicide attempt history had mean scores 7 points higher than those without history of suicide attempts. Frantic hopelessness was a significant predictor of current suicide attempt when only attempts requiring at least some medical attention were considered. Conclusion The STS-3 measures a distinct clinical entity, provisionally termed the ‘suicide trigger state.’ Scores on the STS-3 or select subscales appear to relate to degree of suicidality in terms of severity of ideation, history of attempt, and presence of substantive current attempts. Further study is required to confirm the

  17. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  18. Pattern formation in the wake of triggered pushed fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Ryan; Scheel, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Pattern-forming fronts are often controlled by an external stimulus which progresses through a stable medium at a fixed speed, rendering it unstable in its wake. By controlling the speed of excitation, such stimuli, or ‘triggers’, can mediate pattern forming fronts which freely invade an unstable equilibrium and control which pattern is selected. In this work, we analytically and numerically study when the trigger perturbs an oscillatory pushed free front. In such a situation, the resulting patterned front, which we call a pushed trigger front, exhibits a variety of phenomenon, including snaking, non-monotonic wave-number selection, and hysteresis. Assuming the existence of a generic oscillatory pushed free front, we use heteroclinic bifurcation techniques to prove the existence of trigger fronts in an abstract setting motivated by the spatial dynamics approach. We then derive a leading order expansion for the selected wave-number in terms of the trigger speed. Furthermore, we show that such a bifurcation curve is governed by the difference of certain strong-stable and weakly-stable spatial eigenvalues associated with the decay of the free pushed front. We also study prototypical examples of these phenomena in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and a modified Cahn–Hilliard equation.

  19. Environmental properties set cell mechanics and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many cell types are sensitive to mechanical signals that are produced either by application of exogenous force to their surfaces, or by the resistance that their surroundings place on forces generated by the cells themselves. Cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and protein expression all change in response to substrate stiffness. Changing the elastic moduli of substrates alters the formation of focal adhesions, the assembly of actin filaments into bundles, and the stability of intermediate filaments. The range of stiffness over which different primary cell types respond can vary over a wide range and generally reflects the elastic modulus of the tissue from which these cells were isolated. Mechanosensing depends on the type of adhesion receptor by which the cell binds, and therefore on both the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix and the nature of its link to the cytoskeleton. Many cell types can alter their own stiffness to match that of the substrate to which they adhere. The maximal elastic modulus that cells such as fibroblasts can attain is similar to that of crosslinked actin networks at the concentrations in the cell cortex. The precise mechanisms of mechanosensing are not well defined, but they presumably require an elastic connection between cell and substrate, mediated by transmembrane proteins. The viscoelastic properties of different extracellular matrices and cytoskeletal elements strongly influence the response of cells to mechanical signals, and the unusual non-linear elasticity of many biopolymer gels, characterized by strain-stiffening, leads to novel mechanisms by which cells alter their stiffness by engagement of molecular motors that produce internal stresses. Cell cortical elasticity is dominated by cytoskeletal polymer networks and can be modulated by internal tension. Simultaneous control of substrate stiffness and adhesive patterns suggests that stiffness sensing occurs on a length scale much larger than single molecular linkages and that the time needed for mechanosensing is on the order of a few seconds.

  20. Corrosion and Environmental Degradation, 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Michael; Cahn, Robert W.; Haasen, Peter; Kramer, E. J.

    2001-06-01

    Corrosion and corrosion protection is one of most important topics in applied materials science. Corrosion science is not only important from an economic point of view, but, due to its interdisciplinary nature combining metallurgy, materials physics and electrochemistry, it is also of high scientific interest. Nowadays corrosion science even gets new impetus from surface science and polymer chemistry. This two-volume reference work belonging to the well renown series Materials Science and Tehcnology provides the reader with a sound and broad survey on the whole subject - from the fundamentals to the latest research results. Written by a team of international top-experts it will become an indispensable reference for any materials scientist, physicist or chemist involved in corrosion science.

  1. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  2. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  3. Migraine and triggers: Post hoc ergo propter hoc?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jan; Recober, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the clinical manifestation of migraine has been a matter of extensive debate over the past decades. Migraineurs commonly report foods, alcohol, meteorologic or atmospheric changes, exposure to light, sounds, or odors, as factors that trigger or aggravate their migraine attacks. In the same way, physicians frequently follow this belief in their recommendations in how migraineurs may reduce their attack frequency, especially with regard to the consumption of certain food components. Interestingly, despite being such a common belief, most of the clinical studies have shown conflicting results. The aim of the review is to critically analyze clinical and pathophysiological facts that support or refute a correlation between certain environmental stimuli and the occurrence of migraine attacks. Given the substantial discrepancy between patients' reports and objective clinical data, the methodological difficulties of investigating the link between environmental factors and migraine are highlighted. PMID:23996725

  4. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible. PMID:16844646

  5. Prompt trigger primitives for a self-seeded track trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressanandt, N.; Halgeri, A.; Kamat, M.; Koppal, V.; Newcomer, M.

    2012-10-01

    A viable self-seeded track trigger for a high rate collider detector environment must have excellent angular precision, response times commensurate with beam crossing rate and low mass. We have designed a fast clustering block servicing 128 contiguous strips to be included in an LHC upgrade silicon strip front end ASIC (ABC130) with these objectives in mind. The block is based on the presence of an analog front end with binary (threshold determined) strip readout latched at each beam crossing. Combinatorial logic tests for the presence of one or two adjacent strips over threshold, a qualifying cluster, at each beam crossing and transmits up to two, eight bits clusters descriptors, specifying address and cluster width via a high speed LVDS output. It is envisioned that a correlator chip, presently in conception, receives this data and via look-up tables checks for coincident hits between silicon strip layers. Since the clustering output will report the presence of one or two hit strips, a half strip pitch ( ~ 40 um for the ATLAS detector) resolution may be possible for each cluster. Our timing results show that the combinatorial clustering logic will settle within 6 ns. Assuming a beam crossing rate of 40 MHz, 16 bits of serialized data can be shifted out at 640MHz each crossing. This will allow a beam synchronous update rate providing data for up to two clusters for each bank of 128 strips. The data latency into the correlator chip will be only two crossings. Present power estimates suggest that the fast cluster block with LVDS driver will consume less than 12 mW.

  6. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; Castet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye's pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms). At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings' orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating), the eye's peak velocity matched the gratings' motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry) that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness. PMID:26339536

  7. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  8. Aspirin-triggered metabolites of EFAs.

    PubMed

    Makriyannis, Alexandros; Nikas, Spyros P

    2011-10-28

    Aspirin triggers the biosynthesis of oxygenated metabolites from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. In a preceding issue, Serhan et al. (2011) describe a novel aspirin-triggered DHA pathway for the biosynthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving molecule. PMID:22035788

  9. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  10. Remotely Triggered Earthquakes in Stable Continental Regions: Beacons of Stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    Remotely triggered earthquakes appear to occur relatively commonly following large (Mw>7) mainshocks in stable continental regions (SCRs). Such events are important for several reasons: 1) they can give rise to locally high ground motions that can be mistaken for mainshock shaking, and thereby inflate isoseismal contours, 2) they can be potentially damaging events in their own right, and 3) they prove that remotely triggered earthquakes occur in diverse tectonic and mechanical settings. We present examples from several large SCR earthquakes including the 1811-1812 New Madrid sequence and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake. We explore the possibility that in low strain-rate regions, remotely triggered earthquakes reflect a prevalence of faults that are close to failure rather than the presence of weak faults or geothermal/hydrothermal fluids. We further illustrate how, in a low strain-rate environment, permanent, non-elastic deformation might account for this prevalence, playing a larger role in stress accumulation than in high strain-rate regions. Using a simple model incorporating both elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust might remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than faults in high strain-rate regions. Our results furthermore reveal that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults tend to be at a critical stress state in only some areas. It is not surprising that triggered earthquakes would serve as beacons that identify regions that are approaching a critical stress state. Their occurrence in regions that have experienced large earthquakes in the recent past (a few hundred years) provides evidence that, once developed, a critically stressed region of intraplate crust will persist for hundreds if not thousands of years and give rise to prolonged

  11. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    including NVT occur on these sections have slower slip rates than that of the general earthquakes (Rubin, 2008; Ide, 2008). In Azna region, we use envelope and waveform cross-correlation to detect tremor. We investigate the stress required to trigger tremor and tremor spectrum using continuous broadband seismograms from 11 stations located near Anza, California. We examine 44 Mw≥7.4 teleseismic events between 2001 and 2011, in addition to one regional earthquake of smaller-magnitude, the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake, because it induced extremely high strain at Anza. The result suggests that not only the amplitude of the induced strain, but also the period of the incoming surface wave, may control triggering of tremor near Anza. In addition, we find that the transient-shear stress (17--35 kPa) required to trigger tremor along the SJF at Anza is distinctly higher than what has been reported for the well-studied SAF (Gulihem et al. 2010). We model slip initiation using the analytical solution of rate-and-state friction. We verify the correctness of this method by comparing the results with that from the dynamic model, implemented using the Multi-Dimensional Spectral Boundary Integral Code (MDSBI) written by Eric M. Dunham from Sanford University. We find that the analytical result is consistent with that of the dynamic model. We set up a patch model with which the source stress and frictional conditions best resemble the current estimates of the tremor source. The frictional regime of this patch is rate-weakening. The initial normal and shear stress, and friction parameters are suggested by previous observations of tectonic tremors both in this and other studies (Brown et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Miyazawa, 2008; Ben-Zion, 2012). Our dynamic loading first consists of simple harmonic stress change with fixed periods, simplifying the transient stress history to resemble teleseismic earthquakes. We tested the period and amplitude of such periodic loading. We

  12. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  13. The H1 neural network trigger project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, C.; Denby, B.; Fent, J.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Garda, P.; Granado, B.; Grindhammer, G.; Haberer, W.; Janauschek, L.; Kobler, T.; Koblitz, B.; Nellen, G.; Prevotet, J.-C.; Schmidt, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.

    2001-08-01

    We present a short overview of neuromorphic hardware and some of the physics projects making use of such devices. As a concrete example we describe an innovative project within the H1-Experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA, instrumenting hardwired neural networks as pattern recognition machines to discriminate between wanted physics and uninteresting background at the trigger level. The decision time of the system is less than 20 microseconds, typical for a modern second level trigger. The neural trigger has been successfully running for the past four years and has turned out new physics results from H1 unobtainable so far with other triggering schemes. We describe the concepts and the technical realization of the neural network trigger system, present the most important physics results, and motivate an upgrade of the system for the future high luminosity running at HERA. The upgrade concentrates on "intelligent preprocessing" of the neural inputs which help to strongly improve the networks' discrimination power.

