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1

Progressive Liver Functional Impairment Is Associated with an Increase in AST\\/ALT Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of serum aspartate aminotransferase toalanine aminotransferase (AST\\/ALT ratio) has beenproposed as a noninvasive method of assessing liverfibrosis and cirrhosis. Our aims were to confirm the usefulness of the AST\\/ALT ratio in diagnosingcirrhosis noninvasively as well as to verify theexistence of a relationship between the ratio and liverfunctional impairment. In all, 348 patients (177 with chronic hepatitis, 171 with

Edoardo Giannini; Federica Botta; Alberto Fasoli; Paola Ceppa; Domenico Risso; Pasquale Bruno Lantieri; Guido Celle; Roberto Testa

1999-01-01

2

Increased AST/ALT ratio in azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis.  

PubMed

The AST/ALT ratio was estimated in 182 dogs infected with Babesia canis. Among these dogs 65 had anaemia and 68 were azotaemic. Student's t test was used to compare means of the AST/ALT ratio in anaemic and non-anaemic dogs, and in azotaemic and non-azotaemic dogs (p < 0.05). The differences in AST/ALT ratio between anaemic (1.52 +/- 1.15) and non-anaemic (1.76 +/- 1.34) dogs were statistically insignificant (p = 0.23), however, the comparison of AST/ALT ratio between azotaemic (2.68 +/- 1.52) and non-azotaemic (1.08 +/- 0.53) dogs revealed a significantly higher value of this index in azotaemic dogs (p = 0.00). The present results suggest that kidney injury contributed to increased AST activity in these dogs. PMID:23214368

Zygner, W; Gójska-Zygner, O; Norbury, L J; Wedrychowicz, H

2012-01-01

3

The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.  

PubMed

High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age. PMID:23580007

van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

2013-07-01

4

Liver Enzymes: Interaction Analysis of Smoking with Alcohol Consumption or BMI, Comparing AST and ALT to ?-GT  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum ?-glutamyltransferase (?-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine

Lutz P. Breitling; Volker Arndt; Christoph Drath; Hermann Brenner

2011-01-01

5

ALTS  

Cancer.gov

ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. Organized and funded by the National Cancer Institute, ALTS included more than 5,000 women. It began in November 1996 and concluded at the end of 2000.

6

Need for validation of clinical decision aids: use of the AST\\/ALT ratio in predicting cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:A value of ?1 for the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (the AST\\/ALT ratio or AAR) has been shown to have a positive predictive value of 100% for the diagnosis of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. If validated on separate cohorts, an AAR ?1 might obviate the need for liver biopsy in some patients with hepatitis

Thomas F Imperiale; Areen T Said; Oscar W Cummings; Lawrence J Born

2000-01-01

7

Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Inhibition Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Increases Gene Transcription via Ire1?/cJun to Enhance Plasma ALT/AST*  

PubMed Central

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a target to reduce plasma lipids because of its indispensable role in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein biosynthesis. MTP inhibition in Western diet fed mice decreased plasma triglycerides/cholesterol, whereas increasing plasma alanine/aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) and hepatic triglycerides/free cholesterol. Free cholesterol accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria resulting in ER and oxidative stresses. Mechanistic studies revealed that MTP inhibition increased transcription of the GPT/GOT1 genes through up-regulation of the IRE1?/cJun pathway leading to increased synthesis and release of ALT1/AST1. Thus, transcriptional up-regulation of GPT/GOT1 genes is a major mechanism, in response to ER stress, elevating plasma transaminases. Increases in plasma and tissue transaminases might represent a normal response to stress for survival.

Josekutty, Joby; Iqbal, Jahangir; Iwawaki, Takao; Kohno, Kenji; Hussain, M. Mahmood

2013-01-01

8

Enzimas salivales y enfermedad periodontal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. There are important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death like: aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine cinase (CK), alkaline and acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), gama glutamil transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect

Tatjana Todorovic; Ivan Dozic; Mario Vicente Barrero; Besir Ljuskovic; Janko Pejovic; Marjan Marjanovic

9

ALT/Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

2013-01-01

10

AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

2014-04-01

11

AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a we...

M. Karal

2001-01-01

12

ALTE News, 1992-1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first four volumes, comprised of newsletters published during the period of August 1992-January 1996, of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) include articles on: the origins, aims, activities, and membership of the organization; conference activities; development of language testing standards and procedures; guidelines for…

ALTE News, 1996

1996-01-01

13

Faraday diagnostics for ALT3  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this

David M Oro; Leonard J Tabaka

2011-01-01

14

Comparison of Histologic Characteristics of Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistently Normal or Mildly Elevated ALT  

PubMed Central

Liver disease can develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) who seldom undergo liver biopsy. We aimed to determine histologic characteristics of a large cohort of Chinese CHB patients undergoing liver biopsy and to evaluate the utility of ALT and HBV DNA values at the time of biopsy in predicting liver disease in this population. This prospective study enrolled 230 treatment-naïve patients with persistently normal or mildly elevated ALT. All patients had a liver biopsy. ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and HBV DNA levels were some of the other parameters measured. Using Scheuer's classification, significant histology was defined as stage ?2 fibrosis and/or stage 1 fibrosis plus? grade 2 inflammation. Liver disease was observed in 34.4% and 61.8% of patients with normal ALT and mildly elevated ALT, respectively. Patients with mildly elevated ALT levels had significantly more events, including liver disease, elevated AST, and moderate to severe inflammation and liver fibrosis, than patients with normal ALT (all P?0.005). A total of 107 patients (46.5%) had liver disease and 123 (53.5%) did not. PLT and ALT were significantly associated with liver disease (both P<0.001). Patients with elevated ALT, lower platelet count and HBV DNA < 7 log10copies/mL may have histologically significant changes associated with liver disease. Multivariate analysis showed that PLT and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with normal ALT while gender and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with mildly elevated ALT. Assessing liver damage via biopsy in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT may help to identify those who would benefit from antiviral therapy.

Wang, Hong; Xue, Li; Yan, Rong; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Mei-Juan; Hai-Jun Huang

2013-01-01

15

AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

Karal, Michael

2001-01-01

16

Elements of F-ast proton decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gauge coupling unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) strongly suggests the existence of a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), which could be probed by the observation of proton decay. Proton lifetime in the p?(? dimension six mode is proportional in the fourth power to the GUT mass scale, and inversely proportional in the fourth power to the GUT coupling. Flipped SU(5) with strict MSSM field content is known to survive existing null detection limits for proton decay approaching 10 years, and indeed, the lifetime predicted by prior studies can be so long that successful detection is not currently plausible. We provide an updated dictionary of solutions for the relevant flipped unification parameters with generic ?-function coefficients, significantly upgrading the level of detail with which second order effects are treated, and correcting subtle published errors. Recently studied classes of F-theory derived GUT models postulate additional vector-like multiplets at the TeV scale which modify the renormalization group to yield a substantial increase in the SU(3×SU(2 unified coupling. In conjunction with the naturally depressed F-lipped SU(5) partial unification mass M, the F-resh analysis undertaken predicts comparatively F-ast proton decay which only narrowly evades existing detection limits, and likely falls within the observable range of proposed next generation detectors such as DUSEL and Hyper-Kamiokande. The TeV-scale vector multiplets are themselves suitable for cross correlation by the Large Hadron Collider. Their presence moreover magnifies the gap between the dual mass scales of Flipped SU(5), allowing for an elongated second stage renormalization, pushing the F-inal grand unification to the doorstep of the reduced Planck mass.

Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

2011-05-01

17

ALTS Trial Design and Study Centers  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiologic, virologic and molecular studies have clearly demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central cause of cervical cancer. The motivation for the ALTS trial was to use the information we have gained about the role of HPV to design better treatment and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of cervical cancer and its precursors.

18

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section...1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. (a) Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

19

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section...1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. (a) Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device intended...

2009-04-01

20

PhAst: A Flexible IDL Astronomical Image Viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present near-Earth asteroid data analyzed with PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer based on the existing application ATV. PhAst opens, displays, and analyzes an arbitrary number of FITS images. Analysis packages include image calibration, photometry, and astrometry (provided through an interface with SExtractor, SCAMP, and missFITS). PhAst has been designed to generate reports for Minor Planet Center reporting. PhAst is cross platform (Linux/Mac OSX/Windows for image viewing and Linux/Mac OSX for image analysis) and can be downloaded from the following website at NOAO: http://www.noao.edu/staff/mighell/phast/. Rehnberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, R.; Trueblood, M.; Mighell, K.

2012-01-01

21

ALT3 Target & CMU Version 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC\\/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of

Jeffrey R Griego; Walter L. Atchison; David Holtkamp; David M. Oro; Robert E. Reinovsky; Christopher L. Rousculp; Leonard J. Tabaka

2012-01-01

22

ALT-3 target design and simulations  

SciTech Connect

ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

Peterson, Jeffrey H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-12

23

New Features in AST: A WCS Management and Manipulation Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in the AST library are described, including a Python interface, support for the FITS-WCS “-TAB” system for storing tabular co-ordinate information, and extended support for representing distortions in spatial projections, using several schemes in common use (IRAF TNX/ZPX, Spitzer SIP, NOAO TPV and SCAMP).

Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.

2012-09-01

24

Paralogous ALT1 and ALT2 Retention and Diversification Have Generated Catalytically Active and Inactive Aminotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence of paralogous pairs play a central role in the evolution of novel gene functions. S. cerevisiae possesses two paralogous genes (ALT1/ALT2) which presumably encode alanine aminotransferases. It has been previously shown that Alt1 encodes an alanine aminotransferase, involved in alanine metabolism; however the physiological role of Alt2 is not known. Here we investigate whether ALT2 encodes an active alanine aminotransferase. Principal Findings Our results show that although ALT1 and ALT2 encode 65% identical proteins, only Alt1 displays alanine aminotransferase activity; in contrast ALT2 encodes a catalytically inert protein. ALT1 and ALT2 expression is modulated by Nrg1 and by the intracellular alanine pool. ALT1 is alanine-induced showing a regulatory profile of a gene encoding an enzyme involved in amino acid catabolism, in agreement with the fact that Alt1 is the sole pathway for alanine catabolism present in S. cerevisiae. Conversely, ALT2 expression is alanine-repressed, indicating a role in alanine biosynthesis, although the encoded-protein has no alanine aminotransferase enzymatic activity. In the ancestral-like yeast L. kluyveri, the alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the presence of alanine than in the presence of ammonium, suggesting that as for ALT1, LkALT1 expression could be alanine-induced. ALT2 retention poses the questions of whether the encoded protein plays a particular function, and if this function was present in the ancestral gene. It could be hypotesized that ALT2 diverged after duplication, through neo-functionalization or that ALT2 function was present in the ancestral gene, with a yet undiscovered function. Conclusions ALT1 and ALT2 divergence has resulted in delegation of alanine aminotransferase activity to Alt1. These genes display opposed regulatory profiles: ALT1 is alanine-induced, while ALT2 is alanine repressed. Both genes are negatively regulated by the Nrg1 repressor. Presented results indicate that alanine could act as ALT2 Nrg1-co-repressor.

Penalosa-Ruiz, Georgina; Aranda, Cristina; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Colon, Maritrini; Quezada, Hector; Gonzalez, Alicia

2012-01-01

25

Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.4 and 0.4{<=}x{<=}0.6). Fractional concentrations of Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds in the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses calculated using experimental Raman data. The solid lines represent predictions of the dissociation model assuming that the main chemically ordered structural units are related to AsTe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The partial bond fractions were derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An empirical quantitative approach to the Raman data was proposed for the reaction modeling.

Tverjanovich, A., E-mail: andr.tver@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rodionov, K. [Department of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bychkov, E. [Universite du Littoral Cote d'Opale, 59140 Dunkerque (France)

2012-06-15

26

High sensitivity 810 GHz SIS receivers at AST/RO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2003 the heterodyne receivers WANDA (polarization diplexed 492/810 GHz) and PoleSTAR (2x2 810 GHz array) of AST/RO (Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory, located at the South Pole) were upgraded with new 810 GHz SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) waveguide mixers from KOSMA. Profiting from device development for the HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared) Band 2 SIS mixers of the Herschel Space Observatory, a factor of approx. 2 improvement in receiver noise temperature (from 1100 K to 550 K DSB) was achieved with WANDA. The SIS mixer devices employ low-loss NbTiN-Al tuning circuits and are fabricated using electron beam lithographic junction area definition and CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) of the tuning circuit dielectric. With the South Pole being one of the best possible sites for ground-based submillimeter astronomy, the 1.7 m telescope currently makes AST/RO well suited for sensitive, large scale spectral line mapping at 810 GHz. Low atmospheric opacity (tau < 1) and, consequently, very low system noise temperatures (< 3000 K) are regularly achieved at 810 GHz, making AST/RO an extremely sensitive observatory at these frequencies. "First light" astronomical measurements made with the upgraded 810 GHz channel of WANDA towards the galactic HII region NGC 3576 in CO J=7-6 (806.65 GHz) and the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 (809.3 GHz) lines are presented.

Pütz, Patrick; Glenz, Stefan; Teipen, Rafael; Tils, Thomas; Honingh, Netty; Jacobs, Karl; Hedden, Abigail; Kulesa, Craig; Groppi, Christopher E.; Walker, Christopher K.

2004-10-01

27

Submillimeter Astronomy from the South Pole (AST/RO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO), a 1.7 m diameter offset Gregorian telescope for astronomy and aeronomy studies at wavelengths between 200 and 2000 ?m, saw first light in 1995 and operated until 2005. It was the first radio telescope to operate continuously throughout the winter on the Antarctic Plateau. It served as a site testing instrument and prototype for later instruments, as well as executing a wide variety of scientific programs that resulted in six doctoral theses and more than one hundred scientific publications. The South Pole environment is unique among observatory sites for unusually low wind speeds, low absolute humidity, and the consistent clarity of the submillimeter sky. Especially significant are the exceptionally low values of sky noise found at this site, a result of the small water vapor content of the atmosphere. Multiple submillimeter-wave and Terahertz detector systems were in operation on AST/RO, including heterodyne and bolometric arrays. AST/RO's legacy includes comprehensive submillimeter-wave site testing of the South Pole, spectroscopic studies of 492 GHz and 809 GHz neutral atomic carbon and 460 GHz and 806 GHz carbon monoxide in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds, and the first detection of the 1.46 THz [N II] line from a ground-based observatory.

Stark, Antony A.

2013-01-01

28

Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

29

75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...previously Utah State University); AST, Inc. (previously Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services, and Erickson Air-Crane...Previously Utah State University); AST, Inc. (Previously Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services, and Erickson...

2010-07-08

30

Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sub-wavelength lithography, light field Alt-PSM (Alternating Phase Shifting Mask) is an essential technology for poly layer printability. In a standard cell based design, the problem of obtaining Alt-PSM compliance for an individual cell layout has been solved well [3]. However, placing Alt-PSM compliant cells together can not guarantee Alt-PSM compliance of the entire chip/block layout due to phase interactions among adjacent cells. A simple solution to this Alt-PSM composability problem is to wrap blank area around each cell, which is very inefficient on chip area usage. In this paper, we formulate the composability problem as a graph model and propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm to achieve Alt-PSM composability with the least impact on cell layout.

Cao, Ke; Hu, Jiang; Cheng, Mosong

2004-05-01

31

The AST/RO Survey of the Galactic Center Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the strongly excited gas near the center of our own galaxy, detailed surveys in a variety of higher excitation states are required. To aid in this effort, the Antarctic Sub-millimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO, a 1.7m diameter sub-millimeter-wave telescope at the geographic South Pole) has completed a fully sampled survey of CO(7-6), CO(4-3), [CI](3P2-3P1), and [CI](3P1-3P0) in a three square degree region around the Galactic Center (Martin et al., ApJS, 150, 239 (2004)). In addition to this dataset, AST/RO has recently completed a survey area around Clump 1 and 2, thus covering the bulk of strongly excited gas near the center of the galaxy. This dataset comprises nearly a million distinct telescope pointings over many square degrees of the sky. To handle a sub-mm dataset of this size required the development of new automated observational methodologies, reduction techniques, and visualizations. These interactive 3D visualizations and movies of the full dataset will be presented to illustrate the wealth of information available.

Martin, C. L.; Walsh, W. M.; Xiao, K.; Tothill, N. F.; Harnett, J.; Lane, A. P.; Stark, A. A.

2006-08-01

32

The AST/RO Survey of the Galactic Center Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the strongly excited gas near the center of our own galaxy, detailed surveys in a variety of higher excitation states are required. To aid in this effort, the Antarctic Sub-millimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO, a 1.7m diameter sub-millimeter-wave telescope at the geographic South Pole) has completed a fully sampled survey of CO(7-6), CO(4-3), [CI](3P2-3P1), and [CI](3P1-3P0) in a three square degree region around the Galactic Center (Martin et al., ApJS, 150, 239 (2004)). In addition to this dataset, AST/RO has recently completed a survey area around Clump 1 and 2, thus covering the bulk of strongly excited gas near the center of the galaxy. To fully illustrate the range of information available in this extensive dataset, a series of interactive 3D visualizations and movies will presented.

