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1

Reference Intervals of Total Bilirubin, ALT, AST, and Creatinine in Healthy Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatinine (CREA) for apparently healthy elderly (Han ethnicity) in Shuyang, China. Material/Methods A total of 54 912 blood specimens from elderly residents age 65–104 years were collected by standard procedures in Shuyang county of Jiangsu province. TBIL, ALT, AST, and CREA for each participant were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer. Distribution and differences of TBIL, ALT, AST, and CREA were analyzed and compared between the elderly of the same age of different sexes and different ages of the same sex. RIs of TBIL, ALT, AST, and CREA were compared with the current RIs. The RIs and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using nonparametric method (2.5th–97.5th percentiles) according to the guideline of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results RIs established for the healthy elderly include: TBIL 7.8~30.6 ?mol/L for males and 7.3~26.1 ?mol/L for females; ALT 8.7~47.3 U/L for males and 8.4~45.2 U/L for females; AST 15.7~46.9 U/L for males and 15.1~46.2 U/L for females; and CREA 45.1~100.9 ?mol/L for males and 38.7~85.0 ?mol/L for females. Reference intervals of TBIL, ALT, AST, and CREA for male elderly were higher than those of females, and values of CREA increased with increasing age. Conclusions We have established a panel of locally relevant RIs. It is necessary to establish scientific and reasonable RIs of TBIL, ALT, AST, and CREA for the healthy elderly in our region, which will provide a reference for clinicians and inspection officers. PMID:25272068

Zhang, Guo-ming; Xia, Yong-jie; Guo, Xu-xiao; Zhu, Bao-lin; Zhang, Gao-ming; Ma, Xiao-bo; Yu, Hong; Wang, Hong-jian; Wang, Guang-sheng; Yang, Li; Zhou, Ye-ting

2014-01-01

2

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques  

PubMed Central

The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

2006-01-01

3

ALTS  

Cancer.gov

ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. Organized and funded by the National Cancer Institute, ALTS included more than 5,000 women. It began in November 1996 and concluded at the end of 2000.

4

Know Your ALT  

MedlinePLUS

The Serum Alt: Frequently Asked Questions What is it? The ALT is a protein manufactured in the liver which ... in the liver and therefore alterations in the serum ALT can be directly related to disturbances of ...

5

AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... as blood clotting factors, and breaks down potentially toxic substances into harmless ones that the body can ... in detecting liver damage due to hepatitis , drugs toxic to the liver, cirrhosis , or alcoholism . AST, however, ...

6

Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT)  

NSF Publications Database

... Technologies (ALT) Synopsis of Program: Through the Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT) program ... technologies, and (2) advances research in computer science, information technology, learning, and ...

7

Developments in the AST Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST library provides a comprehensive range of general purpose facilities for managing and manipulating world coordinate systems that describe astronomical data. Written in C, but with interfaces for various other languages, it is used within many applications including GAIA, DS9, SPLAT and XIMAGE. We present an overview of some of the newer functionality such as 3-dimensional coordinate grids, definition of regions within arbitrary coordinate systems, support for the HEALPix FITS-WCS projection, XML data formats, new specialist coordinate Frames to describe time and dual-sideband spectra and new classes of Mappings.

Berry, D. S.

2008-08-01

8

AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

2014-04-01

9

Secondary containment options for ASTs  

SciTech Connect

Widespread publicity generated by several large overfill incidents and tank ruptures questioned the integrity of above ground petroleum storage tanks (ASTs). In response, several states have enacted requirements for the installation of adequate secondary containment at most above ground fuel tank locations. The federal government is also considering regulations for above ground fuel storage tanks. Secondary containment usually consists of a combination of dikes, liners, ponds, impoundments, curbs, ditches, sumps, receiving tanks, or other equipment capable of containing the products stored. Secondary containment facilities may contain single or multiple storage tanks. A secondary containment system should be constructed so that spills do not escape to ground or surface waters before cleanup occurs. Construction of diking and storage capacity of the diked area should be in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recommendations. Factors to consider when designing secondary containment systems include capacity, liner type, and spill cleanup.

McFarland, W.E.; Heintz, J.V. (Petroleum Engineer, Stearns and Wheler, Cazenovia, NY (United States))

1994-01-01

10

ALT-1 pump limiter experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from the ALT-1 pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-1 has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power.

Goebel, D. M.; Conn, R. W.; Campbell, G. A.; Leung, W. K.; Dippel, K. H.; Finken, K. H.; Wolf, G. H.; Thomas, G. J.; Pontau, A. E.; Hsu, W.

1987-09-01

11

Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3  

SciTech Connect

ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-13

12

AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

1996-01-01

13

$\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ transition form factors in light cone QCD  

E-print Network

The $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ reaction is studied in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules method. The sum rules for the multipole form factors, namely, for the magnetic dipole $G_M(Q^2)$, electric quadrupole $G_E(Q^2)$, and Coulomb quadrupole $G_C(Q^2)$, form factors responsible for for the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ transition are derived. Using these sum rules, the helicity amplitudes are presented as the combinations of these multipole form factors, and their $Q^2$ dependences are studied. We compare our results on the helicity amplitudes with those of the spectator model predictions, and with the existing experimental data.

Aliev, T M

2014-01-01

14

$?^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ transition form factors in light cone QCD  

E-print Network

The $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ reaction is studied in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules method. The sum rules for the multipole form factors, namely, for the magnetic dipole $G_M(Q^2)$, electric quadrupole $G_E(Q^2)$, and Coulomb quadrupole $G_C(Q^2)$, form factors responsible for for the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ transition are derived. Using these sum rules, the helicity amplitudes are presented as the combinations of these multipole form factors, and their $Q^2$ dependences are studied. We compare our results on the helicity amplitudes with those of the spectator model predictions, and with the existing experimental data.

T. M. Aliev; M. Savci

2014-09-18

15

PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

Thulin, Petra [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Tomkiewicz, Celine [Universite Paris Descartes, UMR-S-747 INSERM, Paris F-75006 (France); Norjavaara, Ensio [AstraZeneca, Clinical Pharmacology, 431 83 Moelndal (Sweden); Aggerbeck, Martine [Universite Paris Descartes, UMR-S-747 INSERM, Paris F-75006 (France); Hellmold, Heike [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Ehrenborg, Ewa [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Glinghammar, Bjoern [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden)], E-mail: Bjorn.Glinghammar@astrazeneca.com

2008-08-15

16

AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

Karal, Michael

2001-01-01

17

ALTS Trial Design and Study Centers  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiologic, virologic and molecular studies have clearly demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central cause of cervical cancer. The motivation for the ALTS trial was to use the information we have gained about the role of HPV to design better treatment and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of cervical cancer and its precursors.

18

Elements of F-ast proton decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gauge coupling unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) strongly suggests the existence of a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), which could be probed by the observation of proton decay. Proton lifetime in the p?(? dimension six mode is proportional in the fourth power to the GUT mass scale, and inversely proportional in the fourth power to the GUT coupling. Flipped SU(5) with strict MSSM field content is known to survive existing null detection limits for proton decay approaching 10 years, and indeed, the lifetime predicted by prior studies can be so long that successful detection is not currently plausible. We provide an updated dictionary of solutions for the relevant flipped unification parameters with generic ?-function coefficients, significantly upgrading the level of detail with which second order effects are treated, and correcting subtle published errors. Recently studied classes of F-theory derived GUT models postulate additional vector-like multiplets at the TeV scale which modify the renormalization group to yield a substantial increase in the SU(3×SU(2 unified coupling. In conjunction with the naturally depressed F-lipped SU(5) partial unification mass M, the F-resh analysis undertaken predicts comparatively F-ast proton decay which only narrowly evades existing detection limits, and likely falls within the observable range of proposed next generation detectors such as DUSEL and Hyper-Kamiokande. The TeV-scale vector multiplets are themselves suitable for cross correlation by the Large Hadron Collider. Their presence moreover magnifies the gap between the dual mass scales of Flipped SU(5), allowing for an elongated second stage renormalization, pushing the F-inal grand unification to the doorstep of the reduced Planck mass.

Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

2011-05-01

19

ALT-3 target design and simulations  

SciTech Connect

ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

Peterson, Jeffrey H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-12

20

ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4  

SciTech Connect

The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, Walter L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-11

21

The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50°. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

2014-07-01

22

Rad54 is dispensable for the ALT pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some immortal cells use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to maintain their telomeres instead of telomerase. Previous studies revealed that homologous recombination (HR) contributes to the ALT pathway. To further elucidate molecular mechanisms, we inactivated Rad54 involved in HR, in mouse ALT embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although Rad54 -deficient ALT ES cells showed radiosensitivity in line with expectation,

Koichi Akiyama; Kosuke Yusa; Hideharu Hashimoto; Anuradha Poonepalli; Manoor Prakash Hande; Naoki Kakazu; Junji Takeda; Makoto Tachibana; Yoichi Shinkai

2006-01-01

23

Evaluation of mAST/tAST ratio as a marker of alcohol misuse in a non-selected population.  

PubMed

Serum mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were measured in 303 outpatients upon visits to their general practitioner. Alcohol consumption was evaluated by interview, using a standard questionnaire. Thirty-four patients drank more than 80 g of alcohol per day but none complained of an alcohol-related disease. These 34 heavy drinkers presented a mean serum mAST value which was significantly higher than that of the 269 normal drinkers; however, only 14 out of the 34 (41%) exhibited an increased mAST value. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive positive value of the mAST/tAST ratio were 0.29, 0.77 and 0.13, respectively; the corresponding figures for GGT were 0.5, 0.81 and 0.23, respectively. These results are in sharp contrast with those obtained for mAST activity in a population of hospitalized alcoholics. The explanation may lie in differences in alcohol consumption, in nutritional status and in the frequency of alcohol-related diseases in inpatients as compared to outpatients. PMID:2818750

Nalpas, B; Poupon, R E; Vassault, A; Hauzanneau, P; Sage, Y; Schellenberg, F; Lacour, B; Berthelot, P

1989-01-01

24

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun SOLAR ACTIVITY IN THE PHOTOSPHERE  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun SOLAR ACTIVITY IN THE PHOTOSPHERE Sunspots: darker (colder) areas where-dark penumbra. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun (Hinode) #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun The "uncombed" penumbra (Thomas et al. 2002) #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun Solar faculae: brighter areas near the edge

Petrovay, Kristóf

25

IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS  

E-print Network

IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS Definitions: (a) Stars displaying brightness variations (in the optical domain) All stars are variables (a matter of sensitivity only). (b) Stars) A variable star is what is listed in GCVS or VSX GCVS: General Catalogue of Variable Stars; http

Petrovay, Kristóf

26

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme aspartate amino transferase (AST) (also known as a serum glutamic oxaloacetic transferase or SGOT) in...

2011-04-01

27

Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.4 and 0.4{<=}x{<=}0.6). Fractional concentrations of Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds in the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses calculated using experimental Raman data. The solid lines represent predictions of the dissociation model assuming that the main chemically ordered structural units are related to AsTe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The partial bond fractions were derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An empirical quantitative approach to the Raman data was proposed for the reaction modeling.

Tverjanovich, A., E-mail: andr.tver@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rodionov, K. [Department of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bychkov, E. [Universite du Littoral Cote d'Opale, 59140 Dunkerque (France)

2012-06-15

28

High sensitivity 810 GHz SIS receivers at AST/RO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2003 the heterodyne receivers WANDA (polarization diplexed 492/810 GHz) and PoleSTAR (2x2 810 GHz array) of AST/RO (Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory, located at the South Pole) were upgraded with new 810 GHz SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) waveguide mixers from KOSMA. Profiting from device development for the HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared) Band 2 SIS mixers of the Herschel Space Observatory, a factor of approx. 2 improvement in receiver noise temperature (from 1100 K to 550 K DSB) was achieved with WANDA. The SIS mixer devices employ low-loss NbTiN-Al tuning circuits and are fabricated using electron beam lithographic junction area definition and CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) of the tuning circuit dielectric. With the South Pole being one of the best possible sites for ground-based submillimeter astronomy, the 1.7 m telescope currently makes AST/RO well suited for sensitive, large scale spectral line mapping at 810 GHz. Low atmospheric opacity (tau < 1) and, consequently, very low system noise temperatures (< 3000 K) are regularly achieved at 810 GHz, making AST/RO an extremely sensitive observatory at these frequencies. "First light" astronomical measurements made with the upgraded 810 GHz channel of WANDA towards the galactic HII region NGC 3576 in CO J=7-6 (806.65 GHz) and the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 (809.3 GHz) lines are presented.

Pütz, Patrick; Glenz, Stefan; Teipen, Rafael; Tils, Thomas; Honingh, Netty; Jacobs, Karl; Hedden, Abigail; Kulesa, Craig; Groppi, Christopher E.; Walker, Christopher K.

2004-10-01

29

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS Kepler's first law I. Planets move (ramutatval egyez): retrograde #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler's second law II -- this is the expression of angular momentum conservation! #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler

Petrovay, Kristóf

30

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE CHROMOSPHERE AND THE SOLAR CORONA  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE CHROMOSPHERE AND THE SOLAR CORONA "Chromosphere" = coloured sphere #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun Bottom of chromosphere: at T-minimum, z = 500 km (T = 4200K, = 10: at wavelengths of strong lines or lines of high excitation temperature. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun H

Petrovay, Kristóf

31

Interchromosomal Homology Searches Drive Directional ALT Telomere Movement and Synapsis.  

PubMed

Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, ?10%-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multitelomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break (DSB) response at ALT telomeres triggers long-range movement and clustering between chromosome termini, resulting in homology-directed telomere synthesis. Damaged telomeres initiate increased random surveillance of nuclear space before displaying rapid directional movement and association with recipient telomeres over micron-range distances. This phenomenon required Rad51 and the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer, which are essential for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. These findings implicate a specialized homology searching mechanism in ALT-dependent telomere maintenance and provide a molecular basis underlying the preference for recombination between nonsister telomeres during ALT. PMID:25259924

Cho, Nam Woo; Dilley, Robert L; Lampson, Michael A; Greenberg, Roger A

2014-09-25

32

Program Director Astronomer AD 1330-04 MPS/AST (Closes: 04/15/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... astronomy in the U.S. AST supports the development and operation of four National Astronomy ... Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the National Solar Observatory (NSO), the National Radio Astronomy ...

33

Program Director, AD-1301-4, MPS/AST (Closes: 09/30/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... astronomy in the U.S. AST supports the development and operation of four National Astronomy ... Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the National Solar Observatory (NSO), the National Radio Astronomy ...

34

Program Director, AD-1301-4, MPS/AST (Closes: 04/15/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... astronomy in the U.S. AST supports the development and operation of four National Astronomy ... Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the National Solar Observatory (NSO), the National Radio Astronomy ...

35

AstR-AstS, a new two-component signal transduction system, mediates swarming, adaptation to stationary phase and phenotypic variation in Photorhabdus luminescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photorhabdus luminescens is an insect-pathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiosis with specific entomopathogenic nematodes. In this bacterium, a symbiosis-'deficient' phenotypic variant (known as the secondary variant or form II) arises at a low frequency during prolonged incubation. A knock-out mutant was generated of the regulator of a newly identified two-component regulatory system, designated AstR-AstS. Interestingly, this mutation altered the timing

Sylviane Derzelle; Saravuth Ngo; Evelyne Turlin; Eric Duchaud; Abdelkader Namane; Frank Kunst; Antoine Danchin; Philippe Bertin; Jean-Francois Charles

2004-01-01

36

Reconsidering the Use of Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The simultaneous estimation of autoregressive (simplex) structures and latent trajectories, so called ALT (autoregressive latent trajectory) models, is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the analysis of change. Although historically autoregressive (AR) and latent growth curve (LGC) models have been developed quite independently from each…

Voelkle, Manuel C.

2008-01-01

37

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE IMPORTANCE OF SOLAR RESEARCH  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE IMPORTANCE OF SOLAR RESEARCH stars = distant suns The Sun ­ Landmark scientific discoveries made by studying the Sun: IR, UV; spectral analysis; helium; nuclear fusion; neutrino oscillation #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN The Sun

Petrovay, Kristóf

38

Plan of receiver development for ASTE/LMSA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a plan of heterodyne receivers for Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), which is one of Japanese R&D project of Large Millimeter Submillimeter Array (LMSA) and Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). A new 10 m submillimeter-wave telescope has been pre-installed at Nobeyama since February 2000 and will be installed at Pampa la Bola (el. 4800 m) in northern Chile. The telescope has four receiver layouts: (1) A shaped Cassegrain optics was designed for the Nobeyama operation to achieve high beam-efficiency at millimeter-wave bands. (2) Normal Gaussian optics will be replaced for the Chile operation to optimize submillimeter- wave bands up to 850 GHz. (3) It is possible to install an ALMA prototype receiver at the focus of secondary reflector. (4) An optics for submillimeter SIS photon camera. We describe the 350 GHz receiver which noise temperature was around 55 K in the frequency band of 330 - 360 GHz. The temperature ripple at the 4 K stage of two stages Gifford-McMahon refrigerator has been reduced to be less than 10 mK by employing a He-pot temperature stabilizer.

Sekimoto, Yutaro; Sakai, Takeshi; Saito, Gaku; Kohno, Kotaro; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Satou, Naohisa; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Noguchi, Takashi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Satoshi

2000-07-01

39

Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

40

Pickering emulsions stabilized by self-assembled colloidal particles of copolymers of P(St alt-MAn)- coP(VM alt-MAn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of copolymer containing two alternating segments, poly-(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-co-poly (7-(4-vinylbenzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin-alt-maleic anhydride) P(St-alt-MAn)-co-P(VM-alt-MAn)(PSMVM), was prepared. The copolymer self-assembled into nanoparticles with internal microphase structures in water because the hydrophilicity of segment P(VM-alt-MAn) is higher than that of P(St-alt-MAn). The particle size, morphology, ? potential and surface properties and their dependence on the pH and slat concentrations were studied with

Xiaoya Liu; Chenglin Yi; Ye Zhu; Yiqun Yang; Jinqiang Jiang; Zhenggang Cui; Ming Jiang

2010-01-01

41

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01

42

Oral adsorbent AST120 ameliorates tubular injury in chronic renal failure patients by reducing proteinuria and oxidative stress generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AST-120 is an oral adsorbent that attenuates the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) and improves the prognosis of the patients under dialysis. Although tubulointerstitial injury is more important than glomerulopathy in terms of renal prognosis in patients with CRF, effect of AST-120 on tubular injury in CRF patients remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether and how AST-120

Tsukasa Nakamura; Eiichi Sato; Nobuharu Fujiwara; Yasuhiro Kawagoe; Tsukasa Suzuki; Yoshihiko Ueda; Sho-ichi Yamagishi

2011-01-01

43

DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

2014-07-01

44

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test...

2014-04-01

45

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test...

2010-04-01

46

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test...

2013-04-01

47

77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability...Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, cooperating...

2012-05-08

48

Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-?1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression. PMID:24829798

Inami, Yuko; Hamada, Chieko; Seto, Takuya; Hotta, Yoko; Aruga, Seiki; Inuma, Jiro; Azuma, Kosuke; Kaneko, Kayo; Watada, Hirotaka

2014-01-01

49

Antitelomerase therapy provokes ALT and mitochondrial adaptive mechanisms in cancer.  

PubMed

To assess telomerase as a cancer therapeutic target and determine adaptive mechanisms to telomerase inhibition, we modeled telomerase reactivation and subsequent extinction in T cell lymphomas arising in Atm(-/-) mice engineered with an inducible telomerase reverse transcriptase allele. Telomerase reactivation in the setting of telomere dysfunction enabled full malignant progression with alleviation of telomere dysfunction-induced checkpoints. These cancers possessed copy number alterations targeting key loci in human T cell lymphomagenesis. Upon telomerase extinction, tumor growth eventually slowed with reinstatement of telomere dysfunction-induced checkpoints, yet growth subsequently resumed as tumors acquired alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) and aberrant transcriptional networks centering on mitochondrial biology and oxidative defense. ALT+ tumors acquired amplification/overexpression of PGC-1?, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, and they showed marked sensitivity to PGC-1? or SOD2 knockdown. Genetic modeling of telomerase extinction reveals vulnerabilities that motivate coincidental inhibition of mitochondrial maintenance and oxidative defense mechanisms to enhance antitelomerase cancer therapy. PMID:22341440

Hu, Jian; Hwang, Soyoon Sarah; Liesa, Marc; Gan, Boyi; Sahin, Ergun; Jaskelioff, Mariela; Ding, Zhihu; Ying, Haoqiang; Boutin, Adam T; Zhang, Hailei; Johnson, Shawn; Ivanova, Elena; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Protopopov, Alexei; Wang, Yaoqi Alan; Shirihai, Orian S; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A

2012-02-17

50

Assembly of Functional ALT-associated Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies Requires Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immortalized cells maintain telomere length through either a telomer- ase-dependent process or a telomerase-independent pathway termed al- ternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Homologous recombination is implicated in the ALT pathway in both yeast and human ALT cells. In ALT cells, two types of DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination factors, the Rad50\\/Mre11\\/NBS1 complex and Rad51\\/ Rad52 along with replication

Guikai Wu; Xianzhi Jiang; Wen-Hwa Lee; Phang-Lang Chen

2003-01-01

51

The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric  

E-print Network

The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric DNA telomeres by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway(s), which may involve homologous recombination. We find that endogenous BLM protein co-localizes with telomeric foci in ALT human cells

Ikura, Mitsuhiko

52

Demonstration of antihistamine properties with AST1: a bioactive extract from garden slugs (Diplosolenodes occidentalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parched and ground whole garden slugs are claimed in rural Jamaican folklore practices to have useful effects in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Since this claim may be associated with respiratory dysfunction due to histamine from allergic sensitization, the authors investigated the effects of a semi- pure alcoholic extract (AST-1) on histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig in vitro tracheal

A Jacob; O Simon; P Reese; P Singh

2007-01-01

53

IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN  

E-print Network

the main sequence. Age: 40 million years. Main sequence phase: 1010 years. Sun is about halfway now, slowlyIntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN The Sun is a hot. ("Surface": down to where you can see through.) Material: 71 % H, 27 % He, 2 % other. Why does the Sun

Petrovay, Kristóf

54

PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

2012-12-01

55

Evaluation of the Alfred 60/AST Device as a Screening Test for Urinary Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

The performance of the Alfred 60/AST device, an automated bacterial culture device which uses laser nephelometry to detect and quantify bacterial growth, was evaluated. The instrument is effective at screening negative samples and is more reliable at detecting bacteria than yeasts. Microscopy can be used to reduce the false-negative numbers. PMID:23885005

Stathopoulos, George; Chan, Raymond C.; van Hal, Sebastiaan J.

2013-01-01

56

Ethanol ingestion in two infants under 2 months old: a previously unreported cause of ALTE.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis for the infant presenting with an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is broad. Toxic ingestions are a relatively uncommon cause of an ALTE, although several over-the-counter, prescription, and illicit drugs have been implicated. We present 2 cases of ethanol intoxication in infants as a previously unreported cause of an ALTE. Additionally, serial ethanol levels for these patients offer novel insight into the pharmacokinetics of ethanol metabolism in infants. Ethanol ingestion may be an underrecognized cause of an ALTE and should be considered if the history or physical examination is suggestive. PMID:23319534

McCormick, Taylor; Levine, Michael; Knox, Oma; Claudius, Ilene

2013-02-01

57

CO(J=3-2) Observations Toward the Carina Nebula with Aste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first 12CO (J=3-2) observations toward the Carina nebula obtained with the ASTE telescope. ASTE (Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment) is a project to make submillimeter astronomical observations with a new 10-m submillemter telescope installed at Pampa la Bola (altitude 4800 m) Chile. The Carina nebula is one of the most active regions in our galaxy. Some evidences of ongoing massive star formation have been reported recently in this region. We found some CO clouds probably interacting with ionized fronts in the 12CO (J=3-2) map. A FIR source is situated near a CO peak in the interacting cloud. It suggests that the triggered star formation occured in this region.

Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Aste Team

58

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System LUNAR MOTION  

E-print Network

: tides Amplitude of tides 1 m on oceans ( 20 cm on land). Geographic conditions large local deviations will break up. GMm 4R r3 > G m2 4R2 rR = 12 1/3 M 1/3 2.5 M 1/3 (Actual value of constant is lower; also. E.g. Nova Scotia: 15 m! In Vietnam only 1 high tide / day; etc. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay

Petrovay, Kristóf

59

Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption  

PubMed Central

Back ground CKD impairs intestinal barrier function which by allowing influx of noxious products causes systemic inflammation. We have recently shown that intestinal barrier dysfunction in CKD is due to degradation of epithelial tight junction (TJ) which is, in part, mediated by influx of urea and its conversion to ammonia by microbial urease. We hypothesized that by adsorbing urea and urea-derived ammonia, oral activated charcoal (AST-120) may ameliorate CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and systemic inflammation. Methods Rats were randomized to the CKD or control groups. The CKD group was fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks. They were then randomized to receive a chow with or without AST-120 (4 g/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Rats consuming regular diet served as controls. Animals were then euthanized, colons were removed and processed for Western blot and immunohistology and plasma was used to measure endotoxin, and oxidative and inflammatory markers. Results Compared with the controls the untreated CKD rats showed elevated plasma endotoxin, IL-6, TNF?, MCP-1, CINC-3, L-selectin, ICAM-1, and malondialdehyde, and depletions of colonic epithelial TJ proteins; claudin-1, occludin, and ZO1. Administration of AST-120 resulted in partial restoration of the epithelial TJ proteins and reduction in plasma endotoxin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions CKD animals exhibited depletion of the key protein constituents of the colonic epithelial TJ which was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and endotoxemia. Administration of AST-120 attenuated uremia-induced disruption of colonic epithelial TJ and the associated endotoxemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:23689670

Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

2013-01-01

60

Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle-aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT). METHODS: A retrospective, observational follow-up study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetS-components, liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to day-night rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middle-aged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT. PMID:19960561

Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung

2009-01-01

61

Academic careers and lifestyle characteristics of 171 transplant surgeons in the ASTS.  

PubMed

This manuscript reports the demographics, education and training, professional activities and lifestyle characteristics of 171 members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS). ASTS members were sent a comprehensive survey by electronic mail. There were 171 respondents who were 49 ± 8 years of age and predominantly Caucasian males. Female transplant surgeons comprised 10% of respondents. ASTS respondents underwent 15.6 ± 1.0 years of education and training (including college, medical school, residency and transplantation fellowship) and had practiced for 14.7 ± 9.2 years. Clinical practice included kidney, pancreas and liver organ transplantation, living donor surgery, organ procurement, vascular access procedures and general surgery. Transplant surgeons also devote a significant amount of time to nonsurgical patient care, research, education and administration. Transplant surgeons, both male and female, reported working approximately 70 h/week and a median of 195 operative cases per year. The anticipated retirement age for men was 64.6 ± 8.6 and for women was 62.2 ± 4.2 years. This is the largest study to date assessing professional and lifestyle characteristics of abdominal transplant surgeons. PMID:21219568

Florence, L S; Feng, S; Foster, C E; Fryer, J P; Olthoff, K M; Pomfret, E; Sheiner, P A; Sanfey, H; Bumgardner, G L

2011-02-01

62

Control system for the first three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Three Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first automated Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It is planned to be in operations at Dome A, the highest peak on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations in the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a very harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the drive boxes, most circuit, power supply and computers are located inside the warm instrumental cabin. This article describes the challenges the telescope control system encountered in night-time operations, such as the power supply limit, the harsh meteorological condition, unattended testing, automatic operation, remote control and telemetry, etc. Some solutions are also discussed in this paper, which are applied on the AST3-1 and waiting for validation. AST3-1 is also an exploration of a larger telescope on the Antarctic.

Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhao, Jianlin; Du, Fujia; Zhang, Yue

2012-09-01

63

Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed to (1) characterize the clinical and histologic features of those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, (2) compare the spectrum of NAFLD associated with normal versus elevated ALT levels, and (3) determine whether there were differences in the clinical or histologic spectrum of NAFLD between those with a low

Pouneh Mofrad; Melissa J. Contos; Mahmadul Haque; Carol Sargeant; Robert A. Fisher; Velimir A. Luketic; Richard K. Sterling; Mitchell L. Shiffman; Richard T. Stravitz; Arun J. Sanyal

2003-01-01

64

Clinical significance of activity of ALT enzyme in patients with hepatitis C virus  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in relation to the clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and histological characteristics of patients with hepatitis C virus. METHODS: Duration of disease, HCV-RNA, liver steatosis, and the hepatitis activity index (HAI) were correlated with serum ALT in 36 patients with HCV. ALT values were also investigated in 16 control subjects without any liver diseases. RESULTS: In bivariate analyses, ALT levels correlated with duration of HCV infection (P < 0.01), HCV-RNA (P < 0.05), and the HAI (P < 0.01). Among the components of the HAI, ALT concentrations were significantly associated with periportal bridging/necrosis (P < 0.01) and fibrosis (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, periportal bridging/necrosis (? = 0.508; P < 0.01), duration of HCV infection (? = 0.413; P < 0.01), and HCV-RNA (? = 0.253; P < 0.05) were independently associated with ALT activity. The normal ALT activity for men and women was < 23 IU/L and < 22 IU/L, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV, alterations in the liver tissue as reflected by ALT elevation are mainly associated with periportal bridging/necrosis, viral load and duration of disease. A cut-off value < 23 IU/L distinguished with high diagnostic accuracy healthy controls from patients with HCV. PMID:17907292

Akkaya, Onder; Kiyici, Murat; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ulukaya, Engin; Yerci, Omer

2007-01-01

65

Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. PMID:23137391

2012-01-01

66

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test...

2013-04-01

67

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test...

2012-04-01

68

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test...

2014-04-01

69

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test...

2011-04-01

70

Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells  

PubMed Central

Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM. PMID:25084169

Acharya, Samir; Kaul, Zeenia; Gocha, April Sandy; Martinez, Alaina R.; Harris, Julia; Parvin, Jeffrey D.; Groden, Joanna

2014-01-01

71

A role for monoubiquitinated FANCD2 at telomeres in ALT cells.  