  14. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  15. Recognising triggers for soft-sediment deformation: Current understanding and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Geraint; Moretti, Massimo; Alfaro, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Most of the 16 papers in this special issue were presented at a session entitled "The recognition of trigger mechanisms for soft-sediment deformation" at the 27th IAS Meeting of Sedimentology in Alghero, Sardinia, Italy, which took place from 20th-23rd September 2009. They describe soft-sediment deformation structures that range widely in morphology, age, depositional environment and tectonic setting. In their interpretations, the authors have been asked to focus on identifying the agent that triggered deformation. Our aims in this introductory overview are to: (1) review the definition and scope of soft-sediment deformation; (2) clarify the significance and role of the trigger; (3) set the contributions in context and summarise their findings; and (4) discuss strategies for reliably identifying triggers and make recommendations for future study of this widespread and significant category of sedimentary structures. We recommend a three-stage approach to trigger recognition, combining the assessment of facies, potential triggers, and available criteria. This focus on the trigger for deformation distinguishes this collection of papers on soft-sediment deformation from other important collections, notably those edited by Jones and Preston (1987), Maltman (1994), Maltman et al. (2000), Shiki et al. (2000), Ettensohn et al. (2002b), Van Rensbergen et al. (2003) and Storti and Vannucchi (2007).

  16. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  17. Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Kobler, James B.; Yun, Seok H.

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative cross-sectional imaging of vocal folds during phonation is potentially useful for diagnosis and treatments of laryngeal disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique, but its relatively low frame rates makes it challenging to visualize rapidly vibrating tissues. Here, we demonstrate a novel method based on triggered laser scanning to capture 4-dimensional (4D) images of samples in motu at audio frequencies over 100 Hz. As proof-of-concept experiments, we applied this technique to imaging the oscillations of biopolymer gels on acoustic vibrators and aerodynamically driven vibrations of the vocal fold in an ex vivo calf larynx model. Our results suggest that triggered 4D OCT may be useful in understanding and assessing the function of vocal folds and developing novel treatments in research and clinical settings.

  18. Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.

  19. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  20. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  1. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Conclusion Smartphone headache diary application is an

  2. Nature plus nurture: the triggering of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body's own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens. PMID:26430854

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus flare triggered by a spider bite.

    PubMed

    Martín Nares, Eduardo; López Iñiguez, Alvaro; Ontiveros Mercado, Heriberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with a relapsing and remitting course characterized by disease flares. Flares are a major cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Some triggers for these exacerbations have been identified, including infections, vaccines, pregnancy, environmental factors such as weather, stress and drugs. We report a patient who presented with a lupus flare with predominantly mucocutaneous, serosal and cardiac involvement after being bitten by a spider and we present the possible mechanisms by which the venom elicited such a reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature. PMID:26494589

  4. Triggering at a high luminosity hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.; Wagner, R.G.; Abolins, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The extreme interaction rate occurring at the SSC as described in the Reference Design Report poses the principal new challenge for the triggering system compared with detectors at previous accelerators. At SSC we must plan for about 10/sup 8/ interactions per second. If bunch crossings occur each 33 ns, there will be an average of 3 interactions in each bunch crossing. Potential problems for triggering are presented both by the high total rate and by the multiple interactions per bunch crossing, so that triggering events must be selected in the presence of other interactions independent of the inherent speed of either detector elements or triggering electronics. Three principal topics are considered in this report: (1) Practical selections to be made in a first-level trigger to reduce the rate by a factor of 1000. (2) Electronics expected to implement this first-level trigger, and (3) the ultimate trigger selections that must be used to select the approximately 1 Hz that can practically be recorded for detailed analysis. 11 references, 6 figures.

  5. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  6. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  7. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  8. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  9. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  10. Annual modulation of triggered seismicity following the 1992 Landers earthquake in California

    PubMed

    Gao; Silver; Linde; Sacks

    2000-08-01

    The mechanism responsible for the triggering of earthquakes remains one of the least-understood aspects of the earthquake process. The magnitude-7.3 Landers, California earthquake of 28 June 1992 was followed for several weeks by triggered seismic activity over a large area, encompassing much of the western United States. Here we show that this triggered seismicity marked the beginning of a five-year trend, consisting of an elevated microearthquake rate that was modulated by an annual cycle, decaying with time. The annual cycle is mainly associated with several hydrothermal or volcanic regions where short-term triggering was also observed. These data indicate that the Landers earthquake produced long-term physical changes in these areas, and that an environmental source of stress--plausibly barometric pressure--might be responsible for the annual variation. PMID:10952308

  11. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  12. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  13. Dynamic triggering during rupture nucleation in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, Alexandre; Chanard, Kristel; Latour, Soumaya; Petrelis, François; Hatano, Takahiro; Mair, Karen; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Fluid induced stress perturbations in the crust at seismogenic depths can be caused by various sources, such as deglaciation unloading, magmatic intrusion or fluid injection and withdrawal. Numbers of studies have robustly shown their link to earthquake triggering. However, the role of small periodic stress variations induced by solid earth and oceanic tides or seasonal hydrology in the seismic cycle, of the order of a few kPa, remains unclear. Indeed, the existence or absence of correlation between these loading phenomena and earthquakes have been equally proposed in the literature. To investigate this question, we performed a set of triaxial deformation experiments on porous water-saturated Fontainebleau sandstones. Rock samples were loaded by the combined action of steps of constant stress (creep), intended to simulate tectonic loading and small sinusoidal pore pressure variations with a range of amplitudes, analogous to tides or seasonal loading. All tests were conducted at a regulated temperature of 35C and a constant 35 MPa confining pressure. Our experimental results show that (1) pore pressure oscillations do not seem to influence the deformation rate at which the rock fails, (2) they correlate with acoustic emissions. Even more interestingly, we observe a progressive increase of the correlation coefficient in time as the rock approaches failure. The correlation coefficient is also sensitive to the amplitude of pore pressure oscillations as larger oscillations produce higher correlation levels. Finally, we show that, in the last hours of creep before failure, acoustic emissions occur significantly more when the pore pressure is at its lowest. This suggest that the correlation of small stress perturbations and acoustic emissions depend on the state stress of a rock and the amplitude of the perturbations and that emissions occur more likely when cracks are unclamped.

  14. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  16. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  17. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  18. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  19. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  20. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  1. The CDF L2 XFT Trigger Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Alison; /UC, Davis

    2008-10-01

    We briefly present the eXtremely Fast Tracker stereo track upgrade for the CDF Level 2 trigger system. This upgrade enabled full 3D track reconstruction at Level 2 of the 3-Level CDF online triggering system. Using information provided by the stereo layers of the Central Outer Tracker, we can decrease the trigger rate due to fake tracks by requiring the tracks to be consistent with a single vertex in all three dimensions but also by using the track information to 'point' to the various detector components. We will also discuss the effectiveness of the Level 2 stereo track algorithm at achieving reduced trigger rates with high efficiencies during high luminosity running.

  2. Trigger System Upgrades for the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Eric; Sno+ Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The SNO+ experiment will explore many topics in neutrino physics including neutrino-less double beta decay, low-energy solar neutrinos, antineutrinos from reactors and natural sources, nucleon decay, and potentially supernova neutrinos. The SNO+ trigger and readout system consists of electronics both inherited from the SNO detector and newly created specifically to address the challenges presented by the addition of scintillation light. Addition of new utilities to the SNO+ trigger system will allow for a flexible calibration interface, more sophisticated use of the existing trigger system, and new, more targeted, background cuts that will improve physics sensitivity. These utilities will largely be orchestrated by a MicroZed System on Chip (SoC), micro-controller. Their range of application includes automatic fault detection, upgrades of SNO utilities, noise reduction, and interfacing between components of the trigger system.

  3. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  4. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  5. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  6. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  7. Upgrade of the trigger system of CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitler, Manfred; CMS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Various parts of the CMS trigger and in particular the Level-1 hardware trigger will be upgraded to cope with increasing luminosity, using more selective trigger conditions at Level 1 and improving the reliability of the system. Many trigger subsystems use FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the electronics and will benefit from developments in this technology, allowing us to place much more logic into a single FPGA chip, thus reducing the number of chips, electronic boards and interconnections and in this way improving reliability. A number of subsystems plan to switch from the old VME bus to the new microTCA crate standard. Using similar approaches, identical modules and common software wherever possible will reduce costs and manpower requirements and improve the serviceability of the whole trigger system. The computer-farm based High-Level Trigger will not only be extended by using increasing numbers of more powerful PCs but there are also concepts for making it more robust and the software easier to maintain, which will result in better efficiency of the whole system.

  8. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. PMID:22882155

  9. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  10. The RD27 muon trigger co-incidence array demonstrator ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bindra, R.; Claxton, B.; Dowdell, J.

    1996-06-01

    One aim of the RD27 project is to perform design and R and D work leading to a first level muon trigger for an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of an ASIC for a trigger demonstrator system. The trigger system is implemented using a set of seven chambers. The low momentum trigger requires hits in three out of the four inner chambers. The high momentum trigger requires a low momentum trigger and hits in two of three outer chambers. This scheme allows for chamber inefficiencies for real muons and reduces the trigger rate from neutron and photon-induced background in the detectors. The core of the ASIC is an eight by twenty-four input double co-incidence array allowing two momentum cuts to be applied. The ASIC has multiple inputs per axis and includes the multiplicity logic. The design of the ASIC is flexible enough to demonstrate fully combinatorial operation, fully pipelined operation, or any combination of the two. The ASIC has been fabricated using a 34K gate, 0.5{micro}m CMOS gate array from Fujitsu. Testing confirms it can be pipelined at above 100MHz or fully combinatorial with a measured maximum propagation delay of 7.4ns, varying by up to 2ns depending on input pattern.

  11. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  12. The role of diet in triggering human inflammatory disorders in the modern age.

    PubMed

    Huang, Edmond Y; Devkota, Suzanne; Moscoso, Dagmara; Chang, Eugene B; Leone, Vanessa A

    2013-11-01

    Previously uncommon human inflammatory disorders are emerging with alarming frequency, possibly triggered by environmental factors introduced through Westernization. This review highlights how Western diets heighten the inflammatory state promoting development of disease. Evidence that this can occur directly or indirectly through perturbations of host-microbe interactions are reviewed. PMID:23876436

  13. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Seismically induced landslides are a major environmental effect of earthquakes, which may significantly contribute to related losses. Moreover, in paleoseismology landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes and thus allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. We present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an "event-by-event" classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, 'Intensity', 'Fault', 'Topographic energy', 'Climatic conditions' and 'Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. The relative weight of these factors was extracted from published data for numerous past earthquakes; topographic inputs were checked in Google Earth and through geographic information systems. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be cross-checked. One of our main findings is that the 'Fault' factor, which is based on characteristics of the fault, the surface rupture and its location with respect to mountain areas, has the most important

  14. Intraplate Triggered Earthquakes: Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three principal 1811-1812 New Madrid, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake were associated with remotely triggered earthquakes. In addition to previously published results showing that the New Madrid sequence triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and possibly near Charleston, South Carolina region as well. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky in the immediate wake of the strong ground motions associated with the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Thus at least three out of the four known M>=7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes outside their aftershock zones. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low strain-rate environment, permanent, non-elastic deformation might play a relatively more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating both elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust might remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than faults in high strain-rate regions. Our results furthermore reveal that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults tend to be at a critical stress state in only some areas. It is not surprising that triggered earthquakes would serve as beacons that identify regions that are approaching a critical stress state. Their

  15. Triggering the LBL time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M.; Millaud, J.; McGathen, T.

    1981-10-01

    A fast digital trigger was built for the LBL Time Projection Chamber (TPC) installed in the PEP-4 detector at SLAC. The TPC is an innovative High Energy Physics detector which will provide particle identification from dE/dx information within the tracking volume. The TPC trigger uses discriminator signals from 2220 dE/dx wire channels to require a track of ionization in the TPC which originates from the colliding beam intersection region. The trigger processing is performed as the ionization drifts onto the proportional wires and is completed 17 ..mu..s after beam crossing. This report describes the basic operation of the TPC detector and its trigger; a pretrigger which uses prompt TPC information from the endcap region; and the electronic implementation. The trigger can be tested with realistic simulated patterns of ionization deposits in the TPC which are stored in local memories. Test results from electronic simulations and first results of a test with cosmic rays are shown.