Martin, C. L.; Ast/Ro Telescope Team

2006-08-01

33

Expression and Purification of a Functional Recombinant Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST; E.C. 2.6.1.1), a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, preferentially promotes the mutual transformation of aspartate and ?-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. It plays a key role in amino acid metabolism and has been widely recommended as a biomarker of liver and heart damage. Our study aimed to evaluate the extensive preparation of AST and its application in quality control in clinical laboratories. We describe a scheme to express and purify the 6His-AST fusion protein. An optimized sequence coding AST was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression. Ideally, the fusion protein has a volumetric productivity achieving 900 mg/l cultures. After affinity chromatography, the enzyme activity of purified AST reached 150,000 U/L. Commutability assessment between the engineered AST and standard AST from Roche suggested that the engineered AST was the better candidate for the reference material. Moreover, the AST showed high stability during long-term storage at -20ºC. In conclusion, the highly soluble 6His-tagged AST can become a convenient tool for supplying a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for the clinical laboratory. PMID:24722375

Zou, Lihui; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Daguang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Xiao, Fei

2014-06-28

34

ASTE Surveys of Galactic Star-Forming Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report some recent highlights on the observational studies of Galactic star formation based on surveys using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), a new 10 m telescope in the Atacama desert in northern Chile (Kohno et al., 2008, ApSS, 313, 279). The highlights will include (1) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Galactic Center, unveiling the presence of numerous compact high velocity clouds with high CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios as a "fossil” of the recent burst of star formation in the Galactic Center region (Oka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 15; Nagai et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 25; Tanaka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 323), (2) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Sgr arm and inter-am regions, revealing the distinct difference on the morphology and physical property of molecular gas between the arm and inter-arm regions for the first time (Sawada, Koda, et al., in prep.), and (3) a wide area 1.1 mm imaging survey of Southern low mass star-forming regions such as Chamaeleon and Lupus molecular clouds using the bolometer camera AzTEC (Wilson et al., 2008, MNRAS, in press) mounted on ASTE, yielding detections of starless cores with a very low mass detection limist down to 0.1 solar masses (Hiramatsu, Tsukagoshi, Kawabe et al., in prep.). Related topics on the massive star-forming regions in very nearby galaxies such as LMC (Minamidani et al., 2008, ApJS, in press) and M 33 (Tosaki et al., 2007, ApJ, 664, L27; Onodera et al., in prep.; Komugi et al., in prep.) will also be reviewed.

Kohno, Kotaro

2008-05-01

35

PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers  

SciTech Connect

This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

1988-08-01

36

Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) reference ranges estimated from blood donors.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that an increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity in blood donors may identify infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis. To facilitate identification of such donors, the reference range for ALT was measured on a Technicon SMAC 1 Analyser, using serum from 364 blood donors and 567 plasmapheresis donors. The distribution of ALT activities displayed a positive skewness, and so both logarithmic transformation and subsequent calculation of mean and standard deviation as well as non-parametric analysis were used to obtain best estimates of reference ranges for men and women, 5-65 IU/1 and 5-35 IU/1, respectively. ALT activities were found to be higher in plasmapheresis donors than in normal blood donors of both sexes, and it is postulated that this difference may be related to the increased frequency of donation in the former group.

Goldie, D J; McConnell, A A

1990-01-01

37

AltMove Manager 2.1.4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AltMove Manager doesn't reinvent the mouse, but it certainly enhances its general functionality. With AltMove Manager, users can quickly and easily minimize and restore windows, grab screenshots, and even magnify a window under the mouse. Visitors can also consult the Actions menu to add a few more functions, if they wish to do so. This version is compatible with computers running Windows NT and newer.

2008-10-24

38

Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

39

ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation  

SciTech Connect

The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

Newberry, B.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Noda, N. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

1994-08-01

40

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

2012-04-01

41

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the enzyme aspartate amino transferase (AST) (also known as a serum glutamic oxaloacetic transferase or SGOT) in serum and plasma. Aspartate amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of liver and heart...

2013-04-01

42

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section...1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. (a) Identification. An alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system is a device intended...

2009-04-01

43

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section...1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. (a) Identification. An alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

44

Microtitre plate method for alanine transferase (ALT) assays.  

PubMed Central

A kinetic assay for alanine transferase (ALT) using microtitre plates and commercially available reagents was developed to retain the advantages conferred by multichannel and semiautomated equipment. The time taken to assay 92 samples was less than 10 minutes, and costs of apparatus and reagents compared favourably with most current methods. Although reactions became non-linear above 120 IU/l-1, higher concentrations were "flagged" and accuracy was satisfactory below this point.

Archer, A C; Green, D F; Buckland, E J

1988-01-01

45

Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-?1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression.

Inami, Yuko; Hamada, Chieko; Seto, Takuya; Hotta, Yoko; Aruga, Seiki; Inuma, Jiro; Azuma, Kosuke; Kaneko, Kayo; Watada, Hirotaka

2014-01-01

46

AST1306, a potent EGFR inhibitor, antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

AST1306, an inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2, is currently in phase I of clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of AST306 on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We found that AST1306 significantly sensitized the ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-overexpressing cells to ABCG2 substrate chemotherapeutics. AST1306 significantly increased intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells by blocking ABCG2 efflux function. Moreover, AST1306 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of AST1306 to be within the transmembrane region of ABCG2. In conclusion, AST1306 could notably reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:24747122

Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, De-Shen; Kathawala, Rishil J; Patel, Atish; Talele, Tanaji T; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-Wu

2014-08-01

47

Initial ALT-I pump limiter studies on TEXOR  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I pump limiter has been used to control the fueling and recycling characteristics of TEXTOR during stable, reproducible tokamak discharges. The module has been operated in three modes: (1) Normal Limiter, with no particle collection, (2) Particle Scoop, with a maximum approx. 2 x 10/sup -3/ torr pressure rise in the 700 liter unpumped collection chamber, and (3) Pump Limiter, with up to approx. 10,000 1/s pumping speed and particle removal rates of up to 6 x 10/sup 20//s. In a comparison of operation in modes (1) and (3) using identical gas fueling programs, the total core electron number decreased by as much as 50%. The effective TEXTOR particle confinement time, tau/sub p/* = tau/sub p//(1-R), was decreased by a similar ratio. Within the throat region, during typical operation, electron densities and temperatures were 6 x 10/sup 11/ to 2 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 3/ and 15 to 30 eV. These conditions are representative of an operating regime in which there is high reionization of neutrals, but no change in incoming plasma parameters in the throat region. Energetic particles near the deflector plate were observed. During a gradual insertion of TiC-coated ALT-I beyond the stainless steel TEXTOR main limiters, the density of Ti in the plasma increased to a level similar to those of Cr and Fe. The gas injection fueling efficiency while puffing hydrogen directly into the plasma at the pump limiter tangency point was measured to be > 0.9. These results are discussed in conjunction with measurements of particle flows within ALT-I and other plasma diagnostics to characterize pump limiter operation on TEXTOR.

Pontau, A.E.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.; Watson, R.D.; Gauster, W.B.; Campbell, G.A.; Goebel, D.M.

1984-05-01

48

Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

1976-01-01

49

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

1993-08-31

50

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

1995-10-10

51

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1995-10-10

52

PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

2012-12-01

53

Evaluation of the Alfred 60/AST Device as a Screening Test for Urinary Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

The performance of the Alfred 60/AST device, an automated bacterial culture device which uses laser nephelometry to detect and quantify bacterial growth, was evaluated. The instrument is effective at screening negative samples and is more reliable at detecting bacteria than yeasts. Microscopy can be used to reduce the false-negative numbers.

Stathopoulos, George; Chan, Raymond C.; van Hal, Sebastiaan J.

2013-01-01

54

76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas. The Draft EA was...Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, TX. The Grasshopper...landing vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city...the Draft EA on the FAA/AST Web site at...

2011-09-27

55

Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

1983-10-01

56

Determinants of serum ALT normalization after phlebotomy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Phlebotomy is performed to reduce excessive iron accumulation in hepatic tissue. We studied serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization rates and 50% reduction in initial serum ALT (ALT50% reduction rate) in patients with hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and investigated the factors that influenced the response to phlebotomy therapy. Methods. We evaluated 23 consecutive patients with HCV infection who underwent

Yusuke Kawamura; Norio Akuta; Hitomi Sezaki; Tetsuya Hosaka; Takashi Someya; Masahiro Kobayashi; Fumitaka Suzuki; Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Satoshi Saitoh; Yasuji Arase; Kenji Ikeda; Hiromitsu Kumada

2005-01-01

57

Quick look analysis of an emergency separation for ALT captive-inert flight 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency separation capability for the landing configuration of ALT Captive Inert Flight Number One was investigated. The quick look analysis confirms emergency separation capability under nominal conditions for the ALT landing configuration. The recommended emergency separation procedure under those conditions is not applicable to all ALT configurations.

Glenn, G. M.; Seale, R. H.

1977-01-01

58

The Uremic Toxin Adsorbent AST-120 Abrogates Cardiorenal Injury Following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

An accelerated progressive decline in renal function is a frequent accompaniment of myocardial infarction (MI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin that accumulates from the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is contributory to both renal and cardiac fibrosis. IS levels can be reduced by administration of the oral adsorbent AST-120, which has been shown to ameliorate pathological renal and cardiac fibrosis in moderate to severe CKD. However, the cardiorenal effect of AST-120 on less severe renal dysfunction in the post-MI setting has not previously been well studied. MI-induced Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either AST-120 (MI+AST-120) or were untreated (MI+Vehicle) for 16 weeks. Serum IS levels were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Echocardiography and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed prior to sacrifice. Renal and cardiac tissues were assessed for pathological changes using histological and immunohistochemical methods, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Compared with sham, MI+Vehicle animals had a significant reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (by 42%, p<0.001) and fractional shortening (by 52%, p<0.001) as well as lower GFR (p<0.05) and increased serum IS levels (p<0.05). A significant increase in interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex was demonstrated in MI+Vehicle animals (p<0.001). Compared with MI+Vehicle, MI+AST-120 animals had increased GFR (by 13.35%, p<0.05) and reduced serum IS (p<0.001), renal interstitial fibrosis (p<0.05), and renal KIM-1, collagen-IV and TIMP-1 expression (p<0.05). Cardiac function did not change with AST-120 treatment, however gene expression of TGF-?1 and TNF-? as well as collagen-I and TIMP-1 protein expression was decreased in the non-infarcted myocardium (p<0.05). In conclusion, reduction of IS attenuates cardio-renal fibrotic processes in the post-MI kidney. KIM-1 appears to be a sensitive renal injury biomarker in this setting and is correlated with serum IS levels.

Lekawanvijit, Suree; Kumfu, Sirinart; Wang, Bing H.; Manabe, Minako; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Kelly, Darren J.; Krum, Henry; Kompa, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

59

Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1 - a unique, ?-barrel protein dimer exclusively found in fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique ?-barrel comprising 11 ?-strands and forms a ‘butterfly-like’ dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (1345Å2) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric ?-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients.

Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Pomes, Anna; Minor, Wladek

2012-01-01

60

Protein restriction and AST120 improve lipoprotein lipase and VLDL receptor in focal glomerulosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein restriction and AST-120 improve lipoprotein lipase and VLDL receptor in focal glomerulosclerosis.BackgroundImai rats exhibit spontaneous focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) with progressive proteinuria and hyperlipidemia leading to renal insufficiency by age 34 weeks. Recently, we reported marked down-regulations of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor in male Imai rats at 32 weeks of

Tadashi Sato; Kaihui Liang; Nosratola D. Vaziri

2003-01-01

61

Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

1976-01-01

62

The effect of AST-120 on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of metoprolol extended-release tablets in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: This was a randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study to assess the effects of AST-120 (an orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent acting in the gastrointestinal tract without systemic circulation) on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of metoprolol in an extended-release formulation (metoprolol ER) in healthy volunteers. Methods: A total of 34 subjects were singly administered metoprolol ER alone (A), and metoprolol ER in combination with AST-120 simultaneously (B) and 1 h later (C). Results: The total exposure was more significantly reduced in both treatments B and C than that in treatment A; the geometric mean ratios of area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-?) for B/A and C/A were reduced by approximately 30% in both treatments B and C. Maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) of metoprolol in treatment B significantly decreased, whereas Cmax in treatment C was slightly decreased. AST-120 treatment was unlikely to affect apparent first-order terminal elimination half-life (T1/2) of metoprolol significantly. Reduction in heart rate and blood pressure readings were similar across the treatment periods. Coadministration of AST-120 and metoprolol ER was safe and was well tolerated. Conclusions: Because AST-120 reduced gastrointestinal absorption of metoprolol ER, careful monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure is recommended in coadministration of AST-120 with metoprolol ER. PMID:24643911

Inoue, Shinsuke; Shimizu, Miho; Arita, Kiyoshi; Akimoto, Kei

2014-06-01

63

AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees  

PubMed Central

A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php.

Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

2014-01-01

64

I&ast; (6s4P) Collisional quenching: Application to the IF 491-nm laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room-temperature rate constants for quenching of I&ast; (4P) atoms in binary collisions with Ar, Xe, NF3, UF6, and CF3I have been measured to be ≲2×10?13, (8.3±0.5)×10?11, (2.6±0.5)×10?11, (5.8±0.4)×10?10, and (3.8±0.4)×10?10 cm3 sec?1, respectively. These constants were obtained by examining the exponential time decay of the IF (D??A?) fluorescence in the afterglow of electron beam produced plasmas containing Ar, CF3I,

S. B. Hutchison; J. T. Verdeyen; J. G. Eden

1981-01-01

65

ELEFUNT test results under AST Fortran V1. 8. 0 on the Sequent Symmetry  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses testing of the floating-point arithmetic and of the elementary function libraries under AST Fortran on a 24-processor Sequent Symmetry computer. The programs MACHAR and PARANOIA were used to check the quality of arithmetic, and the ELEFUNT suite of programs from the book Software Manual for the Elementary Functions by Cody and Waite was used to check function performance. Two complete sets of tests were run, one for each type of floating-point processor, Intel 80387 and Weitek 1167, on the machine. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

Cody, W.J.

1990-07-01

66

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap): A new FP7 program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity) is a collaborative project which pretends to provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in space science and astrobiology. The goals of the project will be: (i) to pose big questions that could be tackled by space missions: and (ii) the identification of those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure will include the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable would be a Roadmap document.

Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M. T.

2012-09-01

67

Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect

Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II.

Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

1983-01-01

68

Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed to (1) characterize the clinical and histologic features of those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, (2) compare the spectrum of NAFLD associated with normal versus elevated ALT levels, and (3) determine whether there were differences in the clinical or histologic spectrum of NAFLD between those with a low

Pouneh Mofrad; Melissa J. Contos; Mahmadul Haque; Carol Sargeant; Robert A. Fisher; Velimir A. Luketic; Richard K. Sterling; Mitchell L. Shiffman; Richard T. Stravitz; Arun J. Sanyal

2003-01-01

69

Variant repeats are interspersed throughout the telomeres and recruit nuclear receptors in ALT cells  

PubMed Central

Telomeres in cells that use the recombination-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway elicit a DNA damage response that is partly independent of telomere length. We therefore investigated whether ALT telomeres contain structural abnormalities that contribute to ALT activity. Here we used next generation sequencing to analyze the DNA content of ALT telomeres. We discovered that variant repeats were interspersed throughout the telomeres of ALT cells. We found that the C-type (TCAGGG) variant repeat predominated and created a high-affinity binding site for the nuclear receptors COUP-TF2 and TR4. Nuclear receptors were directly recruited to telomeres and ALT-associated characteristics were induced after incorporation of the C-type variant repeat by a mutant telomerase. We propose that the presence of variant repeats throughout ALT telomeres results from recombination-mediated telomere replication and spreading of variant repeats from the proximal regions of the telomeres and that the consequent binding of nuclear receptors alters the architecture of telomeres to facilitate further recombination.

Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D.; Hills, Mark; Neumann, Axel A.; Bryan, Tracy M.

2012-01-01

70

Topotactic conversion of ?-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.  

PubMed

AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (?-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1)?hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2)?dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. PMID:24431158

Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

2014-02-10

71

Boeing 747 jet aircraft modified for use during Space Shuttle ALT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Boeing 747 jet aircraft, modified for use by NASA for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is seen in flight. Note the added structural supports atop the huge aircraft. The Shuttle Orbiter will ride 'piggy-back' atop the NASA 747 for the ALTs. Also, the NASA 747 will be used to transport Orbiters to the Space Shuttle Launch sites. Three much smaller T-38 jet trainer planes follow behind the big plane.

1977-01-01

72

Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus  

PubMed Central

The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion.

Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

73

Determination of the Structure of the Catabolic N-Succinylornithine Transaminase (AstC) from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli possesses two acyl ornithine aminotransferases, one catabolic (AstC) and the other anabolic (ArgD), that participate in L-arginine metabolism. Although only 58% identical, the enzymes have been shown to be functionally interchangeable. Here we have purified AstC and have obtained X-ray crystal structures of apo and holo-AstC and of the enzyme complexed with its physiological substrate, succinylornithine. We compare the structures obtained in this study with those of ArgD from Salmonella typhimurium obtained elsewhere, finding several notable differences. Docking studies were used to explore the docking modes of several substrates (ornithine, succinylornithine and acetylornithine) and the co-substrate glutamate/?-ketogluterate. The docking studies support our observations that AstC has a strong preference for acylated ornithine species over ornithine itself, and suggest that the increase in specificity associated with acylation is caused by steric and desolvation effects rather than specific interactions between the substrate and enzyme.

Newman, Janet; Seabrook, Shane; Surjadi, Regina; Williams, Charlotte C.; Lucent, Del; Wilding, Matthew; Scott, Colin; Peat, Thomas S.

2013-01-01

74

Telomeric DNA in ALT Cells Is Characterized by Free Telomeric Circles and Heterogeneous t-Loops  

PubMed Central

A prerequisite for cellular immortalization in human cells is the elongation of telomeres through the upregulation of telomerase or by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. In this study, telomere structure in multiple ALT cell lines was examined by electron microscopy. Nuclei were isolated from GM847, GM847-Tert, and WI-38 VA13 ALT cells, psoralen photo-cross-linked in situ, and the telomere restriction fragments were purified by gel filtration chromatography. Examination of telomere-enriched fractions revealed frequent extrachromosomal circles, ranging from 0.7 to 56.8 kb. t-loops were also observed, with the loop portion ranging from 0.5 to 70.2 kb. The total length of the loop plus tail of the t-loops corresponded to the telomere restriction fragment length from the ALT cell lines as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The presence of extrachromosomal circles containing telomeric DNA was confirmed by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These results show that extrachromosomal telomeric DNA circles are present in ALT nuclei and suggest a roll-and-spread mechanism of telomere elongation similar to that seen in previous observations of multiple yeast species. Results presented here also indicate that expression of telomerase in GM847 cells does not affect t-loop or extrachromosomal circle formation.

Cesare, Anthony J.; Griffith, Jack D.

2004-01-01

75

Telomeric DNA in ALT cells is characterized by free telomeric circles and heterogeneous t-loops.  

PubMed

A prerequisite for cellular immortalization in human cells is the elongation of telomeres through the upregulation of telomerase or by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. In this study, telomere structure in multiple ALT cell lines was examined by electron microscopy. Nuclei were isolated from GM847, GM847-Tert, and WI-38 VA13 ALT cells, psoralen photo-cross-linked in situ, and the telomere restriction fragments were purified by gel filtration chromatography. Examination of telomere-enriched fractions revealed frequent extrachromosomal circles, ranging from 0.7 to 56.8 kb. t-loops were also observed, with the loop portion ranging from 0.5 to 70.2 kb. The total length of the loop plus tail of the t-loops corresponded to the telomere restriction fragment length from the ALT cell lines as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The presence of extrachromosomal circles containing telomeric DNA was confirmed by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These results show that extrachromosomal telomeric DNA circles are present in ALT nuclei and suggest a roll-and-spread mechanism of telomere elongation similar to that seen in previous observations of multiple yeast species. Results presented here also indicate that expression of telomerase in GM847 cells does not affect t-loop or extrachromosomal circle formation. PMID:15509797

Cesare, Anthony J; Griffith, Jack D

2004-11-01

76

Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.  

PubMed

Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

2014-05-01

77

National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.  

PubMed

To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

1991-10-01

78

Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)  

SciTech Connect

Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. (Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States))

1991-03-11

79

The ASTE Galactic Center Survey in the 350 and 500 GHz Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic central molecular zone (CMZ) provides us with a unique opportunity to study the properties of the molecular clouds in the extreme environment of the central region of a galaxy. We present the HCN J=4-3 and [CI] 3P1-3P0 data taken with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The HCN J = 4-3 line is a tracer of very high density (˜ 106 cm-3) region. Bright HCN emission is detected toward several compact clumps with very large velocity width (80-100 km s-1) without apparent energy sources. We have also found two large molecular shells near the Sgr C complex in the HCN map. The [CI] forbidden line from atomic carbon (Cn) traces molecular gas in different conditions than that traced by CO lines. We have discovered a large molecular cloud structure unseen in CO maps, at a distance of 5 pc from the Galactic nucleus. This [CI] cloud may be a site of accumulation of infalling material from outer region, or a cloud exposed to high cosmic-ray or X-ray flux.

Tanaka, K.; Oka, T.; Matsumura, S.; Kamegai, K.; Nagai, M.

2013-10-01

80

ASTE CO J = 3-2 SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

We present high-resolution CO J = 3-2 maps of the Galactic center region, taken with the ASTE 10 m telescope. We have collected approximately 30,000 spectra with a 34'' grid spacing. The mapping area is roughly -1.{sup 0}8 < l < +3.{sup 0}5 and -0.{sup 0}8 < b < +0.{sup 0}9, which includes the central molecular zone and Bania's Clump 2, covering almost the full extent of the molecular gas concentration in the Galactic center. These CO J = 3-2 images show a behavior similar to the CO J = 1-0 images with the same resolution. Molecular gas in the Galactic center shows a higher J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratio ({approx}0.7) than the gas in the spiral arms in the Galactic disk ({approx}0.4). The CO J = 3-2/CO J = 1-0 luminosity ratio is 0.71. We see several regions with very high J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratios exceeding 1.5, including the Sgr A, l = +1.{sup 0}3, l = -0.{sup 0}4, and l = -1.{sup 0}2 regions. A number of small spots of high ratio gas are also found. Many of them have large velocity widths, indicating that they are spots of hot molecular gas shocked by unidentified supernovae and/or winds from massive stars.

Oka, Tomoharu; Onodera, Yui; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Makoto [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kamegai, Kazuhisa, E-mail: tomo@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Industrial Administration, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

2012-08-01

81

Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

2013-01-01

82

Investigation of Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) Copolymer for Controlled Drug Delivery of Ceftriaxone Antibiotic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of drugs by new technologies is a highly topical challenge of polymer chemistry. This report describes the preparation of antibacterial activated poly(styrene–alt–maleic anhydride) (PSMA) in which ceftriaxone antibiotic is covalently bonded onto the polymeric framework. The chemical grafting reaction of ceftriaxone antibiotic on PSMA was carried out in various ratios. In addition, PSMA was modified by isopropyle amine for

P. Najafi Moghadam; E. Azaryan; B. Zeynizade

2010-01-01

83

Thermal and Wind Effects on the Azimuth Axis Tilt of the ASTE 10-m Antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The azimuth axis tilt of the ASTE 10-m antenna induced by thermal and wind loadings was investigated with a dual-axis inclinometer on the azimuth axis, along with thermometers on the pedestal and yoke structures and an ultrasonic anemometer on a nearby weather station. The dependences of the inclinometer zero-point offsets against temperature of the device, temperature gradients in the pedestal and yoke structure were obtained for the measurements over 11 months during the antenna being parked at its home position (azimuth angles = ?180 degrees, an elevation angle = 60 degrees) under wind velocities < 8 m s-1. The temperature dependences of the zero-point offsets were found to be 1.24 and -0.46 arcseconds/degree, and were close to those obtained with an independent method. The azimuth axis tilts due to the temperature difference between the two opposite sides of pedestal walls were found to be about 1.1 and 1.7 arcseconds/degree, and consistent with 1.5 arcseconds/degree estimated with a simple model. The residual axis tilt of the whole samples after removal of the temperature dependences shows dependence against overturning moment estimated from the wind data. The stiffness of the antenna structures between the yoke base section and the ground was estimated to be 5.3 and 3.4 GNm/rad using the observed tilts in two directions; and were smaller than 6.0 GNm/rad from a mechanical model prediction. Based on these field experiments, we discuss the improvements and limitations of pointing performance with the inclinometer metrology system.

Ukita, Nobuharu; Ezawa, Hajime; Ikenoue, Bungo; Saito, Masao

2007-10-01

84

Overlapping ATP2C1 and ASTE1 Genes in Human Genome: Implications for SPCA1 Expression?  

PubMed Central

The ATP2C1 gene encodes for the secretory pathway calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase pump (SPCA1), which localizes along the secretory pathway, mainly in the trans-Golgi. The loss of one ATP2C1 allele causes Hailey-Hailey disease in humans but not mice. Examining differences in genomic organization between mouse and human we speculate that the overlap between ATP2C1 and ASTE1 genes only in humans could explain this different response to ATP2C1 dysregulation. We propose that ASTE1, overlapping with ATP2C1 in humans, affects alternative splicing, and potentially protein expression of the latter. If dysregulated, the composition of the SPCA1 isoform pool could diverge from the physiological status, affecting cytosolic Ca2+-signaling, and in turn perturbing cell division, leading to cell death or to neoplastic transformation.

Micaroni, Massimo; Malquori, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

85

Overlapping ATP2C1 and ASTE1 Genes in Human Genome: Implications for SPCA1 Expression?  

PubMed

The ATP2C1 gene encodes for the secretory pathway calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase pump (SPCA1), which localizes along the secretory pathway, mainly in the trans-Golgi. The loss of one ATP2C1 allele causes Hailey-Hailey disease in humans but not mice. Examining differences in genomic organization between mouse and human we speculate that the overlap between ATP2C1 and ASTE1 genes only in humans could explain this different response to ATP2C1 dysregulation. We propose that ASTE1, overlapping with ATP2C1 in humans, affects alternative splicing, and potentially protein expression of the latter. If dysregulated, the composition of the SPCA1 isoform pool could diverge from the physiological status, affecting cytosolic Ca2+-signaling, and in turn perturbing cell division, leading to cell death or to neoplastic transformation. PMID:23344038

Micaroni, Massimo; Malquori, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

86

Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

1980-01-01

87

Identification of Monoclonal Insulin Autoantibodies in Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome Associated with HLA-DRB1&ast;0401  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized HLA and insulin autoantibodies in a Japanese female patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome. Serological HLA typing demonstrated the patient had HLA-DR4, and DNA typing showed she had HLA-DRB1&ast;0401 which has not been reported in patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome in Japan. A single binding affinity of insulin autoantibodies was demonstrated by Scatchard analysis and immunoglobulin class of

Masami Murakami; Masafumi Mizuide; Koji Kashima; Akira Kojima; Shin-ichi Tomioka; Tomoko Kohama; Osamu Araki; Takayuki Ogiwara; Haruo Mizuma; Masatomo Mori

2000-01-01

88

Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates extent and instability of atherosclerosis accelerated by kidney disease in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Background. Accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular events are not only more common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but are more resistant to therapeutic interventions effective in the general population. The oral charcoal adsorbent, AST-120, currently used to delay start of dialysis, reduces circulating and tissue uremic toxins, which may contribute to vasculopathy, including atherosclerosis. We, therefore, investigated whether AST-120 affects CKD-induced atherosclerosis. Methods. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, a model of atherosclerosis, underwent uninephrectomy, subtotal nephrectomy or sham operation at 8 weeks of age and were treated with AST-120 after renal ablation. Atherosclerosis and its characteristics were assessed at 25 weeks of age. Results. Uninephrectomy and subtotal nephrectomised mice had significantly increased acceleration of atherosclerosis. AST-120 treatment dramatically reduced the atherosclerotic burden in mice with kidney damage, while there was no beneficial effect in sham-operated mice. The benefit was independent of blood pressure, serum total cholesterol or creatinine clearance. AST-120 significantly decreased necrotic areas and lessened aortic deposition of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate without affecting lesional macrophage or collagen content. Furthermore, AST-120 lessened aortic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? messenger RNA. Conclusions. AST-120 lessens the extent of atherosclerosis induced by kidney injury and alters lesion characteristics in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, resulting in plaques with a more stable phenotype with less necrosis and reduced inflammation.

Yamamoto, Suguru; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Yancey, Patricia G.; Hunley, Tracy E.; Motojima, Masaru; Fogo, Agnes B.; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio; Ichikawa, Iekuni

2011-01-01

89

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

90

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

91

Expression of Alt a 1 allergen from Alternaria alternata in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Allergies affect almost 25% of the population in industrialized countries. Alternaria alternata is known to be a significant source of aeroallergens and sensitization to this mold is a risk factor for the development of wheezing, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis and treatment of allergies requires the production of large amounts of pure and well defined protein. Yarrowia lipolytica, a non-pathogenic ascomycete able to secrete high levels of enzymes that can grow in inexpensive substrates, has been considered a useful host for heterologous gene expression. In the present work, we have developed two vectors for expressing Alt a 1, the most relevant A. alternata allergen, in Y. lipolytica. One vector is autosomal and one is integrative. With both systems, rAlt a 1 was secreted into the culture medium. The immunological characteristics of the purified recombinant allergen were determined by IgE-blot using sera from 42 A. alternata-allergic patients. We have carried out ELISA-inhibition experiments using sera from four patients to compare the IgE-binding capacity of natural and recombinant allergens. Our results show that Y. lipolytica is able to produce a recombinant Alt a 1 which is immunochemically equivalent to the natural counterpart and could be used for immunotherapy and diagnostics. PMID:22640235

Morín, Matías; Asturias, Juan A; Domínguez, Angel

2012-08-01

92

AltPSM contact hole application at DRAM 4xnm nodes with dry 193nm lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid expensive immersion lithography and to further use existing dry tools for critical contact layer lithography at 4Xnm DRAM nodes the application of altPSM is investigated and compared to attPSM. Simulations and experiments with several test masks showed that by use of altPSM with suitable 0°/180° coloring and assist placement 30nm smaller contacts can be resolved through pitch with sufficient process windows (PW). This holds for arrays of contacts with variable lengths through short and long side pitches. A further benefit is the lower mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). Nevertheless 3D mask errors (ME) consume benefits in the PW and the assist placement and coloring of the main features (MF) put some constraints on the chip design. An altPSM compatible 4Xnm full-chip layout was realized without loss of chip area. Mask making showed very convincing results with respect to CDU, etch depth uniformity and defectiveness. The printed intra-field CD uniformity was comparable to attPSM despite the smaller target CDs. Room for improvement is identified in OPC accuracy and in automatic assist placement and sizing.

Noelscher, Christoph; Henkel, Thomas; Jauzion-Graverolle, Franck; Hennig, Mario; Morgana, Nicolo; Schlief, Ralph; Moukara, Molela; Koehle, Roderick; Neubauer, Ralf

2008-03-01

93

Telomeric Overhang Length Determines Structural Dynamics and Accessibility to Telomerase and ALT-Associated Proteins.  

PubMed

The G-rich single-stranded DNA at the 3' end of human telomeres can self-fold into G-quaduplex (GQ). However, telomere lengthening by telomerase or the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism requires protein loading on the overhang. Using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we discovered that lengthening the telomeric overhang also increased the rate of dynamic exchanges between structural conformations. Overhangs with five to seven TTAGGG repeats, compared with four repeats, showed much greater dynamics and accessibility to telomerase binding and activity and loading of the ALT-associated proteins RAD51, WRN, and BLM. Although the eight repeats are highly dynamic, they can fold into two GQs, which limited protein accessibility. In contrast, the telomere-specific protein POT1 is unique in that it binds independently of repeat number. Our results suggest that the telomeric overhang length and dynamics may contribute to the regulation of telomere extension via telomerase action and the ALT mechanism. PMID:24836024

Hwang, Helen; Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Lormand, Justin; Kwon, Yongho; Daley, James M; Sung, Patrick; Opresko, Patricia L; Myong, Sua

2014-06-10

94

Factors Associated with Elevated ALT in an International HIV/HBV Co-Infected Cohort on Long-Term HAART  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group. Methods/Principal findings To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (?2.5×ULN) at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4–13.3) years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%), with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p<0.05) included history of AIDS, HBV DNA ?2,000 IU/ml, HBeAg positive, study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml and nadir CD4 <200 cells/ml. In the multivariate analysis, only study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.04–4.11, p?=?0.04) and HBeAg positive status (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.03–4.79, p?=?0.04) were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusions In this HIV-HBV co-infected cohort, elevated ALT after >1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations.

Audsley, Jennifer; Seaberg, Eric C.; Sasadeusz, Joe; Matthews, Gail V.; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Fairley, Kit; Finlayson, Robert; Hwang, Hyon S.; Littlejohn, Margaret; Locarnini, Stephen; Dore, Gregory J.; Thio, Chloe L.; Lewin, Sharon R.

2011-01-01

95

Peak Serum AST Is a Better Predictor of Acute Liver Graft Injury after Liver Transplantation When Adjusted for Donor/Recipient BSA Size Mismatch (ASTi)  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite the marked advances in the perioperative management of the liver transplant recipient, an assessment of clinically significant graft injury following preservation and reperfusion remains difficult. In this study, we hypothesized that size-adjusted AST could better approximate real AST values and consequently provide a better reflection of the extent of graft damage, with better sensitivity and specificity than current criteria. Methods. We reviewed data on 930 orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Size-adjusted AST (ASTi) was calculated by dividing peak AST by our previously reported index for donor-recipient size mismatch, the BSAi. The predictive value of ASTi of primary nonfunction (PNF) and graft survival was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results. Size-adjusted peak AST (ASTi) was significantly associated with subsequent occurrence of PNF and graft failure. In our study cohort, the prediction of PNF by the combination of ASTi and PT-INR had a higher sensitivity and specificity compared to current UNOS criteria. Conclusions. We conclude that size-adjusted AST (ASTi) is a simple, reproducible, and sensitive marker of clinically significant graft damage.