PubMed

Both Fanconi anemia (FA) and telomere dysfunction are associated with chromosome instability and an increased risk of cancer. Because of these similarities, we have investigated whether there is a relationship between the FA protein, FANCD2 and telomeres. We find that FANCD2 nuclear foci colocalize with telomeres and PML bodies in immortalized telomerase-negative cells. These cells maintain telomeres by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). In contrast, FANCD2 does not colocalize with telomeres or PML bodies in cells which express telomerase. Using a siRNA approach we find that FANCA and FANCL, which are components of the FA nuclear core complex, regulate FANCD2 monoubiquitination and the telomeric localization of FANCD2 in ALT cells. Transient depletion of FANCD2, or FANCA, results in a dramatic loss of detectable telomeres in ALT cells but not in telomerase-expressing cells. Furthermore, telomere loss following depletion of these proteins in ALT cells is associated with decreased homologous recombination between telomeres (T-SCE). Thus, the FA pathway has a novel function in ALT telomere maintenance related to DNA repair. ALT telomere maintenance is therefore one mechanism by which monoubiquitinated FANCD2 may promote genetic stability. PMID:19129235

Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Fan; Barrett, Briana; Ren, Keqin; Andreassen, Paul R

2009-04-01

72

TREND: a low noise terahertz receiver user instrument for AST/RO at the South Pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the excellent performance of NbN HEB mixer receivers at THz frequencies which we have established in the laboratory, we are building a Terahertz REceiver with NbN HEB Device (TREND) to be installed on the 1.7 meter diameter AST/RO submillimeter wave telescope at the Amundsen/Scott South Pole Station. TREND is scheduled for deployment during the austral summer season of 2002/2003. The frequency range of 1.25 THz to 1.5 THz was chosen in order to match the good windows for atmospheric transmission and interstellar spectral lines of special interest. The South Pole Station is the best available site for THz observations due to the very cold and dry atmosphere over this site. In this paper, we report on the design of this receiver. In particular, we report on HEB mixer device performance, the quasi-optical coupling design using an elliptical silicon lens and a twin-slot antenna, the laser local oscillator (LO), as well as the mixer block design and the plans for coupling the TREND receiver to the sky beam and to the laser LO at the AST/RO telescope site.

Gerecht, Eyal; Yngvesson, Sigfrid; Nicholson, John; Zhuang, Yan; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Zhao, Xin; Gu, Dazhen; Zannoni, Richard; Coulombe, Michael J.; Dickinson, Jason C.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Waldman, Jerry; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hedden, Abigail S.; Golish, Dathon; Walker, Christopher K.; Stark, Antony A.; Martin, Christopher; Lane, Adair

2003-02-01

73

Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

1976-01-01

74

How useful are similarity word lists for indirect anaphora resolution? Caroline Gasperin* Susanne Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira*  

E-print Network

Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira* *PIPCA - Unisinos São Leopoldo, Brazil {caroline, renata}@exatas.unisinos.br **ATILF - CNRS Nancy, France Susanne.Salmon-Alt@atilf.fr Abstract This work tests the use of word, also adopted in our previous work (Vieira et al. 2002, Salmon- Alt & Vieira, 2002) was based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Space shuttle engineering and operations support. Separation operational limits for ALT free flights 1 through 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbiter/SCA separation operational limits for the current target conditions of ALT free flights 1 through 5 are analyzed. The separation operational limits are used to verify that no separation design constraints are violated. The operational limits represent the acceptable dispersions in attainment of separation target conditions which assure safe separation. Safe separation is based on satisfying all specified separation design criteria except orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed. Separation operational limits are defined for each of the five orbiter tailcones on ALT free flight missions based upon preflight aerodynamics. The effect of carrier pilot steering compensation due to off-nominal flight conditions is determined to be within the separation operational limits.

Seale, R. H.

1977-01-01

76

Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.  

PubMed

Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

2014-05-01

77

Topotactic conversion of ?-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.  

PubMed

AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (?-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1)?hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2)?dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. PMID:24431158

Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

2014-02-10

78

Operation, control, and data system for Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first of the trio Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) has been deployed to Dome A, Antarctica in January 2012. This largest optical survey telescope in Antarctica is equipped with a 10k × 10k CCD. The huge amount of data, limited satellite communication bandwidth, low temperature, low pressure and limited energy supply all place challenges to the control and operation of the telescope. We have developed both the hardware and software systems to operate the unattended telescope and carry out the survey automatically. Our systems include the main survey control, data storage, real-time pipeline, and database, for all of which we have dealt with various technical difficulties. These include developing customized computer systems and data storage arrays working at the harsh environment, temperature control for the disk arrays, automatic and fast data reduction in real-time, and building robust database system.

Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Keliang; Hu, Yi; Li, Jiliang; Li, Jin; Liu, Qiang; Ma, Bin; Quinn, Jason L.; Sun, Jizhou; Wang, Lifan; Xiao, Jian; Yu, Jia; Yu, Ce; Yang, Mujin; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zeng, Zhen

2012-09-01

79

Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments  

SciTech Connect

Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90/sup 0/ toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary.

Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

1986-04-01

80

On the Trajectories of the Predetermined ALT Model: What Are We Really Modeling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shows that the mean and covariance structure of the predetermined autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model are very flexible. As a result, the shape of the modeled growth curve can be quite different from what one might expect at first glance. This is illustrated with several numerical examples that show that, for example, a…

Jongerling, Joran; Hamaker, Ellen L.

2011-01-01

81

Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt  

E-print Network

Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt and often highly visible surfaces that can be used as advertising space. Until now, advertising in this domain has focused on commercial vehicles, and advertisements have been painted on and were therefore

82

Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine  

E-print Network

Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is created by chemically reacting fatty acids and alcohol. Practically sodium hydroxide). Biodiesel is much more suitable for use as an engine fuel than straight vegetable oil

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

83

late with the presence of acetaminophen-induced elevation of serum ALT levels in the  

E-print Network

late with the presence of acetaminophen- induced elevation of serum ALT levels in the humans adverse drug reactions are in part genetically deter- mined, and a major goal of pharmacogenomics research of acetaminophen and found that there were large strain-dependent variations in drug-induced liver injury

Fischlin, Andreas

84

Boric acid reversibly inhibits the second step of pre-mRNA splicing Noam Shomron, Gil Ast  

E-print Network

Boric acid reversibly inhibits the second step of pre-mRNA splicing Noam Shomron, Gil Ast. This investigation demonstrates that the addi- tion of boric acid to an in vitro pre-mRNA splicing reaction causes words: Pre-mRNA splicing; Inhibition; Boric acid; Spliceosome 1. Introduction The spliceosome

Ast, Gil

85

Enzyme activity and AGE formation in a model of AST glycoxidation by D-fructose in vitro.  

PubMed

Non-enzymatic glycation as the chain reaction between reducing sugars and free amino groups of proteins has been shown to correlate with physiological ageing and severity of diabetes. The process involves oxidative steps (glycoxidation). In this paper, the effect of D-fructose as a reactive sugar on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as a model protein was monitored by measurements of the enzyme activity and formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Change in the AST activity was considered as a measure of the overall protein damage caused by glycation, and total AGEs and pentosidine represent, at least partly, the formation of glycoxidation products. Catalytic activity of AST in an incubation mixture containing D-fructose (50 mmol L(-1)), decreased compared to control values to 42% (p < 0.05) and to 11% (p < 0.05) on the 5th and on 21st day of incubation, respectively. In the presence of fructose, total fluorescent AGEs concentration was significantly higher since 5th day of incubation (110%, p < 0.05) and the fluorescent pentosidine concentration from 15th day of incubation (117%, p < 0.05) compared to control values, respectively. Catalytic activity of AST clearly and quantitatively demonstrated functional changes in the enzyme molecule caused by structural modifications initiated by fructose, while the evaluation of AGE formation and especially that of pentosidine by fluorescence measurement was less reliable. PMID:15907228

Bousova, Iva; Vukasovi?, Danka; Jureti?, Dubravka; Palicka, Vladimir; Drsata, Jaroslav

2005-03-01

86

Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)  

SciTech Connect

Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. (Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States))

1991-03-11

87

Preparation and characterization of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)- b -polystyrene block copolymer self-assembled nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block copolymers poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-polystyrene (P(St-alt-MAn)-b-PSt) were synthesized via radical addition fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization. The maleic anhydride-containing\\u000a segments of the block copolymer were hydrolyzed to form amphiphilic poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-b-polystyrene (P(St-alt-MA)-b-PSt). In aqueous solution, P(St-alt-MA)73-b-PSt81 and P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 formed stable dispersed spherical aggregates of approximately 25 and 40 nm, respectively. Particle size was stable under\\u000a alkaline conditions and was little affected by the

Jingtian Han; Patrick Silcock; A. James McQuillan; Phil Bremer

2008-01-01

88

Observation and measurement of Higgs boson decays to $WW^\\ast$ with ATLAS at the LHC  

E-print Network

We report the observation of the production of the Higgs boson in its decay to $WW^\\ast$, based on an excess over background in the dilepton final state of $6.1$ standard deviations, where the standard model expectation is $5.8$ standard deviations. Evidence for the vector-boson fusion (VBF) production process is obtained with a significance of $3.2$ standard deviations. The results are obtained from a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $25~\\textrm{pb}^{-1}$ from $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$\\,TeV $pp$ collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. For a Higgs-boson mass of $125.36$ GeV, the ratio of the observed to expected values of the total production cross section times branching fraction is $1.08^{+0.16}_{-0.15}~\\textrm{(stat.)}^{+0.16}_{-0.13}~\\textrm{(syst.)}$. The corresponding ratios for the gluon-gluon fusion and vector-boson fusion production mechanisms are $1.01\\pm 0.19~\\textrm{(stat.)}^{+0.20}_{-0.17}~\\textrm{(syst.)}$ and $1.28^{+0.44}_{-0.40}~\\textrm{(stat.)}^{+0.29}_{-0.21...

The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

89

Twisted 3D $N=4$ Supersymmetric YM on deformed $\\mathbb{A}_3^\\ast$ Lattice  

E-print Network

We study a class of twisted 3D $N=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice denoted as $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ and given by non trivial fibration $\\mathcal{L}_{1D}^{u_1}\\times \\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}$ with base $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}=\\mathbb{A}_2^\\ast$, the weight lattice of $SU(3)$. We first, develop the twisted 3D $N=4$ SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge $Q$ is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action $\\mathcal{S}_{latt}$ invariant under the 3 following: (i) $U(N)$ gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the hidden $SU(3) \\times U(1)$ symmetry of $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_2\\times u_1}$, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{5D...

Saidi, El Hassan

2014-01-01

90

Twisted 3D $N=4$ Supersymmetric YM on deformed $\\mathbb{A}_3^\\ast$ Lattice  

E-print Network

We study a class of twisted 3D $N=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice denoted as $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ and given by non trivial fibration $\\mathcal{L}_{1D}^{u_1}\\times \\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}$ with base $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}=\\mathbb{A}_2^\\ast$, the weight lattice of $SU(3)$. We first, develop the twisted 3D $N=4$ SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge $Q$ is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action $\\mathcal{S}_{latt}$ invariant under the 3 following: (i) $U(N)$ gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the hidden $SU(3) \\times U(1)$ symmetry of $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_2\\times u_1}$, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{5D}^{su_4\\times u_1}$ as well as the relation with known results are also given.

El Hassan Saidi

2014-07-13

91

Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates meta- bolic syndrome (MetS) development among early mid- dle-aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT). METHODS: A retrospective, observational follow- up study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetS- components,

Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

2009-01-01

92

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

93

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

94

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

95

Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats  

PubMed Central

Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

2014-01-01

96

Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats.  

PubMed

Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

2014-01-01

97

Telomeric overhang length determines structural dynamics and accessibility to telomerase and ALT-associated proteins.  

PubMed

The G-rich single-stranded DNA at the 3' end of human telomeres can self-fold into G-quaduplex (GQ). However, telomere lengthening by telomerase or the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism requires protein loading on the overhang. Using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we discovered that lengthening the telomeric overhang also increased the rate of dynamic exchanges between structural conformations. Overhangs with five to seven TTAGGG repeats, compared with four repeats, showed much greater dynamics and accessibility to telomerase binding and activity and loading of the ALT-associated proteins RAD51, WRN, and BLM. Although the eight repeats are highly dynamic, they can fold into two GQs, which limited protein accessibility. In contrast, the telomere-specific protein POT1 is unique in that it binds independently of repeat number. Our results suggest that the telomeric overhang length and dynamics may contribute to the regulation of telomere extension via telomerase action and the ALT mechanism. PMID:24836024

Hwang, Helen; Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Lormand, Justin; Kwon, Yongho; Daley, James M; Sung, Patrick; Opresko, Patricia L; Myong, Sua

2014-06-10

98

AST1306, A Novel Irreversible Inhibitor of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 1 and 2, Exhibits Antitumor Activity Both In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Despite the initial response to the reversible, ATP-competitive quinazoline inhibitors that target ErbB-family, such a subset of cancer patients almost invariably develop resistance. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that irreversible ErbB inhibitors have the potential to override this resistance. Here, we found that AST1306, a novel anilino-quinazoline compound, inhibited the enzymatic activities of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 as well as EGFR resistant mutant in both cell-free and cell-based systems. Importantly, AST1306 functions as an irreversible inhibitor, most likely through covalent interaction with Cys797 and Cys805 in the catalytic domains of EGFR and ErbB2, respectively. Further studies showed that AST1306 inactivated pathways downstream of these receptors and thereby inhibited the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Although the activities of EGFR and ErbB2 were similarly sensitive to AST1306, ErbB2-overexpressing cell lines consistently exhibited more sensitivity to AST1306 antiproliferative effects. Consistent with this, knockdown of ErbB2, but not EGFR, decreased the sensitivity of SK-OV-3 cells to AST1306. In vivo, AST1306 potently suppressed tumor growth in ErbB2-overexpressing adenocarcinoma xenograft and FVB-2/Nneu transgenic breast cancer mouse models, but weakly inhibited the growth of EGFR-overexpressing tumor xenografts. Tumor growth inhibition induced by a single dose of AST1306 in the SK-OV-3 xenograft model was accompanied by a rapid (within 2 h) and sustained (?24 h) inhibition of both EGFR and ErbB2, consistent with an irreversible inhibition mechanism. Taken together, these results establish AST1306 as a selective, irreversible ErbB2 and EGFR inhibitor whose growth-inhibitory effects are more potent in ErbB2-overexpressing cells. PMID:21789172

Tong, Linjiang; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Zhuo; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ren, Xiaowei; Qu, Wenchao; Yang, Yang; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yi; Zuo, Jianping; Jiang, Hualiang; Geng, Meiyu; Ding, Jian

2011-01-01

99

ASTE observations of nearby galaxies: A tight correlation between CO(J=3-2) emission and Halpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Star formation rates (SFRs) obtained via extinction corrected H alpha are\\u000acompared to dense gas as traced by CO(J=3-2) emission at the centers of nearby\\u000agalaxies, observed with the ASTE telescope. It is found that, although many of\\u000athe observed positions are dusty and therefore heavily absorbed at H alpha, the\\u000aSFR shows a striking correlation with dense gas in

Shinya Komugi; Kotaro Kohno; Tomoka Tosaki; Hiroyuki Nakanishi; Sachiko Onodera; Fumi Egusa; Yoshiaki Sofue

2006-01-01

100

ASTE Observations of Nearby Galaxies: A Tight Correlation between CO J=3--2 Emission and Halpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Star formation rates (SFRs) obtained via extinction-corrected Halpha are compared to dense gas, as traced by 12CO (J = 3--2) (J = 3-2) emission at the centers of nearby galaxies, observed with the ASTE telescope. It is found that, although many of the observed positions are dusty, and therefore heavily absorbed at Halpha the SFR shows a striking correlation with

Shinya Komugi; Kotaro Kohno; Tomoka Tosaki; Hiroyuki Nakanishi; Sachiko Onodera; Fumi Egusa; Yoshiaki Sofue

2007-01-01

101

Disc evolution and the relationship between $L_{\\rm acc}$ and $L_\\ast$ in T Tauri stars  

E-print Network

We investigate the evolution of accretion luminosity $L_{\\rm acc}$ and stellar luminosity ${L_\\ast}$ in pre-mainsequence stars. We make the assumption that when the star appears as a Class II object, the major phase of accretion is long past, and the accretion disc has entered its asymptotic phase. We use an approximate stellar evolution scheme for accreting pre-mainsequence stars based on Hartmann, Cassen & Kenyon, 1997. We show that the observed range of values $k = L_{\\rm acc}/L_\\ast$ between 0.01 and 1 can be reproduced if the values of the disc mass fraction $M_{\\rm disc}/M_*$ at the start of the T Tauri phase lie in the range 0.01 -- 0.2, independent of stellar mass. We also show that the observed upper bound of $L_{\\rm acc} \\sim L_\\ast$ is a generic feature of such disc accretion. We conclude that as long as the data uniformly fills the region between this upper bound and observational detection thresholds, then the degeneracies between age, mass and accretion history severely limit the use of this data for constraining possible scalings between disc properties and stellar mass.

I. Tilling; C. J. Clarke; J. E. Pringle; C. A. Tout

2008-01-14

102

The SMC5\\/6 complex maintains telomere length in ALT cancer cells through SUMOylation of telomere-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cancer cells activate telomerase to elongate telomeres and achieve unlimited replicative potential. Some cancer cells cannot activate telomerase and use telomere homologous recombination (HR) to elongate telomeres, a mechanism termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). A hallmark of ALT cells is the recruitment of telomeres to PML bodies (termed APBs). Here, we show that the SMC5\\/6 complex localizes to

Patrick Ryan Potts; Hongtao Yu

2007-01-01

103

Anti-telomerase therapy provokes ALT and mitochondrial adaptive mechanisms in cancer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY To assess telomerase as a cancer therapeutic target and determine adaptive mechanisms to telomerase inhibition, we modeled telomerase reactivation and subsequent extinction in T-cell lymphomas arising in Atm-/- mice engineered with an inducible telomerase reverse transcriptase allele. Telomerase reactivation in the setting of telomere dysfunction enabled full malignant progression with alleviation of telomere dysfunction-induced checkpoints. These cancers possessed copy number alterations targeting key loci in human T-cell lymphomagenesis. Upon telomerase extinction, tumor growth eventually slowed with re-instatement of telomere dysfunction-induced checkpoints, yet growth subsequently resumed as tumors acquired Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) and aberrant transcriptional networks centering on mitochondrial biology and oxidative defense. ALT+ tumors acquired amplification/overexpression of PGC-1?, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, and they showed marked sensitivity to PGC-1? or SOD2 knock-down. Genetic modeling of telomerase extinction reveals vulnerabilities that motivate coincidental inhibition of mitochondrial maintenance and oxidative defense mechanisms to enhance anti-telomerase cancer therapy. PMID:22341440

Hu, Jian; Hwang, Soyoon Sarah; Liesa, Marc; Gan, Boyi; Sahin, Ergun; Jaskelioff, Mariela; Ding, Zhihu; Ying, Haoqiang; Boutin, Adam T.; Zhang, Hailei; Johnson, Shawn; Ivanova, Elena; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Protopopov, Alexei; Wang, Yaoqi Alan; Shirihai, Orian S.; Chin, Lynda

2012-01-01

104

RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells  

PubMed Central

A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, ‘Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres’ (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA–DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA–DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M.; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M.

2014-01-01

105

RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells.  

PubMed

A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, 'Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres' (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA-DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA-DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M

2014-01-01

106

A portable alt-azimuth solar simulator for evaluation of daylighting devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction and functioning of a portable alt-azimuth solar simulator and demonstration model is described. The instrument was designed to be used with a slide projector as its light source, as this is readily available in most labs. An arrangement of movable mirrors and a pivoting window allow the user to simulate a wide range of altitude and azimuth combinations of the sun. Upon insertion of a daylighting device in the window, the intensity, position, and coloration of the redistributed simulated sunlight on the ceiling and walls, as well as the presence and intensity of glare, can be visually inspected. Instrumentation consisting of a photovoltaic cell and a 20 segment bar graph display allow direct read out (in lux) of the illumination levels in the model. The scaling up from the simulator model to a full size room is simple and straightforward.

Jackson, Andrew; Pitcher, David; Gerritsen, Hendrik J.

1991-03-01

107

Erosion and deposition at the ALT-II limiter of TEXTOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the determination of massive erosion and deposition on plasma facing components has been developed and was tested successfully on a graphite tile of the ALT-II limiter of TEXTOR. The surface profile of the tile was measured before and after exposure to plasma discharges with an optical profiler, erosion or deposition is determined from the difference of the two profiles. The profiles were determined relative to specially machined holes, which provide stable reference points. An accuracy of about 1 ?m can be achieved. After exposure for 7625 plasma seconds a maximum erosion of 28 ?m carbon is observed in erosion dominated areas, while a maximum deposition of about 40 ?m is observed in net redeposition areas. The composition and structure of the redeposited layers were investigated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Mayer, M.; Wienhold, P.; Hildebrandt, D.; Schneider, W.

2003-03-01

108

Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target  

E-print Network

In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

109

Alagebrium (ALT-711) improves the anti-hypertensive efficacy of nifedipine in diabetic-hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Combining drugs with complementary mechanisms of action may contribute to improved hypertension control in diabetic patients. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) breakers, a new class of candidate drugs targeting aging-related cardiovascular dysfunction, may be useful as novel adjuvant agents to improve the efficacy of diabetic hypertension (DH) treatment. This study evaluated the effects of alagebrium (ALT-711), an AGE breaker, combined with nifedipine, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced DH. Compared with monotherapy, combination treatment significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, increased the pulse pressure, and decreased the coefficient of variation of the systolic blood pressure. Plasma biochemistry indicated that the concentrations of prostacyclin and nitric oxide were increased. Gene expression analysis showed significantly decreased prepro-endothelin-1expression in the aorta. These results reveal that alagebrium significantly improves the anti-hypertensive actions of nifedipine in a rat model of DH and suggest its potential use in the successful control of clinical DH. PMID:24965174

Zhang, Bing; He, Kunlun; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xianfa; Cui, Hao; Zhong, Wu; Li, Song; Wang, Lili

2014-10-01

110

Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.; (UMM)

2009-11-04

111

Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

2014-01-01

112

Morphological control of calcium oxalate particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) particles exhibiting different shapes and phase structures were fabricated by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a crystal modifier at room temperature. The as-obtained products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of reaction conditions including pH, [Ca 2+]/[C 2O 42-] ratio and concentration of PSMA and CaC 2O 4 on the crystal forms and morphologies of the as-obtained calcium oxalate were investigated. The results show that various crystal morphologies of calcium oxalate, such as parallelograms, plates, spheres, bipyramids etc. can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Higher polymer concentration favors formation of the metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Lower pH is beneficial to the formation of plate-like CaOx crystals. Especially, the monodispersed parallelogram-like CaOx crystals can be produced by PSMA as an additive at pH 2. PSMA may act as a good inhibitor for urolithiasis since it induces the formation of COD and reduces the particle size of CaOx. This research may provide new insight into the morphological control of CaOx particles and the prevention of urolithiasis.

Yu, Jiaguo; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Bei; Zhao, Xiujian

2004-10-01

113

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

114

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

115

Backbone resonance assignment of Alt a 1, a unique ?-barrel protein and the major allergen of Alternaria alternata.  

PubMed

Alt a 1 is the major allergen of the fungus Alternaria alternata and can be found in the cell wall of its spores. It is a cysteine linked homodimeric protein with a unique ?-barrel fold as recently revealed by X-ray crystallography. Despite the elucidation of its structure, its biological function remains unknown. For Alternaria-sensitized patients, contact leads to respiratory allergy and in severe cases to asthma-related death. Here we report the sequence-specific Alt a 1 backbone (1)H, (15)N and (13)C chemical shift assignment. PMID:23715812

Wagner, Gabriel E; Gutfreund, Sandra; Fauland, Kerstin; Keller, Walter; Valenta, Rudolf; Zangger, Klaus

2014-10-01

116

Synthesis of monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocomposite of CdSe\\/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSM) was successfully prepared via an in situ reaction process at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that CdSe nanoparticles with a small size and narrow size distribution were obtained. The obtained nanocomposite was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

S. H. Liu; X. F. Qian; J. Y. Yuan; J. Yin; R. He; Z. K. Zhu

2003-01-01

117

The effect of IFN-based therapies on the short-term dynamics of alt in HCV-infected patients  

SciTech Connect

IFN therapy of HCV-infection has been shown to reduce production of virus from infected cells, but its effect on hepatocytes is less well understood. One indicator of liver damage is ALT, which has been used as an associated diagnostic for HCV infection.

Ribeiro, R. M. (Ruy M.); Talal, A. H. (Andrew H.); Layden, J. E. (Jennifer E.); Powers, K. A. (Kimberly A.); Layden, T. J. (Thomas J.); Perelson, Alan S.,

2002-01-01

118

Synthesis of monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite of CdSe/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSM) was successfully prepared via an in situ reaction process at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that CdSe nanoparticles with a small size and narrow size distribution were obtained. The obtained nanocomposite was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

Liu, S.H.; Qian, X.F.; Yuan, J.Y.; Yin, J.; He, R.; Zhu, Z.K

2003-07-14

119

ASTS Advanced Transplant Provider Award Mr. Monge's active participation in and dedication to multi-organ transplant programs over the past  

E-print Network

ASTS Advanced Transplant Provider Award Mr. Monge's active participation in and dedication to multi-organ transplant programs over the past two decades clearly illustrate how deserving he is of this award. Surgeons, hepatologists, transplant fellows, PAs, nurses, residents, and students have all benefited from his generosity

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

120

Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

Baber, H. T., Jr.

1979-01-01

121

[Investigation of the relationship between serum nitric oxide levels, HBV-DNA and ALT levels in chronic hepatitis B patients].  

PubMed

It has been reported that increased nitric oxide (NO) production by the hepatocytes during chronic inflammatory processes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of NOx (nitrite + nitrate) with the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A total of 93 CHB patients (67 male, 26 female; mean age: 47.3 +/- 10.9 years) and 53 healthy control subjects (17 male, 36 female; mean age: 58.6 +/- 2.1 years) followed-up during 2006-2007 period were included to the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers, viral load and ALT levels were studied by chemiluminescence method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA), by real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI PRISM 7700, Applied Biosystem, CA), and by Aeroset System (Abbott Laboratories, USA), respectively. NOx levels were determined by a method which was based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by cadmium. Mean levels of ALT and HBV-DNA of the patients were found as 98.7 +/- 138.4 IU/I and 1.6 x 10(9) +/- 4.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of mean levels of NOx in patient and control groups, the difference was found statistically significant (30.6 +/- 21.7 micromol/l and 23.7 +/- 5.2 micromol/l, respectively; p< 0.05). In view of the relationship between the parameters, a positive correlation was detected between viral load and ALT levels (r= 0.768; p< 0.001), besides the significant correlations between NOx and viral load, and NOx and ALT (r= 0.346, p= 0.001 and r= 0.314, p= 0.002, respectively). As a result, although the NOx levels in chronic hepatitis patients were found higher than those in the control group, and significant correlations were detected between NO, viral load and ALT, the exact role of NO in the disease pathogenesis and outcome needs to be studied further at cellular level. PMID:19334384

Sener, Asli Gamze; Kirdar, Sevin; Serter, Mukadder; Af?ar, Ilhan; Demir, Ece Mine; Ceylan, Cengiz; Aydin, Neriman

2009-01-01

122

Seguiment de flora vascular protegida o amenaçada al Parc Natural de l’Alt Pirineu (Pirineus centrals)  

Microsoft Academic Search

En aquest treball es donen dades sobre set espècies de flora protegida i amenaçada presents al Parc Natural de l’Alt Pirineu: Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri, Astragalus penduliflorus, Cerinthe glabra, Hippuris vulgaris, Hypericum linariifolium, Leontopodium alpinum i Matthiola valesiaca. S’aporten censos i\\/o estimacions de l’àrea d’ocupació, informació sobre l’estructura de les poblacions i s’avalua el seu estat de conservació local. La

Pere Aymerich i Boixader

2009-01-01

123

Search for the rare decays $J/?\\to D_s^-?^+$ and $J/?\\to \\overline{D}{}^0\\overline{K}{}^{\\ast0}$  

E-print Network

A search for the rare decays of $J/\\psi \\to D_s^-\\rho^+ + c.c.$ and $J/\\psi \\to \\overline{D}{}^0\\overline{K}{}^{\\ast0} + c.c.$ is performed with a data sample of 225.3 million $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector. No evident signal is observed. Upper limits on the branching fractions are determined to be $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to D_s^-\\rho^+ + c.c.) < 1.3 \\times 10^{-5}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to \\overline{D}{}^0\\overline{K}{}^{\\ast0} + c.c.) < 2.5 \\times 10^{-6}$ at the $90\\%$ confidence level.