  16. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  17. Trigger points – ultrasound and thermal findings

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, MC; Cojocaru, IM; Voiculescu, VM; Cojan-Carlea, NA; Dumitru, VL; Berteanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle pain can be elicited by any irritation of the nociceptors in the muscle or central sensitization in the central nervous system. The most frequently described muscle pain syndromes are myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome has a more localized manifestation, the trigger points. Objective: If there is a correlation between the clinical findings, the ultrasound examination and the thermal pattern of trigger points exist. Material and method: The presence of trigger points can be identified by using clinical criteria. An ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the trigger point dimensions. The ultrasound showed an ellipsoidal hypoechogenic area in the muscle. A thermography of the low back region was performed in order to observe the thermal pattern of the area. Results: Trigger points are represented by a higher temperature area surrounded by a cooler area, probably caused by a deficit in the blood flow around those points. Discussion: Infrared thermography could be a great asset for the monitoring of neuromusculoskeletal disorders and their dynamics, as well as an important aid for the initial diagnosis of conditions associated with tissue temperature alterations. PMID:26351532

  18. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  19. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  20. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  1. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2001-11-05

    BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas.

  2. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  3. Triggering of Aftershocks by Free Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufe, C. G.; Varnes, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    Periodicities observed in aftershock sequences may result from earthquake triggering by free oscillations of the Earth produced by the main shock. Using an algorithm we developed to compute spectra of inter-event times, we examine inter-event intervals of teleseismically recorded aftershock sequences from large (M>7.5) main shocks that occurred during 1980-2001. Observed periodicities may result from triggering at intervals that are multiples of normal mode periods. We have focussed our analysis of inter-event times on identification of triggering by free oscillations at periods in the range 6-60 minutes. In this paper we describe our most commonly observed aftershock inter-event times and the free oscillation modes most likely to be the triggers. Because of their separation, the longer period modes are easiest to identify in the aftershock data (0S2 at 53.9 minutes, 0S3 at 35.6 minutes, 0S4 at 25.8 minutes, and 0T2 at 43.9 minutes). Evidence of triggering by 0S2 and 0T2 was also found in the aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA (M 7) earthquake (Kamal and Mansinha, 1996). Because of the plethora of higher modes, shorter inter-event periods are more difficult to identify with a particular mode. Preliminary analysis of the 2001 Bhuj, India (M 7.7) earthquake sequence tentatively identifies a contribution to triggering of the first four large aftershocks by multiples of 0S12 (8.37 minutes).

  4. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  5. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  6. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kolm, I.; Pawlik, E.; Eggmann, N.; Kamarachev, J.; Kerl, K.; French, L.E.; Hofbauer, G.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE) following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance. PMID:24019776

  7. THE HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPLORER TRIGGERING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    E. FENIMORE; M. GALASSI

    2001-05-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer uses a triggering algorithm for gamma-ray bursts that can achieve near the statistical limit by fitting to several background regions to remove trends. Dozens of trigger criteria run simultaneously covering time scales from 80 msec to 10.5 sec or longer. Each criteria is controlled by about 25 constants which gives the flexibility to search wide parameter spaces. On orbit, we have been able to operate at 6{sigma}, a factor of two more sensitive than previous experiments.

  8. Pemphigus: etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing or triggering factors: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora; Lo Schiavo, Ada; Brunetti, Giampiero; Guerrera, Luigi Pio; Wolf, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases with intraepithelial lesions involving the skin and Malpighian mucous membranes. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), the most frequent and representative form of the group, is a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disorder with a poor prognosis in the absence of medical treatment. The pathomechanism of PV hinges on autoantibodies damaging cell-cell cohesion and leading to cell-cell detachment (acantholysis) of the epidermis and Malpighian mucosae (mainly oral mucosa). A controversy exists about which subset of autoantibodies is primarily pathogenic: the desmoglein-reactive antibodies or those directed against the acetylcholine receptors of the keratinocyte membrane. The onset and course of PV depend on a variable interaction between predisposing and inducing factors. Genetic predisposition has a complex polygenic basis, involving multiple genetic loci; however, the genetic background alone ("the soil"), although essential, is not by itself sufficient to initiate the autoimmune mechanism, as proven by the reports of PV in only one of two monozygotic twins and in only two of three siblings with an identical PV-prone haplotype. The intervention of inducing or triggering environmental factors ("the seed") seems to be crucial to set off the disease. The precipitating factors are many and various, most of them directly originating from the environment (eg, drug intake, viral infections, physical agents, contact allergens, diet), others being endogenous (eg, emotional stress, hormonal disorders) but somehow linked with the subject's lifestyle. As to certain drugs, their potential of provoking acantholysis may be implemented by their interfering with the keratinocyte membrane biochemistry (biochemical acantholysis) and/or with the immune balance (immunologic acantholysis). Viral infections, especially the herpetic ones, may trigger the outbreak of PV or simply complicate its clinical course. The precipitating effect

  9. Avenues to autoimmune arthritis triggered by diverse remote inflammatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Nina; Tan, Jian K; Mason, Linda J; Robert, Remy; McKenzie, Craig I; Lim, Florence; Wong, Connie H; Macia, Laurence; Thorburn, Alison N; Russ, Brendan E; Masters, Seth L; Mackay, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    Environmental factors contribute to development of autoimmune diseases. For instance, human autoimmune arthritis can associate with intestinal inflammation, cigarette smoking, periodontal disease, and various infections. The cellular and, molecular pathways whereby such remote challenges might precipitate arthritis or flares remain unclear. Here, we used a transfer model of self-reactive arthritis-inducing CD4(+) cells from KRNtg mice that, upon transfer, induce a very mild form of autoinflammatory arthritis in recipient animals. This model enabled us to identify external factors that greatly aggravated disease. We show that several distinct challenges precipitated full-blown arthritis, including intestinal inflammation through DSS-induced colitis, and bronchial stress through Influenza infection. Both triggers induced strong IL-17 expression primarily in self-reactive CD4(+) cells in lymph nodes draining the site of inflammation. Moreover, treatment of mice with IL-1β greatly exacerbated arthritis, while transfer of KRNtg CD4(+) cells lacking IL-1R significantly reduced disease and IL-17 expression. Thus, IL-1β enhances the autoaggressive potential of self-reactive CD4(+) cells, through increased Th17 differentiation, and this influences inflammatory events in the joints. We propose that diverse challenges that cause remote inflammation (lung infection or colitis, etc.) result in IL-1β-driven Th17 differentiation, and this precipitates arthritis in genetically susceptible individuals. Thus the etiology of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis likely relates to diverse triggers that converge to a common pathway involving IL-1β production and Th17 cell distribution. PMID:27427404

  10. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  11. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  12. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  13. Thermally triggered degradation of transient electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kaitz, Joshua A; Wie, Dae Seung; Shin, Jiho; Lee, Olivia P; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    Thermally triggered transient electronics using wax-encapsulated acid, which enable rapid device destruction via acidic degradation of the metal electronic components are reported. Using a cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA) substrate affords a more rapid destruction of the device due to acidic depolymerization of cPPA. PMID:25991389

  14. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  15. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  16. Triggered earthquakes and deep well activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, C.; Wesson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Earthquakes can be triggered by any significant perturbation of the hydrologic regime. In areas where potentially active faults are already close to failure, the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injection, or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure in a major earthquake. Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting, nearby faults caused by the increased formation fluid pressure. Earthquakes associated with production appear to respond to more complex mechanisms of subsidence, crustal unloading, and poroelastic changes in response to applied strains induced by the massive withdrawal of subsurface material. As each of these different types of triggered events can occur up to several years after well activities have begun (or even several years after all well activities have stopped), this suggests that the actual triggering process may be a very complex combination of effects, particularly if both fluid extraction and injection have taken place locally. To date, more than thirty cases of earthquakes triggered by well activities can be documented throughout the United States and Canada. Based on these case histories, it is evident that, owing to preexisting stress conditions in the upper crust, certain areas tend to have higher probabilities of exhibiting such induced seismicity. ?? 1992 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  18. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kilb, D; Gomberg, J; Bodin, P

    2000-11-30

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the near-field, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude Mw = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby. PMID:11117741

  19. Laser trigger system for the Jupiter module

    SciTech Connect

    Paiva, R.; Sundvoid, S.; Morelli, G.; Powell, C.; Hamil, R.; Corley, J.; Pankuch, P.; Law, K.; Alexander, J.

    1995-10-01

    A UV laser trigger system has been designed to trigger the eight SF6 filled high voltage switches in the Jupiter module. The system is compact and modular, allowing for approximately thirty lasers to be triggered simultaneously in the full Jupiter design. The laser will be kinematically mounted near the high voltage section to minimize the path length to the high voltage switches and decrease the sensitivity to misalignment. The laser system is specifically built for the purpose of triggering the Jupiter module. It is a 265 nm UV laser system designed to generate eight simultaneous laser pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulsewidth. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser is frequency quadrupled with a two stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy is frequency doubled with a type II KTP crystal to generate 530 nm energy. The 530 nm output is frequency doubled with a type I KD*P crystal to generate 265 nm energy. The 265 nm pulse is split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and a stable energy output level for the system were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged in a rugged, sealed aluminum structure 10 in. {times} 19 in. {times} 2.75 in. The size of the laser electronics unit is 7 in. {times} 8 in. {times} 8 in.

  20. Large Scale Impacts and Triggered Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of impact induced volcanism continues to blossom ([1-3] and other references). However, this appealing idea is seldom supported with an appropriate physical mechanism. The aim of this publication is to critically examine some frequently cited mechanisms of impact energy transformation into a trigger for terrestrial volcanism and magmatism.

  1. Analysis of meteorological trigger conditions for torrential processes on a daily time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Martin; Kaitna, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Floods, intensive bedload transport, debris floods, and debris flows represent a severe hazard in torrent catchments in Alpine regions. These processes are expected to be mostly triggered by intensive, localized thunderstorm events or long lasting low-pressure systems. For forecasting debris flow hazards and estimation of potential changes due to climate change, identification of meteorological trigger conditions is of interest. In this study we investigate meteorological trigger conditions of torrential events recorded in Austria. The analysis is based on daily rainfall and temperature data. In total 7617 events and 1032 data-sets from meteorological stations, distributed over a region of approximately 80,000 km², and dating back until the year 1874, are available for analysis. Nearest stations to event as well as a weighted distance approach were combined with a Bayesian analysis to determine typical trigger conditions in different alpine settings. While according to Bayesian analysis the majority of debris flows is likely to be triggered by short rainfall events with an intensity of 60-70 mm/day, the signal for debris floods is less clear. Thresholds for debris floods tend to show higher rainfall intensities of 70-100 mm/day as prerequisites, but also a significant amount was caused by longer rainfall durations up to two days. Furthermore, the total event rainfall plays a higher role compared to debris flows. Intensive bedload transport shows a more complex relationship with a typical triggering event rainfall between 150 and 200 mm and rainfall intensities exceeding 100 mm/day. Flood events are mainly caused by a complex combination of influencing factors with different combinations of triggering event rainfall, high rainfall intensities and rainfall duration. The results of our study contribute to an improved understanding of torrential activity in the Alps and examine the influence of rainfall conditions on different types of torrential events.