Nishida, Seigo; Pretto, Ernesto A.

2014-01-01

96

Dorsal foot resurfacing using free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in children.  

PubMed

Very limited literature described the use of the free anterolateral thigh (ALT) among other flaps for pediatric lower limb reconstruction. The aim of this study is to present our experience using the free ALT flap for reconstruction of soft tissue defects over the dorsum of the foot and ankle in children. The study included 42 children aged 2.5-13 years with a mean of 6.18 years. Three children had crush injuries while the rest were victims of run over car accidents. All of the flaps were vascularized by at least two perforators; 88.23% were musculocutaneous and 11.77 were septocutaneous perforators. All flaps were raised in a subfascial plane. Initial thinning was performed in five flaps and 35% required subsequent debulking. Mean Flap surface area was 117.11 cm(2). The recipient arteries were the anterior tibial artery in 38 cases and posterior tibial artery in four cases. Venous anastomosis was performed to one vena commitant and in nine cases the long saphenous vein was additionally used. Mean ischemia time of the flap was 2 hours while total operative time averaged 6.3 hours. About 41% of donor sites were closed primarily while 59% required skin grafting. Primary flap survival rate was 92.8% (39/42 cases). Three flaps showed venous congestion. After venous reanastomosis, two flaps showed partial loss and one flap was lost completely. Post-operative hospital stay averaged 7.5 days. The free ALT flap could be as safe, reliable, and aesthetically appealing option for foot/ankle resurfacing in children after traumatic soft tissue loss. PMID:23280772

El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; El-Refai, Omar; El Fahar, Mohammed Hassan Ali

2013-05-01

97

ECLSS consumables analysis: ALT captive/active 1 and captive/active 3. [space shuttle orbiters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A consumables analysis of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) was performed for approach and landing test (ALT) captive/active missions 1 through 3 and is also applicable to missions 4 and 5. The ECLSS configuration analyzed and the guidelines and assumptions used in performing the analysis are presented. A projection of ammonia temperatures and pressures during the captive/active 1 mission is also included. The resulting consumables, budgets are presented in tabular and graphic form. Adequate margins were obtained for all systems.

Steines, G. J.

1977-01-01

98

Telomere extension by telomerase and ALT generates variant repeats by mechanistically distinct processes.  

PubMed

Telomeres are terminal repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes, and are considered to comprise almost exclusively hexameric TTAGGG repeats. We have evaluated telomere sequence content in human cells using whole-genome sequencing followed by telomere read extraction in a panel of mortal cell strains and immortal cell lines. We identified a wide range of telomere variant repeats in human cells, and found evidence that variant repeats are generated by mechanistically distinct processes during telomerase- and ALT-mediated telomere lengthening. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension resulted in biased repeat synthesis of variant repeats that differed from the canonical sequence at positions 1 and 3, but not at positions 2, 4, 5 or 6. This indicates that telomerase is most likely an error-prone reverse transcriptase that misincorporates nucleotides at specific positions on the telomerase RNA template. In contrast, cell lines that use the ALT pathway contained a large range of variant repeats that varied greatly between lines. This is consistent with variant repeats spreading from proximal telomeric regions throughout telomeres in a stochastic manner by recombination-mediated templating of DNA synthesis. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of variant repeats in cells utilizing either telomere maintenance mechanism suggests a conserved role for variant sequences at human telomeres. PMID:24225324

Lee, Michael; Hills, Mark; Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D; Dagg, Rebecca A; Lau, Loretta M S; Reddel, Roger R; Pickett, Hilda A

2014-02-01

99

Telomere extension by telomerase and ALT generates variant repeats by mechanistically distinct processes  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are terminal repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes, and are considered to comprise almost exclusively hexameric TTAGGG repeats. We have evaluated telomere sequence content in human cells using whole-genome sequencing followed by telomere read extraction in a panel of mortal cell strains and immortal cell lines. We identified a wide range of telomere variant repeats in human cells, and found evidence that variant repeats are generated by mechanistically distinct processes during telomerase- and ALT-mediated telomere lengthening. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension resulted in biased repeat synthesis of variant repeats that differed from the canonical sequence at positions 1 and 3, but not at positions 2, 4, 5 or 6. This indicates that telomerase is most likely an error-prone reverse transcriptase that misincorporates nucleotides at specific positions on the telomerase RNA template. In contrast, cell lines that use the ALT pathway contained a large range of variant repeats that varied greatly between lines. This is consistent with variant repeats spreading from proximal telomeric regions throughout telomeres in a stochastic manner by recombination-mediated templating of DNA synthesis. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of variant repeats in cells utilizing either telomere maintenance mechanism suggests a conserved role for variant sequences at human telomeres.

Lee, Michael; Hills, Mark; Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Lau, Loretta M.S.; Reddel, Roger R.; Pickett, Hilda A.

2014-01-01

100

AstPT catalyses both reverse N1- and regular C2 prenylation of a methylated bisindolyl benzoquinone.  

PubMed

Prenylated bisindolyl benzoquinones exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antidiabetic or anti-HIV activities. A number of these compounds, including asterriquinones, have been isolated from Aspergillus terreus. In this study, we identified two putative genes by genome mining, ATEG_09980 and ATEG_00702, which share high sequence similarity with the known bisindolyl benzoquinone prenyltransferase TdiB from Aspergillus nidulans. The coding sequences were cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. The overproduced recombinant proteins were purified to near homogeneity and used for enzyme assays with asterriquinone D in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate. HPLC analysis showed that product formation was only detected in enzyme assays with EAU29429 encoded by ATEG_09980, not in those with EAU39348 encoded by ATEG_00702. Product isolation and structure elucidation by NMR and MS analyses led to identification of N1-reversely and C2-regularly monoprenylated derivatives, as well as N1',N1''reversely, N1'-reversely, C2''-regularly diprenylated derivatives. This proved that EAU29429 functions as an asterriquinone prenyltransferase (AstPT) and indicated the involvement of EAU29429 rather than EAU39348 in the biosynthesis of methylated asterriquinones. Furthermore, incubation of monoprenylated enzyme products with AstPT resulted in the formation of the diprenylated derivatives. PMID:24302698

Tarcz, Sylwia; Ludwig, Lena; Li, Shu-Ming

2014-01-01

101

Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.  

PubMed

The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

2014-07-01

102

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

1994-05-17

103

Progress report on pump limiter developments for the TEXTOR tokamak: ALT-I  

SciTech Connect

A collaborative program is underway to field a comprehensive pump limiter experimental program on TEXTOR: Advanced Limiter Test-I (ALT-I). Either of two interchangeable limiter modules may be attached to an insertion/rotation mechanism to direct particles to the about1 m/sup 3/ pumping chamber. Pumping is provided primarily by a solid getter assembly at about20,000 1/sec. Variation of geometric dimensions and gas puffing in the modules will allow the study of plasma and neutral interaction in differing recycle regimes. Multiple diagnostic systems are incorporated into the pump limiter design for use in conjunction with TEXTOR plasma diagnostics. Initial experiments are scheduled for December 1983.

Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Finken, F.H.; Gauster, W.B.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.

1984-09-01

104

Annealing improves tribological property of poly(octadecene- alt -maleic anhydride) self-assembled film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A poly(octadecene- alt-maleic anhydride) (POMA) film was covalently immobilized on N-[3-(trimethoxylsilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine self-assembled monolayer modified silicon surface. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the chemical bonding. Water contact angles and ellipsometric thicknesses were measured before and after annealing treatment. Atomic force microscopy was applied for top morphology, surface adhesion force and friction force. Anti-wear properties of the films were also evaluated on a ball-on-plate tribometer. It was found that annealing treatment which would evoke a conformation transform thermodynamically, was a critical step in the preparation of anti-wear films, especially for polymer ones. The correlation between structure and tribological property was revealed, which has profound meaning in designing excellent anti-wear nano-coatings used in microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS).

Song, Shiyong; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Junyan

2011-09-01

105

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1994-05-17

106

Double spin azimuthal asymmetries ALT and ALL in semi-inclusive DIS  

SciTech Connect

Within the LO QCD parton model of SIDIS, lN {yields} lhX, with unintegrated quark distribution and fragmentation functions, we study the transverse momentum and azimuthal dependencies of the double spin asymmetries ALT and ALL. For later we include O(k perpendicular)/Q) kinematic corrections, which induce an azimuthal modulation of the asymmetry, analogous to the Cahn effect in unpolarized SIDIS. We show that a study of these asymmetries allows to extract the transverse momentum dependence of the unintegrated helicity distribution function g{sub 1L}{sup q}(x,k{sub perpendicular}) and g{sub 1T}{sup q}(x,k{sub perpendicular}).This report is based on research published in [1, 2], where predictions are given for ongoing COMPASS, HERMES and JLab experiments.

Kotzinian, Aram [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2007-06-13

107

Functional analysis of a highly conserved abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2) intron 2 repeat region of lymphatic filarial parasites.  

PubMed

The filarial-specific protein abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) is expressed exclusively in the infective larval stage (L3) and is a crucial protein for establishing immunopathogenesis in human hosts. The alt-2 gene has a conserved minisatellite repeat (29 or 27bp) in intron 2 (IR2) whose significance within lymphatic filarial species is unknown. Here, we report the role of IR2 in the regulation of alt-2 gene expression using an in vitro model. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified the presence of a putative nuclear protein binding region within IR2. Subsequent transient expression experiments in eukaryotic cell lines demonstrated that the IR2 downregulated the expression of a downstream luciferase reporter gene, which was further validated with RT-PCR. We therefore identify IR2 as a suppressor element that regulates L3 stage-specific expression of alt-2. PMID:24681262

Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

2014-06-01

108

Relationships between Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Visceral Adipose Tissue (AT) and Metabolic Risk Factors in a Middle-Aged Japanese Population.  

PubMed

Aim: The commonly observed relationship between increased visceral adiposity and metabolic abnormalities may be partly mediated by a concomitant increase in liver fat content. We evaluated the independent association between the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a surrogate marker of the liver fat content and the incidence of metabolic abnormalities after adjusting for the amount of visceral adipose tissue (AT). Methods: The subjects included 1,118 Japanese individuals (44% women) who underwent computed tomography to assess the amount of visceral AT on medical checkups. Cross-sectional associations between the serum ALT, visceral AT and metabolic risk factors were examined. Results: The ALT level and visceral AT were found to show a significant correlation(r=0.41 in men and r=0.36 in women, p?0.001). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, the ALT level and visceral AT were found to be independently associated with blood pressure in men and triglycerides and 2-hour post-challenge glucose in both genders(p?0.01), whereas only visceral AT was found to be associated with HDL-cholesterol(p?0.01). When the participants were classified into four subgroups based on the 75th percentiles of ALT and visceral AT, the low ALT/high-visceral AT group, but not the high-ALT/low-visceral AT group, had a significantly higher odds ratio for low HDL-cholesterol among both genders(p?0.05) and for hypertriglyceridemia in men only(p?0.05). Meanwhile, the high-ALT/low-visceral AT group, but ot the low-ALT/high-visceral AT group, had a significantly higher odds ratio for IGT among women(p?0.05). Conclusions: Although the ALT level and visceral AT were found to be independently associated with most metabolic risk factors, visceral AT had a dominant association with dyslipidemia in both genders, while the ALT level appeared to have a closer association with IGT in women. PMID:24500143

Oka, Rie; Yagi, Kunimasa; Nakanishi, Chiaki; Konno, Tetsuo; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Hayashi, Kenshi; Nohara, Atsushi; Inazu, Akihiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu

2014-06-25

109

Bortezomib and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma: higher AST and LDH levels associated with a worse prognosis on overall survival  

PubMed Central

Background Bortezomib offers a novel approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma producing rapid control. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of bortezomib and dexamethasone-treated patients with multiple myeloma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 44 consecutively-treated multiple myeloma patients with bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle or 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously 1, 8, 15, and 22 of every 35-day cycle) and dexamethasone. Results The median time to progression, progression free survival time, and overall survival time in the treatment groups was 14.9, 14.9, and 38.3 months, respectively. The present study also suggests the possibility that the prognosis of patients with high levels of AST and LDH might be worse. Conclusions Our results indicate that the treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone is feasible.

2014-01-01

110

Optics characterization of a 900-GHz HEB receiver for the ASTE telescope: design, measurement and tolerance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optics of a 900-GHz HEB receiver for the ASTE telescope have been analyzed by quasi-optical analysis and Physical Optics simulations in combination with beam pattern measurements. The disagreement between simulations and measurements has motivated an extensive campaign of Monte Carlo analyses to find out the cause of such a difference in results. Monte Carlo analyses have considered fabrication and assembly tolerances in all components in the RF chain, as well as some non-expected fabrication errors. This strategy has allowed determining the defective component. In short, the use of all available analyses techniques together with measurements has allowed singling out an underperforming element in an astronomical receiver. The change of this component will improve the optical efficiency and ease astronomical observations. These ideas can be of interest for any quasi-optical receiver at THz frequencies.

Gonzalez, A.; Soma, T.; Shiino, T.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

2014-05-01

111

[Comparison of nitrate reductase and automatic BACTEC MGIT 960 AST techniques for determining the drug sensitivity of mycobacteria tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The accelerated nitrate reductase method (NRM) developed at the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis versus the automatic assay of drug sensitivity by means of a BACTEC 960 bacteriological analyzer was assessed. NRM was carried out, by using the Lówenstein-Jensen medium for 10 days. It is based on the detection of alive Mycobacteria tuberculosis, by recording their enzymatic activity. The study showed a good agreement of the results obtained by NRM with those obtained on a BACTEC 960 analyzer. Agreements were found for 52 isolates in 47 (90.4%) cases, the results disagreed in the testing of 5 (9.6%) cultures. The results of NRM were identical to those for 21 of the 22 cultures sensitive on a BACTEC 960 device; the coincidence was 95.5%. The sensitivity of NRM ranged from 88.2% (for rifampicin) to 96.3% (for isoniazid) and the specificity did from 96% (for isoniazid) to 100% (for streptomycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol). The positive prognostic value of NRM was 100% (for streptomycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol) and 96.3% (for isoniazid). The negative prognostic value of NRM ranged from 94.6 to 96.8% for individual drugs. The efficiency of NRM (a ratio of the number of correct results to the total number of results) was greater than 0.96, which suggests that this method and the BACTEC MGIT 960 AST technique may be regarded as rather comparable. The testing of NRM versus the automatic BACTEC MGIT 960 AST technique has indicated that the former may be successfully used to determine the sensitivity of Mycobacteria to the critical concentrations of first-line antituberculous agents. PMID:14524099

Golyshevskaia, V I; Irtuganova, O A; Smirnova, N S; Domotenko, L V

2003-01-01

112

Association of Alanine Aminotransferase Levels (ALT) with the Hepatic Insulin Resistance Index (HIRI): a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and hepatic insulin resistance (IR) has been evaluated with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. However, there is no information about the association of ALT with the Hepatic Insulin Resistance Index (HIRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum ALT levels and HIRI in subjects with differing degrees of impaired glucose metabolism. Methods This cross-sectional study included subjects that had an indication for testing for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Clinical and biochemical evaluations were carried out including serum ALT level quantification. HIRI was calculated for each participant. Correlation analyses and lineal regression models were used to evaluate the association between ALT levels and HIRI. Results A total of 324 subjects (37.6% male) were included. The mean age was 40.4?±?14.3?years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.0?±?7.3?kg/m2. Individuals were divided into 1 of 5 groups: without metabolic abnormalities (n?=?113, 34.8%); with the metabolic syndrome (MetS, n?=?179, 55.2%), impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n?=?85, 26.2%); impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n?=?91, 28.0%), and T2DM (n?=?23, 7.0%). The ALT (p?ALT in persons with the MetS (r?=?0.22, p?=?0.003), IFG (r?=?0.33, p?ALT and HIRI in subjects with the MetS (beta?=?0.07, p?=?0.01), IFG (beta?=?0.10, p?=?0.02), IGT (beta?=?0.09, p?=?0.007), and T2DM (beta?=?0.31, p?=?0.003). This association was not identified in subjects without metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions ALT levels are independently associated with HIRI in subjects with the MetS, IFG, IGT, and T2DM. The ALT value in these subjects may be an indirect parameter to evaluate hepatic IR.