BESIII Collaboration; M. Ablikim; M. N. Achasov; X. C. Ai; O. Albayrak; M. Albrecht; D. J. Ambrose; F. F. An; Q. An; J. Z. Bai; R. Baldini Ferroli; Y. Ban; J. V. Bennett; M. Bertani; J. M. Bian; E. Boger; O. Bondarenko; I. Boyko; S. Braun; R. A. Briere; H. Cai; X. Cai; O. Cakir; A. Calcaterra; G. F. Cao; S. A. Cetin; J. F. Chang; G. Chelkov; G. Chen; H. S. Chen; J. C. Chen; M. L. Chen; S. J. Chen; X. Chen; X. R. Chen; Y. B. Chen; H. P. Cheng; X. K. Chu; Y. P. Chu; D. Cronin-Hennessy; H. L. Dai; J. P. Dai; D. Dedovich; Z. Y. Deng; A. Denig; I. Denysenko; M. Destefanis; W. M. Ding; Y. Ding; C. Dong; J. Dong; L. Y. Dong; M. Y. Dong; S. X. Du; J. Z. Fan; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; Y. Fang; L. Fava; C. Q. Feng; C. D. Fu; O. Fuks; Q. Gao; Y. Gao; C. Geng; K. Goetzen; W. X. Gong; W. Gradl; M. Greco; M. H. Gu; Y. T. Gu; Y. H. Guan; A. Q. Guo; L. B. Guo; T. Guo; Y. P. Guo; Y. L. Han; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; Z. Y. He; T. Held; Y. K. Heng; Z. L. Hou; C. Hu; H. M. Hu; J. F. Hu; T. Hu; G. M. Huang; G. S. Huang; H. P. Huang; J. S. Huang; L. Huang; X. T. Huang; Y. Huang; T. Hussain; C. S. Ji; Q. Ji; Q. P. Ji; X. B. Ji; X. L. Ji; L. L. Jiang; L. W. Jiang; X. S. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; Z. Jiao; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; T. Johansson; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; X. L. Kang; X. S. Kang; M. Kavatsyuk; B. Kloss; B. Kopf; M. Kornicer; W. Kuehn; A. Kupsc; W. Lai; J. S. Lange; M. Lara; P. Larin; M. Leyhe; C. H. Li; Cheng Li; Cui Li; D. Li; D. M. Li; F. Li; G. Li; H. B. Li; J. C. Li; K. Li; K. Li; Lei Li; P. R. Li; Q. J. Li; T. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; Y. F. Liang; Y. T. Liang; D. X. Lin; B. J. Liu; C. L. Liu; C. X. Liu; F. H. Liu; Fang Liu; Feng Liu; H. B. Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; J. P. Liu; K. Liu; K. Y. Liu; P. L. Liu; Q. Liu; S. B. Liu; X. Liu; Y. B. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Zhiqiang Liu; Zhiqing Liu; H. Loehner; X. C. Lou; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; H. L. Lu; J. G. Lu; X. R. Lu; Y. Lu; Y. P. Lu; C. L. Luo; M. X. Luo; T. Luo; X. L. Luo; M. Lv; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; S. Ma; T. Ma; X. Y. Ma; F. E. Maas; M. Maggiora; Q. A. Malik; Y. J. Mao; Z. P. Mao; J. G. Messchendorp; J. Min; T. J. Min; R. E. Mitchell; X. H. Mo; Y. J. Mo; H. Moeini; C. Morales Morales; K. Moriya; N. Yu. Muchnoi; H. Muramatsu; Y. Nefedov; I. B. Nikolaev; Z. Ning; S. Nisar; X. Y. Niu; S. L. Olsen; Q. Ouyang; S. Pacetti; M. Pelizaeus; H. P. Peng; K. Peters; J. L. Ping; R. G. Ping; R. Poling; N. Q.; M. Qi; S. Qian; C. F. Qiao; L. Q. Qin; X. S. Qin; Y. Qin; Z. H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; K. H. Rashid; C. F. Redmer; M. Ripka; G. Rong; X. D. Ruan; A. Sarantsev; K. Schoenning; S. Schumann; W. Shan; M. Shao; C. P. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; M. R. Shepherd; W. M. Song; X. Y. Song; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; G. X. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. J. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; Z. T. Sun; C. J. Tang; X. Tang; I. Tapan; E. H. Thorndike; D. Toth; M. Ullrich; I. Uman; G. S. Varner; B. Wang; D. Wang; D. Y. Wang; K. Wang; L. L. Wang; L. S. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; P. L. Wang; Q. J. Wang; S. G. Wang; W. Wang; X. F. Wang; Y. D. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Y. Q. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. G. Wang; Z. H. Wang; Z. Y. Wang; D. H. Wei; J. B. Wei; P. Weidenkaff; S. P. Wen; M. Werner; U. Wiedner; M. Wolke; L. H. Wu; N. Wu; Z. Wu; L. G. Xia; Y. Xia; D. Xiao; Z. J. Xiao; Y. G. Xie; Q. L. Xiu; G. F. Xu; L. Xu; Q. J. Xu; Q. N. Xu; X. P. Xu; Z. Xue; L. Yan; W. B. Yan; W. C. Yan; Y. H. Yan; H. X. Yang; L. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. X. Yang; H. Ye; M. Ye; M. H. Ye; B. X. Yu; C. X. Yu; H. W. Yu; J. S. Yu; S. P. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; W. L. Yuan; Y. Yuan; A. Yuncu; A. A. Zafar; A. Zallo; S. L. Zang; Y. Zeng; B. X. Zhang; B. Y. Zhang; C. Zhang; C. B. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. J. Zhang; J. Q. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; J. Y. Zhang; J. Z. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; X. J. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Z. H. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; G. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; Lei Zhao; Ling Zhao; M. G. Zhao; Q. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; S. J. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; A. Zhemchugov; B. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; Y. H. Zheng; B. Zhong; L. Zhou; Li Zhou; X. Zhou; X. K. Zhou; X. R. Zhou; X. Y. Zhou; K. Zhu; K. J. Zhu; X. L. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; J. Zhuang; B. S. Zou; J. H. Zou

2014-02-17

124

Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

125

Assessing Racial Profiling &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I consider the evaluation of racial profiling in traffic stops from a combination of welfarist and non-welfarist considerations. I argue that benefits from profiling in terms of crime reduction have not been identified and that further, the harm to those who are innocent and stopped is potentially high. I then argue that profiling creates a clear injustice

Steven N. Durlauf

2006-01-01

126

Underground Gun Markets &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2007-01-01

127

Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality.  

PubMed

Materials with large chiral optical activity at visible wavelengths are of great interest in photonics, particularly as a route to chiral optical metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate the plasmonic enhancement of the chiral optical activity of chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) doped with gold nanoparticles. The supramolecular helical organization of polymeric chains with simultaneous dipole-dipole interaction of the helically ordered nanoparticles with the polymer and one another results in unprecedented values of chirality parameter (? ~0.02) at visible wavelengths in thin films. PMID:21090623

Oh, Heong Sub; Liu, Sha; Jee, HongSub; Baev, Alexander; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

2010-12-15

128

A useful ELISA system for human liver-type arginase, and its utility in diagnosis of liver diseases 1 1 Abbreviations used: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS-PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To develop a new ELISA system for liver-type arginase using monoclonal antibodies against the enzyme, and to verify the utility of the arginase in diagnosis of hepatic disorders.Design and Methods: We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using two kinds of monoclonal antibodies (Mo6G3 and Mo9C5) for human liver-type arginase as the first and second antibodies respectively. We

Masaki Ikemoto; Shoji Tsunekawa; Masaaki Awane; Yoshihiro Fukuda; Hiroshi Murayama; Makoto Igarashi; Atsuo Nagata; Yasunari Kasai; Masayuki Totani

2001-01-01

129

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

2004-01-01

130

SEMINAR FR ALTE GESCHICHTE  

E-print Network

den Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Preis zu. Der Ruperto Carola hat er in mannigfachen Funktionen, der (Köln) »Géza Alföldy und das Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum« Prof. Dr. Michael Peachin (New York) »Géza

Heermann, Dieter W.

131

Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films  

SciTech Connect

Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)

2013-03-18

132

Shape evolution of SrCO{sub 3} particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO{sub 3} particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO{sub 3} particles.

Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Guo Hua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2006-03-15

133

The Arabidopsis cell cycle checkpoint regulators TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR mediate the active process of aluminum-dependent root growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a global issue that severely limits root growth in acidic soils. Isolation of suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana Al-hypersensitive mutant, als3-1, resulted in identification of a cell cycle checkpoint factor, ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2), which monitors and responds to DNA damage. ALT2 is required for active stoppage of root growth after Al exposure, because alt2 loss-of-function mutants fail to halt root growth after Al exposure, do not accumulate CyclinB1;1 in the root tip, and fail to force differentiation of the quiescent center. Thus, alt2-1 mutants are highly tolerant of Al levels that are severely inhibitory to the wild type. The alt2-1 allele is a loss-of-function mutation in a protein containing a putative DDB1-binding WD40 motif, previously identified as TANMEI, which is required for assessment of DNA integrity, including monitoring of DNA crosslinks. alt2-1 and atr loss-of-function mutants, the latter of which affects the cell cycle checkpoint ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA-MUTATED AND RAD3-RELATED, are severely sensitive to DNA crosslinking agents and have increased Al tolerance. These results suggest that Al likely acts as a DNA-damaging agent in vivo and that Al-dependent root growth inhibition, in part, arises from detection of and response to this damage by TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR, both of which actively halt cell cycle progression and force differentiation of the quiescent center. PMID:22345493

Nezames, Cynthia D; Sjogren, Caroline A; Barajas, Jesus F; Larsen, Paul B

2012-02-01

134

A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

2014-03-01

135

Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

2013-03-01

136

AltMV TGB1 Nucleolar Localization Requires Homologous Interaction and Correlates with Cell Wall Localization Associated with Cell-to-Cell Movement  

PubMed Central

The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to form homologous interactions. The helicase domains of AltMV TGB1 were separately mutated to identify which regions are involved in homologous TGB1 interactions. The yeast two hybrid system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) in planta were utilized to examine homologous interactions of the mutants. Helicase motif I of AltMV TGB1 was found to be critical to maintain homologous interactions. Mutations in the remaining helicase motifs did not inhibit TGB1 homologous interactions. In the absence of homologous interaction of TGB1, subcellular localization of helicase domain I mutants showed distinctively different patterns from that of WT TGB1. These results provide important information to study viral movement and replication of AltMV.

Nam, Jiryun; Nam, Moon; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Cheolho; Lee, Bong-Chun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

2013-01-01

137

Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

Glenn, G. M.

1977-01-01

138

A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800 mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500 mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200 mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000 mg BID (n?=?1), 1500 mg BID (n?=?1), 800 mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200 mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6 months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000 mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended. PMID:24612546

2014-01-01

139

Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion  

PubMed Central

Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15R?-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1?, IL-1? and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

2014-01-01

140

Beam-Target Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target at 1.422  

We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function gq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production on 3He and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A.J. R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X

2012-01-30

141

One loop renormalisation of Lattice NRQCD currents for semileptonic $B\\to D^{(\\ast)}$ decays to order $\\frac{\\vec{p}}{M}$  

E-print Network

We present the results of a perturbative calculation to match the axial and vector currents for semileptonic $B\\to D^{(\\ast)}$ decays in lattice NRQCD to the continuum \\MSb scheme. The matching is performed to $O(\\alpha_s\\frac{\\vec{p}}{M})$ in Feynman gauge and in the on-shell renormalisation scheme. The spatial and temporal components of the currents renormalise differently; to this order the matching involves a straightforward renormalisation for the $V_0$ and $A_k$ currents, and a rank two and four mixing matrix for the $A_0$ and $V_k$ currents respectively. The resultant one loop corrections are of $O(5%)$, boding well for the accuracy of forthcoming simulations.

P Boyle; C Davies

2000-03-31

142

Reliability improvement of InGaN LED backlight module by accelerated life test (ALT) and screen policy of potential leakage LED  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, to improve the reliability of InGaN white LED Backlight module, we have analyzed the module level accelerated life test (ALT) for LED which is used for the front display in the refrigerator. In addition, we have suggested a screen method that enables to screen out LEDs which have potential leakage problems. The stress factors and levels were

Jae-Seong Jeong; Jin-Kyu Jung; Sang-Deuk Park

2008-01-01

143

In: ALT'96 International Symposium on Laser Methods for Biomedical Applications. ( Edited by V. Pustovoy). SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering. Volume 2965, pp. 70 82. 1997.  

E-print Network

In: ALT'96 International Symposium on Laser Methods for Biomedical Applications. ( Edited by V. Pustovoy). SPIE ­ The International Society for Optical Engineering. Volume 2965, pp. 70 ­ 82. 1997 of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB

Pitt, Robert E.

144

Orbiter altitude at ALT interface based on ALSES (Approach and Landing Shuttle Engineering Simulation) analyses. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of the orbiter altitude attainable at the approach and landing tests (ALT) interface determined by the approach and landing shuttle engineering simulation (manned) were documented. The analysis culminated in the verification of the trends observed in a similar analysis performed previously on the space vehicle dynamics simulation (unmanned). Altitude variations attributable to pilot steering variability ranged between 492

C. L. Colwell

1976-01-01

145

24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research 1-888-777-NAAR ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism,  

E-print Network

24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 · Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research · 1-888-777-NAAR L ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism, resumed a project of building his own article sets me to musing about cures and treatments for autism - Alex is never far from my mind. Indeed

146

Synthesis, Biophysical, and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Melanocortin Agonist AST3-88: Modifications of Peptide Backbone at Trp 7 Position Lead to a Potent, Selective, and Stable Ligand of the Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R).  

PubMed

The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (?-, ?-, ?-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a ?-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ?5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII ?-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the ?-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

2014-10-15

147

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

148

Sn ALT="delta" />-doping in GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared a number of GaAs structures icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>-doped by Sn using the well known molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. The samples obtained for a wide range of Sn doping densities were characterized by magnetotransport experiments at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields up to 38 T. Hall-effect and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements show that the electron densities reached are higher than for other icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>-dopants, like Si and Be. The maximum carrier density determined by the Hall effect equals 8.4 × 1013 cm-2. For all samples several Shubnikov-de Haas frequencies were observed, indicating the population of multiple subbands. The depopulation fields of the subbands were determined by measuring the magnetoresistance with the magnetic field in the plane of the icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>-layer. The experimental results are in good agreement with selfconsistent bandstructure calculations. This calculation shows that in the sample with the highest electron density also the conduction band at the L point is populated.

Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Kytin, V. G.; Lunin, R. A.; Golikov, A. V.; Mokerov, V. G.; Bugaev, A. S.; Senichkin, A. P.; van Schaijk, R. T. F.; de Visser, A.; Koenraad, P. M.

1999-12-01

149

AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

Myers, William; Winter, Steve

2006-01-01

150

AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results from a 1.1-mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z = 3.1 Lyman ? emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the astronomical thermal emission camera (AzTEC) on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950-arcmin2 field down to a 1? sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy beam-1 to find 125 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) with a signal-to-noise ratio ?3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data and the median value is found to be z = 2.4. By combining these estimations with estimates from the literature, we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z = 3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z = 3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high-redshift Universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.

Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

2014-06-01

151

AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimeter galaxies  

E-print Network

We present the results from a 1.1 mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z=3.1 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950 arcmin$^2$ field down to a 1 sigma sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy/beam to find 125 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with a signal to noise ratio >= 3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 SMGs of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data, and the median value is found to be z=2.4. By combining these estimation with estimates from the literature we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z=3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z=3.1 protocluster. These resu...

Umehata, H; Kohno, K; Hatsukade, B; Scott, K S; Kubo, M; Yamada, T; Ivison, R J; Cybulski, R; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J; Hughes, D H; Ezawa, H; Hayashino, T; Ikarashi, S; Iono, D; Kawabe, R; Matsuda, Y; Matsuo, H; Nakanishi, K; Oshima, T; Perera, T; Takata, T; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S

2014-01-01

152

Microwave properties of tuneable TE01ALT="delta" /> mode sapphire-loaded cavity resonators with YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> endplates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sapphire-loaded cavity resonator with YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO) endplates and the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonant frequency (f0) of about 19 GHz at 77 K was prepared and its microwave properties were investigated at low temperatures. Unloaded Q (Q0) of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator appeared to be more than 1000 000, 600 000 and about 300 000 at 30 K, 60 K and 77 K, respectively, at f0~19.56 GHz with the sapphire rod sandwiched between two YBCO endplates. Q0 appeared to decrease as the gap distance (s) between the sapphire rod and the top endplate increased for the resonator with YBCO endplates at 30 K, which was in contrast with the increase of Q0 for increasing s for the cavity resonator with copper endplates. Microwave losses from the surrounding copper walls appeared to reduce Q0 of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator with YBCO endplates significantly at low temperatures. Experimental values of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonant frequencies appeared to agree well with both the calculated values from analytic expressions and the simulated values from a commercial software within 1.3%. Variations in f0 upon the gap distance were more than 4.8% between s = 0 mm and 1 mm, with Q0 of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator about 770 000, 530 000 and 350 000 at s = 1 mm at 30 K, 60 K and 77 K, respectively.

Lee, Sang Young; Kwon, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Yang, W. I.; Kim, Jin Kook; Lee, W. H.; Hur, Jung

1999-11-01

153

Joseph Brunner AST / EGL 389  

E-print Network

you can't spend an hour with your mother every Sunday. Is that really too much to ask?" Her voice neck in a sarcastic bow. "Mom, don't you remember what happened last time I went to church?" He gave of her. "Oh Stop! Father Kenny loves you. He says questioning your faith makes you a stronger catholic

Walter, Frederick M.

154

Beyond Inclusive Legal Positivism &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn this essay, I characterize the original intervention that became Inclusive Legal Positivism, defend it against a range of powerful objections, explain its contribution to jurisprudence, and display its limitations and its modest jurisprudential significance. I also show how in its original formulations ILP depends on three notions that are either mistaken or inessential to law: the separability thesis, the

JULES L. COLEMAN

2009-01-01

155

Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

2003-01-01

156

Phase 1 trial of ALT-801, an interleukin-2/T cell receptor fusion protein targeting p53 (aa264-272)/HLA-A*0201 complex, in patients with advanced malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose ALT-801 is a bifunctional fusion protein comprising interleukin-2 (IL-2) linked to a soluble, single-chain T cell receptor domain that recognizes a peptide epitope (aa264-272) of the human p53 antigen displayed on cancer cells in the context of HLA-A*0201 (p53+/HLA-A*0201). We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ALT-801 in p53+/HLA-A*0201 patients with metastatic malignancies. Experimental Design p53+/HLA-A*0201 patients were treated with ALT-801 on a schedule of 4 daily 15-minute intravenous infusions, then 10 days rest and 4 more daily infusions. Cohorts of patients were treated at 0.015, 0.040, and 0.080 mg/kg/dose. Results Four, sixteen, and six patients were treated at the 0.015, 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg cohorts, respectively. Two dose limiting toxicities (a grade 4 transient thrombocytopenia and a myocardial infarction) in the 0.08 mg/kg cohort established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) at 0.04 mg/kg. Patients treated at the MTD experienced toxicities similar to those associated with high-dose IL-2 but of lesser severity. The serum half-life of ALT-801 was 4 hours and ALT-801 serum recovery was as expected based on the dose administered. ALT-801 treatment induced an increase of serum interferon-? but not tumor necrosis factor-?. Response assessment showed 10 subjects with stable disease at at least 11 weeks, and in one who had melanoma metastasis, there is an ongoing complete absence of identifiable disease after resection of radiographically identified lesions. Conclusion This first-in-man study defines an ALT-801 regimen that can be administered safely and is associated with immunological changes of potential antitumor relevance. PMID:21994418

Fishman, Mayer N.; Thompson, John A.; Pennock, Gregory K.; Gonzalez, Rene; Diez, Luz M.; Daud, Adil I.; Weber, Jeffery S.; Huang, Bee Y.; Tang, Shamay; Rhode, Peter R.; Wong, Hing C.

2014-01-01

157

Screening the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli activity and detection of the aggA, aafA, and astA genes with novel PCR primers for the Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea cases in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) are emerging enteropathogens associated with human diarrhea diseases and food poisoning cases. They show distinctive aggregative pattern of adherence to cultured human epithelial cells. However, EAggEC strains are diverse and not all of them have the aggregative adherence fimbria I (AAF/I), AAF/II and heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) genes. We attempted to determine the incidence of EAggEC in E. coli isolates from diarrhea patients in Taiwan and to characterize these EAggEC strains. We used three activity assays including HeLa cell adhesion, human blood hemagglutination and bacterial clumping tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed from an aggregative adherence pattern associated plasmid (pCVD432) to screen the EAggEC strains in 403 E. coli isolates including 63 laboratory isolates and 340 clinical isolates obtained from diarrheal disease cases. All these 403 E. coli strains were also assayed with novel PCR primers designed from AAF/I (aggA), AAF/II (aafA) and EAST1 (astA) genes. Results showed that except for the three EAggEC reference strains, only three clinical isolates were identified as EAggEC strains. Including the reference strains, all the E. coli strains with EAggEC activity generated positive PCR results to the aggA gene based primers, but not to the aafA and astA gene targeted primers. PMID:12867090

Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Shu-Yu; Tsen, Hau-Yang

2003-07-01

158

Micellization behavior of A-b-(B-alt-C)n multiblock terpolymers in a selective solvent for one terminal A-block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used self-consistent field theory to investigate the micellization behavior of A-b-(B-alt-C)n multiblock terpolymers in the presence of a solvent that is selective to the terminal A-block. In particular, we focused on the effects of ?BC, and fA, on the formation of micelles from ABC triblock and A(BC)3 multiblock terpolymers, respectively. We observed a general trend that a segmented packing of B- and C-layers along the axial direction of the micelles is favored than the coaxial packing with the increasing of ?BC or decreasing of fA. The separation of B and C blocks within a micelle leads to the formation of a variety of multicompartment micelle morphologies, such as core-shell-corona spherical micelles, hamburgers, and bump-surface micelles, in the ABC triblock copolymers. In the A(BC)3 multiblock terpolymers, we discovered more fascinating micelles by implementing the SCFT simulation than by the DPD simulation. Besides the BC-segmented worm-like micelles, which have been found in the DPD simulation work, concentric multilayer spheres and vesicles can be formed by the solvent-induced effect when the solvophilic A-block is a majority component.

Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Ching-I.; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

2013-03-01

159

Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion ® films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H 2 and O 2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 °C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion ® membranes.

Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloísa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugão, Ademar B.

2010-03-01

160

Trap-assisted hole injection and quantum efficiency enhancement in poly(9,9' dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) polymer light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a reversible many-fold quantum efficiency enhancement during electrical driving of polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) containing poly(9,9' dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), developing over several minutes or hours at low applied bias and recovering on similar time scales after driving. This phenomenon is observed only in devices containing F8BT as an emissive layer in pure or blended form, regardless of anode and cathode choices and even in the absence of a poly(styrene-sulphonate)-doped poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) layer. We report detailed investigations using a standardized device structure containing PEDOT:PSS and a calcium cathode. Direct measurements of trapped charge recovered from the device after driving significantly exceed the unipolar limit, and thermally activated relaxation suggests a maximum trap depth around 0.6eV. Neither photoluminescence nor electroluminescence spectra reveal any change in the bulk optoelectronic properties of the emissive polymer nor any new emissive species. During the quantum efficiency (QE) enhancement process, the bulk conduction of the device increases. Reverse bias treatment of the device significantly reinforces the QE enhancement. Based on these observations, we propose a simple model in which interfacial dipoles are generated by trapped holes near the anode combining with injected electrons, to produce a narrow tunneling barrier for easy hole injection. The new injection pathway leads to a higher hole current density and thus a better charge injection balance. This produces the relatively high quantum efficiency observed in all F8BT LEDs.

Seeley, Alexander J. A. B.; Friend, Richard H.; Kim, Ji-Seon; Burroughes, Jeremy H.

2004-12-01

161

Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 ? m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological pattern results critical to meet this objective.

Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

2011-10-01

162

Determination of pinning forces on vortex lines in YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure adopted by the flux line lattice (FLL) in YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> (YBCO) depends strongly on the angle (icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/>) between the applied field and the superconducting cuprate planes. If this angle is held constant and the field rotated about an axis normal to the cuprate planes, the structure of the FLL remains constant, while the direction of the Lorentz force on the vortex lines changes. Measurements of the critical current density (jc) with respect to this rotation angle (icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>) thus probe pinning behaviour while excluding effects due to changes in the structure of the FLL. If the value of icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/> is small, such that the FLL adopts the kinked (string- pancake) state, the variation in jc seen with icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> must be due to the behaviour of the string vortex segments. High-resolution measurements of the variation of jc with this second angle icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> have been made on thin (120 nm) YBCO films. A simple model is proposed to explain this variation in terms of dragging of vortex strings by the vortex pancake elements. From this model and experimental data an estimate has been made for the value of the pinning force density on vortex strings for motion in the a-b planes. This estimate is in agreement with values found for the string pinning force density found in earlier measurements on YBCO films grown on vicinal-cut substrates.

Durrell, J. H.; Herzog, R.; Berghuis, P.; Bramley, A. P.; Tarte, E. J.; Barber, Z. H.; Evetts, J. E.

1999-12-01

163

Efficacy and safety of entecavir plus carnitine complex (GODEX(R)) compared to entecavir monotherapy in patient with ALT elevated chronic hepatitis B: randomized, multicenter open-label trials. The GOAL study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Carnitine and vitamin complex (Godex®) is widely used in patients with chronic liver disease who show elevated liver enzyme in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to identify the efficacy and safety of carnitine from entecavir combination therapy in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevated Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Methods 130 treatment-naïve patients with CHB were enrolled from 13 sites. The patients were randomly selected to the entecavir and the complex of entecavir and carnitine. The primary endpoint of the study is ALT normalization level after 12 months. Results Among the 130 patients, 119 patients completed the study treatment. The ALT normalization at 3 months was 58.9% for the monotherapy and 95.2% for the combination therapy (P<0.0001). ALT normalization rate at 12 months was 85.7% for the monotherapy and 100% for the combination group (P=0.0019). The rate of less than HBV DNA 300 copies/mL at 12 months was not statistically significant (P=0.5318) 75.9% for the monotherapy, 70.7% for the combination and it was. Quantification of HBsAg level was not different from the monotherapy to combination at 12 months. Changes of ELISPOT value to evaluate the INF-? secretion by HBsAg showed the increasing trend of combination therapy compare to mono-treatment. Conclusions ALT normalization rate was higher in carnitine complex combination group than entecavir group in CHB. Combination group was faster than entecavir mono-treatment group on ALT normalization rate. HBV DNA normalization rate and the serum HBV-DNA level were not changed by carnitine complex treatment. PMID:23837141

Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Ju; Kwon, Young Oh; Park, Soo Young; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Jung, Yong Jin; Kim, Hwi Young; Kim, Won; Heo, Jeong; Woo, Hyun Young; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Rim, Kyu Sung; Choi, Jong Young; Bae, Si Hyun; Lee, Young Sang; Lim, Young Suck; Cheong, Jae Youn; Cho, Sung Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Paik, Yong Han; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kwan Sik

2013-01-01

164

Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

1999-12-01

165

The research on property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. The function of servo system compensation network in control system (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the requirement of SLR (Satellite Laser Range) using 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope of Yunnan Observatory, and the analysis of function of cascade compensation network in control system and the observation results, the compensation network of servo system of 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope, and the performance of control system after its compensation are discussed in this article. When friction drive is fulfilled by two torque motors, and PD compensation network in servo control system is used, it is found that the capability of rapid tracking of the 1.2 m telescope is actually improved, and the telescope can achieve 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration, 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity, and it can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

2005-06-01

166

Synthesis of Surface-Functionalized Poly(styrene-co-butadiene) Nanoparticles via Controlled\\/Living Radical Mini-emulsion Copolymerization Stabilized by Ammonolyzed Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) RAFT Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization in a mini-emulsion system stabilized by ammnolyzed poly(styrene-alt- maleic anhydride) copolymer (SMA) as an amphiphilic macro RAFT agent has been applied to the copolymerization of styrene and butadiene to prepare nanoparticles. First, for the RAFT polymerization of styrene, the results of molecular weights (Mns) and polydispersity index (PDIs) determined by

Yitao Yu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhenxi Wang; Xiaoli Zhan; Ren He; Wentao Zhang; Fengqiu Chen

2012-01-01

167

Evaluation of immunoprophylactic efficacy of Brugia malayi transglutaminase (BmTGA) in single and multiple antigen vaccination with BmALT-2 and BmTPX for human lymphatic filariasis.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to study the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant Brugia malayi transglutaminase (BmTGA) as protein vaccine along with two other recombinant proteins, Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript-2 (BmALT-2) and Brugia malayi thioredoxin peroxidase (BmTPX), in single and multiple antigen form for human lymphatic filariasis. Parasite challenge studies in jirds exhibited protection of 30%, 69%, and 43% against BmTGA, BmALT-2, and BmTPX, respectively, in single antigen vaccination mode. The protective efficacy of BmTGA was enhanced significantly (74%) by immunizing the jirds in multiple antigen vaccination mode along with BmTPX, whereas immunizing with the combination of BmTGA and BmALT2 conferred only 47% protection. The same protection profiles were obtained by in vitro antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, using live microfilariae and L3 stage larvae. The immune response was Th2 biased, irrespective of single or multiple vaccinations. The combination of BmTGA and BmTPX seems to be a promising vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis. PMID:19190232

Vanam, Uma; Pandey, Vivek; Prabhu, Prince R; Dakshinamurthy, Gajalakshmi; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kaliraj, Perumal

2009-02-01

168

The property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. Mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives (1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the special requirement we have made the Laser Ranging for satellites on the low orbit of the Earth using the 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. This article discusses the mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives of the telescope. When friction drives are fulfilled with two moment electromotors, the telescope an reach 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration and 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity. This can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

2005-03-01

169

Supercurrent transport across [001] twist grain boundaries in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+ALT="delta" /> bicrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 35 bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> (Bi2212) bicrystals containing a single high-quality [001] twist grain boundary was prepared in order to investigate the supercurrent transport mechanism in textured Bi-based superconducting tape. The misorientation angles of the bicrystals ranged from 0 to 180°. These twist grain boundaries carried critical current as high as their constituent single crystals, regardless of the misorientation angle.

Li, Qiang; Tsay, Y. N.; Zhu, Y.; Suenaga, M.; Gu, G. D.; Koshizuka, N.

1999-12-01

170

Suspense: Dynamic Incentives in Sports Contests &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dynamic model of sports competition, if spectators care only about contestants’ efforts, incentive schemes depending linearly on the final score difference dominate rank order schemes based only on who wins. If spectators also care about suspense, defined as valuing more contestants’ efforts when the game is closer, rank order schemes can dominate linear score difference schemes, and this

William Chan; Pascal Courty; Li Hao

2009-01-01

171

John Fagan, 107634405 AST 389 Walter  

E-print Network

refused to live under the empire. You think they'd have learned by now. In 2020, an overpopulated Earth entered World War III, and the threat of nuclear annihilation was everywhere. After years of constant and military actions, the United States was able to bring the entire world under one banner and end Earth

Walter, Frederick M.

172

ASTeC Annual Report 2005 2006  

E-print Network

: 01235 445000 Fax: 01235 445808 CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory Keckwick Lane Daresbury WARRINGTON WA4 4AD Tel Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD. #12;Accelerator Science and Technology. Designed & produced by: Media Services, Daresbury Laboratory. www.astec.ac.uk #12;This work outlined

173

Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened

Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha

2009-01-01

174

MODELLING ASYMMETRIC EXCHANGE RATE DEPENDENCE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test for asymmetry in a model of the dependence between the Deutsche mark and the yen, in the sense that a different degree of correlation is exhibited during joint appreciations against the U.S. dollar versus during joint depreciations. We consider an extension of the theory of copulas to allow for conditioning variables, and employ it to construct flexible models

Andrew J. Patton

2006-01-01

175

University Radio Observatories Program (AST-URO)  

NSF Publications Database

... university-based radio facilities. A primary function of funded University Radio Observatories is to ... student access to state-of-the-art radio astronomy instrumentation. UROs also serve the general ...

176

Concentration Courses 20113 AST African Studies  

E-print Network

-400 ST: Applications Crime Maps0501-405 SR. on Sexual Violence0501-405 Corruption & The Police0501-405 MI: Wrongful Convictions0501-405 TECHNOLOGY IN CJ0501-406 JUVENILE JUSTICE0501-440 LAW & SOCIETY0501-443 CONCEPTS IN CRIMINAL LAW0501-444 MINORITY GROUPS & CJ SYS0501-445 WOMEN & CRIME0501-446 COURTS0501

Zanibbi, Richard

177

Nicolas Pernot AST/EGL 389  

E-print Network

position to judge their value. Unfortunately, even if he used every euro his parents had given him, at first, stunned silence of his parents when he explained how he had been able to make his prized purchase

Walter, Frederick M.

178

The Entrepreneurial Organization of Heterogeneous Capital &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Transaction cost, property rights, and resource-based approaches to the firm assume that assets, both tangible and intangible, are heterogeneous. Arranging these assets to minimize contractual hazards, to provide efficient investment incentives, or to exploit competitive advantage is conceived as the prime task of economic organization. None of these approaches, however, is based on a systematic theory of capital heterogeneity.