  2. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  3. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  4. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  5. Using Water-Testing Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varrella, Gary F.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates an approach to teaching environmentally related studies based on constructivism. Presents an activity that makes use of data on chemicals in the water supply, and discusses obtaining and using data sets in the classroom. (LZ)

  6. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  7. A high power microwave triggered RF opening switch.

    PubMed

    Beeson, S; Dickens, J; Neuber, A

    2015-03-01

    A 4-port S-band waveguide structure was designed and fabricated such that a signal of any amplitude (less than 1 MW) can be switched from a normally closed state, <0.5 dB insertion loss (IL), to an open state >30 dB IL by initiating plasma in a gas cell situated at the junction of this waveguide and one propagating a megawatt level magnetron pulse. The 90/10 switching time is as low as 20 ns with a delay of ∼30 ns between the onset of the high power microwave pulse and the initial drop of the signal. Two ports of this device are for the high power triggering pulse while the other two ports are for the triggered signal in a Moreno-like coupler configuration. In order to maintain high isolation, these two sets of waveguides are rotated 90° from each other with a TE111 resonator/plasma cell located at the intersection. This manuscript describes the design and optimization of this structure using COMSOL 4.4 at the design frequency of 2.85 GHz, comparison of simulated scattering parameters with measured "cold tests" (testing without plasma), and finally the temporal waveforms of this device being used to successfully switch a low power CW signal from 2 W to <5 mW on a sub-microsecond timescale. PMID:25832255

  8. Nonlinear triggered lightning models for use in finite difference calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Terence; Perala, Rodney A.; Ng, Poh H.

    1989-01-01

    Two nonlinear triggered lightning models have been developed for use in finite difference calculations. Both are based on three species of air chemistry physics and couple nonlinearly calculated air conductivity to Maxwell's equations. The first model is suitable for use in three-dimensional modeling and has been applied to the analysis of triggered lightning on the NASA F106B Thunderstorm Research Aircraft. The model calculates number densities of positive ions, negative ions, and electrons as a function of time and space through continuity equations, including convective derivative terms. The set of equations is closed by using experimentally determined mobilities, and the mobilities are also used to determine the air conductivity. Results from the model's application to the F106B are shown. The second model is two-dimensional and incorporates an enhanced air chemistry formulation. Momentum conservation equations replace the mobility assumption of the first model. Energy conservation equations for neutrals, heavy ions, and electrons are also used. Energy transfer into molecular vibrational modes is accounted for. The purpose for the enhanced model is to include the effects of temperature into the air breakdown, a necessary step if the model is to simulate more than the very earliest stages of breakdown. Therefore, the model also incorporates a temperature-dependent electron avalanche rate. Results from the model's application to breakdown around a conducting ellipsoid placed in an electric field are shown.

  9. Investigation of Self Triggered Cosmic Ray Detectors using Silicon Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Adrian; Niduaza, Rommel; Hernandez, Victor; Ruiz, Daniel; Ramos, Daniel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura; Ritt, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a highly sensitive light detector capable of measuring single photons. It costs a fraction of the photomultiplier tube and operates slightly above the breakdown voltage. At this conference we describe our investigation of SiPM, the multipixel photon counters (MPPC) from Hamamatsu as readout detectors for plastic scintillators working for detecting cosmic ray particles. Our setup consists of scintillator sheets embedded with blue to green wavelength shifting fibers optically coupled to MPPCs to detect scintillating light. Four detector assemblies would be constructed and arranged to work in self triggered mode. Using custom matching tee boxes, the amplified MPPC signals are fed to discriminators with threshold set to give a reasonable coincidence count rate. Moreover, the detector waveforms are digitized using a 5 Giga Samples per second waveform digitizer, the DRS4, and triggered with the coincidence logic to capture the MPPC waveforms. Offline analysis of the digitized waveforms is accomplished using the CERN package PAW and results of our experiments and the data analysis would also be discussed. US Department of Education Title V Grant Number PO31S090007.

  10. Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Bethke, Gerit; Xu, Yuan; Tsuda, Kenichi; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process for plant innate immunity and development. In plant innate immunity, PCD is believed to prevent the spread of pathogens from the infection site. Although proper control of PCD is important for plant fitness, we have limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating plant PCD. Plant innate immunity triggered by recognition of effectors (effector-triggered immunity, ETI) is often associated with PCD. However pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), which is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), is not. Therefore we hypothesized that PTI might suppress PCD. Here we report that PCD triggered by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) can be suppressed by PTI in Arabidopsis. FB1-triggered cell death was suppressed by treatment with the MAMPs flg22 (a part of bacterial flagellin) or elf18 (a part of the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu) but not chitin (a component of fungal cell walls). Although plant hormone signaling is associated with PCD and PTI, both FB1-triggered cell death and suppression of cell death by flg22 treatment were still observed in mutants deficient in jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. The MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 are transiently activated and inactivated within one hour during PTI. We found that FB1 activated MPK3 and MPK6 about 36–48 hours after treatment. Interestingly, this late activation was attenuated by flg22 treatment. These results suggest that PTI suppression of FB1-triggered cell death may involve suppression of MPK3/MPK6 signaling but does not require JA/ET/SA signaling. PMID:23560104

  11. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  12. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Transfer As a Possible Aftershock Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    The earthquake dynamics can be modelled by employing the spring-block system [Burridge and Knopoff, 1967]. In this approach the earthquake fault is modelled by an array of blocks coupling the loading plate and the lower plate. The dynamics of the system is governed by the system of equations of motion for each block. It is possible to map this system into a cellular automata model, where the stress acting on each block is increased in each time step, and the failing process (frictional slip) is described by stress transfer rules [Olami et al, 1992]. The OFC model produces a power-law distribution for avalanche statistics but it is not capable of producing robust aftershock sequences which follow Omori's law.We propose a nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer mechanism in the aftershock triggering. In a basic spring-block model setting, we introduce the nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer between neighbouring blocks, as well as between blocks and the top loading plate. The shear stress of the viscous component is a power-law function of the velocity gradient with an exponent smaller or greater than 1 for the nonlinear viscoelasticity, or 1 for the linear case. The stress transfer function of this nonlinear viscoelastic model has a power-law time-dependent form. It features an instantaneous stress transmission triggering an instantaneous avalanche, which is the same as the original spring-block model; and a power-law relaxation term, which could trigger further aftershocks. We incorporate this nonlinear viscoelasticity mechanism in a lattice cellular automata model. The model could exhibit both the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for the frequency-magnitude distribution and a power-law time decay of aftershocks, which is in accordance with Omori's law. Our study suggests that the stress transfer function may play an important role in the aftershock triggering. We have found that the time decay curve of aftershocks is affected by the shape of the stress transfer function

  13. Landslides triggered by the 1946 Ancash earthquake, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampherm, T. S.; Evans, S. G.; Valderrama Murillo, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 1946 M7.3 Ancash Earthquake triggered a large number of landslides in an epicentral area that straddled the Continental Divide of South America in the Andes of Peru. A small number of landslides were described in reconnaissance reports by E. Silgado and Arnold Heim published shortly after the earthquake, but further details of the landslides triggered by the earthquake have not been reported since. Utilising field traverses, aerial photograph interpretation and GIS, our study mapped 45 landslides inferred to have been triggered by the event. 83% were rock avalanches involving Cretaceous limestones interbedded with shales. The five largest rock/debris avalanches occurred at Rio Llama (est. vol. 37 M m3), Suytucocha (est. vol., 13.5 Mm3), Quiches (est. vol. 10.5 Mm3 ), Pelagatos (est. vol. 8 Mm3), and Shundoy (est. vol. 8 Mm3). The Suytucocha, Quiches, and Pelagatos landslides were reported by Silgado and Heim. Rock slope failure was most common on slopes with a southwest aspect, an orientation corresponding to the regional dip direction of major planar structures in the Andean foreland belt (bedding planes and thrust faults). In valleys oriented transverse to the NW-SE structural grain of the epicentral area, south-westerly dipping bedding planes combined with orthogonal joint sets to form numerous wedge failures. Many initial rock slope failures were transformed into rock/debris avalanches by the entrainment of colluvium in their path. At Acobamba, a rock avalanche that transformed into a debris avalanche (est. vol. 4.3 Mm3) overwhelmed a village resulting in the deaths of 217 people. The cumulative volume-frequency plot shows a strong power law relation below a marked rollover, similar in form to that derived for landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The total volume of the 45 landslides is approximately 93 Mm3. The data point for the Ancash Earthquake plots near the regression line calculated by Keefer (1994), and modified by Malamud et al

  14. Community Mobilization for Girls Enrollment in Educational Settings: Triggers of Change Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret M.

    The benefits of girls' education include increased family incomes, later marriages, reduced fertility rates, reduced infant and maternal mortality rates, better nourished families, and greater opportunities for women. However, ingrained attitudes towards women are difficult to change. Only when communities believe that the benefits of girls in…

  15. Apolipoprotein E Sets the Stage: Response to Injury Triggers Neuropathology, Including Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.; Huang, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is associated with poor clinical outcome following traumatic brain injury and other neuropathological disorders. Protein instability and an isoform-specific apoE property called domain interaction are responsible for these neuropathological effects. ApoE4 is the most neurotoxic isoform and can induce neuropathology through various cellular pathways. Neuronal damage or stress induces apoE synthesis as part of the repair response; however, when apoE4 is expressed in neurons, its unique conformation makes it susceptible to proteolysis, resulting in the generation of neurotoxic fragments. These fragments cause pathological mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal alterations. Here, we review data supporting the hypothesis that apoE4 (> apoE3 > apoE2) has direct neurotoxic effects and highlight studies showing that blocking domain interaction reverses these detrimental effects. PMID:23217737

  16. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  17. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux: a potential asthma trigger.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan M

    2005-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a potential trigger of asthma. Approximately 77% of asthmatics report heartburn. GER is a risk factor for asthma-related hospitalization and oral steroid burst use. Asthmatics may be predisposed to GER development because of a high prevalence of hiatal hernia and autonomic dysregulation and an increased pressure gradient between the abdominal cavity and the thorax, over-riding the lower esophageal sphincter pressure barrier. Asthma medications may potentiate GER. Potential mechanisms of esophageal acid-induced bronchoconstriction include a vagally mediated reflex, local axonal reflexes, heightened bronchial reactivity, and microaspiration, all resulting in neurogenic inflammation. Anti-reflux therapy improves asthma symptoms in approximately 70% of asthmatics with GER. A 3-month empiric trial of twice-daily proton pump inhibitor given 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast and dinner can identify asthmatics who have GER as a trigger of their asthma. PMID:15579368

  19. Correlated observations of three triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1984-01-01

    Three triggered lightning flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural lightning data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered lightning results to natural lightning phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.