2012-01-01

113

Prevalence of elevated alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) among US adolescents and associated factors: NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background & aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of liver disease in children and adolescents. The majority of studies of NAFLD in children have been in select populations of the clinically obese. Study aims were to estimate the prevalence of elevated alanine-aminotransferase (ALT, as a marker of NAFLD) in a general contemporary adolescent population and to identify leading risk factors for ALT elevation (> 30 U/L). Methods We analysed data of adolescent participants (age 12-19, N=5586) in NHANES 1999-2004, a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized U.S population. Results The prevalence of elevated ALT (>30 U/L) was 7?4% among white adolescents, 11?5%, among Mexican Americans, and 6?0%, among black adolescents. It was prevalent in 12?4% of males compared to 3?5% of females. Multivariable associations with elevated ALT were found for sex (OR male versus female = 7?7, 95%CI: 3?9, 15?1), ethnicity (OR black versus white=0?6, 95%CI: 0?3, 1?3; OR Mexican American versus white=1?6, 95%CI: 1?0, 2?6), waist circumference (OR per 1 SD=1?4, 95%CI: 1?0, 2?0), and fasting insulin (OR per 1 SD=1? 6, 95%CI: 1? 2, 2? 1). Age, C-reactive protein and triglycerides were also positively, and socio-economic position inversely associated with elevated ALT. The magnitude of associations with ALT was similar across ethnic groups. Conclusions ALT is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance even in a young population. These characteristics could be utilized to identify adolescents who may benefit from screening for NAFLD, offering an opportunity to prevent disease progression at an early age.

Fraser, Abigail; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Lawlor, Debbie A

2007-01-01

114

The co-expression of telomerase and ALT pathway in human breast cancer tissues.  

PubMed

Recently, telomerase-targeted therapy was studied intensively; however, many studies have verified the existence of alternative lengthening mechanisms of telomeres in vitro. In the present work, we explored the expression characteristic of the two kinds of telomere-prolonging mechanisms in the breast cancer tissues per se. Furthermore, we studied the relationship between Her-2 expression and ALT pathway. Ninety samples of breast cancer tissues were examined in this research. RT-PCR was used for the detection of the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT); IHC was used for the detection of the expression of promyelocytic leukemia body (PML) bodies; the co-expression of PML bodies and hTERT was detected using the QDs-based immunofluorescence. The co-expression of PML body and hTERT was found in the same cell in breast cancer tissues, and ten samples expressed neither PML bodies nor hTERT. Additionally, the expression of PML bodies and Her-2 was statistically co-related (P?=?0.047). The two kinds of mechanisms of telomere extension can co-exist in the same cell in beast cancer tissues, and there may be other mechanisms of telomere extension functioning in human breast carcinoma. PMID:24375252

Xu, Bin; Peng, Min; Song, Qibin

2014-05-01

115

pH-responsive poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) alkylamide copolymers for intracellular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Many macromolecular therapeutics such as peptides, proteins, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN), and short interfering RNA (siRNA) are active only in the cytoplasm or nucleus of targeted cells. Endocytosis is the primary route for cellular uptake of these molecules, which results in their accumulation in the endosomal-lysosomal trafficking pathway and loss of therapeutic activity. In this article, we describe the synthesis and pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity of a new "smart" polymer family that can be utilized to enhance the intracellular delivery of therapeutic macromolecules through the endosomal membrane barrier into the cytoplasm of targeted cells. These polymers are propylamine, butylamine, and pentylamine derivatives of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) copolymers. The PSMA-alkylamide derivatives are hydrophilic and membrane-inactive at physiological pH; however, they become hydrophobic and membrane-disruptive in response to endosomal pH values as measured by their hemolytic activity. Results show that the pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity of PSMA derivatives can be controlled by varying the length of the alkylamine group, the degree of modification of the copolymer, and the molecular weight of the PSMA copolymer backbone. Butylamine and pentylamine derivatives of PSMA copolymers exhibited more than 80% hemolysis at endosomal pH values, which suggests their potential as a platform of "smart" polymeric carriers for enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of a variety of therapeutic macromolecules. PMID:16903689

Henry, Scott M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E H; Pirie, Christopher M; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S

2006-08-01

116

Morphological control of calcium oxalate particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) particles exhibiting different shapes and phase structures were fabricated by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a crystal modifier at room temperature. The as-obtained products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of reaction conditions including pH, [Ca 2+]/[C 2O 42-] ratio and concentration of PSMA and CaC 2O 4 on the crystal forms and morphologies of the as-obtained calcium oxalate were investigated. The results show that various crystal morphologies of calcium oxalate, such as parallelograms, plates, spheres, bipyramids etc. can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Higher polymer concentration favors formation of the metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Lower pH is beneficial to the formation of plate-like CaOx crystals. Especially, the monodispersed parallelogram-like CaOx crystals can be produced by PSMA as an additive at pH 2. PSMA may act as a good inhibitor for urolithiasis since it induces the formation of COD and reduces the particle size of CaOx. This research may provide new insight into the morphological control of CaOx particles and the prevention of urolithiasis.

Yu, Jiaguo; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Bei; Zhao, Xiujian

2004-10-01

117

Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

2014-01-01

118

Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-thiophene)/graphene nanocomposite: effects of graphene on optoelectronic characteristics.  

PubMed

Nanocomposite comprising Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-thiophene) (PDOFT) and graphene sheets was synthesized for the purpose of investigating its enhanced optoelectronic performance caused by the graphene. UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectra of PDOFT/graphene nanocomposite show that the existence of graphene does not alter the optical characteristics wavelength of PDOFT, and both solution samples and thin films emit green light. Meanwhile, the insignificant change in PL quantum efficiency indicates that graphene does not have significant effects on the transfer of excitation energy, the occurrence of self-quenching and the formation of excimer. However, the electric conductivity increases with an increase in the amount of graphene. The ionization potential(HOMO) and the electron affinity(LUMO) measured from the cyclic voltammetry lead to the determination of the optical band gap (Eg(chem)). When used to fabricate an optoelectronic device, the threshold voltage decreases with an increase in the graphene content until an excessive amount of graphene causes an unbalance on the electron and hole mobilities. The device fabricated with PDOFT/graphene with a 5% graphene content has a maximum luminescence of 5908 cd/m2 at a voltage of 9.5 V. The corresponding power efficiency at this maximum luminescence is 0.38 cd/A which is much higher than the device fabricated with pristine PDOFT. From the Admittance spectroscopy of the device, the electron mobility has been proved to increase with the graphene content. PMID:21121288

Liu, Cheng-Hao; Lin, Chia-Leh; Chiu, Po-Chun; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Tsiang, Raymond Chien-Chao

2010-12-01

119

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

120

What are the best reference values for a normal serum alanine transaminase activity (ALT)? Impact on the presumed prevalence of drug induced liver injury (DILI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn clinical research, the definition of the upper limit of normal (ULN) is rarely detailed. For alanine transaminase (ALT), there are several definitions of ULN-ALT but no recognized global reference. Furthermore the inter-laboratory variability of results expressed using ULN-ALT is higher than using the actual value of ULN expressed in IU\\/L. Regulatory agencies still use ULN-ALT for the definition of

Helmi M’Kada; Mona Munteanu; Hugo Perazzo; Yen Ngo; Nittia Ramanujam; Françoise Imbert-Bismut; Vlad Ratziu; Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot; Bernard Souberbielle; Ina Schuppe-Koistinen; Thierry Poynard

2011-01-01

121

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID\\/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phoenix 100 ID\\/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbi- ology

Caroline M. O'Hara

2006-01-01

122

Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at ? = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Saito, Masao

2009-08-01

123

Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

Baber, H. T., Jr.

1979-01-01

124

Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE  

SciTech Connect

We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Masaaki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan (China); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [Institute of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); Saito, Masao [ALMA Project Office, NAOJ (Japan)

2009-08-05

125

Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) activities in north London blood donors.  

PubMed Central

Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) activities were measured in over 2000 north London blood donors. The results were compared with those from the United States. The percentage of the total donor population with ALT activities above 40 IU/l in 1986 was greater than that found in our earlier studies in 1973 and 1982 (4.6% compared with 2.8% and 3.1%, respectively). There was a noticeable difference in the ALT distribution between male and female donors: mean +2.25 SD for male donors was 55.3 IU/l, while that for female donors was 30.8 IU/l at 37 degrees C. In stability studies the optimal temperature for short term storage (10 days) was 4 degrees C (6.4% loss of activity after 10 days). Surprisingly, storage at lower temperatures (-35 degrees C and -80 degrees C) resulted in greater loss of activity.

Mijovic, V; Contreras, M; Barbara, J

1987-01-01

126

AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of the AKARI Deep Field South: source catalogue and number counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a 1.1-mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25-deg2 area with an rms noise level of 0.32-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest and widest maps thus far at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We uncovered 198 sources with a significance of 3.5?-15.6?, providing the largest catalogue of 1.1-mm sources in a contiguous region. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z? 1.5 given the detection limits. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts in the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field and the SSA 22 field surveyed by AzTEC/ASTE, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fitting number counts in the ADF-S finds that the contribution of 1.1-mm sources with fluxes of ?1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16 per cent, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star formation rate density contributed by 1.1-mm sources with ?1 mJy using the best-fitting number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically selected galaxies at z˜ 2-3. The fraction of stellar mass of the present-day universe produced by 1.1-mm sources with ?1 mJy at z? 1 is ˜20 per cent, calculated by the time integration of the star formation rate density. If we consider the recycled fraction of >0.4, which is the fraction of materials forming stars returned to the interstellar medium, the fraction of stellar mass produced by 1.1-mm sources decreases to ?10 per cent.

Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

2011-02-01

127

AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a 1.1 mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25 deg2 area with an rms noise level of 0.32-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest and widest maps thus far at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We uncovered 198 sources with a significance of 3.5-15.6?, providing the largest catalog of 1.1 mm sources in a contiguous region. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z ? 1.5 given the detection limits. We construct differential and cumulative number counts of the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA 22 field surveyed by AzTEC/ASTE, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the differential number counts of the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with ?1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with ?1 mJy using the differential number counts and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z ~ 2-3. Clustering analyses of AzTEC sources in the ADF-S and the SXDF find that bright (>3 mJy) AzTEC sources are more strongly clustered than faint (< 3 mJy) AzTEC sources and the average mass of dark halos hosting bright AzTEC sources was calculated to be 1013-1014M?. Comparison of correlation length of AzTEC sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright AzTEC sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the AzTEC sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

Hatsukade, B.

2011-11-01

128

Variation of some physical properties of amorphous AsTeS thin films depending on substrate temperature and film thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of AsTeS with different thicknesses were prepared by thermal evaporation at different temperatures. It was found that the mechanism of the optical absorption follows the rule of direct transition. An increase in the optical gap (E0) from 2.35 to 2.73 eV was observed when the substrate temperature TS was varied from room temperature to 463 K (the film thickness =100 nm). It was also found that E0 is dependent on the film thickness and increased from 1.7 to 2.38 eV with increasing the film thickness from 35 to 135 nm. (TS = room temperature). The electrical resistivity (?) and the activation energy for conduction (?E) decreased from 7.74×105 to 6.81×102 ?cm and from 0.55 to 0.15 eV when TS increased from room temperature to 448 K, respectively (the film thickness =100 nm). Mott and Davis model for the density of states in amorphous solids was used for interpreting and discussing the obtained results.

Abu-Sehly, A. A.

2013-12-01

129

[Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system (AST-YSO1 cards) for antifungal susceptibility testing against different Candida species].  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the results of antifungal susceptibility for various Candida species using the Vitek 2 semi-automated system (AST-YSO1 cards, bioMérieux), and to compare them with those obtained by the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution reference method (Document M27-A3,2008). The essential agreement (EA) was > 90%, except for Candida glabrata against voriconazole (VCZ); and for Candida krusei against fluconazole (FCZ). The overall categorical agreement (CA) was > 90% when FCZ was evaluated and 89.5% at 24h and 80.7% at 48 h for VCZ. The average time for obtaining results was 15.5h. Minor errors were 7.8% at 24h and 6.1% at 48 h for FCZ, and 10.5% at 24h and 19.3% at 48 h for VCZ. There was only one very major error for FCZ against Candida parapsilosis and no major errors were observed. For amphotericin B, only three isolates showed MICs ? 2 ?g/ml. The Vitek 2 system detected the MIC value for various Candida species and showed excellent agreement with the reference method proposed by the CLSI. PMID:25011594

Ochiuzzi, María E; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Soloaga, Rolando

2014-01-01

130

Synthesis of monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite of CdSe/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSM) was successfully prepared via an in situ reaction process at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that CdSe nanoparticles with a small size and narrow size distribution were obtained. The obtained nanocomposite was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

Liu, S.H.; Qian, X.F.; Yuan, J.Y.; Yin, J.; He, R.; Zhu, Z.K

2003-07-14

131

Environmental Effects on Friction and Wear of the ALT-II (Advanced Limiter Test II) Limiter Blade Positioning Mechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II) is an eight-module pumped limiter system which is being installed in the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA, Juelich, FRG. The modules are supported by 16 drive mechanisms, which provide the capability of remotely adjusting the limite...

G. W. Brown C. D. Croessmann J. G. Watkins J. C. Banks

1988-01-01

132

Crystal Structure of N-succinylarginine Dihydrolase AstB, Bound to Substrate and Product, an Enzyme from the Arginine Catabolic Pathway of Escherichia Coli  

SciTech Connect

The ammonia-producing arginine succinyltransferase pathway is the major pathway in Escherichia coli and related bacteria for arginine catabolism as a sole nitrogen source. This pathway consists of five steps, each catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, the second enzyme of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway, providing the first structural insight into enzymes from this pathway. The enzyme exhibits a pseudo 5-fold symmetric {alpha}/{beta} propeller fold of circularly arranged {beta}{beta}{alpha}{beta} modules enclosing the active site. The crystal structure indicates clearly that this enzyme belongs to the amidinotransferase (AT) superfamily and that the active site contains a Cys-His-Glu triad characteristic of the AT superfamily. Structures of the complexes of AstB with the reaction product and a C365S mutant with bound the N-succinylarginine substrate suggest a catalytic mechanism that consists of two cycles of hydrolysis and ammonia release, with each cycle utilizing a mechanism similar to that proposed for arginine deiminases. Like other members of the AT superfamily of enzymes, AstB possesses a flexible loop that is disordered in the absence of substrate and assumes an ordered conformation upon substrate binding, shielding the ligand from the bulk solvent, thereby controlling substrate access and product release.

Tocilj,A.; Schrag, J.; Li, Y.; Schneider, B.; Reitzer, L.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.

2005-01-01

133

Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the regions of L’Alt Empordà and Les Guilleries (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in two regions (L’Alt Empordà and Les Guilleries), situated in North East Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), with an approximate area of 800 km2 and a population of 68?000. Through interviews with 73 people, data was obtained on the medicinal uses of 220 species. The most important findings are presented here concerning the ethnopharmacology of those

M. Àngels Bonet; Montserrat Parada; Anna Selga; Joan Vallès

1999-01-01

134

Implementation and evaluation of the 5As framework of obesity management in primary care: design of the 5As Team (5AsT) randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a pressing public health concern, which frequently presents in primary care. With the explosive obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need to maximize effective management in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management™ (5As) are a collection of knowledge tools developed by the Canadian Obesity Network. Low rates of obesity management visits in primary care suggest provider behaviour may be an important variable. The goal of the present study is to increase frequency and quality of obesity management in primary care using the 5As Team (5AsT) intervention to change provider behaviour. Methods/design The 5AsT trial is a theoretically informed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Clinic-based multidisciplinary teams (RN/NP, mental health, dietitians) will be randomized to control or the 5AsT intervention group, to participate in biweekly learning collaborative sessions supported by internal and external practice facilitation. The learning collaborative content addresses provider-identified barriers to effective obesity management in primary care. Evidence-based shared decision making tools will be co-developed and iteratively tested by practitioners. Evaluation will be informed by the RE-AIM framework. The primary outcome measure, to which participants are blinded, is number of weight management visits/full-time equivalent (FTE) position. Patient-level outcomes will also be assessed, through a longitudinal cohort study of patients from randomized practices. Patient outcomes include clinical (e.g., body mass index [BMI], blood pressure), health-related quality of life (SF-12, EQ5D), and satisfaction with care. Qualitative data collected from providers and patients will be evaluated using thematic analysis to understand the context, implementation and effectiveness of the 5AsT program. Discussion The 5AsT trial will provide a wide range of insights into current practices, knowledge gaps and barriers that limit obesity management in primary practice. The use of existing resources, collaborative design, practice facilitation, and integrated feedback loops cultivate an applicable, adaptable and sustainable approach to increasing the quantity and quality of weight management visits in primary care. Trial registration NCT01967797.