Kirsten Foss; Nicolai J. Foss; Peter G. Klein; Sandra K. Klein

2007-01-01

179

Noelle Burch AST/EGL: 389  

E-print Network

positions on Earth. I dreamed of being a doctor's son or even a scientist's son, but this is what the deck, because it has always been like this. The market was not busy. It gave me a lot of time to think, so I. I couldn't understand how this image had entered my mind. Earth was small and our sky was empty

Walter, Frederick M.

180

Charmed: From concept to reality&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an introduction to Charmed, a tangible interactive media artwork that explores aspects of daily life in urban environments. The article discusses the conceptual, aesthetic, and technical dimensions of the work, our creative intentions, and the production process. The design and development of Charmed posed many challenges, which will also be addressed in this article, before concluding with

Gavin Sade

2008-01-01

181

SPATIAL IMPACTS OF AGGLOMERATION EXTERNALITIES &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?This article examines the extent to which agglomeration economies in one location affect employment growth and establishment births, using data from the Dutch province of South-Holland. The data are of particular interest because they represent a census, rather than a sample, of all establishments and the location of establishments can be pinpointed to within 416 (postal) zip code areas averaging

Daan P. van Soest; Shelby Gerking; Frank G. van Oort

2006-01-01

182

Are Any Growth Theories Robust? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the strength of empirical evidence for various growth theories when there is model uncertainty with respect to the correct growth model. Using model averaging methods, we find little evidence that so-called fundamental growth theories play an important role in explaining aggregate growth. In contrast, we find strong evidence for macroeconomic policy effects and a role for unexplained

Steven N. Durlauf; Andros Kourtellos; Chih Ming Tan

2008-01-01

183

Alte Musik im Dialog mit Neuer Musik  

E-print Network

­ Ich preise dich, Herr" für Chor und Orgel (UA) Werke zweier Jubilare: Gottfried August Homilius (*1714 ihre Werke vor. Komponisten/Interpreten: Prof. Guy Bovet (Neuchatel), Prof. Michael Kapsner (Weimar

Kaus, Boris

184

Alt/Space 12(3)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

2014-01-01

185

Flux pinning characteristics and material power law of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-electric-field E-J curves of YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> were determined from 0.27 to 1.34 T at various temperatures from 52 to 83 K with the magnetic sweeping method by VSM. Using an empirical material power law E = Ec(J/Jc)n, we obtained the characteristic pinning potential U0(T,H) and real critical current density Jc(T,H) by an appropriate definition of Ec. By further investigation of the changing shape of the pinning potential well, we interpreted the peak effect of U0 with temperature in high temperature superconductors (HTSCs).

Shan, L.; Sun, A. M.; Xu, X. N.; Tang, Y. L.; Lu, D. W.; Jin, X.; Shen, L. J.; Lam, C. C.; Chen, Y. S.

1999-12-01

186

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units\\/liter (U\\/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe retrospectively studied

Linda K. Lee; Victor C. Gan; Vernon J. Lee; Adriana S. Tan; Yee Sin Leo; David C. Lye

2012-01-01

187

A new epitaxial BaSnO3 buffer layer for YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films on MgO substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

45° grain boundaries, which drastically increase surface resistance (RS) in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films for microwave devices on MgO substrates, are eliminated using a new buffer layer of BaSnO3.BaSnO3 buffer layers and YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are grown by ArF pulsed laser deposition. Epitaxial relationships among BaSnO3, YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and MgO are confirmed by x-ray icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>-scanning. The RS values of the YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are measured using a dielectric resonator with 22 GHz TE011 mode. The epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films grown on BaSnO3 buffered MgO substrates show lower RS than YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films directly grown on MgO substrates. The BaSnO3 buffer layer which enables YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films to grow without 45° grain boundaries at a optimum film growth condition is attractive for microwave applications.

Mukaida, M.; Takano, Y.; Chiba, K.; Moriya, T.; Kusunoki, M.; Ohshima, S.

1999-11-01

188

Study and modelling of oxygen diffusion in YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> under isothermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of oxygen diffusion in YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO) using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Comparing the results of a solution of Fick's second law to the experimental data, it has been possible to calculate an expression for the chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen in YBCO. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data suggests that the diffusion rate is not determined by the formation of a highly oxygenated layer on the outer surface of the sample. The analysis depends on a finite element model developed to study the diffusion process. The model both calculates the fractional weight change of the sample during the isothermal oxygenation stage and determines the change in distribution of oxygen within the sample during the oxygenation process. The treatment presented provides a convenient basis for preliminary analyses of any proposed oxygenation procedure, to check oxygenation times and the final distribution of oxygen within the sample.

Vázquez-Navarro, M. D.; Kursumovic, A.; Evetts, J. E.

1999-12-01

189

User-defined serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid for the Beckman synchron CX 4/5 using Ames Sera-Pak reagents.  

PubMed

Beckman aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid Liquid Reagents for Synchron CX 4/5 (48, 48, 25, 60, 26, and 30 cents US/test, respectively) are expensive. We have established our own methods for serum AST, ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid (6, 6, 5, 12, 13, and 6 cents US/test, respectively) using Ames Sera-Pak reagents. Linearity of our AST, ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid methods were either similar to or higher than the Beckman methods. The within run and day-to-day run precisions were acceptable. Recovery of our AST, ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid were excellent. Our results for AST, ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid correlated well with the Beckman results. Bilirubin (340.8 mumol/L) did not significantly interfere on our AST, ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea, while its concentrations of 165.8 mumol/L started giving negative interference on uric acid. Turbidity (2+) did not interfere significantly on our AST and ALT but started giving positive interference on cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid. Hemolysis (2+) gave positive interference on our cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and uric acid. Stability of Ames Sera-Pak working reagents was at least 30 days for AST, ALT, urea, and uric acid and 40 days for cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:1403344

Lolekha, P H; Nitipaichit, P

1992-01-01

190

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

191

AST 443 / PHY 517 Proposal Wri6ng  

E-print Network

's interest for the short 6me they are reading ­Assume they will be reading many? · Be interested in the subject ­You must convince the reader that this is an interes6 a succinct synopsis. · ANer reading the abstract, the reviewer should have a good

Walter, Frederick M.

192

Fair Procedures: Evidence from Games Involving Lotteries &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are the area where fairness arguably has its largest influence on modern societies. The experiments we report provide an initial characterisation of that influence and suggest new interpretations for some well-known results. We find that procedural fairness is conceptually distinct from allocation fairness, although the evidence also indicates that the two are linked in important ways. Post hoc extension

Gary E Bolton; Jordi Brandts; Axel Ockenfels

2005-01-01

193

Nutritional Status During an Economic Crisis: Evidence from Russia &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1996 and 1998, Russia experienced a spectacular decline in economic activity which was followed by a dramatic rebound between 1998 and 2000. We use panel data to examine the impact of variation in household resources on six dimensions of nutritional status, distinguishing longer-run from short-term fluctuations in resources. Nutritional status is very resilient to short-term variation in household resources.

Steven Stillman; Duncan Thomas

2008-01-01

194

‘Bill’ Phillips’ War and his Notorious Pass Degree &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds to what was previously known about Phillips’ life between his departure from Australia in 1937 until he became an academic in 1950. The paper includes new information about Phillips’ MBE and the attack on the Empire Star, the conditions at the Bandoeng prisoner of war camp in Java, and his operation of secret radios during the three

A. G. SLEEMAN

2010-01-01

195

International Labor Union Policy and Growth with Creative Destruction &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractA multi-economy Schumpeterian growth model is constructed. Economies are interdependent through technology transfer. Households can stay as workers or become researchers at some cost. Workers are employed in production and researchers in R&D. Workers are unionized and union power depends on the government's protection. The main findings are as follows. If international technological dependence increases, then workers’ wages, the growth

Tapio Palokangas

2005-01-01

196

International outsourcing and factor prices with multistage production &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a dual representation of the technology of international fragmentation for an industry using 2 factors in a continuum of stages. We then derive a generalised factor price frontier which incorporates an endogenous adjustment of the margin of fragmentation. Using this frontier in a 2?×?2 general equilibrium model, we investigate the role of outsourcing in the adjustment to a

Wilhelm Kohler

2004-01-01

197

SAVING DOLPHINS: BOYCOTTS, TRADE SANCTIONS, AND UNOBSERVABLE TECHNOLOGY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers boycott some goods because they do not approve the ways they are manufactured. I examine the efficacy of boycotts and the role of trade policy in influencing the foreign exporter's technology choice. Even when its technology choice is unobservable, boycott threats can prompt the foreign firm to adopt the technology consumers prefer. Import policy can augment this effect, but

Kaz Miyagiwa

2009-01-01

198

Research Design in European Studies: The Case of Europeanization &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn this article, we contribute to the debate on research design and causal analysis in European integration studies by considering the sub-field of Europeanization. First, we examine the awareness of research design issues in the literature on Europeanization through a review of the debate on causality, concept formation and methods. Second, we analyse how much of the discussion of the

THEOFANIS EXADAKTYLOS; CLAUDIO M. RADAELLI

2009-01-01

199

CONSTRUCTION COSTS AND THE SUPPLY OF HOUSING STRUCTURE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Construction costs account for the bulk of the price of new houses in most markets, but their study has been relatively neglected. We document that there are economically large differences in construction costs across U.S. housing markets. We also estimate a very elastic supply for physical structure; hence, differences in construction activity across markets do not explain the variation in

Joseph Gyourko; Albert Saiz

2006-01-01

200

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

201

The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST\\/RO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory, a 1.7 m diameter telescope for astronomy and aeronomy studies at wavelengths between 200 and 2000 mum, was installed at the South Pole during the 1994-1995 austral summer. The telescope operates continuously through the austral winter and is being used primarily for spectroscopic studies of neutral atomic carbon and carbon monoxide in the

Antony A. Stark; John Bally; Simon P. Balm; T. M. Bania; Alberto D. Bolatto; Richard A. Chamberlin; Gregory Engargiola; Maohai Huang; James G. Ingalls; Karl Jacobs; James M. Jackson; Jacob W. Kooi; K.-Y. Lo; Rodney D. Marks; Christopher L. Martin; Dennis Mumma; Roopesh Ojha; Rudolf Schieder; Johannes Staguhn; Jürgen Stutzki; Christopher K. Walker; Robert W. Wilson; Gregory A. Wright; Xiaolei Zhang; Peter Zimmermann; Rüdiger Zimmermann

2001-01-01

202

AVIATION NOISE AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: THE BARRIO BARRIER &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Aviation noise is a harmful pollutant, which has yet to be studied in the environmental justice literature. This paper uses Tobit and logit multivariate regression analyses to analyze noise pollution exposure from a major commercial-service airport. It addresses the issue of whether people moved to the aviation noise-impacted areas or the noise encroached on the people, and controls for economic

Robin R. Sobotta; Heather E. Campbell; Beverly J. Owens

2007-01-01

203

IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Spectra STELLAR SPECTRA  

E-print Network

. This is the spectrum (lat. spectrum = apparition -- cf. "ghost image") For an extended object these images overlap) Spectra Kirchhoff's laws of spectroscopy (1860): 1. The spectrum of a hot body (solid body or opaque

Petrovay, Kristóf

204

ENDOGENOUS CONSUMER PARTICIPATION AND THE RECYCLING PROBLEM &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We endogenise the extent of consumer participation in the recycling process, and analyse its effect on the ‘recycling problem’. When recycling requires consumers to undertake costly sorting activities to separate scrap from household waste, they will participate only if the net reward from sorting is positive. Consumers' sorting cost is subject to a network effect arising due to social norms.

SOHAM BAKSI; NGO VAN LONG

2009-01-01

205

Explaining Focal Points: Cognitive Hierarchy Theory versus Team Reasoning &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports experimental tests of two alternative explanations of how players use focal points to select equilibria in one-shot coordination games. Cognitive hierarchy theory explains coordination as the result of common beliefs about players’ pre-reflective inclinations towards the relevant strategies; the theory of team reasoning explains it as the result of the players’ using a non-standard form of reasoning.

Nicholas Bardsley; Judith Mehta; Chris Starmer; Robert Sugden

2010-01-01

206

Gillian Fisher-Reid AST 389 Paper #3: Short Story  

E-print Network

of the United States that many children do not have. Sometimes her parents would work on dig sites with paleontologists, and it was then that she discovered her love for all things ancient, with a specific focus met the love of her life Rick Sanders. Rick had a degree in Oceanography, having graduated from

Walter, Frederick M.

207

Bail out or work out? theoretical considerations &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses various crisis resolution proposals using a theoretical model of liquidity and solvency crisis. The model suggests that payments standstills and last-resort lending are an equally efficient means of dealing with liquidity crises, while coordinated lending through creditor committees is second-best. Debt write-downs are preferred to subsidised IMF financing when dealing with solvency crises, because of the negative

Andrew G Haldane; Gregor Irwin; Victoria Saporta

2004-01-01

208

Welfare reform in European countries: a microsimulation analysis &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for

Herwig Immervoll; Henrik Jacobsen Kleven; Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Emmanuel Saez

2007-01-01

209

Components of CEO Transformational Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract We use transformational leadership theory to explore the role of CEOs in determining the extent to which their firms engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR). We test this theory using data from 56 US and Canadian firms. CEO intellectual stimulation (but not CEO charismatic leadership) is found to be significantly associated with the propensity of the firm to engage

David A. Waldman; Donald S. Siegel; Mansour Javidan

2006-01-01

210

A Prescriptive Analysis of Search and Discovery &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? I develop a prescriptive model of entrepreneurial search and discovery, which operationalizes constrained, systematic search. This approach appears to be superior to the alertness perspective in both the number and the wealth-creating potential of the opportunities that it can assist entrepreneurs to discover. Essentially, this research shows how entrepreneurs can improve their search effectiveness by systematically restricting their searching

James O. Fiet

2007-01-01

211

THE 2005 LAWRENCE R. KLEIN LECTURE: EMERGENT CLASS STRUCTURE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a model of the emergent class structure, in which a society inhabited by inherently identical households may be endogenously split into the rich bourgeoisie and the poor proletariat. For some parameter values, the model has no steady state where all households remain equally wealthy. In this case, the model predicts emergent class structure or the rise of

Kiminori Matsuyama

2006-01-01

212

The employment effects of the national minimum wage &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the employment effects of the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage in April 1999 and subsequent upratings in 2000 and 2001. It uses a difference-in-differences estimator based on position in the wage distribution. For the upratings an adjusted estimator is also introduced to allow for the possible differential response to the change in the macro employment

Mark B. Stewart

2004-01-01

213

Is the New Immigration Really so Bad? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the recent evidence on US immigration, focusing on two key questions: (1) Does immigration reduce the labour market opportunities of less skilled natives? (2) Have immigrants who arrived after the 1965 Immigration Reform Act been successfully assimilated? Overall, evidence that immigrants have harmed the opportunities of less educated natives is scant. On the question of assimilation, the

David Card

2005-01-01

214

Fahim Islam AST 389: Science Fiction Professor Frederick Walter  

E-print Network

still love her when she was old and gray, when she could no longer rouse the blood that flowed in me. I, she wore a see-through chemise that night, just enough to hide her faults, but still enough to spark, but sane and thinking, or in my case sober and responsive, enough to come up with a last minute idea

Walter, Frederick M.

215

AST 443 /PHY 517 Fundamentals of Astronomical Op0cs  

E-print Network

: ­Cassegrain ·convex secondary mirror ­Gregorian ·concave secondary ·Images;Two Mirror Paraxial Telescopes · Common two mirror telescope designs are not inverted. #12;Defini0ons · D: diameter of primary mirror · k: ra0o of ray

Walter, Frederick M.

216

"...My God, it's full of stars!" AST 248 Lecture 5  

E-print Network

photosphere · Some also show emission lines ­ hot or extended circumstellar gas #12;Spectral Types · O · B, in Virgo. · A: Temperatures from 8000-10,000K. They appear white. Strong absorption lines of hydrogen Color is indicative of temperature Red indicates cool Blue indicates hot #12;Bandpasses Human response

Walter, Frederick M.

217

Restructuring and productivity growth in uk manufacturing &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse productivity growth in UK manufacturing 1980-92 using the newly available ARD panel of establishments drawn from the Census of Production. We examine the contribution to productivity growth of ‘internal’ restructuring (such as new technology and organisational change among survivors) and ‘external’ restructuring (exit, entry and market share change). We find that (a) ‘external restructuring’ accounts for 50% of

Richard Disney; Jonathan Haskel; Ylva Heden

2003-01-01

218

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

219

PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND SOCIAL OPTIMUM WITH NETWORK EXTERNALITY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the options open to monopoly firms that sell Internet services. We consider two groups of customers that are different in their reservation prices. The monopoly uses price discrimination between customers by producing two versions of the product at positive price for high-quality product and a free version at zero price for lower-quality product. The monopoly can sell

URIEL SPIEGEL; URI BEN-ZION; TCHAI TAVOR

2006-01-01

220

Beyond the Distinction between Positivism and Non-Positivism &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn this article I discuss a number of issues raised by Professor Jules Coleman's recent article “Beyond the Separability Thesis.” I suggest, to begin, that Coleman is correct that neither a narrow nor a broad formulation of the separability thesis takes us very far towards a robust distinction between legal positivism and legal non-positivism. I then offer a brief discussion

STEPHEN PERRY

2009-01-01

221

Simulations And Software For The Ast-101 Lecture And Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Michigan State University, we have used two Education/Public Outreach (EPO) grants, from the Great Observatories Hubble and Chandra, to involve individual researchers in the development of simulations and software to be used in the "ASTRO-101" classroom. I will discuss the products we developed for these projects. One is a laboratory exercise using what we developed to call "DS9-Lite" to allow the students to measure angles and distances on HST images. We embedded a full-featured DS9 (FITS image viewer) in a Flash framework, but display with far fewer buttons and features to distract the student. For the 2nd project, we developed some animations in collaboration with the SAO Media Lab to explain the rationale for dark matter in the universe. These animations can be used in a powerpoint lecture presentation (slides provided) to spark classroom discussion about dark matter. We also discuss the challenge of developing and evaluating these projects, and lessons learned.

Donahue, Megan

2008-05-01

222

Overconfident: Do You Put Your Money On It? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group exhibits overconfidence if significantly more than half the group members declare to be better than the median in some characteristic. Overconfidence was found in verbal reports for a variety of characteristics and settings but was less often studied for choice behaviour. In an experiment we tested how perceived relative skill influences verbal and choice behaviour. Treatments varied task

Erik Hoelzl; Aldo Rustichini

2005-01-01

223

Enzyme activities in plasma, liver and kidney of black ducks and mallards.  

PubMed

Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards. PMID:6130168

Franson, J C

1982-10-01

224

Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

Franson, J.C.

1982-01-01

225

Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top?performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

2009-07-01

226

A Quortarlypublirhcdby cALtFORNTAA{AIACOZOOLOGICALSOCIETY,tNC.  

E-print Network

THE VELIGER Paec -15 Observationson the Food and Feeding of someVermivorousConuson the Great Barrier Reef on the diet of Conus on the Great Barrier Reef Details of the feeding, food, and degree of dietary) Rosnnr R. T,lr,u.locE Observations on the Fmd and Feedine of some Vermivorotrs Conus on the Great Barrier

Marsh, Helene

227

Aakre Caitlyn Elementary Education Alt Brittney Elementary Education  

E-print Network

Thomas Secondary Education Grant Kaley Elementary Education Grant Rebecca Elementary Education Greeley Education Kernan Kathleen Elementary Education King Jessica Elementary Education Kirby Caitlin Secondary

Maxwell, Bruce D.

228

amagazineforalumniandfriendsoftheinstituteoftechnology|SPring/Summer2007 AltErnAtivEs  

E-print Network

often liked to take things apart when I was a child and see how they worked. And sometimes, I was even think Inventing Tomorrow welcomes read- ers' comments about the magazine and story ideas for futureE MOST ENgINEErS ANd ScIENTISTS, I've always been curious. To the dismay of the adults in my life, I

Minnesota, University of

229

Dr. Susan M. Alt Assistant Professor of Anthropology  

E-print Network

; Archaeology of Gender and Sex; Ceramic Studies; Violence and Warfare; GIS; Geophysics. Grants and Awards 2010 Whorls and Fiber Production at Early Cahokian Settlements. Southeastern Archaeology 18:124-134. 1996

Scheiber, Laura L.

230

Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

2010-01-01

231

The association of liver transaminase activity with presence and severity of premature coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

There is growing clinical interest in liver transaminases as novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the possible association of serum liver transaminase activity with the presence and angiographic severity of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 younger patients (females < 55 years and males < 45 years) who underwent coronary angiography and had serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) measured. Evaluation of coronary stenosis was by Gensini score. Both ALT and AST were significantly correlated with the presence of CAD in univariate and multivariate analyses. Both ALT and AST were also significantly correlated with Gensini score even after adjustment for potential confounders. Serum ALT and AST levels are independently positively associated with the risk and severity of premature CAD, suggesting that these enzymes could serve as surrogate markers for cardiovascular risk in this specific group of patients. PMID:21561994

Masoudkabir, Farzad; Karbalai, Shahrokh; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Aliabadi, Leila Lak; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Aiatollahzade-Esfahani, Farah; Pashing, Mina; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Saadat, Soheil

2011-11-01

232

Associations between Liver Enzymes, Psychopathological and Clinical Features in Eating Disorders.  

PubMed

Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are frequently reported in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in subjects who are overweight or with hyperlipidemia, which can be found to be associated with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Liver functioning and psychopathological features have been evaluated in 43 patients with AN, 33 with BN, and 32 with BED. Body mass index was found to be inversely associated with AST and ALT in AN, and directly associated with AST and ALT in BED. A positive association between ALT and AST and body shape concern in AN was observed. Liver enzymes could be considered as an index of severity in AN and BED patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25139759

Lelli, Lorenzo; Castellini, Giovanni; Gabbani, Tommaso; Godini, Lucia; Rotella, Francesco; Ricca, Valdo

2014-11-01

233

Adult Trials Open to Accrual http://cancer.ucsf.edu/clinical-trials  

E-print Network

L, Total bilirubin within normal institutional limits, unless patient has Gilbert's disease, for which bilirubin must be , Radionuclide Bone scan, and LFTs including total bilirubin, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase * Tumor assay

Martin, Gail

234

Liver Enzymes, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged, Urban Chinese Men  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background We examined associations between elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with physical activity and obesity measures in middle-aged urban Chinese men. The associations between elevated aminotransferases with impaired fasting glucose, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic syndrome were also evaluated in this population. Methods The study included 3,978 urban Chinese men 40–74 years of age from a population-based cohort study, the Shanghai Men's Health Study, who were free of T2D at baseline and had provided fasting blood samples. Elevated AST and ALT levels were defined as >40?U/L. Anthropometric measurements and information on lifestyle factors and disease history were collected by in-person interviews. Results A total of 11.13% and 5.85% study participants had elevated serum ALT and AST levels, respectively. Both body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were positively associated with elevated ALT and AST. We found stronger associations between ALT and BMI/WHR than between AST and BMI/WHR. Physical activity was inversely associated with ALT and AST, but the association was attenuated after adjustment for BMI and WHR. Elevated serum aminotransferase levels were associated with T2D and metabolic syndrome. Conclusions In this representative sample of middle-aged Chinese men, elevated ALT and AST were associated with a prevalence of metabolic syndrome and T2D. These findings suggest that the relationship between obesity and T2D might involve liver injury. Physical activity might reduce the levels of ALT and AST, probably mediated through weight reduction. PMID:21495862

Xiang, Yong-Bing; Elasy, Tom; Cai, Qiuyin; Xu, Wanghong; Li, Honglan; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.; Raiford, David; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

2011-01-01

235

The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time  

PubMed Central

De Ritis described the ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) almost 50 years ago. While initially described as a characteristic of acute viral hepatitis where ALT was usually higher than AST, other authors have subsequently found it useful in alcoholic hepatitis, where AST is usually higher than ALT. These interpretations are far too simplistic however as acute viral hepatitis can have AST greater than ALT, and this can be a sign of fulminant disease, while alcoholic hepatitis can have ALT greater than AST when several days have elapsed since alcohol exposure. The ratio therefore represents the time course and aggressiveness of disease that would be predicted from the relatively short half-life of AST (18 h) compared to ALT (36 h). In chronic viral illnesses such as chronic viral hepatitis and chronic alcoholism as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, an elevated AST/ALT ratio is predictive of long terms complications including fibrosis and cirrhosis. There are methodological issues, particularly whether or not pyridoxal phosphate is used in the transaminase assays, and although this can have specific effects when patient samples are deficient in this vitamin, these method differences generally have mild effects on the usefulness of the assays or the ratio. Ideally laboratories should be using pyridoxal phosphate supplemented assays in alcoholic, elderly and cancer patients who may be pyridoxine deplete. Ideally all laboratories reporting abnormal ALT should also report AST and calculate the De Ritis ratio because it provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:24353357

Botros, Mona; Sikaris, Kenneth A

2013-01-01

236

Effects of Coffee Consumption against the Development of Liver Dysfunction. A 4Year Follow-Up Study of Middle-Aged Japanese Male Office Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of coffee consumption with the development of increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and\\/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities over 4 years was studied in 1221 liver dysfunction-free (serum AST and ALT ?39 IU\\/l and no medical care for or no past history of liver disease) Japanese male office workers aged 35 to 56 years. From the analysis using the

Noriyuki NAKANISHI; Koji NAKAMURA; Kenji SUZUKI; Kozo TATARA

2000-01-01

237

Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).  

PubMed

Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

2013-05-31

238

Liver Enzymes and Ultrastructure in Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus infection that kills most adult rabbits 24–72 h after viral inoculation.\\u000a Two liver enzymes (AST, aspartate aminotransferase, and ALT, alanine aminotransferase) were monitored in blood samples of\\u000a calicivirus-infected rabbits during the short course of RHD. Values of AST were used to differentiate three stages of hepatocellular\\u000a degeneration in RHD: mild (up

P. G. Ferreira; A. Costa-e-Silva; E. Monteiro; M. J. R. Oliveira; A. P. Águas

2006-01-01

239

Ethnicity, alcohol drinking and changes in transaminase activity among heavy drinkers.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality differs by ethnicity in the United States. Some studies suggest alcohol sensitivity may contribute to this finding. This analysis evaluated if alcohol-associated changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) differed by ethnicity among heavy drinkers. METHODS: Subjects included 1691 subjects from Project MATCH, a multicenter alcohol use disorders treatment trial. Changes in AST and ALT over 15 months were modeled as functions of ethnicity, age, gender, time, study site and alcohol use. The main focus was on ethnic differences in changes in transaminase activity occurring with changes in alcohol use. RESULTS: At all levels of alcohol consumption AST was lower in non-Hispanic whites relative to African Americans and Mexican Americans. Changes in AST associated with changes in alcohol use did not vary by ethnicity. ALT significantly differed only between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Similar to AST, alcohol-associated ALT change did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with alcohol use disorders participating in a treatment trial, the effect of alcohol drinking on transaminase activity did not vary by ethnicity. However, in the general population, alcohol may still interact with other factors in mediating ethnic differences in cirrhosis mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17534015

Stewart, Scott H.; Connors, Gerard J.

2007-01-01

240

Pancha KanyaA Quest in Search of Meaning–Part I&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

At times we come across traditional sayings that pose enigmas. Often, striving to resolve the puzzle turns into a quest, a search for meaning that, quite unexpectedly, throws light on problems facing us today. Such an enigmatic Sanskrit couplet exhorts invoking five females regularly to redeem us of failings, howsoever grievous.Ahalya draupadi kunti tara mandodari tatha\\/Panchakanya smarenityam mahapataka nashinim\\/\\/The choice

Pradip Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

241

76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...two-stage Castor 120 solid-propellant rocket motor with the addition of up to six Castor IVA or Castor IVXL rocket motors strapped to the first stage. The...biological resources (fish, wildlife, and plants); noise; land use (including...

2011-09-15

242

A Note on Return on Foreign Assets and Foreign Presence for UK Multinationals &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the international business literature on multinationality and performance we develop new data on the foreign presence and performance of large UK multinational enterprises (MNEs). There are 32 UK MNEs for which we can obtain data on both their degree of multinationality (measured by the ratio of foreign to total (F/T) sales) and their performance. Here, in

Alan Rugman; George Yipw; Saliya Jayaratnez

2008-01-01

243

CO (J = 3 ? 2) observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 with ASTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first map of 12CO (J = 3 ? 2) and the first detection of 13CO (J = 3 ? 2) in the nearby starburst galaxy with a superwind, NGC 1808. The molecular gas is concentrated in the inner 2 kpc region of the galaxy with extended structure along the galactic bar and along the minor galactic axis. The minor-axis structure can be explained as molecular gas entrained in a galactic wind observed as a dust outflow at optical wavelengths. We have carried out a radiative transfer analysis of the excitation conditions of molecular gas in the starburst region (radius 550 pc) by using the ratios of J = 1 ? 0, J = 2 ? 1, and J = 3 ? 2 emission lines of 12CO and 13CO, and the large velocity gradient approximation. The beam-averaged density and kinetic temperature of molecular gas can be fitted at n H2 ? 103.5 cm-3 and Tk ? 35 K, indicating the presence of warm molecular gas, close to the estimated dust temperature of Td ? 34-37 K. The abundance ratio of the CO isotopologues is found to be [12CO]/[13CO] ? 34. The calculations show that, for the derived physical parameters, J = 2 ? 1 and J = 3 ? 2 transitions of 12CO are optically thick, 12CO J = 1 ? 0 is moderately optically thick, and all transitions of 13CO are optically thin. We have estimated an average CO-H2 conversion factor of XCO ? 0.8 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 in the central 550 pc by using a simple theoretical model assuming homogeneous, gravitationally bound gas clouds with turbulent velocities. In the same region the molecular gas mass is 3.0 × 108 M? available to fuel the nuclear starburst.

Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Kitamoto, Shoko

2014-10-01

244

SURVIVAL AND GROWTH IN RETAIL AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCHISED CHAINS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data on franchised chains, which are the type of single-product entities emphasized in industry dynamics models, we show that age and size affect growth and survival even after controlling for chain characteristics and unobserved chain-specific efficiency. This implies that age and size affect firm growth and survival for reasons other than those emphasized in learning-type models. We also find

RENÁTA KOSOVÁ; FRANCINE LAFONTAINE

2010-01-01

245

International Outsourcing and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand in the United Kingdom &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates empirically the link between international outsourcing and the skill structure of labour demand in the UK. It is the first detailed study of this issue for the UK. Outsourcing is calculated using import-use matrices of input-output tables for manufacturing industries for the period 1982 to 1996. Estimating a system of variable factor demands, our main results show

Alexander Hijzen; Holger Görg; Robert C. Hine

2005-01-01

246

The Development of Organizational Social Capital: Attributes of Family Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? We develop and extend social capital theory by exploring the creation of organizational social capital within a highly pervasive, yet often overlooked organizational form: family firms. We argue that family firms are unique in that, although they work as a single entity, at least two forms of social capital coexist: the family's and the firm's. We investigate mechanisms that

Jean-Luc Arregle; Michael A. Hitt; David G. Sirmon; Philippe Very

2007-01-01

247

A Model of the Open Market Operations of the European Central Bank &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the two types of tenders used by the European Central Bank in its open market operations. We assume that the ECB minimises a loss function that depends on the difference between the interbank rate and a target rate that characterises the stance of monetary policy. When the loss function penalises interbank rates below the target more heavily, fixed

Juan Ayuso; Rafael Repullo

2003-01-01

248

Distributional Effects of Public Education in an Economy with Public Pensions &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how the allocation of government expenditures between two major outlays—education and pay-as-you-go social security—affects human capital distribution in an economy with heterogeneous agents. We consider an overlapping generations economy where the government maintains both programs, and allocates tax revenues to finance them. In our model, human capital is one of the factors of production. It is itself produced

Gerhard Glomm; Michael Kaganovich

2003-01-01

249

Brain Drain and Human Capital Formation in Developing Countries: Winners and Losers &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using new data on emigration rates by education level, we examine the impact of brain drain migration on human capital formation in developing countries. We find evidence of a positive effect of skilled migration prospects on gross human capital formation in a cross-section of 127 countries. For each country of the sample we then estimate the net effect of the

Michel Beine; Fréderic Docquier; Hillel Rapoport

2008-01-01

250

A Theory of Consumer Boycotts under Symmetric Information and Imperfect Competition &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article models strategic interactions between non-identical duopolistic firms and a public interest\\/environmental organisation (EO) that promotes ‘green’ production practices by threatening consumer boycotts against ‘brown’ producers. The article describes when boycotts are deterred by prior firm commitments to be ‘green’ and, also when a boycott arises in equilibrium, despite symmetric information. When a boycott arises, it is either a

Robert Innes

2006-01-01

251

Converging Divergence: How Competitive Advantages Condition Institutional Change under EMU &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractRecognizing that the institutional design of EMU leads to the co-ordination of national wage-bargaining structures, this article asks why bargaining systems in some EMU Member States have become co-ordinated and centralized, whereas others have become co-ordinated and decentralized. In contrast to neoliberal theory, it is argued that different bargaining levels are best explained by a country's competitive advantage: whilst countries

ANDREA HERRMANN

2005-01-01

252

CO (J = 3 ? 2) observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 with ASTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first map of 12CO (J = 3 ? 2) and the first detection of 13CO (J = 3 ? 2) in the nearby starburst galaxy with a superwind, NGC 1808. The molecular gas is concentrated in the inner 2 kpc region of the galaxy with extended structure along the galactic bar and along the minor galactic axis. The minor-axis structure can be explained as molecular gas entrained in a galactic wind observed as a dust outflow at optical wavelengths. We have carried out a radiative transfer analysis of the excitation conditions of molecular gas in the starburst region (radius 550 pc) by using the ratios of J = 1 ? 0, J = 2 ? 1, and J = 3 ? 2 emission lines of 12CO and 13CO, and the large velocity gradient approximation. The beam-averaged density and kinetic temperature of molecular gas can be fitted at n H2 ? 103.5 cm-3 and Tk ? 35 K, indicating the presence of warm molecular gas, close to the estimated dust temperature of Td ? 34-37 K. The abundance ratio of the CO isotopologues is found to be [12CO]/[13CO] ? 34. The calculations show that, for the derived physical parameters, J = 2 ? 1 and J = 3 ? 2 transitions of 12CO are optically thick, 12CO J = 1 ? 0 is moderately optically thick, and all transitions of 13CO are optically thin. We have estimated an average CO-H2 conversion factor of XCO ? 0.8 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 in the central 550 pc by using a simple theoretical model assuming homogeneous, gravitationally bound gas clouds with turbulent velocities. In the same region the molecular gas mass is 3.0 × 108 M? available to fuel the nuclear starburst.

Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Kitamoto, Shoko

2014-09-01

253

The Economic System as Catalyst for Evolving Liability Regimes&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article makes a case for the evolving system of liability regimes being driven by fundamental changes in our socio-economic fabric. The evolution of increasing liability costs, especially prominent in the U.S., can easily spread to other countries as the same preconditions are found there and systemic contagion takes place. This will pose important challenges to the insurance industry, which

Patrick M Liedtke

2005-01-01

254

Burned by Bullying in the American Workplace: Prevalence, Perception, Degree and Impact &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This study assesses the prevalence of workplace bullying in a sample of US workers, using a standardized measure of workplace bullying (Negative Acts Questionnaire, NAQ), and compares the current study's prevalence rates with those from other bullying and aggression studies. The article opens by defining bullying as a persistent, enduring form of abuse at work and contrasting it with

Pamela Lutgen-Sandvik; Sarah J. Tracy; Jess K. Alberts

2007-01-01

255

The Moderating Effect of CEO Power on the Board Composition–Firm Performance Relationship &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Prior studies of the relationship between the composition of boards of directors and firm performance offer equivocal results. Drawing on agency and power circulation theories, we attempt to reduce this equivocality by asserting that CEO power moderates the relationship. Specifically, an outside director dominated board is needed to check a powerful CEO, but monitoring by other executives provides sufficient

James G. Combs; David J. Ketchen; Alexa A. Perryman; Maura S. Donahue

2007-01-01

256

EU Delegation and Agency in International Trade Negotiations: A Cautionary Comparison &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe principal-agent (PA) approach is increasingly used to explain how and why the EU formulates its trade policy and engages in international trade negotiations. This article evaluates the utility of PA in trade policy through a comparative analysis of the EU's participation in two different international negotiations: the International Competition Network and World Trade Organization (2001–06). The comparison of EU

CHAD DAMRO

2007-01-01

257

Astronomer/Program Manager AD-1330-04 MPS/AST (Closes: 10/01/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... primary source of support for ground-based astronomy in the U.S. The $196 million annual budget of ... NSO), the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and the National Astronomy and Ionosphere ...

258

Monitor the Temporal Stability of the Fgs's AST-SV-7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of these measurements is to monitor the internal positional stability of the FGSs by measuring a few stars in "check fields" repeatedly during the SV period. The results of these measurements are the stability characteristics of the FGS to allow an estimate of the frequency of OFAD re-calibrations. NOW USES WvA positions for PROX and ref frame. 910920 Modified 910920 by F. Benedict to 1) observe Proxima Cen starting 920201 2) do either FGS 1 or FGS 3 THIS IS AN FGS 3 TEST Modified 8 Feb 92 to remove v=16.25 target and change pupil to F583W.

Jefferys, William

1990-12-01

259

Ast roparticle ELSEYIER AstroparticlePhysics 10 (1999) 47-68  

E-print Network

radiation of y-ray blazars. Assuming that the initial injection and cooling of ultrarelativistic pair plasma in an AGN jet has occurred, producing the observed high-energy y-ray radiation, we investigate the further evolution of the pair plasma as it continues to move out from the central engine. The effects

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

260

Maternity leave, early maternal employment and child health and development in the US &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore links between mothers’ returns to work within 12?weeks of giving birth and health and developmental outcomes for their children. OLS models and propensity score matching methods are utilised to account for selection bias. Considerable associations between early returns to work and children's outcomes are found suggesting causal

Lawrence M. Berger; Jennifer Hill; Jane Waldfogel

2005-01-01

261

Remarks by NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver Annual FAA AST Space Transportation Conference  

E-print Network

substantial funding for NASA to increase the number and scope of its commercial partnerships. We plan to make pertinent now. President Bush's Aldridge Commission had more to say on this point. It recommended that "NASA understand. This budget increases funding for NASA, which largely translates to increases in jobs

262

Limited Attention as a Scarce Resource in Information-Rich Economies &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses basic facts from the psychology of attention to show how the limited attention of consumers affects economic competition. The article determines endogenously whether an economy is information rich or information poor. A conventional economic equilibrium results if subjects have spare attention capacity. At the positive level, the respective impacts of advances in information technology, international integration and

Josef Falkinger

2008-01-01

263

Stewardship vs. Stagnation: An Empirical Comparison of Small Family and Non-Family Businesses &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Two major perspectives can be construed in the literature concerning the nature of family owned businesses (FOBs). The first implies that these enterprises have unique characteristics of stewardship. FOB owners are said to care deeply about the long-term prospects of the business, in large part because their family's fortune, reputation and future are at stake. Their stewardship is said

Danny Miller; Isabelle Le Breton-Miller; Barry Scholnick

2008-01-01

264

The Financial Turmoil and EU Policy Co-operation in 2008 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article analyses the response of the European Union (EU) to the financial crisis in 2008 under the headings of liquidity, recapitalization and ownership of banks, macroeconomic policies and regulatory policy. It is argued that although at the onset of the crisis governments tended to focus on national-level responses, they quickly realized that international co-ordination would be required. This proved

LUCIA QUAGLIA; ROBERT EASTWOOD; PETER HOLMES

2009-01-01

265

FRANCE: A LIMITED EFFECT OF REGIONS ON PUBLIC WAGE DIFFERENTIALS? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the private sector, the French public sector is still characterized by a high level of centralization in pay setting. Public services have recently gained more autonomy in personnel management locally. Consequently, the public–private wage gap at the local level may play an increasing role in recruitment policy. Using standard methods of estimation and geographically weighted regressions for 2002, we

DOMINIQUE MEURS; CYRIAQUE EDON

2007-01-01

266

Perturbative gauge invariance: electroweak theory II Andreas Aste and Gunter Scharf1  

E-print Network

-Mills coupling TA 1 at first order, gauge invariance requires couplings Tu 1 of the ghost fields ua ~ua and fixes gauge fields in a l-gauge requires an indefinite metric space. To solve these two problems in the free of a nilpotent operator Q, i.e. rphys Ker Q Ran Q. To define such an operator we introduce unphysical fields

Aste, Andreas

267

Financial performance and outreach: a global analysis of leading microbanks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfinance promises to reduce poverty by employing profit-making banking practices in low-income communities. Many microfinance institutions have secured high loan repayment rates but, so far, relatively few earn profits. We examine why this promise remains unmet. We explore patterns of profitability, loan repayment, and cost reduction with unusually high-quality data on 124 institutions in 49 countries. The evidence shows the

Robert Cull; Jonathan Morduch

2007-01-01

268

ON OPTIMAL LEGAL STANDARDS FOR COMPETITION POLICY: A GENERAL WELFARE-BASED ANALYSIS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new welfare-based framework for optimally choosing legal standards (decision rules). We formalise the decision-theoretic considerations widely discussed in the existing literature by capturing the quality of the underlying analysis and information available to a regulatory authority, and we obtain a precise necessary and sufficient set of conditions for determining when an Economics or Effects-Based approach would be

YANNIS KATSOULACOS; DAVID ULPH

2009-01-01

269

PARALLEL TRADE, INTERNATIONAL EXHAUSTION AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: A WELFARE ANALYSIS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the issue of parallel trade (arbitrage) for products protected by intellectual property rights. We discuss a basic trade-off that arises between the ex post better allocation that typically occurs under parallel trade when demand dispersion is not too high, and the ex ante reduced product quality because of lower investment. We show that the size of the

TOMMASO M. VALLETTI; STEFAN SZYMANSKI

2006-01-01

270

FROM PRIVATE BANKING TO CENTRAL BANKING: INGREDIENTS OF A WELFARE ANALYSIS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier analysis of Cavalcanti and Wallace showing that the set of allocations achievable using outside (government) money is a subset of those achievable using inside (private) money is extended. Here, the class of outside-money allocations is enriched by allowing the planner to make transfers in the form of outside money. At the same time, punishments for defection are weakened.

Neil Wallace

2005-01-01

271

Two-dimensional froths and the dynamics of biological tissues B. Dubertret,* T. Aste,  

E-print Network

the possible cell configurations can be explored by mitosis and disappearance. Cell mitosis and disappearance by mitosis or disappearance, but its averaged value s 6 is fixed throughout the evolu- tion of the tissue

Aste, Tomaso

272

A Diagnostic Study of the Global Distribution of Contrails Part I: Present Day Climate ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The global distribution of contrail formation potential and contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analyses\\u000a of temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and an aircraft fuel inventory. A large potential for contrail formation is\\u000a found in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics, but also at mid-latitudes. The global potential contrail coverage\\u000a is calculated to be 16%.\\u000a \\u000a The

R. Sausen; K. Gierens; M. Ponater; U. Schumann

1998-01-01

273

75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aircraft (previously US Helicopter Inc...Services, Inc.); US Helicopter, Inc...and Lenair Corp); West Coast Fabrications; and...Services, Inc.); Us Helicopter, Inc...and Lenair Corp); West Coast Fabrications;...

2010-07-08

274

pLAsmA AstRophysics Acceleration of killer electrons  

E-print Network

are transported to within 2.5 Earth radii (Re) during magnetic storms from a reservoir of particles beyond. Trapped in the Earth's mag­netic field and encircling the Earth like a ring doughnut, the number. In recent years, two leading theories have emerged to explain this. The first involves a process of radial

Loss, Daniel

275

The Europeanization of Higher Education: Markets, Politics or Learning? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article looks at increased European co-operation in higher education, taking as its main case study the proposal for universities to adopt a common core curriculum for European studies. The article situates higher education co-operation in the context of political and economic imperatives promoting ‘ever closer union’ and highlights immanent dangers for academic goals. However, it also identifies the scale

IAN BACHE

2006-01-01

276

Personal Characteristics Underlying Ethical Decisions in Marketing Situations: A Survey of Small Business Managers &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the marketing ethics decision-making process of small business managers. In particular, it examines the relative influences of ethical perceptions, personal moral philosophies, and gender on ethical intentions of small business managers. The sample of this study consists of professional members of the American Marketing Association working in companies with 500 employees or fewer. The results reveal that

Janet Marta; Anusorn Singhapakdi; Kenneth Kraft

2008-01-01

277

Collective Excitation of a Hybrid Atomic/Molecular Bose Einstein Condensate$^{\\ast}$  

E-print Network

The collective excitation of hybrid atomic-molecular condensate are studied using variational method. The dipole response of the system is studied in detail. We found that the out-of-phase dipole oscillation frequency increasing slowly with the detuning parameter and is only few times large than the trap frequency making the experimental observation of this mode of vibration feasible.

Chi-Yong Lin; M. S. Hussein; A. F. R. de Toledo Piza; E. Timmermans

1999-11-16

278

AST 301, Introduction to Astronomy Course Description and Syllabus --Spring 2013  

E-print Network

to save some money by using an earlier, second-hand edition of our textbook or a different textbook altogether, go ahead; but check with us first to make sure the content is compatible with this course. 1 #12 in the course. (1) Both Dr. Robinson and a TA hold regularly scheduled office hours. You may visit us during

Jefferys, William

279

THE SAVING RATE IN JAPAN: WHY IT HAS FALLEN AND WHY IT WILL REMAIN LOW &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is in the midst of a demographic transition that is larger and more rapid than other OECD countries. We are interested in understanding the role of lower fertility rates and aging for the evolution of Japan's national saving rate. We use a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the response of the saving rate to changes in demographics and

R. Anton Braun; Daisuke Ikeda; Douglas H. Joines

2009-01-01

280

Closed and Open Economy Models of Business Cycles with Marked Up and Sticky Prices &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifts in the extent of competition, which affect markups, are possible sources of aggregate fluctuations. Markups are countercyclical; during booms the economy operates more efficiently. In our benchmark model, markups correspond to the prices of differentiated inputs relative to that of undifferentiated final product. If nominal prices of differentiated goods are relatively sticky, unexpected inflation reduces markups, mimicking the effects

Robert J. Barro; Silvana Tenreyro

2006-01-01

281

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

1999-01-01

282

The Industry Effects of Monetary Policy in the Euro Area &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first estimate the effects of a euro area-wide monetary policy change on output growth in eleven industries of seven euro area countries over the period 1980–98. On average the negative effect of an interest rate tightening on output is significantly greater in recessions than in booms. There is, however, considerable cross-industry heterogeneity in both the overall policy effects and

Gert Peersman; Frank Smets

2005-01-01

283

The Transmission of Monetary Policy in the Euro Area: Are the Effects Different Across Countries? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper analyses whether the effects of the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB) may be different across Euro area countries. First, the limitations in the current empirical literature are highlighted. The paper then suggests how to deal with these limitations and provides new empirical evidence on the effects of a common monetary policy shock across individual member

Gert Peersman

2004-01-01

284

Money in an Estimated Business Cycle Model of the Euro Area &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of money in a small-scale dynamic general equilibrium model of the euro zone estimated by maximum likelihood. The model allows for both intertemporal and intratemporal non-separability in preferences. We find, first, that real balances do not affect the marginal utility of consumption. Second, money demand shocks mainly help to forecast real balances while real shocks

Javier Andrés; J. David López-Salido; Javier Vallés

2006-01-01

285

TECHNOLOGY SHOCKS AND ROBUST SIGN RESTRICTIONS IN A EURO AREA SVAR &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a model-based identification strategy to estimate the impact of technology shocks on hours worked and employment in the euro area. The sign restrictions applied in the vector autoregression (VAR) analysis are consistent with a large class of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models and are robust to parameter uncertainty. The results are in line with the conventional Real

Gert Peersman; Roland Straub

2009-01-01

286

Equal Size, Equal Role? Interest Rate Interdependence Between the Euro Area and the United States &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates whether the degree of interdependence between the US and the euro area has changed with EMU by analysing the effects of monetary policy and macroeconomic news on daily interest rates in the two economies. The article finds a strongly increased interdependence of money markets around EMU. Spillover effects from the US to the euro area remain stronger

Michael Ehrmann; Marcel Fratzscher

2005-01-01

287

Encouraging Best Practice in Quantitative Management Research: An Incomplete List of Opportunities &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract The paper identifies some common problems encountered in quantitative methodology and provides information on current best practice to resolve these problems. We first discuss issues pertaining to variable measurement and concerns regarding the underlying relationships among variables. We then highlight several advances in estimation methodology that may circumvent issues encountered in common practice. Finally, we discuss approaches that move

Raj Echambadi; Benjamin Campbell; Rajshree Agarwal

2006-01-01

288

OPTIMAL CARTEL PRICING IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ANTITRUST AUTHORITY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behavior of a price-fixing cartel is explored when it is concerned about creating suspicions that a cartel has formed. Consistent with preceding static theories, the cartel's steady-state price is decreasing in the damage multiple and the probability of detection. However, contrary to those theories, it is independent of the level of fixed fines. It is also shown that

Joseph E. Harrington

2005-01-01

289

The Effect of Women's Rights on Women's Welfare: Evidence from a Natural Experiment &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores whether the welfare of women increased following the extension of women's rights between 1960s and 1990s. Using individual level data on life satisfaction and focusing on changes in birth control rights in twelve European countries, it shows that the extension of both abortion rights and the pill is strongly linked to an increase in life satisfaction of

Silvia Pezzini

2005-01-01

290

Interest Costs and the Optimal Maturity Structure Of Government Debt &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government faces a trade-off between the benefits of tax smoothing and an associated increase in expected interest costs when choosing its optimal debt portfolio. The article solves for optimal policies in an incomplete markets model where the government uses two debt instruments, long-term and short-term non-contingent, nominal bonds. In this setup the basic prescription is to borrow long and

Yves Nosbusch

2008-01-01

291

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES  

E-print Network

the neighbourhood of their orbits [i.e. any other plbs there much smaller] Definition: dwarf planets (IAU 2006 number and may optionally be named by their discoverer Dwarf planets are included in the minor planet cetalogue; comets are not. Most minor planets orbit in two belts: Asteroid belt, a 2­4 AU. 1 dwarf planet

Petrovay, Kristóf

292

United States, Globalization and the International SystemEconomic and Political Challenges&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The belief that globalization has resulted in a multipolar global village transcending political, territorial, economic and socio-cultural particularities seems to be mistaken. On the contrary, it has been a convenient metaphor for the US to promote its own political and economic thinking on all nations at the expense of their cultural, social, economic and political diversity through the instrument of

Narottam Gaan

2006-01-01

293

How to Avoid a Pension Crisis: A Question of Intelligent System Design&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional pension systems suffer from a design defect, which makes them financially unsustainable, and a source of inefficiency for the economy as a whole. The article outlines a second-best policy which includes a public pension system made up of two parallel schemes, a Bismarckian one allowing individuals to qualify for a pension by working and paying contributions in the usual

Alessandro Cigno

2010-01-01

294

Tough Love: Do Czech Suppliers Learn from their Relationships with Multinationals? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractCountries strive to attract foreign direct investment hoping that knowledge brought by multinationals will spill over to domestic producers. While the literature has cast doubt on the existence of spillovers within industries, it has found evidence of spillovers from multinationals to the supplying sectors. However, the existing studies rely on industry-level proxies rather than information on actual relationships between suppliers

Beata S. Javorcik; Mariana Spatareanu

2009-01-01

295

What do the Papers Sell? A Model of Advertising and Media Bias &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the market for news as a two-sided market where newspapers sell news to readers who value accuracy and sell space to advertisers who value advert-receptive readers. In this setting, monopolistic newspapers under-report or bias news that sufficiently reduces advertiser profits. Paradoxically, increasing the size of advertising eventually leads competing newspapers to reduce advertiser bias. Nonetheless, advertisers can counter

Matthew Ellman; Fabrizio Germano

2009-01-01

296

The Consequences of Perceived Age Discrimination Amongst Older Police Officers: Is Social Support a Buffer? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the psychological consequences of perceived age discrimination, and the buffering effect of social support. Findings suggest that age discrimination acts as a stressor, with negative effects on job and life satisfaction, perceived power and prestige of the job, and affective and normative commitment, along with positive effects on withdrawal cognitions and continuance commitment. For work-based social support,

Tom Redman; Ed Snape

2006-01-01

297

International Migration, Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants’ Exchange Rate Shocks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do households respond to overseas members’ economic shocks? Overseas Filipinos in dozens of countries experienced sudden, heterogeneous changes in exchange rates during the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Appreciation of a migrant's currency against the Philippine peso leads to increases in household remittances from overseas. The estimated elasticity of Philippine-peso remittances with respect to the exchange rate is 0.60. Positive

Dean Yang

2008-01-01

298

Optimal Income Taxation of Lone Mothers: An Empirical Comparison of the UK and Germany &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal tax rules are used to evaluate the optimality of taxation for lone mothers in Germany and Britain. The theoretical model is combined with elasticities derived from the structural estimation of lone mothers’ labour supply. For both countries we do not find that in-work credits with marginal tax rates are optimal. However we show that when the government has a

Richard Blundell; Mike Brewer; Peter Haan; Andrew Shephard

2009-01-01

299

Understanding complex matter from simple packing models T. Aste, G. Delaney and T. Di Matteo  

E-print Network

, engineering and material sciences. The study of granular materials forces scientists to rethink established Department of Applied Mathematics, The Australian National University, 0200 Canberra, ACT, Australia this question by combining statistical geometry and statistical mechanics methods. Evidences of phase

Aste, Tomaso

300

A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON INDUSTRY R&D AND MARKET STRUCTURE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to shed some new insights on the long-debated and both extensively and intensively explored relationship between market concentration and industry R&D intensity. In order to do so, this study develops, from a classic Dorfman-Steiner [1954] model of firm R&D, a model of industry R&D, where consumer preference over quality and price, R&D technology, and the joint distribution

Chang-Yang Leew

2005-01-01

301

Current Events: The Effects of Electricity Deregulation on State Economies &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Panel regressions indicate that state electricity deregulation in the US is associated with higher housing prices, increased activity in the housing market, and lower wages, all of which are consistent with a model of compensating differentials wherein deregulation (which is shown to indeed lower electricity prices) increased the utility of state residents. On the other hand, there is no link

N. Edward Coulson

2006-01-01

302

Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets  

E-print Network

following the scientific method. Their view of scientific work is predictable, given that high school (and of science as facts that are revealed only when the prescribed scientific method is followed (Pizzini Beginning Teachers Experience Scientific Inquiry Fred Martin, Department of Computer Science, University

303

Predictive value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes  

PubMed Central

Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and 30-40% of preterm labors are related to this problem. Early diagnosis of PPROM is very important due to its impact on pregnancy outcomes. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes as a non-invasive and available test. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 pregnant women between the 26th-36th gestational weeks were enrolled in the study. 74 patients were in PROM group and 74 in control group. AST and ALT levels in vaginal fluid were measured in each group. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare AST and ALT levels in each group. Results: The mean of AST level in vaginal fluid was 12.77±10.06 in PROM group vs. 6.91±10.92 in control group (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference between ALT levels in PROM group 1.51±3.17 and control group 0.89±1.15 (p=0.49). Optimal cut point of AST for the diagnosis of PROM was 4.5 IU/L in this study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 82.4%, 63.5%, 69.32% and 78.33% respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, measurement of AST level in vaginal fluid can be used as a reliable test for diagnosis of PROM, but there is no good cut point for ALT level that can be practically used. PMID:24976822

Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Salamat, Fatemeh; Ashrafkhani, Babak; Dirbaz, Zahra

2014-01-01

304

Alt Solunum Yolu Enfeksiyonu Tanisiyla Hastanemize Yatirilan Olgularda RSV Enfeksiyonu Sikli?i ve Klinik Özellikleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency and clinical features of RSV infection among babies hospitalized with the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection. Methods: The study is executed between January 2006 and April 2006. In 80 children between 0-24 months of age, who were hospitalized in our Pediatrics Clinic with the diagnosis of lower respiratory

Tolga ERKUM

305

NAFLD: Predictive value of ALT levels for NASH and advanced fibrosis.  

PubMed

With expanding waistlines, the prevalence of NAFLD has burgeoned to become the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the USA. A subset of patients with NAFLD meet criteria for NASH with its inherent risk of progression to cirrhosis. Verma et al. addressed the utility of alanine aminotransferase levels for predicting NASH or advanced fibrosis to decide who would benefit from the definitive test of liver biopsy. PMID:23897284

Torres, Dawn M; Harrison, Stephen A

2013-09-01

306

Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1  

SciTech Connect

A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

Anderson, B. G. (Brodie G.); Rodriguez, G. (George); Stokes, J. L. (John L.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.); Clark, D. A. (David A.)

2001-01-01

307

Demo: Mobile Interaction with Ads on Public Display Networks Stefan Schneega, Florian Alt, Albrecht Schmidt  

E-print Network

networked. These displays mainly show advertising in a similar way to television´s commercial break to see. Without mo- bile devices this is usually done by graphical means (e.g., eye-catching content

308

Cognitive Effects of Interactive Public Display Applications Florian Alt, Stefan Schneegass, Michael Girgis, Albrecht Schmidt  

E-print Network

.2 [User interfaces]: Interaction styles 1. INTRODUCTION Commercial public displays have become for public displays but for other media, such as traditional billboards or television. Hence, it does or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided

309

Dental Tissues Koppe T, Meyer G, Alt KW (eds): Comparative Dental Morphology.  

E-print Network

for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany; Department of Oral Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon attention recently due to their prominence on hominin fossils and their potential utility for informing studies of root formation. In 1938, Komai and Miyauti [Dtsch Zahn Mund Kieferheilkd 1938;5:791­ 795

Smith, Tanya M.

310

Florian Alt Alireza Sahami Shirazi Albrecht Schmidt Monitoring Heartbeat per Day to Motivate Increasing  

E-print Network

Increasing Physical Activity Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract Physical activity is one of the most. In this paper we suggest that instead of this, heartbeat can be monitored to aware physical activity. Keywords physical activity, pedometer, step, heartbeat rate, health, ECG 1 Introduction Physical activity is one

311

telomeric DNA (17). It is possible that the extra telomeric sequences in ALT cells are titrating  

E-print Network

been extremely short and/or because it was located 50 kb from the nearest gene that could be examined), and the insertion of telomere repeats into an intron of the APRT gene of Chinese hamster cells was shown to cause level as a function of the replicative age of the cell (21, 22). The existence of TPE in mammalian cells

Jacobsen, Steve

312

A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt  

E-print Network

of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

Darken, Christian J.

313

Little cherry disease in a fruit farm at the Niederelbe ("Altes Land").  

PubMed

Little cherry disease (LCD) was detected as such at the Niederelbe in the early 80s and is observed spreading since. Until now two clostero-viruses were detected and investigated on the molecular level (LChV1 and LChV2), but the use of that knowledge in performing PCR-detection did not lead to a coincidence of the presence of these two viruses with the presence of LCD. So symptomatological screening is still required. In a particular farm all cherry orchards were screened for the presence of LCD. They are all grouped around the farm buildings and so in a close juxtaposition. Despite that, every orchard shows a distinct pattern when the data are arranged according to symptom severity indicating a multifactorial incidence in the disease spread. PMID:12425029

Eppler, A

2001-01-01

314

Invited Talk at ALT 2012 Conference Manchester 11 Sept 2012 Draft: Under Development -20 Sep 2012  

E-print Network

What is computational thinking? Who needs it? Why? How can it be learnt? (Can it be taught?) Aaron thinking' is a requirement, not just for IT professionals, but also for scientists, philosophers Computer Scientists · What is computational thinking? Seeing the universe as made of matter, energy

Sloman, Aaron

315

Expansion of human pluripotent stem cells with synthetic oolymer PMVE-alt-MA  

E-print Network

Prospects for stem cell-based therapy. Cell 132, Couture,stem cell state may lead to advancement in cell replacement therapies.stem cells (hPSCs) promises to treat degenerative diseases with cell replacement therapies.

Chu, Wai Keung

2011-01-01

316

Time-Varying Multi-Stress ALT for Modeling Life of Outdoor Optical Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term performance prediction of optical products deployed outdoors is very important. The accuracy of the prediction directly affects the warranty cost calculations. In the indoor environment, products are usually operated under the controlled temperature and humidity. However, in the outdoors, products usually experience multiple stresses that continuously vary with time. An outdoor use optical product, such as a fiber

C. F. Lam; Huairui Guo; L. Larson

2007-01-01

317

Control-Alt-HackTM : A Card Game for Computer Security  

E-print Network

@homeport.org ABSTRACT A general lack of awareness about computer security contributes to the insecurity of new consumer others to engage in this outreach space by creating games or other enticing and novel artifacts to increase awareness and appreciation of the complexities and impact of computer security on people's daily

Matsuoka, Yoky

318

Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

319

HealtHPolicyFactSHeet UCLA Center For HeALtH  

E-print Network

services than U.S.- born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. The immigrant disadvantage is due was worse than that for U.S.-born Mexican Americans (43%) and U.S.-born non- Hispanic whites (33 cancer deaths by 20%-39% in women ages 50- 74 and about 17% in women ages 40-49.1 In 2000, Mexican im

Leistikow, Bruce N.