  20. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  1. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  2. A parallel pipelined dataflow trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Miller, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Sa, J. ); Hsiung, Y.B. ); Carey, T.; Jeppesen, R. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper describes a parallel pipelined data flow trigger processor which is used in Fermilab E789. E789 is an experiment to study low-multiplicity decays of particles containing b or c quarks. The processor consists of an upstream vertex processor and a downstream track processor. The algorithms which reconstruct the postulated particle paths and calculate particle origin are implemented via interconnected function-specific hardware modules. The algorithm is directly dependent upon the organization of the modules, the specific arrangement of the inter-module cabling, on-board memory data. The processor provides an indication of the presence of at least one interesting particle pair in the current event by asserting Read on its Read/Skip output. The Read assertion is then used as a trigger to capture all of the event's data for subsequent extensive off-line analysis.

  3. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine. PMID:21906054

  4. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  5. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  6. A light-triggered protein secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points. PMID:23671313

  7. Triply triggered doxorubicin release from supramolecular nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; del Barrio, Jesús; Toh, Pearl Pei Chern; Lee, Tung-Chun; Jiao, Dezhi; Rauwald, Urs; Appel, Eric A; Scherman, Oren A

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a supramolecular double hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC) held together by cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) ternary complexation and its subsequent self-assembly into micelles is described. This system is responsive to multiple external triggers including temperature, pH and the addition of a competitive guest. The supramolecular block copolymer assembly consists of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a thermoresponsive block and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as a pH-responsive block. Moreover, encapsulation and controlled drug release was demonstrated with this system using the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). This triple stimuli-responsive DHBC micelle system represents an evolution over conventional double stimuli-responsive covalent diblock copolymer systems and displayed a significant reduction in the viability of HeLa cells upon triggered release of DOX from the supramolecular micellar nanocontainers. PMID:22148638

  8. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  9. Children with Asthma: Assessment and Treatment in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Grigerick, Sarah E.; Loftus, Susan; Nicholson, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways. It affects approximately 12% of American children, and it appears that that incidence is increasing. Asthma in children negatively influences school-based outcomes such as absenteeism and friendship formation. Potential triggers of asthma include environmental allergens, exercise, weather, and emotional…

  10. I. Specific Nature of Triggering Events.

    PubMed

    Eckert, R

    1965-03-01

    The flash of Noctiluca miliaris occurs only in response to a characteristic all-or-none action potential, the polarity of which is opposite to that of metazoan action potentials, whether recorded internally or externally. Mechanical stimulation evokes a slow, generator-like graded potential which can give rise to the flash-triggering action potential. The flash is all-or-none; it facilitates, summates, and exhibits fatigue, each independently of changes in the amplitude of the action potential. PMID:17790656

  11. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  12. Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) for Integration Modular Avionics (IMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Bauer, Guenther; Jakovljevic, Mirko; Gagea,Leonard; Motzet, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the Time Triggered Protocol, designed to work with NASA's Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) system. ISAACC is the product of the Propulsion High-Impact Avionics Technologies (PHIAT) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during FY03 to the end of FY05. The goal is an avionics architecture suitable for control and monitoring of safety critical systems of manned spacecraft. It must be scalable to allow its use in robotic vehicles or launch pad and propulsion test stand monitoring and control systems. The developed IMA should have: a common power supply and rugged chassis for a set of modules, many upgradeable software functions on one module (i.e. processing unit Reduced weight, straightforward update and system integration. It is also important that it have Partitioning and a Memory Management Unit (MMU)

  13. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  14. Trigger chemistries for better industrial formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Chin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Possanza, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, innovations and consumer demands have led to increasingly complex liquid formulations. These growing complexities have provided industrial players and their customers access to new markets through product differentiation, improved performance, and compatibility/stability with other products. One strategy for enabling more complex formulations is the use of active encapsulation. When encapsulation is employed, strategies are required to effect the release of the active at the desired location and time of action. One particular route that has received significant academic research effort is the employment of triggers to induce active release upon a specific stimulus, though little has translated for industrial use to date. To address emerging industrial formulation needs, in this review, we discuss areas of trigger release chemistries and their applications specifically as relevant to industrial use. We focus the discussion on the use of heat, light, shear, and pH triggers as applied in several model polymeric systems for inducing active release. The goal is that through this review trends will emerge for how technologies can be better developed to maximize their value through industrial adaptation. PMID:25768973

  15. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  16. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  17. The Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  19. Cancer exosomes trigger fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jason; Steadman, Robert; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the cell-cell communication roles in cancer mediated by secreted vesicles termed exosomes. In this study, we examined whether exosomes produced by cancer cells could transmit information to normal stromal fibroblasts and trigger a cellular response. We found that some cancer-derived exosomes could trigger elevated α-smooth muscle actin expression and other changes consistent with the process of fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts. We show that TGF-β is expressed at the exosome surface in association with the transmembrane proteoglycan betaglycan. Although existing in a latent state, this complex was fully functional in eliciting SMAD-dependent signaling. Inhibiting either signaling or betaglycan expression attenuated differentiation. While the kinetics and overall magnitude of the response were similar to that achieved with soluble TGF-β, we identified important qualitative differences unique to the exosomal route of TGF-β delivery, as exemplified by a significant elevation in fibroblast FGF2 production. This hitherto unknown trigger for instigating cellular differentiation in a distinctive manner has major implications for mechanisms underlying cancer-recruited stroma, fibrotic diseases, and wound-healing responses. PMID:21098712

  20. Oracle Database Y2K Protection Triggers Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cribbs, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    I developed PL/SQL code that generates or modifies PL/SQL �BEFORE EACH ROW� triggers to protect database date columns from Y2K non-compliant date input (from all sources) into the database. A function is imbedded in the triggers that uses the �RR� year formatted date conversion. For each table with at least one date column and with INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE trigger(s), my code inserts date conversion code into the existing trigger(s). For INSERT/UPDATE not in a trigger(s), my code creates a trigger for the absent DML command(s). Designed to be: Transferable to other servers with minimum effort; A uniform and consistent problem solution with easy implementation, testing, and configuration management. No need to manually code and edit SQL trigger files: Modifies existing triggers; Creates needed triggers; Self documented (output comments with code); SQL files configuration management ready. Can customize the: Date conversion function; Code modifications for the trigger; Universal lookup/key; �

  1. Tsunami and seiche-triggered deformation within offshore sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, G. Ian; Marco, Shmuel

    2012-06-01

    Most studies of tsunami and seiche related deposits have focussed on coastal and near coastal zones which are most readily accessible, with few investigations of deeper water settings and the potential soft-sediment deformation effects of such waves. The Late Pleistocene Lisan Formation outcropping to the west of the Dead Sea contains superb examples of sedimentary slump folds formed in water depths of < 100 m. We have collected new structural data from an individual horizon that demonstrate that these gravity-driven slumps may be coaxially refolded and reworked by sheared folds and thrusts verging both back up and then down the palaeoslope. This suggests that it is possible to generate upslope flow of material in some circumstances. A progressive increase in reworking and shearing is developed up through the folded sediment, culminating in a breccia layer that is capped by a thin, typically graded horizon of undeformed silt and sand. We suggest that these sequentially reworked deposits are consistent with seismically triggered tsunami and seiche waves that would flow back and forth across the main slump horizon triggered by the same earthquake. The overlying sands and silts that infill local topography are considered to be deposited from turbid suspension during cessation of wave action and represent homogenite deposits. Although tsunami and seiche waves have previously been both numerically modelled and directly witnessed in the Dead Sea Basin, this study forms the first detailed structural analysis and interpretation of potential reworking associated with such waves in offshore settings, where the potential for preservation in the geological record is increased.

  2. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  3. Integration of the Super Nova Early Warning System with the NOvA Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab's upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. This presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  4. Early experiences with tachycardia-triggered vagus nerve stimulation using the AspireSR stimulator.

    PubMed

    El Tahry, Riëm; Hirsch, Martin; Van Rijckevorsel, Kenou; Santos, Susana Ferrao; de Tourtchaninoff, Marianne; Rooijakkers, Herbert; Coenen, Volker; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Many epilepsy patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation additionally use an "on-demand" function, triggering an extra stimulation to terminate a seizure or diminish its severity. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients are not able to actively trigger stimulations by use of a magnet, due to the absence of an aura or inability for voluntary actions in the early phase of a seizure. To address this need, a novel implantable pulse generator, the AspireSR VNS system, was developed to provide automated ictal stimulation triggered by a seizure-detecting algorithm. We report our experience with three patients in assessing the functionality of ictal stimulation, illustrating the detection system in practice. Detection of ictal tachycardia and variable additional detections of physiological tachycardia depended on the individual seizure-detecting algorithm settings. PMID:27248796

  5. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors. PMID:26910106

  6. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into ourmore » trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.« less

  7. Compact SCR trigger circuit for ignitron switch operates efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. E.

    1965-01-01

    Trigger circuit with two series-connected SCR triggers an ignitron switch used to discharge high-energy capacitor banks. It does not require a warmup period and operates at relatively high efficiency.

  8. Combat veterans: impressions of an analytic observer in a non-analytic setting.

    PubMed

    Stein, Herbert H

    2007-01-01

    The hallmark presentation of combat trauma-nightmares, waking hallucinations, intrusive traumatic memories, and extreme affective reactions to environmental triggers-may best be conceptualized as part of an adaptive mechanism intended to protect the individual against a repetition of trauma. Combat veterans continuously must cope with the extreme affects that combat induced. Fear, rage, guilt, and grief predominate. Their mental and emotional life is complicated by a conscience split between war zone and civilian morality and by the special group dynamics of combat. Optimal clinical understanding of combat-related trauma, whether in a psychoanalytic or general mental health setting, requires an awareness of the interaction of the personal dynamics of each individual with the specific characteristics of their combat situation. PMID:18335611

  9. SAP Minutes No.2015-03 for FIFRA meeting held 9/15-17/2015. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding development of a spatial aquatic model(SAM)for pesticide risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 15-17th, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Development of a Spatial Aquatic Model (SAM) for Pesticide Risk Assessment”. The goal of SAM is to impr...

  10. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Minutes No. 21015-04. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding integrated endocrine bioactivity and exposure-based prioritization & screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On December 2-4, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Integrated Endocrine Bioactivity and Exposure-Based Prioritization and Screening” methods. EPA is proposing ...

  11. SAP Minutes No. 2014-03 for FIFRA meeting held July 29-31, 2014. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding new high throughput methods to estimate chemical exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 29-31, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “new High Throughput Methods to Estimate Chemical Exposure”. EPA is proposing to use these methods to identify...