2014-01-01

135

The ASTE Galactic Center CO J=3-2 Survey: Probing Shocked Molecular Gas in the CMZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale CO surveys have revealed that the central molecular zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy is characterized by a number of expanding shells/arcs, and by a peculiar population of compact clouds with large velocity widths — high-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs). We have performed a large-scale CO J=3-2 survey of the CMZ from 2005 to 2008 with the Atacama Submillimeter-wave Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The data cover almost the full extent of the CMZ and the Clump 2 with a 34? grid spacing. The CO J=3-2 data were compared with the CO J=1-0 data taken with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. Molecular gas in the CMZ exhibits higher J=3-2/J=1-0 intensity ratios (R3-2/1-0 ˜ 0.7) than that in the Galactic disk (R3-2/1-0 ˜ 0.4). We extracted highly excited, optically thin gas by the criterion, R3-2/1-0 ? 1.5. Clumps of high R3-2/1-0 gas were found in the Sgr A and Sgr C regions, near SNR G 0.9+0.1, and three regions with energetic HVCCs; CO 1.27+0.01, CO -0.41-0.23, and CO -1.21-0.12. We also found a number of small spots of high R3-2/1-0 gas over the CMZ. Many of these high R3-2/1-0 clumps and spots have large velocity widths, and some apparently coincides with HVCCs, suggesting that they are spots of shocked molecular gas. Their origin should be local explosive events, possibly supernova explosions. These suggest that the energetic HVCCs are associated with massive compact clusters, which have been formed by microbursts of star formation. Rough estimates of the energy flow from large to small scale suggest that the supernova shocks can make a significant contribution to turbulence activation and gas heating in the CMZ.

Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Nagai, M.; Kamegai, K.; Hasegawa, T.

2011-05-01

136

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

2004-01-01

137

Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB  

PubMed Central

Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity.

Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

2014-01-01

138

Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB.  

PubMed

Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

Caniato, Fernanda F; Hamblin, Martha T; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

2014-01-01

139

[Botulinum toxin A after microvascular ALT flap in a patient with (corrected) squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 23-year-old man presenting with a cT4 cN1 M0squamous cell carcinoma of the right tongue. After tumor resection and covering of the defect with a microvascular anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, the patient showed distinct drooling without any substantial regression after anticholinergic therapy. For this reason 75 units of Botox® were injected into the submandibular and parotid glands. After the intraglandular injections, good reduction of saliva secretion was achieved. The treatment improved flap healing, aspiration and patient satisfaction. Injection of botulinum toxin A into the salivary glands is a sufficient therapy for postoperative hypersalivation. PMID:22534678

Ihler, F; Laskawi, R; Matthias, C; Rustenbeck, H H; Canis, M

2012-06-01

140

An ALMT1 Gene Cluster Controlling Aluminum Tolerance at the Alt4 Locus of Rye (Secale cereale L.)  

PubMed Central

Aluminum toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated Triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes homologous to the single-copy Al-activated malate transporter (TaALMT1) Al-tolerance gene of wheat. Tolerant (M39A-1-6) and intolerant (M77A-1) rye haplotypes contain five and two genes, respectively, of which two (ScALMT1-M39.1 and ScALMT1-M39.2) and one (ScALMT1-M77.1) are highly expressed in the root tip, typically the main site of plant Al tolerance/susceptibility. All three transcripts are upregulated by exposure to Al. High-resolution genetic mapping identified two resistant lines resulting from recombination within the gene cluster. These recombinants exclude all genes flanking the gene cluster as candidates for controlling Alt4 tolerance, including a homolog of the barley HvMATE Al-tolerance gene. In the recombinants, one hybrid gene containing a chimeric open reading frame and the ScALMT1-M39.1 gene each appeared to be sufficient to provide full tolerance. mRNA splice variation was observed for two of the rye ALMT1 genes and in one case, was correlated with a ?400-bp insertion in an intron.

Collins, N. C.; Shirley, N. J.; Saeed, M.; Pallotta, M.; Gustafson, J. P.

2008-01-01

141

Alt-Az telescope control system standardization attempt: case study of the TT1 (Toppo Telescope #1) control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TT1 is a 1.54 m Alt-Az telescope designed and built by the Technology Working Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. The standardization process is of course one of the fundamental requirements for telescope control system design and development, well considered in the TT1 design. In this paper we present the approach used to identify a control system applicable to medium-size Alt-Az telescope. The TT1 control system architecture is based on a distributed working flow and it is PC-based, i.e. organized in several interconnected standard PCs and standard fast communication protocol. Every PC is based on the 'dedicated processing unit' concept and it makes real time own tasks independently by other units. Also, the extremely reduced communication flow between PCs, and the internal organization based on the preference given to software rather than hardware solutions, makes its control system extremely reliable, easily reconfigurable and upgradable, obsolescence deprived and independent from any hardware choice.

Mancini, Dario; Brescia, Massimo; Spirito, Gianfranco

1998-05-01

142

Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT)  

NSF Publications Database

More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=gpm. NSF supports related areas of computer science and educational research primarily through the programs of the Division of Information and Intelligent Systems (http://www.nsf.gov/div/index.jsp?div=IIS) and the Division of Research, Evaluation, and Communication (http://www....

143

Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-?1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

2014-03-01

144

Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-?1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

2014-04-01

145

Shape evolution of SrCO 3 particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO 3 particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO 3 particles.

Yu, Jiaguo; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Bei

2006-03-01

146

A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800 mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500 mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200 mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000 mg BID (n?=?1), 1500 mg BID (n?=?1), 800 mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200 mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6 months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000 mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended.

2014-01-01

147

Concentrations of total proteins and albumins, and AST, AP, CK and GGT activities in the blood serum Boer and Saanen goats during puerperium.  

PubMed

The metabolism of proteins in the blood serum in Boer and Saanen goats was investigated during puerperium. Twenty Boer goats (10 primiparous and 10 pluriparous) and 10 Saanen goats (five primiparous and five pluriparous) between 2 and 5 years of age were used in this research. Blood for analysis was taken every fourth day from day 3 until day 40 post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture. In the obtained blood serum, the concentration of total proteins (PT) and albumin (ALB), and the activity of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [the Enzyme Commission number (EC number) 2. 6. 1. 1.], gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (EC 2. 3. 2. 2.), creatine kinase (CK) (EC 2. 7. 3. 2.) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC 3. 1. 3. 1.) were determined by spectrophotometry. These parameters were in physiological ranges in Boer goats and in Saanen goats, without significant differences according to number of kids per doe. According to the research results of the blood serum in goats during puerperium, there were no significant differences in the concentration of ALB. Boer goats had significant higher (p < 0.05) concentration of PT and enzyme activity of AP, CK and GGT. Saanen goats had only enzyme activity of AST significantly higher (p < 0.05). Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was significant higher (p < 0.05) in pluriparous goats in both breeds than in primiparous. The obtained results may represent a contribution to a better understanding of protein metabolism during puerperium in dairy and meat goats and for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21114794

Djuricic, D; Dobranic, T; Grizelj, J; Gracner, D; Harapin, I; Stanin, D; Folnozic, I; Getz, I; Cvitkovic, D; Samardzija, M

2011-08-01

148

Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

Merlin, Peter W.

2006-01-01

149

Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: a system with starlike morphology and interactions.  

PubMed

We report on an experimental study of single particle properties and interactions of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) starlike micelles. The starlike regime is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20) and the number of arms (functionality) is changed by varying the composition of the solvent (the interfacial tension). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data in the dilute regime can be modeled by assuming a constant density profile in the micellar core (compact core) and a starlike density profile in the corona (starlike shell). The starlike morphology of the corona is confirmed by a direct comparison with SANS measurements of dilute poly butadiene star solutions. Comparison of structure factors obtained by SANS measurements in the concentrated regime shows in addition that the interactions in the two systems are equivalent. Micellar structure factors at several packing fractions can be modeled by using the ultrasoft potential recently proposed for star polymers [Likos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4450 (1998)]. The experimental phase diagram of PEP-PEO micelles is quantitatively compared to theoretical expectations, finding good agreement for the location of the liquid-solid boundary and excellent agreement for the critical packing fraction where the liquid-to-bcc crystal transition takes place for f<70. The functionality, i.e., the coronal density, strongly influences the nature of the solid phase: for f<70 the system crystallizes into a bcc phase, high f>70 formation of amorphous arrested states prevents crystallization. PMID:17994990

Laurati, M; Stellbrink, J; Lund, R; Willner, L; Zaccarelli, E; Richter, D

2007-10-01

150

Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes  

SciTech Connect

Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1994-12-05

151

Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

2013-03-01

152

The AGE-Breaker ALT-711 Restores High Blood Flow-Dependent Remodeling in Mesenteric Resistance Arteries in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide–dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711–treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711–treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes.

Freidja, Mohamed L.; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Celine; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

2012-01-01

153

Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

Glenn, G. M.

1977-01-01

154

Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion  

PubMed Central

Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15R?-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1?, IL-1? and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials.

Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

2014-01-01

155

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories.

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

156

Standardization of Alternaria alternata: Extraction and quantification of Alt a 1 by using an mAb-based 2-site binding assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important cause of allergic disease. As with other molds, the extracts of A alternata used for diagnosis and therapy are highly heterogeneous, and there is a need for improved standardization. The major allergen Alt a 1 is well characterized and has been produced as a recombinant protein, but very few data are available on

Elke Aden; Bernhard Weber; Jochen Bossert; Manfred Teppke; Edda Frank; Rüdiger Wahl; Helmut Fiebig; Oliver Cromwell

1999-01-01

157

AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

Myers, William; Winter, Steve

2006-01-01

158

Close linkage of a blast resistance gene, Pias(t), with a bacterial leaf blight resistance gene, Xa1-as(t), in a rice cultivar 'Asominori'.  

PubMed

It has long been known that a bacterial leaf blight-resistant line in rice obtained from a crossing using 'Asominori' as a resistant parent also has resistance to blast, but a blast resistance gene in 'Asominori' has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, a blast resistance gene in 'Asominori', tentatively named Pias(t), was revealed to be located within 162-kb region between DNA markers YX4-3 and NX4-1 on chromosome 4 and to be linked with an 'Asominori' allele of the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa1, tentatively named Xa1-as(t). An 'Asominori' allele of Pias(t) was found to be dominant and difference of disease severity between lines having the 'Asominori' allele of Pias(t) and those without it was 1.2 in disease index from 0 to 10. Pias(t) was also closely linked with the Ph gene controlling phenol reaction, suggesting the possibility of successful selection of blast resistance using the phenol reaction. Since blast-resistant commercial cultivars have been developed using 'Asominori' as a parent, Pias(t) is considered to be a useful gene in rice breeding for blast resistance. PMID:23341747

Endo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kaji, Ryota; Nakagomi, Koji; Kataoka, Tomomori; Yokogami, Narifumi; Nakamura, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Goro; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi

2012-12-01

159

AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results from a 1.1-mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z = 3.1 Lyman ? emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the astronomical thermal emission camera (AzTEC) on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950-arcmin2 field down to a 1? sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy beam-1 to find 125 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) with a signal-to-noise ratio ?3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data and the median value is found to be z = 2.4. By combining these estimations with estimates from the literature, we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z = 3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z = 3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high-redshift Universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.

Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

2014-06-01

160

Trade, Growth, and Poverty &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue today is the effect of globalisation on inequality and poverty. Well over half the developing world lives in globalising economies that have seen large increases in trade and significant declines in tariffs. They are catching up the rich countries while the rest of the developing world is falling farther behind. Second, we examine the effects on the

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2004-01-01

161

Job Search with Nonparticipation &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a non-stationary job search model we allow unemployed workers to have a permanent option to leave the labour force. Transitions into nonparticipation occur when reservation wages drop below the utility of being nonparticipant. Taking account of these transitions allows the identification of duration dependence in the job offer arrival rate and the wage offer distribution. We estimate the structural

Paul Frijters; Bas van der Klaauw

2006-01-01

162

Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIdentification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening.DesignWe prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care

Helmi MKada; Hugo Perazzo; Mona Munteanu; Yen Ngo; Nittia Ramanujam; Bruno Fautrel; Françoise Imbert-Bismut; Vlad Ratziu; Ina Schuppe-Koistinen; Véronique Leblond; Jean Yves Delattre; Yves Samson; Olivier Lyon Caen; François Bricaire; David Khayat; Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny; Serge Herson; Zahir Amoura; Patrick Tilleul; Olivier Deckmyn; Pierre Coriat; Vincent Nicolas Delpech; Philippe Boulogne; Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot; Thierry Poynard

2012-01-01

163

Amphiphilic graft copolymers based on ultrahigh molecular weight poly(styrene- alt-maleic anhydride) with poly(ethylene glycol) side chains for surface modification of polyethersulfone membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphiphilic graft copolymers having ultrahigh molecular weight poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) backbones and methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) grafts were synthesized via the esterification between anhydride groups with hydroxyl groups. The synthesized graft copolymers, SMA-g-MPEGs, were used as additives in the preparation of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes via phase inversion process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the comb-like graft copolymers spontaneously segregated

Li-Ping Zhu; Zhuan Yi; Fu Liu; Xiu-Zhen Wei; Bao-Ku Zhu; You-Yi Xu

2008-01-01

164

Multivalent Host-Guest Interactions between ß-Cyclodextrin Self-Assembled Monolayers and Poly(isobutene-alt-maleic acid)s Modified with Hydrophobic Guest Moieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(isobutene-alt-maleic acid)s modified with p-tert-butylphenyl or adamantyl groups interact with ß-cyclodextrin self-assembled monolayers (ß-CD SAMs) by inclusion of the hydrophobic substituents in the B-cyclodextrin cavities. The adsorption was shown to be strong, specific, and irreversible. Even with a monovalent competitor in solution, adsorption to the ß-CD SAMs was observed, and desorption proved impossible. The adsorbed polymer layer was very thin

Olga Crespo-Biel; Mária Peter; Christiaan M. Bruinink; Bart Jan Ravoo; David N. Reinhoudt; Jurriaan Huskens

2005-01-01

165

Trap-assisted hole injection and quantum efficiency enhancement in poly(9,9? dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) polymer light-emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a reversible many-fold quantum efficiency enhancement during electrical driving of polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) containing poly(9,9? dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), developing over several minutes or hours at low applied bias and recovering on similar time scales after driving. This phenomenon is observed only in devices containing F8BT as an emissive layer in pure or blended form, regardless of anode and

Alexander J. A. B. Seeley; Richard H. Friend; Ji-Seon Kim; Jeremy H. Burroughes

2004-01-01

166

Trap-assisted hole injection and quantum efficiency enhancement in poly(9,9' dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) polymer light-emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a reversible many-fold quantum efficiency enhancement during electrical driving of polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) containing poly(9,9' dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), developing over several minutes or hours at low applied bias and recovering on similar time scales after driving. This phenomenon is observed only in devices containing F8BT as an emissive layer in pure or blended form, regardless of anode and

Alexander J. A. B. Seeley; Richard H. Friend; Ji-Seon Kim; Jeremy H. Burroughes

2004-01-01

167

Sn ALT="delta" />-doping in GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared a number of GaAs structures icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>-doped by Sn using the well known molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. The samples obtained for a wide range of Sn doping densities were characterized by magnetotransport experiments at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields up to 38 T. Hall-effect and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements show that the electron densities reached are higher than for other icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>-dopants, like Si and Be. The maximum carrier density determined by the Hall effect equals 8.4 × 1013 cm-2. For all samples several Shubnikov-de Haas frequencies were observed, indicating the population of multiple subbands. The depopulation fields of the subbands were determined by measuring the magnetoresistance with the magnetic field in the plane of the icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>-layer. The experimental results are in good agreement with selfconsistent bandstructure calculations. This calculation shows that in the sample with the highest electron density also the conduction band at the L point is populated.

Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Kytin, V. G.; Lunin, R. A.; Golikov, A. V.; Mokerov, V. G.; Bugaev, A. S.; Senichkin, A. P.; van Schaijk, R. T. F.; de Visser, A.; Koenraad, P. M.

1999-12-01

168

Effect of Segregation of Secondary Phase Particles and "S" Line on Tensile Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded 2024Al-T351 Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5-mm-thick 2024Al-T351 plate was friction stir welded (FSWed) at welding speeds of 100, 200, and 400 mm min-1 with a constant rotation rate of 800 rpm, and the microstructure and tensile fracture behavior of the joints were investigated in detail. FSW resulted in the redistribution of secondary phase particles along the recrystallized grain boundaries at the nugget zone (NZ), forming linear segregation bands consisting of secondary phase particles. The segregation bands, mainly present in the shoulder-driven zone, were believed to result from periodic material flow, with the average band spacing on the longitudinal and horizontal cross sections equal to the tool advancement per revolution. At a low welding speed of 100 mm min-1, in spite of the highest density of segregation bands, the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joint fractured along the low hardness zone (LHZ) of the heat-affected zone because of large hardness gap between NZ and LHZ. Increasing the welding speed to 200 and 400 mm min-1 reduced both the hardness gap between NZ and LHZ and the density of segregation bands. In this case, the segregation bands played a role, resulting in unusual fracture of the joints along the segregation bands. The "S" line originated from the oxide film on the initial butting surfaces and did not affect the fracture behavior of the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joints.