320

Life cycle vibration analysis based on EMD of rolling element bearing under ALT by constant stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bearing is one of critical rotation components in mechanical systems. Many grievous accidents of mechanical systems are chiefly caused by bearing failure. So it's significant meaningful for practical application to research failure feature detection and residual life prediction of key rotation components such as bearings. This paper has designed experimental scheme of accelerated life test of rolling element bearings and

Dong Xu; Yongcheng Xu; Xun Chen; Wei Zha; Xinglin Li

2009-01-01

321

Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-? than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer. PMID:21473769

2011-01-01

322

Determination of toxicity of trichloroacetic acid in rats: 50 days drinking water study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the effects of the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) on serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)] and lipid peroxidation content (Malondialdehyde, MDA) in various

Ismail Çelik

2007-01-01

323

The effect of glutathione on the motility, enzyme leakage and fertility of frozen goat semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of glutathione (5 mM) during deep frozen preservation of goat semen in Tris medium increased the motility of thawed spermatozoa and decreased the percentage of acrosomal abnormality. Addition of 5 mM of glutathione decreased the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes from the sperm cell in the medium. Fertility rate with Tris

M. P. Sinha; A. K. Sinha; B. K. Singh; R. L. Prasad

1996-01-01

324

Effect of ascorbic acid on blood oxidative stress in experimental chronic arsenicosis in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is a sugar acid and an essential vital food nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ascorbic acid against arsenic induced oxidative stress in blood of rat. In rat, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the increased serum enzymatic activity of AST, ALT, ALP, ACP and LDH. In

Tanmoy Rana; Asit Kumar Bera; Subhashree Das; Diganta Pan; Subhasish Bandyopadhyay; Debasis Bhattacharya; Sumanta De; Sourav Sikdar; Subrata Kumar Das

2010-01-01

325

Association of lipid peroxidation with hepatocellular injury in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: We wished to determine whether cholestasis induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in preterm newborn infants is associated with increased oxidative stress secondary to increased reactive oxygen intermediates. We hypothesized that elevated urinary thiobarbituric-acid-reacting substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress, would be associated with hepatocellular injury as measured by serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels.

Barry Weinberger; Kazimierz Watorek; Richard Strauss; Gisela Witz; Mark Hiatt; Thomas Hegyi

2002-01-01

326

Untersuchung verschiedener Plasmaenzyme und Plasmasubstrate beim Birkwild ( Lyrurus tetrix L.), Auerwild ( Tetrao urogallus L.), Rebhuhn ( Perdix perdix L.) und Fasan ( Phasianus colchicus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mit Hilfe eines Enzym-Analyzers wurden verschiedene Plasmaenzyme und Plasmasubstrate beim Birkwild (Lyrurus tetrix), Auerwild (Tetrao urogallus), Rebhuhn (Perdix perdix) und Fasan (Phasianus colchicus) gemessen. Die Untersuchung umfaßte jeweils adulte und juvenile Hähne und Hennen einer Spezies. In der Aktivität der Plasmaenzyme AST, ALT, ?-GT alkalische Phosphatase, LDH und ?HBDH sowie in der Konzentration der Substrate Harnsäure, Harnstoff, Creatinin, Glukose und

H. D. Gremmels

1987-01-01

327

Liver dysfunction in steady state sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

The liver is one of the organs involved in the multiorgan failure that occurs in sickle cell disease, the pathophysiology of liver disease in this condition is complex because of the interrelated multifactorial causes. Liver dysfunction was assessed in both paediatric and adult sickle cell disease patients in the steady state. The transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were analysed by automation while coagulation studies were done manually. The mean (range) of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were 23.0 (2-77) IU, 48.5 (15-120) IU, 227.5 (37-1200) IU respectively. ALT and AST levels were less than 100 IU in over 95% of the patients. The gender or age of the patients did not significantly affect the level of these three enzymes. There was close association between the liver size and elevation of the liver enzymes except for alkaline phosphatase (ALT=.017, AST=.009, ALP=.056). Twenty-five percent of the patients had normal enzymes while 13% had derangement of the three enzymes, 19%, 50% and 74% had abnormal ALT, AST and ALP respectively. Only 22% and 5% had deranged PT and APTT respectively. In conclusion minimal elevation of the tramsaminases which is not gender or age dependent were observed in steady state sickle cell disease, higher levels of alkaline phosphatase may be due to associated vasoocclussive crises involving the bones rather than a pathology of the liver. PMID:16432491

Kotila, Taiwo; Adedapo, Kayode; Adedapo, Aduragbenro; Oluwasola, Olayiwola; Fakunle, Eyitayo; Brown, Biobele

2005-01-01

328

Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl4 administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that

H. Özbek; S. U?ra?; H. Dülger; ?. Bayram; ?. Tuncer; G. Öztürk; A. Öztürk

2003-01-01

329

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at dose of 200mg\\/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and

Avijeet Jain; Manish Soni; Lokesh Deb; Anurekha Jain; S. P. Rout; V. B. Gupta; K. L. Krishna

2008-01-01

330

Hepatoprotective effect of endogenous nitric oxide during ischemia-reperfusion in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective or deleterious effects of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) on liver cells during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in the rat. Injury to hepatocytes and endothelial cells was evaluated by determining cytolysis-marker activity in plasma (alanine transaminase (ALT); aspartate transaminase (AST)) and plasma hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration. Clamping the hepatic pedicle for 45

Charles-Henry Cottart; Louis Do; Michel Vaubourdolle; Dominique Durand; Jean-Pierre Clot

1999-01-01

331

Biochemical Indicators and Cardiac Function Tests in Chronic Alcohol Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on cardiac function, antioxidant system, trace ele- ments, and liver function tests. Methods Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as zinc, magnesium, and copper were assayed in 25 chronic alcoholic patients and their

Tamer C. Inal; Mesut Demir; Gülen Attila; Yunus Emre Evlice; Levent Kayrin

332

Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model  

EPA Science Inventory

A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

333

Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes  

PubMed Central

Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

2014-01-01

334

Age-related increase in alanine aminotransferase correlates with elevated levels of plasma amino acids, decanoylcarnitine, Lp-PLA2 Activity, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness.  

PubMed

We investigated plasma metabolite profiles that correlated with age-related serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The study included 602 healthy, nondiabetic subjects (aged 30-65 years); 393 individuals had normal ALT levels at baseline. Fifty-three (13.5%) individuals developed elevated ALT levels after 3 years. The remaining 340 subjects with normal ALT were matched to the elevated-ALT group (n = 53) for age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, and ALT to form the control group (n = 53). At the 3-year follow-up, the elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in waist circumference, serum free fatty acid, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), bilirubin, plasma oxidized LDL, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? (8-epi-PGF2?), and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (ba-PWV) compared to the control group after baseline adjustment. The elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in plasma l-valine (q = 0.036), l-leucine (q = 0.012), l-phenylalanine (q = 0.012), and decanoylcarnitine (q = 0.002). Mean ALT levels positively correlated with changes in these four metabolites, which correlated with changes in AST, GGT, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-PGF2?, and ba-PWV. Mean ALT changes did not significantly correlate with HOMA-insulin resistance. These results suggest that increased plasma levels of l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, and decanoylcarnitine precede insulin resistance during periods of elevated ALT. This metabolic disturbance coincides with enhanced risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24874467

Jung, Saem; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kim, Minjoo; Song, Juheui; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

2014-07-01

335

Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Personalized Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Emerging Role of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Background. The objectives were (i) to evaluate the impact of acute pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and anti-TB therapy on the relationship between AST, ALT, and GGT levels in absence of conditions related to hepatotoxicity; (ii) to evaluate the rate and the time of alterations of AST, ALT, and GGT. Design and Methods. A prospective followup of 40 adults (21 males; mean age of 34.7 ± 5.8 years) with active PTB on initial phase and continuation phase anti-TB. Results. Only 3% (n = 1) developed a transient and benign ADR at day 30 without interruption of anti-TB treatment. Within normal ranges, GGT decreased significantly from day 0 to day 60, while AST and ALT increased significantly and respectively. During day 0–day 60, there was a significant, negative, and independent association between GGT and AST. Conclusion. The initial two months led to significant improvement of oxidative stress. Values of oxidative markers in normal ranges might predict low rate of ADR. PMID:22611380

Mokondjimobe, Etienne; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Akiana, Jean; Ndalla, Ulrich Oswald; Dossou-Yovo, Regis; Mboussa, Joseph; Parra, Henri-Joseph

2012-01-01

336

EFICIÊNCIA DAS ENZIMAS AMILASE, PROTEASE E XILANASE SOBRE O DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of one multienzimatic complex by using amilase, protease and xilanase suplemented in the corn and soybean meal based diets on the performance of broiler chickens. Eight hundred and nineteen broiler chicks were utilized. The chickens were distribuited in a 13 (thirteen) treatments with three replicates and 21 chickens in a plots .

DELMA MARIA TORRES; ANTONIO SOARES TEIXEIRA; PAULO BORGES RODRIGUES; ANTONIO GILBERTO BERTECHINI; RILKE TADEU FONSECA DE FREITAS; ÉDER CLEMENTINO DOS SANTOS

337

Elevated liver enzymes in individuals with undiagnosed diabetes in the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the association of diabetes diagnosis and medication type with liver injury in individuals with clinical diabetes. Methods We analyzed 2,426 patients with clinical diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 1999 to 2008. Elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were used as markers of liver injury. Participants were categorized into one of three categories: 1) clinical diabetes without physician’s diagnosis or diabetes medication; 2) diagnosed diabetes without diabetes medication; or 3) diagnosed diabetes with diabetes medication, further divided by classes of diabetes medications prescribed. We conducted logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between diabetes diagnosis and medication type and elevated ALT and AST, adjusting for race/ethnicity, education, health insurance status, BMI category, alcohol consumption, physical activity, antihyperlipidemic agents, glycohemoglobin, C-reactive protein, viral hepatitis and liver disease. Results Participants with undiagnosed diabetes were more likely to have elevated ALT and AST levels (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.47, 2.42; OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.46, 2.71, respectively). In contrast, there was no association between specific diabetes medication (i.e., sulfonylureas, biguanides/thiazolidinediones) and elevated ALT or AST levels among the treated. Our findings were confirmed in sensitivity analyses employing a lower threshold for ALT, and excluding individuals with viral hepatitis or liver disease. Conclusion We found that undiagnosed diabetes is associated with liver injury, compared to diagnosed diabetes with treatment. The effect of diabetes treatment on liver injury in individuals with diabetes remains uncertain. PMID:23683663

Jeon, Christie Y.; Roberts, Christian K.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

2013-01-01

338

FI_,L RE__.RT CGHPLEX _IIT_IVIrY ME.ASt,q_E.MEh_  

E-print Network

.,164 ..................... 5 3. Dielectric Constant vs. Density for Sample 14163,164 ....................... 6 i, #12;DIELECTP constant and loss tangent of lunar sample 14163,164 (fine dust) have been determined as a function_.OPERTIESOF APOLLO 14 LUNAR SAI4PLESAT NIC_,O_,'A_._-AND MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS I_'IRODUCTION The dielectric constant

Rathbun, Julie A.

339

Becoming European? The Transformation of the British Pro-migrant NGO Sector in Response to Europeanization &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis empirical study addresses the question of the emergent adaptation processes of the pro-migrant NGO sector in Britain in response to the advancing Europeanization of immigration policy. Our findings show European-level engagement by some key pioneer non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who have importantly built pathways and linkages to politics beyond the nation-state, as well as participating in the European arena through

EMILY GRAY; PAUL STATHAM

2005-01-01

340

76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEIS analyzed the operation of both medium and heavy lift expendable, orbital ``concept vehicles...f) resources; noise; physical resources (Water Resources [Surface Water, Ground Water, Floodplains], Hazardous Materials,...

2011-08-18

341

The Effect of Marriage on Education of Immigrants: Evidence from a Policy Reform Restricting Marriage Migration &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe investigate the effect of immigrants’ marriage behavior on dropout from education. To identify the causal effect, we exploit a recent Danish policy reform that generated exogenous variation in marriage behavior by a complete abolishment of marriage migration for immigrants below 24 years. The reform influenced immigrants from countries with a high historical rate of marriage migration more than immigrants

Helena Skyt Nielsen; Nina Smith; Aycan Çelikaksoy

2009-01-01

342

‘Full-time is a Given Here’: Part-time Versus Full-time Job Quality &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores full-time workers' understanding of and assumptions about part-time work against six job quality components identified in recent literature. Forty interviews were conducted with employees in a public sector agency in Australia, a study context where part-time work is ostensibly ‘good quality’ and is typically long term, voluntary, involving secure contracts (i.e. permanent rather than casual) and having

Paula McDonald; Lisa Bradley; Kerry Brown

2009-01-01

343

Effects of Executive Characteristics and Venture Capital Involvement on Board Composition and Share Ownership in IPO Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the agency perspective, resource-based view and upper echelon research, this paper examines factors affecting board selection and share ownership in initial public offerings (IPOs). In line with socio-cognitive and behavioural research, it shows that board independence, cognitive capacity and the incentives of non-executive directors are negatively associated with the experience and power of executive directors, and that large-block share

Igor Filatotchev

2006-01-01

344

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

345

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

1985-01-01

346

A qualitative review of perception of change for male perpetrators of domestic abuse following abuser schema therapy (AST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Domestic abuse is known to have detrimental effects on all members of the family, yet it is often difficult for victims to leave. It is therefore important to research available intervention programmes for perpetrators who want to change their behaviour. Intervention programmes for perpetrators are informed by different theoretical and philosophical approaches, such as pro-feminism, psychopathology or biopsychosocial theories.

Margaret Elizabeth Smith

2011-01-01

347

Surviving extremes ast0838 | Adaptations 4: Surviving extremes (fact sheet) developed for the Department of Education WA  

E-print Network

of inland salt lakes. A key feature of many of these environments is salinity. Most plants are unable in roots. In saline conditions, there is no osmotic flow of water to plant cells. 1. Salt affects osmosis in vacuoles counteracts osmotic effects of salinity so plants can take up water and nutrients. 2. Succulent

Tobar, Michael

348

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

1984-01-01

349

QUANTITY OR QUALITY: THE IMPACT OF LABOUR SAVING INNOVATION ON US AND JAPANESE GROWTH RATES, 1960–2004 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with both theoretical and empirical analyses of the post-war (1960–2004) growth for the USA and Japan. We investigated three factors contributing to growth: the growth rates of capital, labour and labour saving innovation. In Japan, the growth rate of the labour force has been much less important than its quality improvement—i.e. labour saving technical change—while in the

RYUZO SATO; TAMAKI MORITA

2009-01-01

350

INDIRECT NETWORK EFFECTS AND THE PRODUCT CYCLE: VIDEO GAMES IN THE U.S., 1994–2002 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective

MATTHEW T. CLEMENTS; HIROSHI OHASHI

2005-01-01

351

The Interaction of Top Management Group, Stakeholder, and Situational Factors on Certain Corporate Reputation Management Activities &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This study examines when a firm's members are most likely to promote and defend its reputation. Building on past research in impression management theory and the upper-echelons perspective, I argue that firms facing increased visibility among different stakeholder groups will increase corporate reputation management activities towards those groups and decrease activities towards other groups. I further argue that top

Suzanne M. Carter

2006-01-01

352

Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

Baker, T.L.

1998-02-25

353

THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERT REVIEWS ON CONSUMER DEMAND FOR EXPERIENCE GOODS: A CASE STUDY OF MOVIE CRITICS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inherent problem in measuring the influence of expert reviews on the demand for experience goods is that a correlation between good reviews and high demand may be spurious, induced by an underlying correlation with unobservable quality signals. Using the timing of the reviews by two popular movie critics, Siskel and Ebert, relative to opening weekend box office revenue, we

David A. Reinstein; Christopher M. Snyder

2005-01-01

354

AST Review, October 2010 The mission of the PSAAP Center at Stanford is to build and demonstrate computational capabilities for  

E-print Network

The mission of the PSAAP Center at Stanford is to build and demonstrate computational of the system failure and lead to the identification of the allowable operability range, the inherent uncertainty in the flight conditions due to a failure

Prinz, Friedrich B.

355

Natural Hazards as the Cause of Toxic Spills in the United States, with some Notes on Liability&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters that create technological emergencies by causing the release of dangerous materials such as oil, chemicals, or radiological\\/infectious agents are called “na-tech” events (Showalter and Myers 1992). Although there has yet to be a catastrophic na-tech event in the United States, low impact events are fairly common. An example of this occurred a few weeks ago when, during flooding

Pamela S Showalter

1995-01-01

356

Choosing a Lab and Applying Successfuly Compiled by Maya Schuldiner, Senior Scientist and Tslil Ast, First year Masters  

E-print Network

of the research). Think of it as giving yourself a gift, time to work on a project you find fascinating without- and see if it's a good fit for you, as well as learn new schools of thought. The purpose of your Masters? FIRST: KNOW YOURSELF. What is your personality and work style? Labs are not one size fits all. Some

Shapiro, Ehud

357

DID THE MARKET-CLEARING POSTULATE PRE-EXIST NEW CLASSICAL ECONOMICS? THE CASE OF MARSHALLIAN THEORY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have new classicists invented market clearing or have they just rehabilitated it? This is the question addressed in the present paper. It is generally agreed that market clearing underpins Walrasian theory, so my exploration is limited to the question of whether this is also true for Marshallian theory. I will claim that this is broadly the case: once Marshallian theory

MICHEL DE VROEY

2007-01-01

358

Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy  

PubMed Central

By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

359

Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

2013-09-01

360

Studio e progetto di un contatore multicanale configurabile ad alte prestazioni basato su piattaforma FPGA/DSP.  

E-print Network

??Nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca COFIN-PRIN "Development of Monolithic Photon-Counter Arrays for Transient High-Energy Phenomena and Adaptive Optics in Astrophysics" avviato nel 2003, il Dipartimento… (more)

Lazzeri, Andrea

2007-01-01

361

High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)  

E-print Network

to producing intimately (nanoscale) mixed blends of dissimilar polymeric materials lies in the intrinsic polymer dispersion during processing [3­6]. An alternative strategy for producing polymer blends, while radicals. For this reason, high-dispersion solid-state blend- ing is only now being realized as a viable

362

Chi'08 alt.chi \\/ do we bump into things more while speaking on a cell phone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed more than 8,800 cases of people passing by an obstacle that was placed at different heights at the entrance to a university cafeteria. Of those cases, 491 were of pedestrians speaking on a cell phone. Overall, 2,422 bumping cases were recorded. Using a cell phone while walking did not increase the risk of bumping into protruding obstacles. The

Noam Tractinsky; David Shinar

2008-01-01

363

Orbiter/carrier separation for the ALT free flight no. 1 reference trajectories. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details of the generation of the separation trajectories are discussed. The analysis culminated in definition of separation trajectories between physical separation and orbiter/carrier vortex clearance. Specifications, assumptions and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories are presented. Results of the analytical approach are evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. Supporting references are listed.

Glenn, G. M.

1976-01-01

364

Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model  

PubMed Central

Objective To observe the combination effect of doxorubicin and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime's) peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Doxorubicin and ChEE (5 rats per group) were administered in five groups of 3 rats each for 11 d. Group I: doxorubicin (dox) 4.67 mg/kg body weight; Group II: dox+ChEE 500 mg/kg body weight; Group III: dox+ChEE 1?000 mg/kg body weight; Group IV: ChEE 1?000 mg/kg body weight; Group V: untreated (control). Results ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity rats, but did not repair neither hepatohistopathology profile nor reduce serum activity of ALT and AST. Conclusion ChEE has potency to be developed as cardioprotector agent in chemotherapy. PMID:23646300

Putri, Herwandhani; Nagadi, Standie; Larasati, Yonika Arum; Wulandari, Nindi; Hermawan, Adam

2013-01-01

365

Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

Congleton, J. L.; LaVoie, W. J.

2001-01-01

366

Seasonal changes in reproductive parameters and seminal plasma constituents of rams in Afyon province of Turkey.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to describe seasonal changes in semen quality, serum testosterone and seminal plasma constituents for 9 months in 10 rams from a mature local (Daglic) and imported breed (Chios) under Afyon province conditions typical for the internal Anatolian region. Sperm motility and sperm concentration and testosterone level were higher, percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was the lowest during autumn. The biochemical analyses of ram seminal plasma indicated that the highest values of total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G), total lipid and cholesterol were recorded in autumn while A/G ratio exhibited the lowest values. Aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity and AST/ALT ratio recorded the lowest values, while moderate values were recorded for alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity in autumn. The results suggest that the rams under Afyon province conditions show seasonal changes for some reproductive parameters and seminal plasma constituents. PMID:15171601

Gundogan, M; Elitok, B

2004-04-01

367

Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30?d (Diab?+?Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property. PMID:23862759

Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

2013-12-01

368

Serum protein and enzyme levels in rats following administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed).  

PubMed

The The potential hepatotoxic effects following oral administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) was investigated in albino Wistar rats. Twenty eight (28) adult male Wistar rats were uniformly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were respectively gavaged with 200 mg/kg body weight, 400 mg/kg body weight and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for 21 days. At the end of treatments, animals were sacrificed, serum and liver tissues obtained for assay of total protein concentration and levels of ALT, AST and ALP. Results showed that treatment of rats with the respective doses of the extract did not significantly alter the serum and liver levels of total protein, ALT, AST and ALP in all test groups. This result suggests that ingestion of the extract may not be toxic at the doses investigated. PMID:20234750

Antai, A B; Eyong, E U; Eteng, M U; Itam, E H; Eko, M E; Ita, S O

2009-12-01

369

Regional Adipose Tissue and Elevations in Serum Aminotransferases in HIV-Infected Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume. Results After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (?14.3%, 95% CI: ?24.7 to ?4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (?11.9%, 95% CI: ?18.4 to ?5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (?7.1%, 95% CI: ?22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:18285711

Tien, Phyllis C.; Kotler, Donald P.; Overton, E. Turner; Lewis, Cora E.; Rimland, David; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gripshover, Barbara

2009-01-01

370

Hesperetin protects against oxidative stress related hepatic dysfunction by cadmium in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of hesperetin (HTN) on cadmium (Cd) induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Administration of Cd (3mg\\/kg body weight\\/day) subcutaneously for 21 days, the levels of hepatic markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin were significantly increased in

Leelavinothan Pari; Kalist Shagirtha

371

Protective effects of seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the protective effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., SBT) seed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in male ICR mice. Our results showed that oral administration of SBT seed oil at doses of 0.26, 1.30, and 2.60mg\\/kg for 8weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride

Yu-Wen Hsu; Chia-Fang Tsai; Wen-Kang Chen; Fung-Jou Lu

2009-01-01

372

Development of a New Animal Model of Liver Cirrhosis in Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to develop a new experimental model of liver cirrhosis in swine by using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ethanol. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 twice a week for 9 weeks. Maize flour was the only food provided and the animals drunk a 5% alcohol-water mixture. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, bilirubin and

J.-J. Zhang; X.-K. Meng; C. Dong; J.-L. Qiao; R.-F. Zhang; G.-Q. Yue; H.-Y. Zhong

2009-01-01

373

DPP-4 Inhibitors Improve Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors might have pleiotropic effects because receptors for incretin exist in various tissues, including liver. We examined whether DPP-4 inhibitors affect liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material/Methods A retrospective review of 459 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors was performed. After exclusion of patients with hepatitis B or C, steroid use, and other diseases that might affect liver function and diabetes status, 224 patients were included in the analysis. Results Forty-four patients (19.6%) with liver injury defined by aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) over the normal level of 40 U/L. In the patients with liver injury, AST and ALT were significantly decreased after 6 months from the first date of DPP-4 prescription, with mean changes of ?6.2 U/L [95% confidence interval (CI) ?10.9 to ?1.4, p=0.012] and of ?11.9 U/L (95%CI ?19.5 to ?4.2, p=0.003), respectively. Percent changes in AST were significantly and negatively correlated with baseline AST and ALT (r=?0.27, p<0.001 and r=?0.23, p=0.002, respectively), and percent changes in ALT were also negatively correlated with them (r=?0.23, p=0.001 and r=?0.27, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions DPP-4 inhibitors improved liver dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25228119

Kanazawa, Ippei; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2014-01-01

374

Prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in adult celiac patients and effect of gluten-free diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia and the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) were evaluated in 158 consecutive adult celiac patients, 127 women and 31 men, aged 18 to 68 years (mean, 32). At diagnosis, 67 patients (42%) had raised aspartate and\\/or alanine transaminase levels (AST and ALT; mean, 47 IU\\/L, range, 30 to 190; and 61 IU\\/L, range, 25 to 470,

Maria Teresa Bardella; Mirella Fraquelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Nicoletta Molteni; Paolo Bianchi; Dario Conte

1995-01-01

375

C photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analysis of ¹CO fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO into RPP-cycle

Ruzin

1984-01-01

376

Biochemical manifestations of anti-tuberculosis drugs induced hepatotoxicity and the effect of silymarin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the biochemical manifestations of liver toxicity caused by co-administration of anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), in a sub-chronic mode (12 weeks), were investigated. Significant alterations were revealed in (a) increased levels of alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and a high bilirubin content in serum; (b) elevated lipid

Sheikh A. Tasduq; Kaiser Peerzada; Supriya Koul; Rinku Bhat; Rakesh K. Johri

2005-01-01

377

Effect of Benzene on liver functions in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were intraperitoneally injected with a 100 mg kg???1 dosage of benzene, a toxic and carcinogenic agent widely used for industrial purposes. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),\\u000a alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities in serum of rats\\u000a were investigated at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 h following injection. Serum physiological was administered

Egemen Dere; Ferda Ari

2009-01-01

378

Effects of horminone on liver mixed function mono-oxygenases and glutathione enzyme activities of Wistar Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on the effects of horminone on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) contents and on the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NR), mixed function mono-oxygenases (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) of Wistar male rat. Horminone is a diterpenoid quinone (7,12-dihydroxyabiet-8,12-diene-11,14-dione) present

Rui Ferreira; Fátima Candeias; Fátima Simões; José Nascimento; J. Cruz Morais

1997-01-01

379

Evaluation of ultrasonographic fatty liver and severity of coronary atherosclerosis, and obesity in patients undergoing coronary angiography Koroner anjiyografi yapilan hastalarda koroner aterosklerozun ?iddeti ile ultrasonografik karaci?er ya?lanmasi ve obezite arasindaki ili?kinin de?erlendirilmesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Aims were to examine associations (1) between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity, (2) between CAD and NAFLD with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT) levels. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the study group consisted of 355 patients (mean age: 57.5±11.4 years), that comply

Mahmut Açikel; Sadik Sunay

380

Elevated post-transfusion serum transaminase values associated with a highly significant trend for increasing prevalence of anti-Vesivirus antibody in Korean patients.  

PubMed

A highly significant increase in anti-Vesivirus (family Caliciviridae) antibody prevalence, along the axis from healthy blood donors; donors with elevated transaminase; patients with clinical hepatitis; and patients with post-transfusion/dialysis hepatitis, has been reported in human sera from the USA and Europe. Asian samples have now been tested retrospectively using serology and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a Vesivirus partial-capsid antigen expressed as a fusion protein. Anti-vesiviral antibodies were measured by optical densities (OD(650)) and compared in patients separated by age, gender and Groups A-F as follows: Control Group A, an Experimental Group B, which was divided further into Group C, patients with elevated enzymes (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT); Group D, patients receiving transfused blood; Group E, patients with high enzyme levels after transfusion; and Group F, hepatitis B and C positive patients. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving transfusion(s), were positive for anti-Vesivirus antibody compared with non-transfused patients (P = 0.008; OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.43-10.43). Also, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly associated with elevated biochemical liver function tests: ALT ? 20?IU or AST ? 120?IU (P = 0.017; OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.30-13.80). In the blood transfusion group, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly correlated with high enzyme levels (ALT, P = 0.018; AST, P = 0.010; ?-GT, P = 0.020). These data provide serologic evidence of vesiviral transfusion-transmission-associated disease, which could include infection of any organ system where cytopathology resulted in high levels of either ALT or AST. PMID:23080501

Lee, Heetae; Cho, You-Hee; Park, Jeong Su; Kim, Eui-Chong; Smith, Alvin W; Ko, GwangPyo

2012-12-01

381

The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase: potential value in differentiating nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is often greater than 2:1 in alcoholic hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this ratio may be used to distinguish nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from alcoholic liver disease.METHODS:Patients with NASH were matched with controls with alcoholic liver disease based on age, gender, and date of diagnosis. The

Darius Sorbi; Jessica Boynton; Keith D Lindor

1999-01-01

382

Familial progressive tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and cholestatic liver disease – a newly recognized entity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two siblings (female and male) with progressive tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and cholestatic liver disease.\\u000a The main characteristics were progressive renal failure and elevated liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ?-GT). Dialysis was started\\u000a at the age of 1.9 and 6.5 years, respectively. Renal histology disclosed sclerosed glomeruli and atrophic tubules; the interstitium\\u000a was fibrotic and infiltrated by lymphocytes. Endoscopic retrograde

T. J. Neuhaus; T. Stallmach; E. Leumann; J. Altorfer; C. P. Braegger

1997-01-01

383

Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The effect of dietary amino acid taurine on the liver function of chronic hepatitis patients was investigated. The 24 chronic\\u000a hepatitis patients with 2–5 times over normal activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST)\\u000a were selected and equally divided into taurine treatment and control groups. In taurine treatment group, each patient took\\u000a 2?g taurine 3 times a day

Y. H. Hu; C. L. Lin; Y. W. Huang; P. E. Liu; D.-F. Hwang

2008-01-01

384

CVS introduktion, dSA F99 08-03-99 side 1 af 4  

E-print Network

ved navn IMHUQV\\Q. Altså kennedy:~/fjernsyn% ls drwxr-xr-x 4 kennedy users 4096 Mar 8 15:16 documentcontainer/ drwxr-xr-x 6 kennedy users 4096 Mar 8 15:17 dragdrop/ -rw-r--r-- 1 kennedy users 11730 Mar 8 15:18 ie4client.ast -rw-rw-r-- 1 kennedy users 3910 Dec 1 13:47 ie4client.bet kennedy:~/fjernsyn% Da det

Mogensen, Preben Holst

385

Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid Treatment Improves Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short title: Effects of EPA for NASH Grant Support: none Conflict of Interest: none Abbreviation: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; FFA, free fatty acid; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAS, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score; NASH, nonalcoholic

Naoki Tanaka; Kenji Sano; Akira Horiuchi; Eiji Tanaka; Kendo Kiyosawa; Toshifumi Aoyama

2008-01-01

386

Hepatic stimulator substance administration affects cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) administration on cadmium (Cd) induced hepatotoxicity was studied in the rat. HSS was extracted from the liver of weanling rats (Hepatology 1988; 7: 100–106). Rats were injected with 2.5 mg CdCl2\\/kg body weight to induce acute liver injury, evaluated 24 h later. Serum enzyme activities of alanine amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and

Alexandra P. Margeli; Stamatios E. Theocharis; Chara Spiliopoulou; Maria Horti; Antonios Koutselinis

1996-01-01

387

DNA microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression in mice exposed to cadmium for 30 days.  