  12. Statistical Properties of Induced and Triggered Earthquakes at The Geysers, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, A. K.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study considers the statistics of induced and triggered seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California. Data is considered from the regional Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and local Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Network (LBNLN). Both data sets give good GR data fits for 2009-2014 but NCSN data have b=1.15 and LBNLN data have b=1.36. Comparing 18,000 individual earthquakes we find on average MLBNLN = MNCSN+0.5. Thus care must be taken when both data sets are used. We hypothesize that the strain accumulated due to the plate motions is a balance by the strain released in earthquakes with a maximum upper limit Mmax. We compare the strain associated with seismicity with the tectonic GPS strain being accumulated in the region. Taking the NCSN GR data with an upper magnitude cutoff, we find this cutoff to be Mmax=4.74. This is consistent with an observed upper magnitude limit to The Geysers seismicity at about M=5. We present studies of aftershock statistics of four M = 4.43, 4.16, 4.62, and 4.53 earthquakes. We find both GR and Omori Law statistics to be typical of tectonic earthquakes. We suggest that the four earthquakes release accumulated tectonic stresses but injected fluids reduce the stress required for rupture initiation. We also consider triggered seismicity caused by three remote earthquakes. We obtain excellent data for the 2010 M=7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah and the M=6.0 South Napa earthquakes. In the first case a M=3.37 event was triggered and in the second case a M=4.48 event was triggered. We conclude that the observed seismicity consists primarily of aftershocks of the large triggered earthquakes and that the directly triggered earthquakes do not satisfy GR frequency-magnitude statistics.

  13. Autonomously-triggered microfluidic cooling using thermo-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Abhishek K; Dong, Liang; Beebe, David J; Jiang, Hongrui

    2007-03-01

    We present autonomously-triggered on-chip microfluidic cooling devices that utilize thermo-responsive hydrogels to adapt to local environmental temperatures. An external rotating magnetic stirrer couples with an in situ fabricated nickel impeller in these centrifugal-based microfluidic cooling devices to recirculate cooler water. Temperature-responsive hydrogels, which exhibit volumetric expansion and contraction, are integrated at the axle of the impeller. In this design, the hydrogels behave similar to an automotive clutch, to autonomously control the impeller's rotation as a function of the local environmental temperature. Therefore, the hydrogels act as both sensors and actuators and help take away the necessity for additional temperature sensing, feedback, and/or control units here. Cooling devices capable of on-chip thermal management at multiple predetermined onset operation points are realized by changes to the composition of hydrogel to alter its lowest critical solution temperature (LCST). Furthermore, the effect of magnetic stirrer frequency on the fluid cooling and flowrates for different two-blade nickel impeller designs are presented. PMID:17330161

  14. Optical performance and trigger logic of the imager onboard SPRITE-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Takashima, T.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.

    2008-12-01

    Horizontal distribution of sprite columns, that provides a key to understand the sprite generation mechanism, is difficult to observe on the ground. The nadir observation from space with satellite is an only method to investigate it globally. SPRITE-SAT is a small satellite to observe sprites and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), developed mainly by Tohoku University. The onboard CMOS cameras named LSI-1 and -2 will image lightning and sprites. LSI-1 with an optical band-pass filter for 744-840 nm captures mainly lightning flash, while LSI-2 detects 762 nm emission line mainly from sprites. The ratio of luminous intensity, obtained by LSI-1 and LSI- 2, enable us to identify the occurrence of sprites. The focus of LSI is necessary to be adjusted with accuracy of +/- 70 micro meters. The method used in focusing the REIMEI satellite optical system was applied to the assembling LSI. As a result, the diameters of light spots were set to be smaller than the pixel size of the image sensor. We calibrated the sensitivity of LSI and other cameras with an integrating sphere, and made sure that LSI can detect the luminosity higher than ~5 MR in 760-774 nm. On the other hand, LSI-2 can detect sprite luminosity, which is expected to be about 10-100 MR by nadir-looking observation based on the image data obtained from the International Space Station. We completed the total semantics of the trigger logic in the FPGA and CPU. The FPGA logic picks up the transient luminosity. The CPU logic identifies sprites by calculating the ratio of the luminous intensity imaged by LSI-1 and LSI-2. After the SPRITE-SAT is launched, the parameters of triggering logics will be adjusted precisely based on the actual data obtained on the orbit. If they work properly, we could pick up only sprite events, whose occurrence frequency is an order of 1 percent out of whole number of lightning discharge events. SPRITE-SAT is also equipped with two high-sensitivity CCD cameras developed by Tohoku

  15. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitive Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    SHM/FM theory has been successfully applied to the selection of the baseline set Abort Triggers for the NASA SLS center dot Quantitative assessment played a useful role in the decision process ? M&FM, which is new within NASA MSFC, required the most "new" work, as this quantitative analysis had never been done before center dot Required development of the methodology and tool to mechanize the process center dot Established new relationships to the other groups ? The process is now an accepted part of the SLS design process, and will likely be applied to similar programs in the future at NASA MSFC ? Future improvements center dot Improve technical accuracy ?Differentiate crew survivability due to an abort, vs. survivability even no immediate abort occurs (small explosion with little debris) ?Account for contingent dependence of secondary triggers on primary triggers ?Allocate "? LOC Benefit" of each trigger when added to the previously selected triggers. center dot Reduce future costs through the development of a specialized tool ? Methodology can be applied to any manned/unmanned vehicle, in space or terrestrial

  16. SWATCH: common control SW for the uTCA-based upgraded CMS L1 Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jim; Bunkowski, Karol; Cali, Ivan; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lazaridis, Christos; Thea, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The CMS L1 Trigger electronics are composed of a large number of different cards based on the VMEBus standard. The majority of the system is being replaced to adapt the trigger to the higher collision rates the LHC will deliver after the LS1, the first phase on the CMS upgrade program. As a consequence, the software that controls, monitors and tests the hardware will need to be re-written. The upgraded trigger will consist of a set of general purpose boards of similar technology that follow the TCA specification, thus resulting in a more homogeneous system. A great effort has been made to identify the common firmware blocks and components shared across different cards, regardless of the role they play within the trigger data path. A similar line of work has been followed in order to identify all possible common functionalities in the control software, as well as in the database where the hardware initialisation and configuration data are stored. This will not only increase the homogeneity on the software and database sides, but it will also reduce the manpower needed to accommodate the online SW to the changes on hardware. Due to the fact that the upgrade will take place in different stages, it has been taken into consideration that these new components had to be integrated in the current SW framework. This paper presents the design of the control SW and configuration database for the upgraded L1 Trigger.

  17. The trigger system of the OPAL experiment at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arignon, M.; Ball, A. H.; Bell, K. W.; Bramhall, M.; Braun, A.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Charlton, D. G.; Dittmar, M.; Farthouat, P.; Feyt, J.; Gao, H.; Gary, J. W.; Gillies, J. D.; Greiner, C.; Hammarstroem, R.; Hart, J.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hilse, T.; Humbert, R.; Jaroslawski, S.; Joos, D.; Jovanovic, P.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Le Du, P.; Levinson, L. J.; Loebinger, F. K.; MacBeth, A. A.; Mikenberg, G.; Milborrow, R.; Pawley, S. J.; Penton, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Ricth, G.; Roach, C. M.; Runge, K.; Schaile, O.; Scherer, D.; Schuler, G.; Schwarz, J.; Springer, R. W.; Takeda, H.; Virtue, C. J.; Wagner, A.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, C.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the trigger system of the OPAL detector at the e+e- collider LEP and its performance during the first year of data taking. A high level of redundancy and fine detector segmentation at the trigger level led to a high efficiency for all considered physics reactions while the trigger rates were kept low.

  18. SETS reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis.

  19. Bryozoan paleoecology indicates mid-Phanerozoic extinctions were the product of long-term environmental stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.

    2007-11-01

    We compiled the global onshore-offshore distribution of marine bryozoans within 396 Permian-Early Jurassic bryozoan assemblages and show that bryozoan assemblage generic richness declined significantly in advance of the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, starting as early as the Capitanian prior to the end-Permian and the Norian prior to the end-Triassic. We also show that offshore settings were affected first, prior to both extinctions, suggesting that environmental stress resulted from the gradual encroachment of some deep-water phenomenon onto the shelves. These patterns support long-term oceanographic, rather than extraterrestrial, extinction mechanisms, such as widespread euxinia triggered by massive volcanism and global warming. Tracking the onshore-offshore environmental distribution of these marine invertebrates provides a unique approach to assessing prolonged environmentally induced stress through this ˜120 m.y. time interval.

  20. Missing Transverse Momentum Trigger Performance Studies for the ATLAS Calorimeter Trigger Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamas, Brianna; Parrish, Elliot; Lisi, Luc; Dudley, Christopher; Majewski, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. In anticipation of discovering new physics, the detector will undergo numerous hardware upgrades including improvements to the Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger electronics. For the upgrade, one component of the Level-1 trigger system will be the global feature extractor, gFEX, which will house three field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Specifically, in order to improve the missing transverse energy (ETmiss)trigger, an adapted topological clustering algorithm is being investigated for implementation on the FPGAs for reconstruction of proton-proton interactions in the ATLAS detector. Using simulated data, this study analyzes the performance of the adapted algorithm in software.

  1. Frontal cortex mediates unconsciously triggered inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    van Gaal, Simon; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2008-08-01

    To further our understanding of the function of conscious experience we need to know which cognitive processes require awareness and which do not. Here, we show that an unconscious stimulus can trigger inhibitory control processes, commonly ascribed to conscious control mechanisms. We combined the metacontrast masking paradigm and the Go/No-Go paradigm to study whether unconscious No-Go signals can actively trigger high-level inhibitory control processes, strongly associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Behaviorally, unconscious No-Go signals sometimes triggered response inhibition to the level of complete response termination and yielded a slow down in the speed of responses that were not inhibited. Electroencephalographic recordings showed that unconscious No-Go signals elicit two neural events: (1) an early occipital event and (2) a frontocentral event somewhat later in time. The first neural event represents the visual encoding of the unconscious No-Go stimulus, and is also present in a control experiment where the masked stimulus has no behavioral relevance. The second event is unique to the Go/No-Go experiment, and shows the subsequent implementation of inhibitory control in the PFC. The size of the frontal activity pattern correlated highly with the impact of unconscious No-Go signals on subsequent behavior. We conclude that unconscious stimuli can influence whether a task will be performed or interrupted, and thus exert a form of cognitive control. These findings challenge traditional views concerning the proposed relationship between awareness and cognitive control and stretch the alleged limits and depth of unconscious information processing. PMID:18685030

  2. Triggered Star Formation From Shock to Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Triggered star formation {TSF} occurs when supersonic flows generated by distant supernova blast waves, stellar winds {wind blown bubbles} or ionization fronts {D-type fronts in HII regions} sweep over a stable cloud. TSF may play a role in massive regions of star formation where winds, HII regions and, eventually, blast-waves sweep through dense, heterogeneous molecular material. In addition TSF has played an important role in discussions of the formation of our own solar system because it offers a natural way of injecting short lived radioactive isotopes {SLRI's} like 26^Al into material which will then form planetary bodies.The purpose of this proposal is to use advanced numerical tools to explore the physics of TSF in greater detail than has been attempted before. Previous studies have not been able to follow triggering past the early stages before a star forms. Our 3-D Adaptive Mesh Refinement {AMR} MHD code contains well tested physics modules which will allow us to track the influence of self-gravity, radiation-transport, cooling by molecules/neutrals/atoms and, finally, the collapse of gas into stars {i.e.condensed gravitating point-like objects or "sink-particles"}. With this tool we will follow triggering well past the formation of the star to explore the creation of accretion disks and their properties. In addition the microphysics routines in the code allow us to make detailed contact with HST observations such as the pillars in the Carina nebula via synthetic observations of line profiles, proper motions, Position-Velocity diagrams and statistics.