Zhang, Z.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

2013-09-01

169

Microwave properties of tuneable TE01ALT="delta" /> mode sapphire-loaded cavity resonators with YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> endplates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sapphire-loaded cavity resonator with YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO) endplates and the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonant frequency (f0) of about 19 GHz at 77 K was prepared and its microwave properties were investigated at low temperatures. Unloaded Q (Q0) of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator appeared to be more than 1000 000, 600 000 and about 300 000 at 30 K, 60 K and 77 K, respectively, at f0~19.56 GHz with the sapphire rod sandwiched between two YBCO endplates. Q0 appeared to decrease as the gap distance (s) between the sapphire rod and the top endplate increased for the resonator with YBCO endplates at 30 K, which was in contrast with the increase of Q0 for increasing s for the cavity resonator with copper endplates. Microwave losses from the surrounding copper walls appeared to reduce Q0 of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator with YBCO endplates significantly at low temperatures. Experimental values of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonant frequencies appeared to agree well with both the calculated values from analytic expressions and the simulated values from a commercial software within 1.3%. Variations in f0 upon the gap distance were more than 4.8% between s = 0 mm and 1 mm, with Q0 of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator about 770 000, 530 000 and 350 000 at s = 1 mm at 30 K, 60 K and 77 K, respectively.

Lee, Sang Young; Kwon, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Yang, W. I.; Kim, Jin Kook; Lee, W. H.; Hur, Jung

1999-11-01

170

Formation of ArCl(B,C), Ar(3P2), and Cl&ast; by the three-body ionic-recombination reaction of Ar+(2P3\\/2)+Cl?+He  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-body ionic-recombination reaction of Ar+(2P3\\/2)+Cl?+He has been studied by observing ArCl(B–X,C–A) and Cl(4s,4s’,4p,4p’,4d,5p,6s) emissions in the He flowing afterglow. CCl4 or CFCl3 is used as a source of Cl?. The ArCl(B–X,C–A) emissions enhance relative to the Cl&ast; bands with increasing the CCl4 pressure. It is explained as due to the secondary Ar(3P2)+CCl4 reaction, which is used to estimate the

Masaharu Tsuji; Masahiro Ide; Toshihiko Muraoka; Yukio Nishimura

1993-01-01

171

ALTS Publications 2009-2000  

Cancer.gov

Castle PE, Rodriguez AC, Burk RD, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Solomon D, Sherman ME, Jeronimo J, Alfaro M, Morales J, Gullen D, Htuchinson ML, Wacholoder S, Schiffman M. Neither one-time negative screening tests nor negative colposcopy provides absolute reassurance against cervical cancer. Int J Cancer.

172

ALTE News, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two issues of volume 5 and one issue of volume 6 of the newsletter contain articles on conferences and programs concerning language testing in Europe. Articles topics include: description of proficiency levels for a Council of Europe testing program; adult education and language testing in Germany; tests of Norwegian as a foreign language; the…

ALTE News, 1997

1997-01-01

173

Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

2003-01-01

174

Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide. III. Partial isopropyl ester of poly(vinyl methyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) as a stabilizer.  

PubMed

Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide at 40 degrees C in t-butyl alcohol-water media of varying composition (50 to 90 vol% alcohol) using a partial isopropyl ester of poly(vinyl methyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) as the stabilizer has been studied. The isopropyl ester derivative proves to be a better stabilizer than its precursor polymer. However, the particles were polydisperse in size. The number average diameter of the particles increases linearly with the solubility parameter of the dispersion medium. Dispersions of nanoparticles of polyacrylamide are produced when the t-butyl alcohol content of the dispersion medium is 90% by volume. Comparison of the particle diameter measured by transmission electron microscopy with that measured by dynamic light scattering in acetone reveals a thickness of the hairy stabilizer layer on the dispersion particles of 31 nm. PMID:14757077

Guha, Suparna; Mandal, Broja M

2004-03-01

175

Synthesis and characterization of novel polymer-drug conjugates based on the poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a potential method for drug release.  

PubMed

Six well known drugs, captopril, metformin-HCl, metroniazole, nortriptyline-HCl, fluoxetine-HCl and betahistin-HCl, were grafted to poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA). Grafting was attained by combining of anhydride groups in the PSMA with therapeutic agents containing NH, OH or SH groups. The covalently grafted drugs were identified by infrared, (1)H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The drug release data at different times fits well to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The analysis of the exponent n of this model revealed a dominant Fickian diffusion mechanism under the in vitro conditions. Furthermore, mean dissolution time values (45.9 to 86.7 h) indicate a high resistance against drugs transport, the highest being obtained for betahistin-HCL. PMID:24362974

Khazaei, Ardeshir; Saednia, Shahnaz; Saien, Javad; Borazjani, Maryam Kiani; Rahmati, Sadegh; Hashempour-Zaviye, Ali; Abbasi, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

176

Characterization of the 13q14 tumor suppressor locus in CLL: identification of ALT1, an alternative splice variant of the LEU2 gene.  

PubMed

Chromosome 13q14 deletions constitute the most common genetic abnormality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To identify the putative tumor suppressor gene targeted by 13q14 genomic loss, we completely sequenced and characterized a segment of 790 kb at 13q14 spanning the minimal region of loss in CLL. Transcribed sequences in the region were identified through database homology searches and exon-prediction analysis. Two-hundred kb at the centromeric end of the sequence contain five CpG islands, three previously identified genes LEU5/RFP2, LEU2, and LEU1, seven of seven EST clusters composed of >10 ESTs, and a large number of predicted exons. Homology searches against the mouse EST database have allowed us to identify a highly conserved alternative first exon of the LEU2 gene, giving rise to a novel transcript, ALT1 (GenBank accession no. AF380424), which originates within a G+C region in the vicinity of the D13S272 marker. Two novel 3' exons of LEU2 were also identified and are present in both LEU2 and ALT1 transcripts. However, we have not identified any mutations in leukemia cases, or alterations in expression of mRNAs in the region, that might directly implicate these mRNAs in the pathology of CLL. The centromeric end of the sequence, where all reported genes are located, contains twice the expected amount of ALU repeats, whereas the telomeric end is LINE1 rich and contains four LINE1 elements longer than 4 kb, including two full-length LINE1 sequences. This feature of the sequence may favor the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements and may confer instability to the region, resulting in deletions that may inactivate an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor. PMID:11559527

Bullrich, F; Fujii, H; Calin, G; Mabuchi, H; Negrini, M; Pekarsky, Y; Rassenti, L; Alder, H; Reed, J C; Keating, M J; Kipps, T J; Croce, C M

2001-09-15

177

ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... present. If other liver tests such as bilirubin , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are also high, ... liver cells, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) . A test for bilirubin , a substance produced ...

178

Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-Based Diblock Copolymer Micelles Exhibit Versatile Hydrophobic Drug Loading, Drug-Dependent Release, and Internalization by Multidrug Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

Amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(styrene) (PSMA-b-PS) and poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PSMA-b-PBA) were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations. Polymers were well-controlled with respect to molecular weight evolution and polydispersity indices (PDI < 1.2). Additionally, RAFT allowed for control of diblock compositions (i.e., ratio of hydrophilic PSMA blocks to hydrophobic PS/PBA blocks) and overall molecular weight, which resulted in reproducible self-assembly of diblocks into micelle nanoparticles with diameters of 20-100 nm. Parthenolide (PTL), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, was loaded and released from the micelles. The highest loading and prolonged release of PTL was observed from predominantly hydrophobic PSMA-b-PS micelles (e.g., PSMA100-b-PS258), which exhibited the most ordered hydrophobic environment for more favorable core-drug interactions. PSMA100-b-PS258 micelles were further loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), as well as two hydrophobic fluorescent probes, nile red and IR-780. While PTL released quantitatively within 24 h, DOX, IR-780, and nile red showed release over 1 week, suggesting stronger drug-core interactions and/or hindrance due to less favorable drug-solvent interactions. Finally, uptake and intracellular localization of PSMA100-b-PS258 micelles by multidrug resistant (MDR) ovarian cancer cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, in vitro analyses showed DOX-loaded PSMA-b-PS micelles exhibited greater cytotoxicity to NCI/ADR RES cells than equivalent free DOX doses (75% reduction in cell viability by DOX-loaded micelles compared to 40% reduction in viability by free DOX at 10 ?M DOX), likely due to avoidance of MDR mechanisms that limit free hydrophobic drug accumulation. The ability of micelles to achieve intracellular delivery via avoidance of MDR mechanisms, along with the versatility of chemical constituents and drug loading and release rates, offer many advantages for a variety of drug delivery applications. PMID:24955779

Baranello, Michael P; Bauer, Louisa; Benoit, Danielle S W

2014-07-14

179

Micellization behavior of A-b-(B-alt-C)n multiblock terpolymers in a selective solvent for one terminal A-block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used self-consistent field theory to investigate the micellization behavior of A-b-(B-alt-C)n multiblock terpolymers in the presence of a solvent that is selective to the terminal A-block. In particular, we focused on the effects of ?BC, and fA, on the formation of micelles from ABC triblock and A(BC)3 multiblock terpolymers, respectively. We observed a general trend that a segmented packing of B- and C-layers along the axial direction of the micelles is favored than the coaxial packing with the increasing of ?BC or decreasing of fA. The separation of B and C blocks within a micelle leads to the formation of a variety of multicompartment micelle morphologies, such as core-shell-corona spherical micelles, hamburgers, and bump-surface micelles, in the ABC triblock copolymers. In the A(BC)3 multiblock terpolymers, we discovered more fascinating micelles by implementing the SCFT simulation than by the DPD simulation. Besides the BC-segmented worm-like micelles, which have been found in the DPD simulation work, concentric multilayer spheres and vesicles can be formed by the solvent-induced effect when the solvophilic A-block is a majority component.

Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Ching-I.; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

2013-03-01

180

Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.  

PubMed

New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules. PMID:23862416

Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, C?t?lina Ani?oara; Chailan, Jean-François; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel

2013-06-01

181

Chain dynamics of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) melts by means of coarse-grained simulations based on atomistic molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) melts, ranging in chain length from about Ne (the entanglement length) to N=6Ne. The coarse-grained parameters, potential of mean force and bare friction, were determined from fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations carried out on a PEP cell containing 12 chains of 80 monomers each and subjected to periodic boundary conditions. These atomistic simulations were previously validated by means of extensive neutron scattering measurements. Uncrossability constrains were also introduced in the coarse-grained model to prevent unphysical bond crossing. The coarse-grained simulations were carried out at 492 K and focus on chain dynamics. The results obtained were analyzed in terms of Rouse coordinates and Rouse correlators. We observe deviations from Rouse behavior for all chain lengths investigated, even when the chain stiffness is incorporated in the Rouse model. These deviations become more important as the chain length increases. The general scenario emerging from the results obtained is that the deviations from Rouse-like behavior are due to correlations among the forces acting upon a chain bead, which seem to be related with the constraint of uncrossability among the chains. As consequence, nonexponentiality of the Rouse correlators and mode- and time-dependent friction are observed. It seems that, in the molecular weight explored, these effects still give not raise to reptation behavior but to a crossover regime between Rouse and reptation. On the other hand, the results obtained are in qualitative agreement with those expected from the so-called generalized Rouse models, based on memory function formalisms.

Pérez-Aparicio, R.; Colmenero, J.; Alvarez, F.; Padding, J. T.; Briels, W. J.

2010-01-01

182

Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 ? m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological pattern results critical to meet this objective.

Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

2011-10-01

183

Determination of pinning forces on vortex lines in YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure adopted by the flux line lattice (FLL) in YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> (YBCO) depends strongly on the angle (icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/>) between the applied field and the superconducting cuprate planes. If this angle is held constant and the field rotated about an axis normal to the cuprate planes, the structure of the FLL remains constant, while the direction of the Lorentz force on the vortex lines changes. Measurements of the critical current density (jc) with respect to this rotation angle (icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>) thus probe pinning behaviour while excluding effects due to changes in the structure of the FLL. If the value of icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/> is small, such that the FLL adopts the kinked (string- pancake) state, the variation in jc seen with icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> must be due to the behaviour of the string vortex segments. High-resolution measurements of the variation of jc with this second angle icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> have been made on thin (120 nm) YBCO films. A simple model is proposed to explain this variation in terms of dragging of vortex strings by the vortex pancake elements. From this model and experimental data an estimate has been made for the value of the pinning force density on vortex strings for motion in the a-b planes. This estimate is in agreement with values found for the string pinning force density found in earlier measurements on YBCO films grown on vicinal-cut substrates.

Durrell, J. H.; Herzog, R.; Berghuis, P.; Bramley, A. P.; Tarte, E. J.; Barber, Z. H.; Evetts, J. E.

1999-12-01

184

Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

1999-12-01

185

Beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{LT} in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target at 1.4  

PubMed

We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16A{LT} asymmetries were extracted from the measured {3}He asymmetries and proton over {3}He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g{1T}{q} and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?{-} production on {3}He and the neutron, while our ?{+} asymmetries are consistent with zero. PMID:22400926

Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

2012-02-01

186

Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind trial.

Luis Prieto; Ricardo Palacios; Dulce Aldana; Anna Ferrer; Carmen Perez-Frances; Victoria Lopez; Rocio Rojas

2010-01-01

187

Flux creep in a thin disc of YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the flux-creep behaviour of a thin disc of YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> superconductor in the framework of an analytical model, in the temperature range T = 10-60 K and for a perpendicular applied field Ha = 5-50 kG. The relaxation of the magnetic moment shows a logarithmic dependence on time for the whole temperature range. The field and temperature dependences of the critical current jc and the pinning potential U0 can be derived accurately by fitting the relaxation data. The results are discussed within collective pinning theory. The critical current jc shows a power law field dependence of the form jc(H)icons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> H-b with bicons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.50, which is kept during the relaxation process. The E versus j characteristics are quantitatively derived from the relaxation data at the circumference of the disc and show a very steep E(j) relation described by a power law E(j) = Ec(j/jc)n for the whole temperature range, while a change of this behaviour is observed for T = 60 K. The activation barrier U(j,T = 0,H) is derived with the application of Maley's method based on the exact relations for a thin disc and this gives an exponent µicons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.68 for H = 20 kG.

Moraitakis, E.; Pissas, M.; Kallias, G.; Niarchos, D.

1999-10-01

188

Tariffs and steel: US safeguard actions &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiproduct spatial equilibrium model of world steel trade is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the impacts of the safeguard trade barriers brought about by the USA in order to protect their domestic industry from the so-called unfair competition. Emphasis is placed on the likely effect on the Australian industry and possible policy responses available

Jared W. Greenville; T. Gordon MacAulay

2005-01-01

189

A Generalised Model of Monopsony &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a general but very simple model in which the supply of labour to an individual employer is not infinitely elastic but the employer can also raise employment by increasing expenditure on recruitment. Using this, it is shown how that division between perfect competition and monopsony is whether there are diseconomies of scale in recruitment. Using a unique

Alan Manning

2006-01-01

190

Does Insider Trading Raise Market Volatility? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the role of insider trading in explaining cross-country differences in stock market volatility. It introduces a new measure of insider trading. The central finding is that countries with more prevalent insider trading have more volatile stock markets, even after one controls for liquidity\\/maturity of the market, and the volatility of the underlying fundamentals (volatility of real output

Julan Du; Shang-Jin Wei

2004-01-01

191

POST-MERGER PRODUCT REPOSITIONING &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of mergers between firms competing by simultaneously choosing price and location. Products combined by a merger are repositioned away from each other to reduce cannibalization, and non-merging substitutes are, in response, repositioned between the merged products. This repositioning greatly reduces the merged firm's incentive to raise prices and thus substantially mitigates the anticompetitive effects of

AMIT GANDHI; LUKE FROEB; STEVEN TSCHANTZ; GREGORY J. WERDEN

2008-01-01

192

Development effectiveness: what have we learnt? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that the ‘poverty-efficiency’ aid allocation is merely a benchmark guide if a donor lacks other information about the country and also the power to change or prevail over government preferences. We argue that in most circumstances donors have only limited scope for the latter and that, while high aid dependence may reduce the fungibility problem and the use

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2004-01-01

193

University Radio Observatories Program (AST-URO)  

NSF Publications Database

... scientific investigations, and student training at university-based radio facilities. A primary ... environment, in order to foster innovation and train upcoming generations of students in the field ...

194

AST Model In Full Scale Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This model is an early design for a supersonic transport plane. Although the plane is designed to travel at high speeds, the model was tested at low speeds here at the 30 by 60 foot tunnel in the mid-1970s at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton,VA. he 30 by 60 foot tunnel remains one of NASA's largest wind tunnels and is recognized as a National Historic Landmark. Originally built in the early 1930's to test full-scale aircraft, the 30 by 60 foot tunnel tested many of the bombers and fighter planes used in World War II, Recently a large percentage of the tests have been free flight tests. One of the unique test techniques used in the 30 by 60 foot tunnel is free-flight of a dynamically scaled model in the test section.

1975-01-01

195

Moving kidney allocation forward: the ASTS perspective.  