PubMed

Although cadmium causes hepatotoxicity, its molecular mechanism is unclear. In the present study, transcriptional responses in the liver of C57BL/6J mice given 50 ppm cadmium as a drinking water for 30 days were evaluated with DNA microarray. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were not elevated following the administration of cadmium. Cadmium increased the expressions of 2 genes and reduced those of 15 genes in the liver of mice before the leading to hepatotoxicity. PMID:23358151

Tokumoto, Maki; Ohtsu, Tomoaki; Imai, Shunji; Honda, Akiko; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Satoh, Masahiko

2013-02-01

388

Effects of dithiocarbamates and cadmium on the enzymatic activities in liver, kidney and blood of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), and N-p-hydroxymethylbenzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (HBGD) on the enzymatic activities in mice were studied. The mice were given i.v. injections of these chelating agents (1 mmol\\/kg) and 3 h later the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ? -glutamyltranspeptidase ( ?-GTP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and cholinesterase (ChE) in the

Takayuki Funakoshi; Osamu Ohta; Hideaki Shimada; Shoji Kojima

1995-01-01

389

INFLUENCE OF PARAQUAT, GLYPHOSATE, AND CADMIUM ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME SERUM ENZYMES AND PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETIC BEHAVIOR (IN VITRO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro study for the determination of the toxicity of some pesticides (gly-phospate and paraquat) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the activities of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), and acid phosphatase (AcP) is described. Changes in electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins were also tested. Results revealed that glyphosate was effective

F. M. El-Demerdash; M. I. Yousef; E. I. Elagamy

2001-01-01

390

Ibuprofen hepatic encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, gastric lesion and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic ibuprofen (0.4g\\/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation\\/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In

Spomenko Ilic; Domagoj Drmic; Kamelija Zarkovic; Danijela Kolenc; Luka Brcic; Bozo Radic; Viktor Djuzel; Alenka Boban Blagaic; Zeljko Romic; Senka Dzidic; Livije Kalogjera; Sven Seiwerth; Predrag Sikiric

2011-01-01

391

Doxorubicine-congestive heart failure-increased big endothelin-1 plasma concentration: reversal by amlodipine, losartan, and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 in rat and mouse.  

PubMed

Overall, doxorubicine-congestive heart failure (CHF) (male Wistar rats and NMRI mice; 6 challenges with doxorubicine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout 15 days and then a 4-week-rest period) is consistently deteriorating throughout next 14 days, if not reversed or ameliorated by therapy (/kg per day): a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, promisingly studied for inflammatory bowel disease (Pliva; PL 10, PLD-116, PL 14736)) (10 microg, 10 ng), losartan (0.7 mg), amlodipine (0.07 mg), given intragastrically (i.g.) (once daily, rats) or in drinking water (mice). Assessed were big endothelin-1 (BET-1) and plasma enzyme levels (CK, MBCK, LDH, AST, ALT) before and after 14 days of therapy and clinical status (hypotension, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, and ascites) every 2 days. Controls (distilled water (5 ml/kg, i.g., once daily) or drinking water (2 ml/mouse per day) given throughout 14 days) exhibited additionally increased BET-1 and aggravated clinical status, while enzyme values maintained their initial increase. BPC157 (10 microg/kg) and amlodipine treatment reversed the increased BET-1 (rats, mice), AST, ALT, CK (rats, mice), and LDH (mice) values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) and losartan opposed further increase of BET-1 (rats, mice). Losartan reduces AST, ALT, CK, and LDH serum values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) reduces AST and ALT serum values. Clinical status of CHF-rats and -mice is accordingly improved by the BPC157 regimens and amlodipine. PMID:15153646

Lovric-Bencic, Martina; Sikiric, Predrag; Hanzevacki, Jadranka S; Seiwerth, Sven; Rogic, Dunja; Kusec, Vesna; Aralica, Gorana; Konjevoda, Pasko; Batelja, Lovorka; Blagaic, Alenka B

2004-05-01

392

Efficacy of MK615 for the treatment of patients with liver disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of MK615, a Japanese apricot extract, in an animal model, and its clinical therapeutic effect. METHODS: Wistar rats were administered physiological saline (4 mL/kg) or MK615 solution (4 mL/kg) for 7 d. On the sixth d, acute hepatic injury was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection (ip) of D-galactosamine hydrochloride (D-GalN) (600 mg/kg). Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined, and liver tissues were used for histopathological analysis. Fifty-eight patients with liver disorders [hepatitis C (n = 40), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 15), and autoimmune liver disease (n = 3)] were orally administered commercially available Misatol ME-containing MK615 (13 g/d) daily for 12 wk. Blood and urine were sampled immediately before and 6 wk, 12 wk, and 16 wk after the start of intake to measure various biochemical parameters. The percentage change in ALT and AST levels after 12 wk from the pre-intake baseline served as a primary endpoint. RESULTS: D-GalN effectively induced acute hepatic injury in the rats. At 48 h after the ip injection of D-GalN, the plasma levels of ALT (475.6 ± 191.5 IU/L vs 225.3 ± 194.2 IU/L, P < 0.05) and AST (1253.9 ± 223.4 IU/L vs 621.9 ± 478.2 IU/L, P < 0.05) in the MK615 group were significantly lower than the control group. Scattered single cell necrosis, loss of hepatocytes, and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in hepatic tissue samples collected from the control group. However, these findings were less pronounced in the group receiving MK615. At the end of the clinical study, serum ALT and AST levels were significantly decreased compared with pre-intake baseline levels from 103.5 ± 58.8 IU/L to 71.8 ± 39.3 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 93.5 ± 55.6 IU/L to 65.5 ± 34.8 IU/L (P < 0.05), respectively. A reduction of ? 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 26 (45%) of the 58 patients, while 25 (43%) patients exhibited similar AST level reductions. The chronic hepatitis C group exhibited significant ALT and AST level reductions from 93.4 ± 51.1 IU/L to 64.6 ± 35.1 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 94.2 ± 55.5 IU/L to 67.2 ± 35.6 IU/L (P < 0.05), respectively. A reduction of ? 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 20 (50%) of the 40 patients. ALT levels in both the combined ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment and the UDCA uncombined groups were significantly lower after Misatol ME administration. MK615 protected hepatocytes from D-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in rats. Misatol ME decreased elevated ALT and AST levels in patients with liver disorders. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MK615 and Misatol ME are promising hepatoprotective agents for patients with liver disorders. PMID:22919243

Hokari, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Matsuda, Takahide; Ishii, Osamu; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Zeniya, Mikio

2012-01-01

393

Study on protecting effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: The SAP rat models were prepared and randomly assigned to the model control group, Baicalin treated group, and Octreotide treated group while other healthy rats were assigned to the sham-operated group. Rat mortality, levels of ALT, AST, liver and pancreas pathological changes in all groups were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Tissue microarray (TMA) sections of hepatic tissue were prepared to observe expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 protein and Caspase-3, and changes of apoptotic indexes. RESULTS: Rat survival at 12 h, expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 protein and apoptotic indexes of liver were all significantly higher in treated groups than in model control group. While the liver and pancreas pathological scores, contents of ALT, AST, and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein were all lower in treated groups than in the model control group. CONCLUSION: Both Baicalin and Octreotide can protect rats with SAP by decreasing the contents of ALT, AST and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein, and improving the expression levels of Bax protein, Caspase-3 protein, and inducing apoptosis. PMID:19030211

Zhang, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Zheng; Feng, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Yang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Ju, Tong-Fa; Xie, Qi; Yuan, Wen-Qin

2008-01-01

394

[Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

2012-05-01

395

Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties  

PubMed Central

The hepatoprotective potential of earthworm extract (EE) (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) was evaluated against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar albino rat, in comparison with silymarin, the standard hepatoprotective drug. We observed a reduction in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) and in serum total protein, and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum aspertate aminotranferase (AST), serum alanine aminotranferase (ALT), bilirubin and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) due to liver injury in the paracetamol-administered rats (2 g/kg). On the contrary, increased activities of liver GSH, SOD, GPx, CAT and serum total protein level, and decrease in the contents of serum ALP, AST, ALT, bilirubin and liver TBARS were observed in rats administered with different doses of EE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg), which are similar to the activities of hepatoprotective drug silymarin (150 mg/kg). The mode of action of EE as evidenced by the above parameters may suggest that EE, on the one hand, prevents the formation of the reactive oxygen groups, or scavenges these groups, thereby preventing the damage on the hepatic cells, and, on the other hand, modulates the genes responsible for synthesis of antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, CAT and SOD in liver tissue and decreases the serum enzymatic activities such as ALP, AST and ALT. PMID:18257136

Balamurugan, Mariappan; Parthasarathi, Kasi; Ranganathan, Lalpet Souri; Cooper, Edwin L.

2008-01-01

396

Cerulenin Blockade of Fatty Acid Synthase Reverses Hepatic Steatosis in ob/ob Mice  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver or hepatic steatosis is a common health problem associated with abnormal liver function and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin on hepatic function in steatotic ob/ob mice. Different dosages of cerulenin were administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice for 2 to 7 days. Body weight, serum AST/ALT, hepatic energy state, and gene expression patterns in ob/ob mice were examined. We found that cerulenin treatment markedly improved hepatic function in ob/ob mice. Serum AST/ALT levels were significantly decreased and hepatic ATP levels increased in treated obese mice compared to obese controls, accompanied by fat depletion in the hepatocyte. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? and uncoupling protein 2 were suppressed with cerulenin treatment and paralleled changes in AST/ALT levels. Hepatic glutathione content were increased in some cases and apoptotic activity in the steatotic livers was minimally changed with cerulenin treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fatty acid synthase blockade constitutes a novel therapeutic strategy for altering hepatic steatosis at non-stressed states in obese livers. PMID:24086674

Evans, Zachary P.; Sutter, Alton G.; Jin, Lan; Singh, Inderjit; May, Harold; Schmidt, Michael G.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

397

Ameliorative effect of Phytocee(TM) Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress.

Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

2014-01-01

398

Role of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular injury: effect of CrPic treatment.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium picolinate (CrPic, Fig. 1) hepatoprotective activity from alloxan-induced hepatic injury. Diabetes is induced by alloxan-treatment concurrently with the hepatic injury in mice. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of CrPic treatment in hepatic injury and the signal role of liver fatty acid binding protein in early hepatocellular injury diagnostics. In this study, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) levels in the alloxan group were higher 71% and 50%, respectively, than those of the control group (ALT: 14.51±0.74; AST: 22.60±0.69). The AST and ALT levels in CrPic group were of minimal difference compared to the control groups. Here, CrPic exhibited amelioration alloxan induced oxidative stress in mouse livers. A significant increase in liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was observed, which indicates increased fatty acid utilization in liver tissue [1]. In this study, the mRNA levels of L-FABP increased in both the control (1.1 fold) and CrPic (0.78 fold) groups compared the alloxan group. These findings suggest that hepatic injury may be prevented by CrPic, and is a potential target for use in the treatment of early hepatic injury. PMID:23603011

Fan, Weijiang; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenhang; Teng, Anguo; Liu, Anjun; Ming, Dongfeng; Yan, Peng

2013-07-01

399

Hepatitis during respiratory syncytial virus infection - a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants and small children. The aim was to present a 13-months old boy diagnosed with acute airway infection, acute otitis media (AOM) and hepatitis during the RSV-infection. Material and methods: Serum catalytic activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotranspherase (AST), alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpherase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), and concentrations of bilirubin were monitored during hospitalization and at control examination. Results: The child had clinical signs and symptoms of respiratory failure, AOM, and laboratory findings of virus infection and liver disease. On admission, catalytic activities of enzymes were markedly increased, especially the activity of ALP (10333 U/L, i.e. 24-fold increase in comparison with the upper reference limit). The highest increased in AST (339 U/L, 4.5-fold), ALT (475 U/L, 10.3-fold) and LD (545 U/L, 1.5-fold) were registered on the 3rd day, and the highest increase in GGT (68 U/L, 3.1-fold) occurred on the 11th day. Seven weeks after discharge AST, ALT, GGT and LD decreased into reference range, and ALP remain mildly increased (478 U/L, 1.1 fold increase). RSV was confirmed in nasal lavage fluid. Conclusion: Laboratory results in patient with RSV infection needs to be interpreted in the light of both, respiratory and extrapulmonary manifestations of the infection, respectively. PMID:23457772

Kirin, Branka Kristic; Topic, Renata Zrinski; Dodig, Slavica

2013-01-01

400

Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with optical coherence tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938546

Kova?evi?, Igor; Radosavljevi?, Aleksandra; Kalezi?, Bojan; Poti?, Jelena; Damjanovi?, Goran; Stefanovi?, Ivan

2012-08-01

401

The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

2012-08-01

402

Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the toxicity of cisplatin in male rats. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant elevation in plasma, heart, kidney and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GST, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) were decreased. Aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT), creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased in plasma, while liver AST and ALT were significantly decreased. Cisplatin significantly increased the levels of plasma total lipid, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, and the relative weight of kidney. On the other hand, plasma total protein and albumin, and body weight were significantly decreased. GSPE reduced cisplatin-induced the levels of TBARS in plasma, heart, kidney and liver, TL, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, and liver AST and ALT. Moreover, it ameliorated cisplatin-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and GSH, total protein and albumin. Therefore, the present results revealed that GSPE exerts a protective effect by antagonizing cisplatin toxicity. PMID:19425235

Yousef, M I; Saad, A A; El-Shennawy, L K

2009-06-01

403

A prospective randomized study using N-acetyl-L-cysteine for early liver toxicity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and its conditioning with chemoradiotherapy often results in liver toxicity, the most severe form being veno-occlusive liver disease (VOD). N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant glutathione precursor, may provide protection from liver toxicity. Patients with elevated bilirubin (>26 mmol/l) and/or elevated (ALT) (>1.4 microkat/l) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1.4 microkat/l) levels were randomized to treatment with NAC or no treatment. Among 522 transplanted patients, 160 were included in the trial. NAC was given, 100 mg/kg per day, as a 6-h i.v. infusion until normalization of bilirubin, ALT and AST values. Maximum bilirubin level was the same in patients randomized to NAC (n=72) or controls (n=88). Increase and recovery of ALT and AST were the same in patients randomized to NAC or controls. There were two patients in the NAC group who developed VOD, as compared to three of the controls. To conclude, NAC does not improve liver toxicity after ASCT. PMID:18176610

Barkholt, L; Remberger, M; Hassan, Z; Fransson, K; Omazic, B; Svahn, B-M; Karlsson, H; Brune, M; Hassan, M; Mattsson, J; Ringdén, O

2008-05-01

404

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats. PMID:16750340

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2006-10-11

405

Effect of intra-arterial infusion with triolein emulsion on rabbit liver  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether intra-arterial infusion of triolein emulsion has biochemical and histopathologic effect on rabbit liver. METHODS: An emulsion of 0.2 mL triolein in 20 mL of saline was infused into either the hepatic arteries of nine rabbits (group 1) or the superior mesenteric arteries of 12 rabbits (group 2). Five rabbits infused with 20 mL of normal saline were used as a control group (group 3). The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured to evaluate liver function in each group just before the infusion, at 2 h, day 1, day 4, and day 7 following infusion. Each rabbit in all of the groups was infused with Evans blue on day 7 to evaluate changes in vascular permeability, and obtain the stained area of the hepatic surface. If the stained area was not available, the anteroinferior portion of the right hepatic lobe was selected. The obtained tissues were examined by light, electron and confocal microscopy. The changes in AST and ALT levels at each time point were calculated and statistically analyzed using a mixed linear model. A P value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: In group 1 (hepatic artery group), both the AST and ALT serum levels increased significantly on day 1 (P = 0.0016 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with the control group, followed by a decrease thereafter. In group 2 (portal vein group), the AST level increased on day 4 (P = 0.0095), while the ALT level increased significantly on day 1 (P < 0.0001), and decreased thereafter, as compared with the control. For the remainder of the examination days, there were no significant changes in the AST and ALT levels (P > 0.05). Only three rabbits in each group showed hepatic surface staining with the Evans blue dye. Light and electron microscopic findings showed no specific changes in the selected hepatic tissues. Confocal microscopic examination with transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling stain revealed lack of hepatocyte apoptosis in any of the groups. There were no differences in the results between group 1 and group 2. CONCLUSION: Infusion of triolein emulsion into rabbit livers revealed a minimal transient decrease of liver function, and no specific histopathologic changes. PMID:25339830

Kim, Yong-Woo; Park, Young Mi; Yoon, Sik; Kim, Hak Jin; Park, Do Yoon; Cho, Byung Mann; Choi, Seon Hee

2014-01-01

406

Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial ?-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

2013-11-01

407

Inflammatory status hepatic enzymes and serum creatinine in HIV-, HIV+ and HIV-TB co-infected adult Central Africans  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a major public health issue in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine which of isolated HIV-infection, isolated naive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), or naive HIV-PTB coinfection was more harmful to inflammatory, hepatic, and renal functions. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken among ten patients with isolated HIV infection, ten patients with isolated naive HIV infection, ten patients with isolated PTB and 32 patients with HIV-PTB coinfection, with the aim of determining which group had the highest levels of oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunction markers. Serum aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatinine measurements were compared across the three groups of patients, who were managed from admission in the pulmonology division of the Brazzaville Teaching Hospital, Congo. Results HIV patients had the highest levels of ALT, GGT, and creatinine before and after adjusting for age and sex. Adjusted levels of AST, ALT, GGT, and creatinine were higher in HIV-PTB coinfection patients than in sero-negative PTB patients. Conclusion There is a significant association between HIV infection and increase in concentration of ALT, GGT, and creatinine. PMID:23204860

Mokondjimobe, Etienne; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mampouya-Arrouse, Patou; Parra, Henri Joseph; Diatewa, Martin

2012-01-01

408

Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis. PMID:20466777

Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

2010-08-01

409

Statin therapy and hepatotoxicity: Appraisal of the safety profile of atorvastatin in hyperlipidemic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Statins are one of the most frequently prescribed medications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Statins appear to be safe however, there are contradictory data regarding their adverse effects, which might be due to genetic variation in their metabolism. Hence, this prospective study was aimed to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on liver transaminase changes in a clinical setting, in north Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective semi-experimental study was performed on hyperlipidemic adults in 2010-2011. Patients received atorvastatin (5-40 mg/d) based on the American National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Liver aminotransferases were measured in three occasions of baseline, 8 and 16 weeks period. Results: A total of 206 patients were included in the study. Of which 178 were female and 30 were male. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were in normal range before intervention in the majority, except in 25 (12.1%) and 16 (7.8%) of patients, respectively. In general, ALT and AST remained in normal range over the study period (23.3 IU/L and 21.8 IU/L, respectively). There was found no relationship between different doses of atorvastatin prescribed and ALT/AST changes in the patients. The males’ ALT means at baseline (26.9 IU/L), 8 weeks (30 IU/L) and 16 weeks (28.8 IU/L) after statin therapy were significantly higher than females (22 IU/L, 22.2 IU/L and 22.1 IU/L, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The absence of any hepatic adverse effect in the present study supports safety of atorvastatin and emerging opinion that routine screening of liver function tests is not necessary in patients on statins.

Kalantari, Saeed; Naghipour, Mohammadreza

2014-01-01

410

Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. (Center for the Research of Environmental and Occupational Disease, Graduate Institute of Public Health and Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine (China))

1991-05-01

411

Development of high-efficiency, low-cost ZnSiAst/sub 2/ solar cells. Final report, April 9, 1979-June 8, 1980  

SciTech Connect

A research program with an ultimate goal of fabricating a ZnSiAs/sub 2//Si-web cascade solar cell is described. Calculations indicate, given a suitable material quality, that 23% efficiencies may be possible and that the Si-web substrate and materials proposed for this cell offer the potential for meeting the cost goals of $300/peak KW/sub e/. Significant results achieved under this contract include the successful conversion of the original open tube vapor phase epitaxial growth system to an organometallic growth approach which in turn led to reduced carrier concentrations, and improved material quality. This represents the first known chalcopyrite to be deposited via the MO-CVD technique. Additionally, epitaxial growth was obtained on ..cap alpha..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Si substrates for the first time. ZnSiAs/sub 2//Si structures have been fabricated in which carrier collection from both sides of the interface was observed using the electron beam induced current measurement technique. N-type impurity doping experiments have been initiated with the objective of synthesizing n-ZnSiAs/sub 2/ via substitutional doping. (WHK)

Andrews, J E

1980-01-01

412

AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

413

The Effects of Regional Capital Subsidies on Productivity Growth: A Case Study of the Greek Food and Beverage Manufacturing Industry &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Capital subsidies form a major instrument of industrial and regional policy for economically developed countries all over the world, including many European Union and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Research findings have challenged the effectiveness of capital subsidies in assisting productivity growth. This paper treats capital subsidies as a new input and estimates a stochastic production frontier that

Dimitris Skuras; Kostas Tsekouras; Efthalia Dimara; Dimitris Tzelepis

2006-01-01

414

HO EM | EWSN | E PLORE BY SUBJECTX | AST WORDL | UBSCRIBES | SEAR HC | RCHIVEA | SSR | OBSJ US funding of fusion reactor in doubt  

E-print Network

funding of fusion reactor in doubt 12:58 26 May 2005 NewScientist.com news service Maggie McKee The US Congress is divided over how to fund the US share of the world's largest nuclear fusion facility, mirroring administration requested an increased sum of $49.5 million to become available in 2006, to fund ITER through

415

NASA'S CCiCAp pArtNerS Off tO A fASt StArt NASA's Return On Investment Report  

E-print Network

. NASA awarded the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) Space Act Agreements (SAAs) just over Voss, vice president for Space Exploration Systems and the Dream Chaser Program Manager at SNC, "The it to land softly on a runway. Our Dream Chaser human spacecraft is similar in design so it can fly many

Waliser, Duane E.

416

Looking for a Needle in a Haystack? A Re-examination of the Time Series Relationship between Teenage Employment and Minimum Wages in the United States &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe work of Card and Krueger has cast doubt on the nature of the relationship between the minimum wage and teenage employment in the United States. The earlier ‘consensus’ finding of a small but statistically significant negative effect was based on time series data whereas Card and Krueger's findings are based mainly on cross-section data. In this article, we re-examine

Stephen Bazen; Velayoudom Marimoutou

2002-01-01

417

Assessment of species Limits Among YeLLow-breAsted meAdowLArks (Sturnella spp.) Using mitochondriAL And  

E-print Network

.-- , g g , E W (Sturnella magna S. neglecta), . R, gg E M S U S Mx x, L' M.1525/.2008.07148 Currently, taxonomy recognizes : E M (Sturnella magna) WM(S.neglecta).EM fi fig C Natural History (M 1997). O g . L' M , g U S Mx, Sturnella magna O (1930). Ug , R

Barker, F. Keith

418

Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using cation-exchange prior to hydridegeneration permits accurate arsenic(III) determinations in acid mine waters containing high concentrations of interfering metals. Stabilization of the arsenic redox species for as many as 15 months is demonstrated for samples that have been properly filtered and acidified with HCl in the field. The detection limits for the method described in this report are 0.1 micrograms per liter for total arsenic and 0.8 micrograms per liter for arsenic(III).

McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

2003-01-01

419

How Symmetric are the Shocks and the Shock Adjustment Dynamics between the Euro Area and Central and Eastern European Countries? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe use a structural vector autoregression model to identify and compare demand and supply shocks between euro area countries and central and eastern European countries (CEECs). The shocks and the shock adjustment dynamics of these countries are also compared to western European EU countries that have not yet adopted the euro. Focusing on the period 1993-2001, we find that there

MICHAEL FRENKEL; CHRISTIANE NICKEL

2005-01-01

420

ECONomics updateA NEWSLETTER FOR ALUMNI AND FRIENDS OF UBC ECONOMICS Issue 2 Summer 2012 ast fall, when Occupy Vancouver  

E-print Network

EaTUrE: THE wIdENINg gap Getting to the root of the problem wElcomE op-Ed: THE EcoNomIcS of clImaTE cHaNgE Kyoto have drowned in debt or lost their jobs. Some who once made up the middle class have slipped down: Editor, Economics Update University of british columbia 997 ­ 1873 East mall Vancouver, bc V6T 1Z1 All

Handy, Todd C.

421

Common Risk Factors Versus a Mispricing Factor of Tokyo Stock Exchange Firms: Inquiries into the Fundamental Value Derived from Analyst Earnings Forecasts &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTWe search for common factors and/or a mispricing factor for Tokyo Stock Exchange firms. We utilize the Edwards–Bell–Ohlson model to compute the firms' fundamental value and divide this value by the firms' market price to construct a new variable called a ‘value-to-price ratio’ (VPR). We find that this VPR variable can generate abnormal returns even after adjusting for the risk

KEIICHI KUBOTA; KAZUYUKI SUDA; HITOSHI TAKEHARA

2009-01-01

422

The Pursuit of Perfect Packing. By Tomaso Aste and De-nis Weaire. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, U.K.,  

E-print Network

In 1990, from news flashes on television and in newspapers, the whole world heard of W.-Y. Hsiang, but the real interest is in what we expect to learn from studying the broader circle of questions from the attempt to solve it. A great deal of wonderful number theory has been inspired by Fer- mat

Aste, Tomaso

423

Extreme ultraviolet laser\\/time-of-flight mass spectra of Kr2 near Kr&ast;(4d,5p?,6s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New single-photon spectra of jet-cooled Kr2 between ?98 700 and 99 900 cm?1 have been recorded with an extreme ultraviolet laser generated by four-wave sum-mixing in Xe gas. Molecular ions created by (1+1?) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization, and daughter atomic ions created by excited state predissociation prior to ionization were mass dispersed and detected in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Analyses

D. M. Mao; X. K. Hu; Y. J. Shi; J. H. Leech; R. H. Lipson

2001-01-01

424

C-reactive protein: a poor marker of cardiovascular disease risk in HIV+ populations with a high prevalence of elevated serum transaminases.  

PubMed

Blood lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are used to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated in a cross-sectional design the relationship of hsCRP to markers of liver function (aspartate and alanine transaminases [AST and ALT, respectively]), CVD risk factors and HIV-disease progression markers in 226 HIV-1 sero-positive drug users. hsCRP showed a significant inverse relationship with ALT and high-density lipoprotein, independent of age, gender, viral load, CD4 cell-count and antiretroviral (ARV) use, and was not significantly associated with HIV-disease progression markers. Serum markers of liver damage, AST and ALT, were associated with lower hsCRP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Elevated liver enzymes (> or =40 IU/L) were predictive of hsCRP levels that are considered a low risk for CVD. In conclusion, hsCRP may not be a reliable marker of CVD risk in populations with HIV at-risk for elevated liver enzymes due to high hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus prevalence and ARV use. PMID:18595880

Baum, M K; Rafie, C; Sales, S; Lai, S; Duan, R; Jayaweera, D T; Page, J B; Campa, A

2008-06-01

425

[Feeding disorders, ALTE syndrome, Sandifer syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the course of food hypersensitivity in 8-month old infant].  

PubMed

This paper describes the occurrence of feeding disorders, atopic dermatitis, life-threatening symptoms, Sandifer syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease in 8-month old infant in the course of food hypersensitivity. Used in the treatment of cow's milk protein hydrolysates with a considerable degree of hydrolysis, omeprazole, Cisapride. It was not until the introduction of elemental diet based on free amino acids resulted in the withdrawal of life-threatening child's symptoms. PMID:20712248

Iwa?czak, Barbara; Mowszet, Krystyna; Iwa?czak, Franciszek

2010-07-01

426

Improved protein-adsorption resistance of polyethersulfone membranes via surface segregation of ultrahigh molecular weight poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride).  

PubMed

A styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA) alternating copolymer with ultrahigh molecular weight (M(w)>10(6)) synthesized in super critical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) medium was used as hydrophilic polymeric additive in the preparation of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. The PES/SMA blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that the hydrolyzed SMA preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. For the PES/SMA blend membranes, no big change was observed in the cross-sectional structure and the mechanical properties were well maintained after SMA addition except that a thicker top layer was formed. The surface morphology analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the membrane surface roughness increased with the added SMA amount. The results of water contact angle, water absorbance measurements and static protein adsorption experiments revealed that the surface enrichment of SMA endowed PES/SMA blend membranes with significantly improved surface hydrophilicity and protein-adsorption resistance. PMID:17379486

Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xu, Li; Du, Chun-Hui; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

2007-06-15

427

180 Br~ves communications -Brevi comunicazioni [Exe~mE~CTIAVOL. XlI[5] 2, 7, 12 und 17 Tage alte PlasmGcytomzellkulturen  

E-print Network

erscheinenden Makrophagen auch gegeniiber anderen Virusarten zu prfifen. Untersuchungsresultate tiber die Poliovirusaktivit~it und tiber mSgtiche funktionetle Leistungen der Zellen in diesen Plasmocytomzeltkultu- ren

Govindjee

428

Elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is a strong marker of insulin resistance in obese children.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels have been found to predict the development of type 2 diabetes in adults. The role of GGT in insulin resistance (IR) among children is largely unknown. We investigated whether GGT among hepatic enzymes is independently associated with IR in obese Korean children. A total of 1308 overweight (above the 85th BMI percentile of Korean reference) boys (n = 822) and girls (n = 486), aged 9-15 years, were studied. Measures acquired included weight, height, percent body fat (BF%), waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and insulin, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-Cholesterol, GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). IR was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Serum GGT and ALT, but not AST, were positively correlated with HOMA-IR in boys (r = 0.222 for GGT; P < 0.05, r = 0.188 for ALT; P < 0.05) and girls (r = 0.292 for GGT; P < 0.05, r = 0.258 for ALT; P < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis for HOMA-IR as dependent variable, GGT (? = 0.068; P = 0.053 in boys, ? = 0.145; P = 0.002 in girls) and ALT (? = 0.074; P = 0.034 in boys, ? = 0.130; P = 0.005 in girls) emerged as determinants of HOMA-IR after adjusting age, BMI, tanner stage, and triglycerides. Serum GGT level is a strong marker of IR in obese Korean children. PMID:23573088

Lee, Seon Yeong; Sung, Eunju; Chang, Yoosoo

2013-01-01

429

Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald’s formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease. PMID:25120819

Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

2014-01-01

430

Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

Cordero-Perez, Paula; Torres-Gonzalez, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzman-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcon-Galvan, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesus Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sanchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantu-Sepulveda, Daniel; Gonzalez-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Munoz-Espinosa, Linda

2013-01-01

431

Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130–190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy. PMID:19918318

Amin, Kamal A.; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M.