  3. Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-05-03

    The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.

  4. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  5. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  6. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis' most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27273431

  7. Abdominal Trigger Points and Psychological Function.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Myofascial trigger points (TPs) are a poorly understood phenomenon involving the myofascial system and its related neural, lymphatic, and circulatory elements. Compression or massage of a TP causes localized pain and may cause referred pain and autonomic phenomena. The authors describe a 58-year-old woman who experienced precipitation of substantial psychological symptoms directly related to her treatment for a lower abdominal TP. Her symptoms resolved after 2 weeks of receiving high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation and soft tissue massage. Particularly in the abdomen, TPs may be associated with psychological reactions as well as physical aspects of bodily function. PMID:26830528

  8. Optically Triggered Immune Response through Photocaged Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Govan, Jeane M.; Young, Douglas D.; Lively, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and viral CpG oligonculeotides are unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine dinucleotide sequences and trigger an innate immune response through activation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have developed synthetic photocaged CpGs via site-specific incorporation of nitropiperonyloxymethyl (NPOM)-caged thymidine residues. These oligonucleotides enable the optical control of TLR9 function and thereby provide light-activation of an immune response. We provide a proof-of-concept model by applying a reporter assay in live cells and by quantification of endogenous production of interleukin 6. PMID:26034339

  9. Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling: Triggers, Pathways, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Fernanda Marques; Torelli, Nicole Quesada; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles for eukaryotic homeostasis. Although these organelles possess their own DNA, the vast majority (>99%) of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. This situation makes systems that allow the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus a requirement not only to coordinate mitochondrial protein synthesis during biogenesis but also to communicate eventual mitochondrial malfunctions, triggering compensatory responses in the nucleus. Mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling has been described in various organisms, albeit with differences in effector pathways, molecules, and outcomes, as discussed in this review. PMID:26583058

  10. New methods for trigger electronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  11. Extremely Intense Magnetospheric Substorms : External Triggering? Preconditioning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Echer, Ezequiel; Hajra, Rajkumar

    2016-07-01

    We study particularly intense substorms using a variety of near-Earth spacecraft data and ground observations. We will relate the solar cycle dependences of events, determine whether the supersubstorms are externally or internally triggered, and their relationship to other factors such as magnetospheric preconditioning. If time permits, we will explore the details of the events and whether they are similar to regular (Akasofu, 1964) substorms or not. These intense substorms are an important feature of space weather since they may be responsible for power outages.

  12. Use of parallel counters for triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikityuk, N. M.

    1992-10-01

    The results of an investigation into using parallel counters, majority coincidence schemes and parallel compressors for triggering in multichannel high energy spectrometers are described. Concrete examples of methods of constructing fast and economical new devices used to determine multiplicity hits t > 900 registered in a hodoscopic plane and a pixel detector are given. For this purpose the author uses the syndrome coding method and cellular arrays. In addition, the author has created an effective coding matrix which can be used for light signal coding. For example, such signals are supplied from scintillators to photomultipliers. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR.

  13. Performance of the Level-1 Muon Trigger for the CMS Endcap Muon System with Cosmic Rays and First LHC Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    We report on the performance of the level-1 muon trigger for the cathode strip chambers (CSCs) comprising the endcaps of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS is a general-purpose experiment designed to capitalize on the rich physics program of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which begins operation this autumn and which opens a window onto physics at the TeV energy scale. After many years of preparation, the CMS detectors and electronics have undergone a series of commissioning exercises involving the triggering and data acquisition of signals induced from cosmic ray muons, and most recently, first LHC beams. Here we report on the successful synchronization of signals from the 468 CSCs in the level-1 trigger path, and the successful triggering of the experiment based on those signals. The triggers that are provided by a specially built set of ``Track-Finder'' processors include triggers based on single CSC segments, tracks based on a coincidence of segments along a predefined road emanating from the beam collision point, and tracks parallel to the beam line that accept accelerator-induced halo muons. Evidence of the proper functioning of these triggers will be reported.

  14. Boosting standard order sets utilization through clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Li, Haomin; Zhang, Yinsheng; Cheng, Haixia; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2013-01-01

    Well-designed standard order sets have the potential to integrate and coordinate care by communicating best practices through multiple disciplines, levels of care, and services. However, there are several challenges which certainly affected the benefits expected from standard order sets. To boost standard order sets utilization, a problem-oriented knowledge delivery solution was proposed in this study to facilitate access of standard order sets and evaluation of its treatment effect. In this solution, standard order sets were created along with diagnostic rule sets which can trigger a CDS-based reminder to help clinician quickly discovery hidden clinical problems and corresponding standard order sets during ordering. Those rule set also provide indicators for targeted evaluation of standard order sets during treatment. A prototype system was developed based on this solution and will be presented at Medinfo 2013. PMID:23920727

  15. Trigger Algorithm Design for a SUSY Lepton Trigger based on Forward Proton Tagging

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Hollar, J

    2010-03-29

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pair production of SUSY leptons in gamma-gamma interactions will often include intact off-energy protons. Including detectors in the beampipe to measure these protons can give additional information to separate these events from background. We report on expected event rates and background rejection for a slepton trigger design in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment incorporating forward proton information. We conclude that a trigger that can observe an interesting number of events is feasible with the appropriate detector hardware.

  16. SQL Triggers Reacting on Time Events: An Extension Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrend, Andreas; Dorau, Christian; Manthey, Rainer

    Being able to activate triggers at timepoints reached or after time intervals elapsed has been acknowledged by many authors as a valuable functionality of a DBMS. Recently, the interest in time-based triggers has been renewed in the context of data stream monitoring. However, up till now SQL triggers react to data changes only, even though research proposals and prototypes have been supporting several other event types, in particular time-based ones, since long. We therefore propose a seamless extension of the SQL trigger concept by time-based triggers, focussing on semantic issues arising from such an extension.

  17. Isomer Triggering via Nuclear Excitation by Electron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Palffy, Adriana; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2007-10-26

    Triggering of long-lived nuclear isomeric states via coupling to the atomic shells in the process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) is studied. NEEC occurring in highly charged ions can excite the isomeric state to a triggering level that subsequently decays to the ground state. We present total cross sections for NEEC isomer triggering considering experimentally confirmed low-lying triggering levels and reaction rates based on realistic experimental parameters in ion storage rings. A comparison with other isomer triggering mechanisms shows that, among these, NEEC is the most efficient.

  18. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  19. Spatial estimation of debris flows-triggering rainfall and its dependence on rainfall severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destro, Elisa; Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting the occurrence of landslides and debris flows (collectively termed 'debris flows' hereinafter) is fundamental for issuing hazard warnings, and focuses largely on rainfall as a triggering agent. Debris flow forecasting relies very often on the identification of combinations of depth and duration of rainfall - rainfall thresholds - that trigger widespread debris flows. Rainfall estimation errors related to the sparse nature of raingauge data are enhanced in case of convective rainfall events characterized by limited spatial extent. Such errors have been shown to cause underestimation of the rainfall thresholds and, thus, less efficient forecasts of debris flows occurrence. This work examines the spatial organization of debris flows-triggering rainfall around the debris flow initiation points using high-resolution, carefully corrected radar data for a set of short duration (<30 h) storm events occurred in the eastern Italian Alps. The set includes eleven debris-flow triggering rainfall events that occurred in the study area between 2005 and 2014. The selected events are among the most severe in the region during this period and triggered a total of 99 debris flows that caused significant damage to people and infrastructures. We show that the spatial rainfall organisation depends on the severity (measured via the estimated return time-RT) of the debris flow-triggering rainfall. For more frequent events (RT<20 yrs) the rainfall spatial pattern systematically shows that debris flow location coincides with a local minimum, whereas for less frequent events (RT>20 yrs) the triggering rainfall presents a local peak corresponding to the debris flow initiation point. Dependence of these features on rainfall duration is quite limited. The characteristics of the spatial rainfall organisation are exploited to understand the performances and results of three different rainfall interpolation techniques: nearest neighbour (NN), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and

  20. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Pearson, T; Cordeau, Y; Mefford, O T; Crawford, T M

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufacturing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  1. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-01

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics. PMID:26083530

  2. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles.

  3. Engineering Challenges in Antiproton Triggered Fusion Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, Brice; Kammash, Terry

    2008-01-21

    During the last decade antiproton triggered fusion propulsion has been investigated as a method for achieving high specific impulse, high thrust in a nuclear pulse propulsion system. In general the antiprotons are injected into a pellet containing fusion fuel with a small amount of fissionable material (i.e., an amount less than the critical mass) where the products from the fission are then used to trigger a fusion reaction. Initial calculations and simulations indicate that if magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion is used that the pellets should result in a specific impulse of between 100,000 and 300,000 seconds at high thrust. The engineering challenges associated with this propulsion system are significant. For example, the antiprotons must be precisely focused. The pellet must be designed to contain the fission and initial fusion products and this will require strong magnetic fields. The fusion fuel must be contained for a sufficiently long time to effectively release the fusion energy, and the payload must be shielded from the radiation, especially the excess neutrons emitted, in addition to many other particles. We will review the recent progress, possible engineering solutions and the potential performance of these systems.

  4. Triggering of Erythrocyte Death by Triparanol

    PubMed Central

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor Triparanol has been shown to trigger apoptosis in several malignancies. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress which may activate erythrocytic Ca2+ permeable unselective cation channels with subsequent Ca2+ entry and increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). The present study explored whether and how Triparanol induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Triparanol (20 µM) significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence and significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. Triparanol (15 µM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased the forward scatter. The effect of Triparanol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Triparanol leads to eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Triparanol is at least in part effective by stimulating ROS formation and Ca2+ entry. PMID:26305256

  5. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  6. Astrophysically Triggered Searches for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marka, Zsuzsa

    2010-02-01

    Many expected sources of gravitational waves are observable in more traditional channels, via gamma rays, X-rays, optical, radio, or neutrino emission. Some of these channels are already being used in searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network, and others are currently being incorporated into new or planned searches. Astrophysical targets include gamma-ray bursts, soft-gamma repeaters, supernovae, and glitching pulsars. The observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission simultaneously with gravitational waves could be crucial for the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Information on the progenitor, such as trigger time, direction and expected frequency range, can enhance our ability to identify gravitational wave signatures with amplitude close to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, combining gravitational waves with electromagnetic and neutrino observations will enable the extraction of scientific insight that was hidden from us before. We will discuss the status for astrophysically triggered searches with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo network and the science goals and outlook for the second and third generation gravitational wave detector era. )

  7. [The electrical conductivity of triggered lightning channel].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ming; Yuan, Ping; Su, Mao-gen; Lü, Shi-hua

    2007-10-01

    Spectra of return strokes for artificial triggered lightning were obtained by optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA) in Shandong region. Compared with previous spectra of natural lightning, additional lines of ArI 602.5 nm and ArII 666.5 nm were observed. Under the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium, electronic temperatures of the lightning channel plasma were obtained according to the relative line intensities. Meanwhile, with semi-empirical method the electron density was obtained by Halpha line Stark broadening. In combination with plasma theory, electrical conductivity of the lightning channel has been calculated for the first time, and the characteristic of conductivity for lightning channel was also discussed. The relation between the electrical conductivity of channel and the return stroke current was analyzed, providing reference data for further work on computing return stroke current. Results show that the lightning channel is a good conductor, and electrons are the main carrier of channel current. The brightness of artificial triggered lightning channel is usually higher than that of natural lightning, and its current is smaller than that of the natural lightning. PMID:18306764

  8. Series resonance inverter with triggered vacuum gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damstra, Geert C.; Zhang, X.