2009-01-01

432

Transplanted Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMCs) have the potential to reduce heart and lung fibrosis, but whether could reduce liver fibrosis remains largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Hepatic cirrhosis model was established by infusion of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight twice a week for 8 weeks) in immunocompetent C57Bl/6J mice. hAMCs, isolated from term delivered placenta, were infused into the spleen at 4 weeks after mice were challenged with CCl4. Control mice received only saline infusion. Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Blood analysis was performed to evaluate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analysis of the livers for fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells activation, hepatocyte apoptosis, proliferation and senescence were performed. The donor cell engraftment was assessed using immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction. The areas of hepatic fibrosis were reduced (6.2%±2.1 vs. control 9.6%±1.7, p<0.05) and liver function parameters (ALT 539.6±545.1 U/dl, AST 589.7±342.8 U/dl,vs. control ALT 139.1±138.3 U/dl, p<0.05 and AST 212.3±110.7 U/dl, p<0.01) were markedly ameliorated in the hAMCs group compared to control group. The transplantation of hAMCs into liver-fibrotic mice suppressed activation of hepatic stellate cells, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and promoted liver regeneration. More interesting, hepatocyte senescence was depressed significantly in hAMCs group compared to control group. Immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction revealed that hAMCs engraftment into host livers and expressed the hepatocyte-specific markers, human albumin and ?-fetoproteinran. Conclusions/Significance The transplantation of hAMCs significantly decreased the fibrosis formation and progression of CCl4-induced cirrhosis, providing a new approach for the treatment of fibrotic liver disease. PMID:21326862

Zhang, DingGuo; Jiang, MinYue; Miao, DengShun

2011-01-01

433

Management of voriconazole hepatotoxicity in a lung transplant patient.  

PubMed

Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We report the case of a 46-year-old female lung transplant outpatient diagnosed with persistent pulmonary Aspergillus colonization (>50 colonies of Aspergillus terreus) 3 months after lung transplantation. Oral voriconazole 200 mg twice a day (b.i.d) was initiated shortly after diagnosis. Two days after voriconazole initiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were normal or slightly elevated (79, 37, and 21 UI/L, respectively). Ten days after the first voriconazole administration, these values started to increase. Maximum levels were reached after 20 days for ALP (369 UI/L) and at around 30 days for ALT and AST (223 and 188 UI/L, respectively). Instead of discontinuing antifungal therapy, it was decided to reduce the voriconazole dose to 100 mg b.i.d. This asymptomatic progressive cholestatic hepatitis resolved, and 10 days after dose reduction ALP, ALT, AST were at 136, 53, and 28 UI/L, respectively. Finally, therapeutic drug monitoring revealed adequate voriconazole plasma trough concentrations (0.98 mg/L) 30 days after dose reduction and no more colonies of Aspergillus were observed. Voriconazole-induced hepatotoxicity is a well known dose-dependent adverse drug reaction. This experience confirms the appropriateness of voriconazole dose reduction instead of therapy interruption in dose-dependent moderate liver toxicity. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring before and after dose reduction may help to avoid drug accumulation and inappropriately low drug exposure, respectively. PMID:21176020

Belaiche, S; Roustit, M; Bedouch, P; Quetant, S; Saint-Raymond, C; Pison, C

2011-06-01

434

Economic Analysis of Requests for Laboratory Tests in Primary Health Care Centers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Operation of the Primary health care center and Medical-biochemical laboratories depends on the number of performed laboratory tests. The number of unnecessary tests significantly affect the operation of health institutions. Material and methods: We analyzed the 1000 requests for laboratory tests at the Primary Health Care Centre in Gracanica from primary care units. Based on the requests for laboratory diagnostics advisable diagnoses from primary health care unit in the Primary Health Care Center (PHC) we made an economic analysis of the total required laboratory tests in the requests for laboratory diagnosis. Incorporating the economic analysis of laboratory tests in requests for laboratory diagnosis by doctors in primary health care (PHC) and the economic analysis of laboratory tests by the disease in primary health care. Results: The economic value of 5333 laboratory tests was 84 312 points (1 point is 0.80 KM). Of the total value of the index score requirements of GPs are 44, 1%, the requirement of family doctors account for 40% and requirements of other specialists make up 15, 9%.. Discussion: In the requests of the PHC units for laboratory tests are required all levels of services: urine, CBC, SE, glucose, bilirubine, ALT, AST, AF, CK, cholesterol, HDL chol., triglicerdes, creatinine, urea, uric acid, CRP, fibrinogen, calcium and phosphorus. The following requests are the most common laboratory tests: urine, CBC, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases, creatinine, urea. The doctors in family practice most often requested: blood glucose, urine, CBC, SE, TGL. , Chol., ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. General practitioners were demanding more cholesterol and triglycerides, and family medicine doctors were demanding less cholesterol and triglycerides and more often CRP, fibrinogen, ALT, AST, what from the level of economic cost analysis rises the issue whether this was justified? PMID:23322950

Zunic, Lejla

2012-01-01

435

Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides in controlling ROS-meditated hypoxic injury in cells and can be useful in many hepatic complications. PMID:23833369

Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

2013-01-01

436

Predicting Clinical Outcomes Using Baseline and Follow-up Laboratory Data From The Hepatitis C Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis Trial  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C is challenging. We used the HALT-C Trial database to develop two models, using baseline values of routinely available laboratory tests together with changes in these values during follow-up to predict clinical decompensation and liver-related death/liver transplant in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Methods Patients randomized to no treatment and who had ?2 year follow-up without a clinical outcome were included in the analysis. Four variables (platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, total bilirubin and albumin) with three categories of change (stable, mild or severe) over two years were analyzed. Cumulative incidence of clinical outcome was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome. Results 470 patients with 60 events were used to develop models to predict clinical decompensation. Baseline values of all four variables were predictive of decompensation. There was a general trend of increasing outcomes with more marked worsening of laboratory values over 2 years, particularly for patients with abnormal baseline values. A model that included baseline platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, bilirubin and severe worsening of platelet count, bilirubin and albumin was the best predictor of clinical decompensation. 483 patients with 79 events were used to evaluate predictors of liver-related death or liver transplant. A model that included baseline platelet count and albumin as well as severe worsening of AST/ALT ratio and albumin was the best predictor of liver-related outcomes. Conclusion Both the baseline value and the rapidity in change of the value of routine laboratory variables were shown to be important in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22045670

Ghany, Marc G.; Kim, Hae-Young; Stoddard, Anne; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Lok, Anna S.F.

2013-01-01

437

Protective role of selenium on aflatoxin b1-induced hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis of liver in ducklings.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin which causes toxicity through oxidative damage. Selenium (Se), an antioxidative agent, can antagonize some toxicity induced by oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to investigate the toxicity of AFB1 and the protective effects of Se on duckling liver in vivo. The study consisted of three groups: AFB1, AFB1Tx, and a control group. AFB1 group was administered aflatoxin intragastrically (0.1 mg/kg body weight). AFB1Tx group was administered AFB1 intragastrically (0.1 mg/kg body weight) plus sodium selenite (1 mg/kg body weight). The control group was given the same volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) via intragastric intubation. All three groups received daily administrations for 28 days. Blood samples were obtained on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days of post-administration, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were evaluated. A high level of serum ALT and AST was observed in AFB1 group. The activity of ALT and AST was significantly lower in Se treatment group than those in AFB1 group. Liver samples were collected on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days of post-administration, and concentrations of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and p53 were measured. Increased expression level of Bax, caspase-3, and p53 and decreased Bcl-2 expression level and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were observed in AFB1 group. Se diminished hepatic dysfunction, or damage and modulated the expression of apoptotic related proteins, in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, concurrent treatment with Se reduced the AFB1-induced hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis. PMID:25274191

Liao, Shenquan; Shi, Dayou; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L; Guo, Shining; Su, Rongsheng; Qiang, Panjia; Tang, Zhaoxin

2014-12-01

438

Influence of Sleeve Gastrectomy on NASH and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 85% of adipose patients and may proceed to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). With insulin resistance and obesity being the main risk factors for NASH, the effect of isolated sleeve gastrectomy (ISG) on these parameters was examined. Methods. 236 patients underwent ISG with intraoperative liver biopsy from December 2002 to September 2009. Besides demographic data, pre-operative weight/BMI, HbA1c, AST, ALT, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were determined. Results. A significant correlation of NASH with higher HbA1c, AST and ALT and lower levels for HDL was observed (P < .05, <.0001, <.0001, <.01, resp.). Overall BMI decreased from 45.0 ± 6.8 to 29.7 ± 6.5 and 31.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2 at 1 and 3 years. An impaired weight loss was demonstrated for patients with NASH and patients with elevated HbA1c (plateau 28.08 kg/m2 versus 29.79 kg/m2 and 32.30 kg/m2 versus 28.79 kg/m2, resp.). Regarding NASH, a significant improvement of AST, ALT, triglyceride and HDL levels was shown (P < .0001 for all). A resolution of elevated HbA1c was observed in 21 of 23 patients. Summary. NASH patients showed a significant loss of body weight and amelioration of NASH status. ISG can be successfully performed in these patients and should be recommended for this subgroup. PMID:21274277

Karcz, W. K.; Krawczykowski, D.; Kuesters, S.; Marjanovic, G.; Kulemann, B.; Grobe, H.; Karcz-Socha, I.; Hopt, U. T.; Bukhari, W.; Grueneberger, J. M.

2011-01-01

439

Combinatorial Effects of Thymoquinone on the Anticancer Activity and Hepatotoxicity of the Prodrug CB 1954  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. PMID:23833717

Talib, Wamidh H.; AbuKhader, Majed M.

2013-01-01

440

Preconditioning somatothermal stimulation on Qimen (LR14) reduces hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background In human beings or animals, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the liver may occur in many clinical conditions, such as circulating shock, liver transplantation and surgery and several other pathological conditions. I/R injury has a complex pathophysiology resulting from a number of contributing factors. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve effective treatment or protection by individually targeting the mediators. This study aimed at studying the effects of local somatothermal stimulation preconditioning on the right Qimen (LR14) on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats were preconditioned with thermal tolerance study, which included one dose of local somatothermal stimulation (LSTS) on right Qimen (LR14) at an interval of 12 h, followed by hepatic ischemia for 60 min and then reperfusion for 60 min. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have been used to assess the liver functions, and liver tissues were taken for the measurements such as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Results The results show that the plasma ALT and AST activities were higher in the I/R group than in the control group. In addition, the plasma ALT and AST activities decreased in the groups that received LSTS. The hepatic SOD levels reduced significantly by I/R injury. Moreover, the hepatic MPO activity significantly increased by I/R injury while it decreased in the groups given LSTS. Conclusions Our findings show that LSTS provides a protective effects on the liver from the I/R injury. Therefore, LSTS might offer an easy and inexpensive intervention for patients who have suffered from I/R of the liver especially in the process of hepatotomy and hepatic transplantation. PMID:24417801

2014-01-01

441

Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase?1 (HO?1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO?1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct?ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO?1 mRNA were measured by reverse?transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson's staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO?1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide?treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO?1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO?1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO?1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO?1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

Guo, Shi-Bin; Li, Qing; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiu-Ming; Zhou, Qin; Sun, Xiao-Yu

2015-01-01

442

Carnosine and taurine treatments decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by D-galactose in rat liver.  

PubMed

D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of carnosine (CAR) or taurine (TAU), having antioxidant effects, on hepatic injury and oxidative stress in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days/week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days/week) or TAU (2.5 % w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-0050x), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined. Hepatic expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Ki-67 were evaluated. Serum ALT, AST, hepatic MDA, and PC levels were observed to increase in GAL-treated rats. Hepatic Bax expression, but not Bcl-2, increased, Ki-67 expression decreased. GAL treatment caused decreases in GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD, but not GSH-Px, also diminished. CAR or TAU treatments caused significant decreases in serum ALT and AST activities. These treatments decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation and ameliorated histopathological findings in the livers of GAL-treated rats. Both CAR and TAU reduced MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px (non significant in TAU?+?GAL group) activities. These treatments did not alter hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU restored liver prooxidant status together with histopathological amelioration in GAL-induced liver damage. PMID:23872881

Kalaz, Esra Betül; Çoban, Jale; Ayd?n, A Fatih; Do?an-Ekici, I??n; Do?ru-Abbaso?lu, Semra; Öztezcan, Serdar; Uysal, Müjdat

2014-03-01

443

Protective Effect of FTY720 on Several Markers of Liver Injury Induced by Concanavalin A in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride (FTY720) is a novel agent with protective effect on several markers of liver injury. It is a chemical substance derived by modifying myriocin from the ascomycete Isaria sinclairii. It has been reported that FTY720 is able to treat autoimmune encephalomyelitis, renal cancer, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. More potent clinical applications of FTY720 need to be investigated. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of FTY720 on several markers of experimental liver injury and to investigate the possible mechanism of action. Methods Concanavalin A (Con A) at a dose of 15 mg/kg was intravenously. injected in mice, and 10 days before the Con A challenge, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, and 6 mg/kg of FTY720 were administered to mice. The liver injury was monitored biochemically by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels. TNF-? and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in liver tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. Results FTY720, when administered intragastrically for 10 days in mice with Con A–induced liver injury, dose-dependently reduced serum ALT and AST and TNF-? levels. The differences were statistically significant (P ? 0.05). It was also found that FTY720 decreases TNF-? and NF-?B protein expression in liver tissue. Conclusions FTY720 is able to improve several markers of Con A–induced liver injury in mice, including serum ALT, serum AST, TNF-?, and NF-?B, which might be at least in part related to its ability to reduce TNF-?/NF-?B cascade activity. PMID:24653516

Yin, Xiao-Dong; Jia, Pei-Jie; Pang, Yan; He, Jing-Hua

2012-01-01

444

Protective Effect of L-arginine Against Necrosis and Apoptosis Induced by Experimental Ischemic and Reperfusion in Rat Liver  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: To study the effect of L-arginine on apoptosis and necrosis induced by 1-h ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar rats underwent 60 min of partial liver ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated control group (I) (n = 6), ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) group (0.9% saline (5 mL/kg, orally) for 7 days) (II) (n = 6), and L-arginine-treated group (10 mg/kg body weight daily orally for 7 days before inducing ischemia-reperfusion maneuver) (III) (n = 6). Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes, nitric oxide levels in hepatocytes, Bcl-2 mRNA, and Bcl-2 protein were measured. Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), liver histopathology, and electron microscopy. Results: An ischemic and reperfusion hepatocellular injury occurred as was indicated by increased serum ALT, AST, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis and necrosis associated marker gene Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in I/R group. Pretreatment with L-arginine significantly decreased serum ALT and AST level and apoptotic and necrotic cells after 1 h ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Nitric oxide production in hepatocytes was increased twofold by L-arginine treatment when compared with I/R group. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in L-arginine-pretreated rats during the hepatic I/R. Conclusion: Thus, it may be concluded that L-arginine afforded significant protection from necrosis and apoptosis in I/R injury by upregulated Bcl-2 gene and nitric oxide production. PMID:19636175

Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Shukla, Gunjan; Wahi, Arun Kumar

2009-01-01

445

GB Virus C infection in Patients With HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Improvement of the Liver Function in Chronic Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV coinfection have shown that the presence of GBV-C is associated with significantly less compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, and an improvement in cirrhosis-free survival. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the effect of GBV-C in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV coinfection. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied 105 injecting drug users with chronic hepatitis C and HIV coinfection and 72 patients with chronic HCV mono-infections. Plasma samples were tested for GBV-C RNA with primers to the 5’untranslated region gene. HIV and HCV viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ cell count, and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were tested in all patients. Results: GBV-C RNA was identified in 34 (32.38%) of the patients with HIV/HCV coinfection, and in 24 (33.33%) of the patients with HCV mono-infection. GBV-C infection was associated with significantly lower ALT and AST levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV coinfection, but not in those HCV mono-infections. The presence of GBV-C infection was not correlated with CD4+ and CD8+ cell count, gender, age, HIV load, HCV load, and HCV genotype. Conclusions: This study found that GBV-C infection has a high frequency among injecting drug users with HIV/HCV coinfection and HCV mono-infection in Yunnan, China. In patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV coinfection, GBV-C RNA was associated with significantly lower ALT and AST levels, suggesting a beneficial effect of GBV-C infection on chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24693316

Feng, Yue; Liu, Li; Feng, Yue-Mei; Zhao, Wenhua; Li, Zheng; Zhang, A-Mei; Song, Yuzhu; Xia, Xueshan

2014-01-01

446

Resistance of metallothionein-III null mice to cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

We examined the sensitivity of metallothionein (MT)-III null mice to cadmium (Cd)-induced acute hepatotoxicity. MT-I/II null mice were also used to compare Cd toxicities between MT-III null mice and MT-I/II null mice. Male MT-I/II null mice, MT-III null mice and wild-type mice were given s.c. injection of Cd (5-20 micromol/kg) and then the blood and liver were collected from each mouse under ether anesthesia at 2 days after the administration. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities elevated by injection of Cd were significantly higher in the MT-I/II null mice than in the wild-type mice. In the MT-III null mice, ALT and AST activities were not elevated following the injection of Cd. Further, marked morphological changes such as necrosis of hepatocytes, severe hemorrhage and congestion were observed by injection of Cd in both MT-I/II null mice and wild-type mice, whereas the degree of injury was found to be more extensive in MT-I/II null mice. In contrast, only occasional damage was observed in the liver of MT-III null mice treated with the same dose of Cd. These morphological observations were consistent with the results of ALT and AST activities. In the present study, it was clearly found that MT-III null mice were resistant to Cd hepatotoxicity, although MT-I/II null mice were sensitive to its toxicity. MT-III may be an accelerative factor in Cd-induced acute hepatotoxicity. PMID:20371971

Honda, Akiko; Komuro, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Seko, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Akinori; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Hozumi, Isao; Inuzuka, Takashi; Hara, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Masahiko

2010-04-01

447

Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson’s staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

GUO, SHI-BIN; LI, QING; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; SUN, XIAO-YU

2015-01-01

448

[Alcohol and liver].  

PubMed

The first part of this article is devoted to the metabolism of alcohol and the mechanisms underlying its hepatotoxicity. The second part describes the clinical features of the various patterns of alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD). The third part focuses on the characteristics, semiological value, and limitations of serum markers used in ARLD. Tests used to screen for alcohol abuse (blood alcohol, MCV, GGT, CDT, and FAEE) differ from those used to monitor alcohol withdrawal and to detect early-stage liver disease (ALT, AST, ASTm, alphaGST, and redox status). PMID:10609275

Fontaine, H; Vassault, A; Nalpas, B

1999-11-01

449

Combined effects of alcohol and hepatitis C: a secondary analysis of alcohol use biomarkers and high-risk behaviors from two medication trials for alcohol dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives This goal of this secondary analysis was to examine the combined effect of HCV infection and recent alcohol use on baseline biologic markers of alcohol consumption in two outpatient medication trials for alcohol dependence. In addition, the relationship between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and behavioral risk factors for HCV infection in these clinical populations were examined. Methods Data (n = 345) from two randomized, placebo-controlled trials of naltrexone and psychosocial treatment for alcohol dependence (Study I, n = 212) and comorbid alcohol and cocaine dependence (Study II, n = 133) were used to examine baseline measures of HCV risk behaviors (injection drug use, needle sharing), and biomarkers of alcohol use (AST, ALT, GGT and CDT) were compared by HCV serostatus first within each study and then across studies. Results Although groups had differing sociodemographic profiles (as indicated by race, marital status, level of education) subjects in Study I exhibited no statistically significant differences from the Study II cohort in HCV prevalence (12.7 vs. 20.0 percent, p = 0.07), lifetime history of injection drug use (13.8 vs. 22.0%, p = 0.74), lifetime history of needle sharing (9.1 vs. 18.0 percent, p = 0.62). As such, the data from both studies were analyzed together. Regardless of drinking status, HCV infection was significantly associated with an upward shift in the baseline level of ALT, AST, and GGT (p<0.006 for all measures) and a downward shift in baseline CDT (p = 0.002). When using standard laboratory cutoff values to determine clinically significant elevations, HCV seropositivity was significantly associated with elevations in ALT, AST, GGT (p<0.001), and with decreases in CDT (p = .002). Conclusions These data emphasize the importance of evaluating HCV infection and HCV risk behaviors at intake in medication trials for alcohol dependence and also raise questions regarding the use of cut off scores for ALT, AST, GGT and CDT levels as biologic markers of alcohol use in subjects when HCV status is unknown. PMID:19783106

Plebani, Jennifer G.; Tirado, Carlos F.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Volpicelli, Joseph R.; Oslin, David W.

2009-01-01

450

[Non alcoholic fatty liver disease: treatment with soluble fibres].  

PubMed

The pilot study evaluated the efficiency of oral soluble fibers to treat patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Twelve patients received 10 g/day of soluble fibers during 3 months. After the treatment 100% of patients presented reduction in body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance index. In 66.7% of the patients were observed reduction of the cholesterol levels and 75% presented normal liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT). The present study suggests that oral soluble fibers may be useful to control risk factors and liver enzymes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, future studies with histological controls are considered necessary. PMID:18317656

Rocha, Raquel; Cotrim, Helma P; Siqueira, Ana Cristina; Floriano, Shirley

2007-01-01

451

Preliminary toxicity study on the individual and combined effects of Citrullus colocynthis and Nerium oleander in rats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of diet containing 10% of Citrullus colocynthis fruits or 10% of Nerium oleander leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5%+5%) for rats treated for 6 weeks was determined. Dullness, ruffled hair, decreased body weight gains and feed efficiency, and enterohepatonephropathy characterised treatment with C. colocynthis and N. oleander given alone. Diarrhoea was a prominent sign of C. colocynthis poisoning. Organ lesions were accompanied by leucopenia, anaemia and alterations in serum AST, ALT and ALP activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, bilirubin and other serum constituents. Feeding the mixture of C. colocynthis and N. oleander caused more marked effects and death of rats. PMID:10925008

Al-Yahya, M A; AL-Farhan, A H; Adam, S E

2000-08-01

452

Combined toxicity of Cassia senna and Citrullus colocynthis in rats.  

PubMed

Body weight loss, inefficiency of feed utilization, diarrhea, ruffled hair and enterohepatonephrotoxicity were effects on male Wistar rats fed diet containing 10% Cassia senna or 10% Citrullus colocynthis ripe fruits for 6w. Rats fed a 1:1 mixture (5% + 5%) of fruits from these plants were more adversely affected and had deaths than rats fed the individual plants. The changes associated with the macrocytic hypochromic anemia and leukopenia were increased serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, increased urea, and decreased total protein, albumin and calcium. Serum bilirubin concentration did not change. PMID:11308122

Adam, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

2001-04-01

453

Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Ceiba pentandra in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The claim by Nigerian traditional herbal medicine practitioners that the silk cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra L. Gaertn (Bombacaceae) barks extract has antidiabetic properties was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and graded doses of the aqueous bark extract were then administered ad libitum in drinking water to the experimentally diabetic rats for 28 days. Administration of the aqueous bark extract caused a statistically significant reduction in plasma glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract appeared non-toxic as evidenced by normal serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin. The data appear to support the hypoglycemic effects of C. pentandra. PMID:12648806

Ladeji, Olusola; Omekarah, Ikechukwu; Solomon, Mariam

2003-02-01

454

The influences of SE infection on layers' production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

2014-01-01

455

Validity of two different methods to detect liver injury.  

PubMed

Following single administration of carbon tetrachloride (p.o., 200 microliters/200 g) to female rats, activities of transaminases AST and ALT were determined from 1 hr to 7 days after the intoxication. At the same time intervals, aminopyrine breath test (ABT) was applied. The results indicate that marked decrease of ABT was observed within the first 3 hrs of exposition and lasted 24 hrs. On the other hand, statistically significant elevation of plasma enzymes was demonstrated from the 3rd hr of administration and lasted also 24 hrs. The results indicate that ABT reacts more rapidly to carbon tetrachloride administration than the changes of plasma transaminase. PMID:8165435

Skopec, F; Bajgar, J; Hûlek, P; Papík, Z

1993-01-01

456

A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L.  

PubMed

A new saponin, cristatain (1), together with four other saponins, celosin A (2), celosin B (3), celosin C (4) and celosin D (5) were isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. (Amaranthaceae). Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. For the first time, the saponins were found in C. cristata L. In addition, compound 1 exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, which were evidenced by significant decreases in the values of asparate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of serum and histopathological examinations compared to controls. PMID:20804825

Wang, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Wu, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Li

2010-12-01

457

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fraction of Stellaria media L.  

PubMed

Therapy of rats with CCl4 hepatitis with Stellaria media L. water-soluble polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduces serum activities of transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and the thymol test values. In the liver, the density of inflammatory infiltration of the organ parenchyma, total count of necrotic hepatocytes, fatty and protein degeneration are reducing. Hence, water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, isolated from the terrestrial part of Stellaria media L., is characterized by hepatoprotective activity. PMID:23658890

Gorina, Ya V; Saprykina, E V; Gereng, E A; Perevozchikova, T V; Krasnov, E A; Ivanova, E V; Fait, E A; Baranova, O V

2013-03-01

458

Hepatoprotective activity of tocha, the stems and leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata, and ampelopsin.  

PubMed

Hepatoprotective effect of the leaves and stems of Ampelopsis grossedentata together with its main constituent, ampelopsin, were examined on D-galactosamine induced liver injury in rats. The diet containing 50% ethanolic extract (1%) and ampelopsin (0.1%) markedly suppressed the increase of LDH, ALT, AST, alpha-tocopherol levels and GSG/GSSH caused by GalN treatment. These results suggested that ampelopsin from Tocha acted to prevent the oxidative stress in vivo that may have been due to active oxygen species formed by a macrophage by the action of GalN. PMID:15630194

Murakami, Toshiyuki; Miyakoshi, Masazumi; Araho, Daisuke; Mizutani, Kenji; Kambara, Toshimitsu; Ikeda, Takao; Chou, Wen-Hua; Inukai, Mihoko; Takenaka, Asako; Igarashi, Kiharu

2004-01-01

459

Comparative study of the hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of praziquantel distocide & the natural myrrh extract Mirazid on adult male albino rats.  

PubMed

Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely and effectively used in the control of bilharziasis which constitutes a major endemic health problem in Egypt. However, recent studies recommended that the drug must be re-evaluated because of its potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Mirazid is a new natural anti-schistosomal drug formed of myrrh extract and considered to be a safe drug. This work was conducted to evaluate and compare hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of PZQ and Mirazid on adult male albino rats by assessment of serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin, histopathological study of the liver and cytogenetic study of bone marrow cells. 100 adult male albino rats were equally divided into 4 groups: (I): negative control, (II): control rats received distilled water, (III): received weekly single oral dose of PZQ (1500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks, (IV): received daily oral dose of Mirazid (500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At the end of the study 10 rats of each group were investigated by assessment of the levels of AST, ALT, & Bilirubin. After scarification, liver sections were examined by light microscopy. Another 10 rats of each group were submitted to cytogenetic examination. It was found that praziquantel induced a significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin with areas of hyaline degeneration, fatty changes, dysplasia and necrosis in the liver sections. It also induced a significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations as polyploidy, fragment, deletion and ring chromosome as compared with control group. Mirazid induced a non significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a normal hepatic tissue, and a non significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations, as compared with the control group. On comparing both drugs, praziquantel induced a significant hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. It was concluded that, Praziquantel is considered to be a hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic drug. On the other hand, Mirazid seemed to be a safe and promising antiparasitic drug, free from hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. PMID:15881015

Omar, Ahmed; Elmesallamy, Ghada El-Said; Eassa, Shereen

2005-04-01

460

Co-occurrence of obesity and patterns of alcohol use associated with elevated serum hepatic enzymes in US adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to present nationally representative findings on the co-occurrence of obesity and specific patterns of alcohol use associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) among adults in the United States. We analyzed data from 8,373 adults aged ? 20 years who participated in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We produced prevalence ratios by using the co-occurrence of obesity (i.e., body mass index ? 30.0 kg/m(2) or waist circumference ? 102 cm in men and ? 88 cm in women) and specific patterns of alcohol use (i.e., non-drinkers, non-excessive drinkers, and excessive drinkers) as a predictor; elevations in serum ALT, AST, and GGT were used as an outcome variable while adjusting for covariates in multivariate regression models. Approximately 34.7% of adult men and 38.6% of adult women in the United States had co-occurrence of obesity and any alcohol use, including 16.4% of men and 9.8% of women who had co-occurrence of obesity and excessive drinking during 2005-2008. When compared to male non-drinkers without obesity after multivariate adjustment, male excessive drinkers with obesity were 3.08 (95% CI: 1.80-5.28), 2.42 (95% CI: 1.80-3.26), and 3.15 (95% CI: 1.82-5.46) times more likely to exhibit elevated serum ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. Similarly, when compared to female non-drinkers without obesity, female excessive drinkers with obesity were 2.36 (95% CI: 1.38-4.04), 3.27 (95% CI: 1.85-5.78), and 3.43 (95% CI: 2.19-5.40) times more likely to have elevated serum ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. The co-occurrence of obesity and excessive drinking may place adults at an increased risk for potential liver injury. Our study findings provide support for evidence-based clinical and population-based interventions that integrate health behavior change among adults who have these co-occurring risk factors. PMID:21626151

Tsai, James; Ford, Earl S; Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Greenlund, Kurt J; Croft, Janet B

2012-04-01

461

Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides  

SciTech Connect

Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

1993-01-01

462

[Biochemical and hematological values in the blood of the nutria].  

PubMed

Sixty-seven clinically healthy mature coypus were studied for some biochemical values in blood, 25 coypus were examined for the distribution of serum proteins and 20 ones for haematological values. Blood was sampled when the animals were killed and was examined by current laboratory methods. In comparison with the other animals, coypus had higher values of phosphorus and magnesium, and lower values of total protein and gamma globulins. The activity of enzymes (AST, ALT, GMT, ALP) was at the same level as in the other animals. Lower values of haemoglobin were found in coypus; the remaining haematological values are close to those in the other animals. PMID:6412418

Komárek, J

1983-01-01

463

Pharmacology of DB844, an Orally Active aza Analogue of Pafuramidine, in a Monkey Model of Second Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis  

E-print Network

the treat- ment period, then decreased transiently to a nadir at 48 h post dosing (43 DPI, Figure 5). Total bilirubin and direct bilirubin concentrations fluctuated in a pattern comparable to the transaminases (Figure 5), but none of the changes were... aminotransferase (AST,&), alanine aminotransfer