    1994-05-01

    Series resonance inverters based on semi-conductor switching elements are well-known and have a wide range of application, mainly for lower voltages. For high voltage application many switching elements have to be put in series to obtain sufficient blocking voltage. Voltage grinding and multiple gate control elements are needed. There is much experience with the triggered vacuum gaps as high voltage/high current single shot elements, for example in reignition circuits for synthetic circuit breaker tests. These elements have a blocking voltage of 50 - 100 kV and are triggerable by a light fiber control device. A prototype inverter has been developed that generates 0.1 Hz, 30 kV AC voltages with a flat top for tests on cables and capacitors of many micro farads fed from a low voltage supply of about 600 V. Only two TVG elements are needed to switch the resonant circuit alternatively on the positive or negative supply. The resonant circuit itself consists of the capacitance of the testobject and a high quality inductor that determines the frequency and the peak current of the voltage reversing process.

  9. Testing atmospheric and tidal earthquake triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Cattania, C.; Wassermann, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity closely related to hydrological impacts has been observed in several locations worldwide; particularly in intraplate areas where tectonic stressing rates are small. The trigger mechanism is usually explained by a poroelastic response of the seismogenic crust to surface water flux, leading to pore pressure changes at depth. To explain the earthquake triggering in response of those small stress changes, however, the crust has to be near a critical state in which other transient processes might be significant such as thermoelastic stress changes induced by the surface temperature variations or tidal stresses. We aim at a systematic comparative testing of these processes for particular case studies by analyzing modeled seismicity rate changes based on rate- and state-dependent frictional nucleation. One of our examples is the Mt. Hochstaufen in SW Germany, where seismicity is known to vary seasonally. A previous analysis showed that the seismicity in 2002 was highly correlated to rainfall-induced seismicity changes based on pore pressure diffusion. We have revisited this case by accounting for additional poroelastic effects, as well as for thermoelastic and tidal stresses and tested whether the model can explain the observations of the subsequent eight years between 2003 and 2010. Our analysis confirms that rainfall is the dominant driving force in this region. The model not only fits the year 2002 activity very well, but provides with the same parameters a reasonable fit to the subsequent period, with a probability gain of about 4 per event in comparison to a time-independent Poisson model.

  10. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, AND DISSEMINATION OF EPA SCIENCE ON INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical Assistance, technology transfer, and dissemination of EPA science on maintenance of good indoor air quality, reducing exposure to radon, reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and the environmental management of asthma and asthma trigger reduction. This is a...

  11. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  12. Environmental Science Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobbe, Maurice A.

    The objective of this manual is to provide a set of basic analytical procedures commonly used to determine environmental quality. Procedures are designed to be used in an introductory course in environmental science and are explicit enough to allow them to be performed by both the non-science or beginning science student. Stressing ecology and…

  13. Institutionalizing Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, John N.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the major reasons for the slow pace of institutionalization of environmental education in schools. Offers the Regional Environmental Learning System (RELS) as a model of a coordinating base for program evaluation and maintenance. Also identifies this concept's specific characteristics and its set of primary roles. (ML)

  14. How cold pool triggers deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    The cold pool in the boundary layer is often considered a major triggering mechanism of convection. Here, presented are basic theoretical considerations on this issue. Observations suggest that cold pool-generated convective cells is available for shallow maritime convection (Warner et al. 1979; Zuidema et al. 2012), maritime deep convection (Barnes and Garstang 1982; Addis et al. 1984; Young et al. 1995) and continental deep convection (e.g., Lima and Wilson 2008; Flamant 2009; Lothon et al. 2011; Dione et al. 2013). Moreover, numerical studies appear to suggest that cold pools promote the organization of clouds into larger structures and thereby aid the transition from shallow to deep convection (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2006, Boing et al. 2012, Schlemmer and Hohenegger, 2014). Even a cold--pool parameterization coupled with convection is already proposed (Grandpeix and Lafore 2010: but see also Yano 2012). However, the suggested link between the cold pool and deep convection so far is phenomenological at the best. A specific process that the cold pool leads to a trigger of deep convection must still to be pinned down. Naively, one may imagine that a cold pool lifts up the air at the front as it propagates. Such an uplifting leads to a trigger of convection. However, one must realize that a shift of air along with its propagation does not necessarily lead to an uplifting, and even if it may happen, it would not far exceed a depth of the cold pool itself. Thus, the uplifting can never be anything vigorous. Its thermodynamic characteristics do help much either for inducing convection. The cold-pool air is rather under rapid recovering process before it can induce convection under a simple parcel-lifting argument. The most likely reason that the cold pool may induce convection is its gust winds that may encounter an air mass from an opposite direction. This induces a strong convergence, also leading to a strong uplifting. This is an argument essentially developed

  15. An 'Anomalous' Triggered Lightning Flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C.; Mata, A.

    2012-12-01

    Classical (grounded wire) rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flashes whose leaders do not traverse the path of the wire remnants are sometimes referred to as 'anomalous'. We present high-speed video images captured at 10 kilo-frames per second (kfps), with supporting data, to characterize an 'anomalous' rocket-triggered lightning flash that occurred on 15 May 2012 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in north-central Florida. The event begins as a classical rocket-triggered lightning flash with an upward positive leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the wire at a height of about 280 m above ground level. The top 259 m of the trailing wire explodes 2.7 s after the rocket exits the launch tube, while the bottom 17 m of the wire does not explode (does not become luminous). Approximately 1.4 ms after wire explosion, a stepped leader initiates a few meters above the top of the wire remnants and propagates downward, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 2.1 ms after initiation and 117 m southwest of the launching facility. Beginning 600 μs prior to this sustained stepped leader development, attempted stepped leaders (luminous steps emanating from the UPL channel above the wire remnants) are observed in three locations: 20 m and 5 m above the top of the wire remnants and at the top of the wire remnants. Correlated electric field derivative (dE/dt), channel-base current, and high-speed video captured at 300 kfps reveal an electrical discharge of peak current 365 A initiating from about 17 m above the launching facility, apparently the top of the unexploded triggering wire, when the stepped leader is no more than 60 m above ground level. There are significant differences between the 'anomalous' triggered lightning flash described here and those observed in New Mexico and in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s: First, the time duration between explosion of our wire and the sustained stepped leader development a few meters

  16. Numerical modeling of shallow fault creep triggered by nearby earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M.; Liu, Y.; McGuire, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapha Mw 7.2 earthquake is the largest earthquake that strikes southern California in the last 18 years. It has triggered shallow fault creep on many faults in Salton Trough, Southern California, making it at least the 8th time in the last 42 years that a local or regional earthquake has done so. However, the triggering mechanism of fault creep and its implications to seismic hazard and fault mechanics is still poorly understood. For example, what determines the relative importance of static triggering and dynamic triggering of fault creep? What can we learn about the local frictional properties and normal stress from the triggering of fault creep? To understand the triggering mechanism and constrain fault frictional properties, we simulate the triggered fault creep on the Superstition Hills Fault (SHF), Salton Trough, Southern California. We use realistic static and dynamic shaking due to nearby earthquakes as stress perturbations to a 2D (in a 3D medium) planar fault model with rate-and-state frictional property variations both in depth and along strike. Unlike many previous studies, we focus on the simulation of triggered shallow fault creep instead of earthquakes. Our fault model can reproduce the triggering process, by static, dynamic , and combined stress perturbation. Preliminary results show that the magnitude of perturbation relative to the original stress level is an important parameter. In the static case, perturbation of 1% of normal stress trigger delayed fault creep whereas 10% of normal stress generate instantaneous creep. In the dynamic case, a change of two times in magnitude of perturbation can result in difference of triggered creep in several orders of magnitude. We explore combined triggering with different ratio of static and dynamic perturbation. The timing of triggering in a earthquake cycle is also important. With measurements on triggered creep on the SHF, we constrain local stress level and frictional parameters, which

  17. Site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment.

  18. Synthetic mammalian trigger-controlled bipartite transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Folcher, Marc; Xie, Mingqi; Spinnler, Andrea; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic control devices, gene circuits and networks that can reprogram mammalian cells in a trigger-inducible manner. Prokaryotic helix-turn-helix motifs have become the standard resource to design synthetic mammalian transcription factors that tune chimeric promoters in a small molecule-responsive manner. We have identified a family of Actinomycetes transcriptional repressor proteins showing a tandem TetR-family signature and have used a synthetic biology-inspired approach to reveal the potential control dynamics of these bi-partite regulators. Daisy-chain assembly of well-characterized prokaryotic repressor proteins such as TetR, ScbR, TtgR or VanR and fusion to either the Herpes simplex transactivation domain VP16 or the Krueppel-associated box domain (KRAB) of the human kox-1 gene resulted in synthetic bi- and even tri-partite mammalian transcription factors that could reversibly program their individual chimeric or hybrid promoters for trigger-adjustable transgene expression using tetracycline (TET), γ-butyrolactones, phloretin and vanillic acid. Detailed characterization of the bi-partite ScbR-TetR-VP16 (ST-TA) transcription factor revealed independent control of TET- and γ-butyrolactone-responsive promoters at high and double-pole double-throw (DPDT) relay switch qualities at low intracellular concentrations. Similar to electromagnetically operated mechanical DPDT relay switches that control two electric circuits by a fully isolated low-power signal, TET programs ST-TA to progressively switch from TetR-specific promoter-driven expression of transgene one to ScbR-specific promoter-driven transcription of transgene two while ST-TA flips back to exclusive transgene 1 expression in the absence of the trigger antibiotic. We suggest that natural repressors and activators with tandem TetR-family signatures may also provide independent as well as DPDT-mediated control of two sets of transgenes in

  19. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:24809146

  20. Recognising discourse causality triggers in the biomedical domain.

    PubMed

    Mihăilă, Claudiu; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2013-12-01

    Current domain-specific information extraction systems represent an important resource for biomedical researchers, who need to process vast amounts of knowledge in a short time. Automatic discourse causality recognition can further reduce their workload by suggesting possible causal connections and aiding in the curation of pathway models. We describe here an approach to the automatic identification of discourse causality triggers in the biomedical domain using machine learning. We create several baselines and experiment with and compare various parameter settings for three algorithms, i.e. Conditional Random Fields (CRF), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF). We also evaluate the impact of lexical, syntactic, and semantic features on each of the algorithms, showing that semantics improves the performance in all cases. We test our comprehensive feature set on two corpora containing gold standard annotations of causal relations, and demonstrate the need for more gold standard data. The best performance of 79.35% F-score is achieved by CRFs when using all three feature types. PMID:24372037