PubMed

In 2008, the United Network for Organ Sharing issued a request for information regarding a proposed revision to kidney allocation policy. This plan described combining dialysis time, donor characteristics and the estimated life years from transplant (LYFT) each candidate would gain in an allocation score that would rank waiting candidates. Though there were some advantages of this plan, the inclusion of LYFT raised many questions. Foremost, there was no clear agreement that LYFT should be the main criterion by which patients should be ranked. Moreover, to rank waiting candidates with this metric, long-term survival models were required in which there was no incorporation of patient preference or discounting for long survival times and for which the predictive accuracy did not achieve accepted standards. The American Society of Transplant Surgeons was pleased to participate in the evaluation of the proposal. Ultimately, the membership did not favor this proposal, because we felt that it was too complicated and that the projected slight increase in overall utility was not justified by the compromise in individual justice that was required. We offer alternative policy options to address some of the unmet needs and issues that were brought to light during this interesting process. PMID:19519807

Freeman, R B; Matas, A T; Henry, M; Segev, D L; Kaufman, D B; Roberts, J P

2009-07-01

196

Normative Power Europe: A Credible Utopia? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies on the international identity of the EU have stressed the normative feature of European foreign policy. At the same time, scholars have pointed out that the inconsistency between the EU's rhetoric and behaviour and the lack of reflexivity undermines its credibility. How does reflexivity affect collective identity? To what extent does the EU's utopian rhetoric affect its credibility as

SIBYLLE SCHEIPERS; DANIELA SICURELLI

2007-01-01

197

AzTEC/ASTE Deep and Wide Submillimeter Galaxy Survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field: Identification of VLA, Spitzer and Herschel Counterparts to 1100-?m-Selected Galaxies and Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our AzTEC/ASTE submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and VLA (21 cm), Spitzer (3.6-8 ?m and 24 ?m) and Herschel (100 and 160 ?m) counterpart identifications for 1100-?m-selected SMGs. We obtained a 1100-?m map of ˜ 1200 arcmin2 with the rms noise level of ˜ 0.5 mJy (1 ?). Our AzTEC map achieved new detections of 281 sources (S/N ? 3.5 ?). For 221 of 281 AzTEC sources, we searched counterparts in order to obtain multi-wavelength data. Deep Herschel PACS 100-?m and 160-?m images cover the whole of the AzTEC map, and 34 of 221 (= 15 %) and 54 of 221 (= 24 %)AzTEC sources have PACS 100-?m and 160-?m counterparts, respectively. We found VLA radio and/or MIPS 24-?m robust (with a significance of ? 95 %) counterparts to 102 of 221 the AzTEC SMGs. In addition to this, we have developed an improved identification method using IRAC data (3.6-8 ?m) and their colors, in order to cover the AzTEC SMGs located at higher redshift such as z > 3, which is inaccessible with the existing VLA, MIPS and Herschel data alone. With this method, we have achieved another robust detections of 20 IRAC counterparts to AzTEC sources. 131 of 221 AzTEC sources have at least one robust counterparts, and 23 of 221 have more than two robust counterparts. Including tentative identifications (with a significance of ? 90 %), 171 of 221 (= 78 %) 1100-?m-selected SMGs have counterparts. We estimated photometric redshifts of the counterparts using deep near-, and med-infrared and optical data, providing zmedian of 2.2. Among them, we found that there were some 1100-?m sources faint in multi-bands data suggesting the extremely high redshift.

Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Caputi, K.; Dunlop, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D.; Iono, D.; Ivison, R.; Kawabe, R.; Motohara, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Ohta, K.; Suzuki, K.; Tamura, Y.; Umehata, H.; Wilson, G.; Yabe, K.; Yun, M.

2013-10-01

198

AST/RO 13CO(J = 2-->1) and 12CO(J = 4-->3) Mapping of Southern Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty molecular cloud cores in the southern hemisphere from the initial Spitzer Space Telescope Cores-to-Disks (c2d) Legacy program source list have been surveyed in 13CO(2-->1), 12CO(4-->3), and 12CO(7-->6) with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The cores, 10 of which contain embedded sources, are located mostly in the Vela, Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Musca, and Scorpius complexes. 12CO(7-->6) emission was undetected in all 40 clouds. We present data of 40 sources in 13CO(2-->1) and 12CO(4-->3), significant upper limits of 12CO(7-->6), as well as a statistical analysis of the observed properties of the clouds. We find the typical 13CO(2-->1) line width to be 2.0 km s-1 for cores with embedded stars and 1.8 km s-1 for all others. The typical 12CO(4-->3) line width is 2.6-3.7 km s-1 for cores with known embedded sources, and 1.6-2.3 km s-1 for all others. The average 13CO column density derived from the line intensities was found to be 1.9×1015 cm-2 for cores with embedded stars and 1.5×1015 cm-2 for all others. The average kinetic temperature in the molecular cores, determined through a large velocity gradient analysis of a set of nine cores, has an average lower limit of 16 K and an average upper limit of 26 K. The average molecular hydrogen density has an average lower limit of 10 2.9 cm-3 and an average upper limit of 103.3 cm-3 for all cores. For a different subset of nine cores, we have derived masses. They range from 4 to 255 Msolar. Overall, our c2d sample of southern molecular cores has a range of properties (line width, column density, size, mass, embedded stars) similar to those of past studies.

Löhr, A.; Bourke, T. L.; Lane, A. P.; Myers, P. C.; Parshley, S. C.; Stark, A. A.; Tothill, N. F. H.

2007-08-01

199

Supercurrent transport across [001] twist grain boundaries in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+ALT="delta" /> bicrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 35 bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> (Bi2212) bicrystals containing a single high-quality [001] twist grain boundary was prepared in order to investigate the supercurrent transport mechanism in textured Bi-based superconducting tape. The misorientation angles of the bicrystals ranged from 0 to 180°. These twist grain boundaries carried critical current as high as their constituent single crystals, regardless of the misorientation angle.

Li, Qiang; Tsay, Y. N.; Zhu, Y.; Suenaga, M.; Gu, G. D.; Koshizuka, N.

1999-12-01

200

Alt.support: modeling social support online  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is mounting evidence that people use the Internet to expand their social net- works and receive social support, little is known about how they do so and with what effect the Internet has on overall levels of social support. Based on a survey of 213 online support seekers, this study explored social cognitive mechanism such as self-efficacy and

Matthew S. Eastin; Robert LaRose

2005-01-01

201

ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully

R. Killen

1978-01-01

202

ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

Killen, R.

1978-01-01

203

Flux pinning characteristics and material power law of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-electric-field E-J curves of YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> were determined from 0.27 to 1.34 T at various temperatures from 52 to 83 K with the magnetic sweeping method by VSM. Using an empirical material power law E = Ec(J/Jc)n, we obtained the characteristic pinning potential U0(T,H) and real critical current density Jc(T,H) by an appropriate definition of Ec. By further investigation of the changing shape of the pinning potential well, we interpreted the peak effect of U0 with temperature in high temperature superconductors (HTSCs).

Shan, L.; Sun, A. M.; Xu, X. N.; Tang, Y. L.; Lu, D. W.; Jin, X.; Shen, L. J.; Lam, C. C.; Chen, Y. S.

1999-12-01

204

A new epitaxial BaSnO3 buffer layer for YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films on MgO substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

45° grain boundaries, which drastically increase surface resistance (RS) in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films for microwave devices on MgO substrates, are eliminated using a new buffer layer of BaSnO3.BaSnO3 buffer layers and YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are grown by ArF pulsed laser deposition. Epitaxial relationships among BaSnO3, YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and MgO are confirmed by x-ray icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>-scanning. The RS values of the YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are measured using a dielectric resonator with 22 GHz TE011 mode. The epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films grown on BaSnO3 buffered MgO substrates show lower RS than YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films directly grown on MgO substrates. The BaSnO3 buffer layer which enables YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films to grow without 45° grain boundaries at a optimum film growth condition is attractive for microwave applications.

Mukaida, M.; Takano, Y.; Chiba, K.; Moriya, T.; Kusunoki, M.; Ohshima, S.

1999-11-01

205

Study and modelling of oxygen diffusion in YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> under isothermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of oxygen diffusion in YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO) using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Comparing the results of a solution of Fick's second law to the experimental data, it has been possible to calculate an expression for the chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen in YBCO. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data suggests that the diffusion rate is not determined by the formation of a highly oxygenated layer on the outer surface of the sample. The analysis depends on a finite element model developed to study the diffusion process. The model both calculates the fractional weight change of the sample during the isothermal oxygenation stage and determines the change in distribution of oxygen within the sample during the oxygenation process. The treatment presented provides a convenient basis for preliminary analyses of any proposed oxygenation procedure, to check oxygenation times and the final distribution of oxygen within the sample.

Vázquez-Navarro, M. D.; Kursumovic, A.; Evetts, J. E.

1999-12-01

206

A review off ast circle and helix fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circle and helix fitting is ofparamount importance in the data analysis ofLHC experiments. We review several approaches to exact but fast fitting, including a recent development based on the projection of the measured points onto a second-order surface in space (a sphere or a paraboloid). We present results of a comparison with global and recursive linearized least-squares estimators. r 2003

W. Waltenbergera A. Strandlie; J. Wroldsen

207

GOVERNANCE-BASED ACQUISITIONS AND RISK TAKING IN BANKING &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the market for corporate control in banking when strategic acquisitions are driven by the different governance structures of commercial and savings banks. In contrast to profit-maximizing entities, we show that savings institutions can have acquisition incentives from their peculiar governance and ownership structure. Governance-based acquisition incentives, which interact with the specifics of the loan market in affecting bank

VÍCTOR E. BARRIOS; LUIS M. GRANERO

2008-01-01

208

Product Market Reform and Innovation in the EU &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractEuropean Union countries have implemented widespread reforms to product markets to stimulate competition, innovation, and economic growth. We provide empirical evidence that the reforms carried out under the EU Single Market Programme (SMP) were associated with increased product market competition, as measured by a reduction in average profitability, and with a subsequent increase in innovation intensity and productivity growth for

Rachel Griffith; Rupert Harrison; Helen Simpson

2010-01-01

209

Occupational and Job Mobility in the US &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe propose a new methodology to measure worker mobility across occupations and jobs in the US, building on the limited longitudinal dimension of monthly CPS data. For the period 1979–2006, we find that about 3.5% of male workers employed in two consecutive months report different three-digit occupations. This rate is procyclical, mildly rising in the 1980s and falling after 1995.

Giuseppe Moscarini; Kaj Thomsson

2007-01-01

210

Reactor plant of the AST500 heat supply station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core and the heat-exchangers of the primary and secondary circuits are located in the reactor vessel. The upper space of the reactor above the level of the coolant performs the function of the primary circuit pressure compensator~ Heat removal from the core is effected by natural circulation of the coolant. The ascending part of the circulation circuit includes a

F. M. Mitenkov; E. V. Kulikov; V. A. Sidorenko; V. V. Egorov; V. A. Ivanov; V. A. Malamud; Yu. G. Nikiporets; A. F. Osokin; O. B. Samilov; I. N. Sokolov; N. V. Sukhoruchenkov; N. M. Tsarev

1985-01-01

211

Secret Law and the Value of Publicity &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Revelations in the United States of secret legal opinions by the Department of Justice, dramatically altering the conventional interpretations of laws governing torture, interrogation, and surveillance, have made the issue of “secret law” newly prominent. The dangers of secret law from the perspective of democratic accountability are clear, and need no elaboration. But distaste for secret law goes beyond questions

CHRISTOPHER KUTZ

2009-01-01

212

ON THE DISTRIBUTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOR LEGISLATION &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the effects of child labor legislation on human capital accumulation and the distribution of wealth and welfare. We calibrate our model to U.S. data circa 1880 and find that the consequences of restricting child labor or providing tax-financed education depend on the main source of individual household income. Households with significant financial assets unambiguously lose from government

Dirk Krueger; Jessica Tjornhom Donohue

2005-01-01

213

Relative Performance Evaluation Contracts and Asset Market Equilibrium &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the equilibrium consequences of performance-based contracts for fund managers. Managerial remuneration is tied to a fund's absolute and relative performance. Investors choose whether or not to delegate their investment to better-informed fund managers; if they delegate they choose the optimal contract subject to the fund manager's participation constraint. We find that the impact of relative performance evaluation on

Sandeep Kapur; Allan Timmermann

2005-01-01

214

The Theory and Practice of Corporate Risk Management &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial crisis of 2008 and the resulting recession caught many companies unprepared and, in so doing, provided a stark reminder of the importance of effective risk management. While academic theory has long touted the benefits of risk management, companies have varied greatly in the ways and extent to which they put theory into practice.Drawing on a global survey of

Henri Servaes; Ane Tamayo; Peter Tufano

2009-01-01

215

Incentives and Workers’ Motivation in the Public Sector &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil servants have a reputation for being lazy. However, people's personal experiences with civil servants frequently run counter to this stereotype. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive contracts for public sector workers under different informational assumptions. When civil servants’ effort is unverifiable, lazy workers

Josse Delfgaauw; Robert Dur

2008-01-01

216

Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractTwo of the main forces driving European emigration in the late nineteenth century were real wage gaps between sending and receiving regions and demographic booms in the low‐wage sending regions. Our new estimates of net migration for the countries of sub‐Saharan Africa show that exactly the same forces driving African across‐border migration are at work today. The results suggest that

Timothy J. Hatton; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2003-01-01

217

The Macroeconomic Consequences of Reciprocity in Labor Relations &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe develop and analyze a structural model of efficiency wages founded on reciprocity. Workers are assumed to face an explicit trade-off between the disutility of providing effort and the psychological benefit of reciprocating the gift of a wage offer above some reference level. The model provides a rationale for rent sharing—a feature that is very much present in the data

Jean-Pierre Danthine; André Kurmann

2007-01-01

218

Human Capital Inequality, Life Expectancy And Economic Growth &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a model in which inequality affects per capita income when individuals decide to invest in education taking into account their life expectancy, which depends to a large extent on the human capital of their parents. Our results show the existence of multiple steady states depending on the initial distribution of education. The low steady state is a

Amparo Castelló-Climent; Rafael Doménech

2008-01-01

219

Taylor Rules for the ECB using Expectations Data &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe estimate Taylor rules for the euro area using Consensus Economics data for expected inflation and output growth, and compare these estimates with more conventional specifications in which actual outcomes are used. We find that the ECB takes expected inflation and expected output growth into account in setting interest rates, while in the more conventional model specification, the coefficient of

Janko Gorter; Jan Jacobs; Jakob de Haan

2008-01-01

220

RACIAL BELIEFS, LOCATION, AND THE CAUSES OF CRIME &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a unified explanation for why blacks commit more crime, are located in poorer neighborhoods, and receive lower wages than whites. If everybody believes that blacks are more criminal than whites—even if there is no basis for this—then blacks are offered lower wages and, as a result, locate further away from jobs. Distant residence increases even more the

Thierry Verdier; Yves Zenou

2004-01-01

221

Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

2009-01-01

222

A Comparative Study of International Insurance Markets&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

By proposing the Benchmark Ratio of Insurance Penetration (BRIP) as a new paradigm for international insurance comparison, this paper makes a new assessment and comparison of insurance growth levels of certain countries as well as certain economic groups, and further discusses the policy implications. The main conclusions of this paper are as follows. First, it is necessary to have a

Wei Zheng; Yongdong Liu; Yiting Deng

2009-01-01

223

Simulations And Software For The Ast-101 Lecture And Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Michigan State University, we have used two Education/Public Outreach (EPO) grants, from the Great Observatories Hubble and Chandra, to involve individual researchers in the development of simulations and software to be used in the "ASTRO-101" classroom. I will discuss the products we developed for these projects. One is a laboratory exercise using what we developed to call "DS9-Lite" to allow the students to measure angles and distances on HST images. We embedded a full-featured DS9 (FITS image viewer) in a Flash framework, but display with far fewer buttons and features to distract the student. For the 2nd project, we developed some animations in collaboration with the SAO Media Lab to explain the rationale for dark matter in the universe. These animations can be used in a powerpoint lecture presentation (slides provided) to spark classroom discussion about dark matter. We also discuss the challenge of developing and evaluating these projects, and lessons learned.

Donahue, Megan

2008-05-01

224

Cheap Children and the Persistence of Poverty &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theory of fertility that offers an explanation for the persistence of poverty within and across countries. If educated individuals have a comparative advantage in raising educated children then parental fertility choice is shown to give rise to a poverty trap, in which the poor choose high fertility rates with low investment in child quality. Moreover, the

Omer Moav

2005-01-01

225

More on Marriage, Fertility, and the Distribution of Income &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Pareto (1896), the distribution of income depends on “the nature of the people comprising a society, on the organization of the latter, and, also, in part, on chance.” In the model developed here the “nature of the people” is captured by attitudes toward marriage, divorce, fertility, and children. Singles search for mates in a marriage market. Married agents

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; John A. Knowles

2003-01-01

226

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

227

Price and Variety in the Spokes Model &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spokes model of nonlocalised spatial competition provides a new analytical tool for differentiated oligopoly and a representation of spatial monopolistic competition. An increase in the number of firms leads to lower equilibrium prices when consumers have relatively high product valuations, but, surprisingly, to higher equilibrium prices for intermediate consumer valuations. New entry alters consumer and social welfare through price,

Yongmin Chen; Michael H. Riordan

2007-01-01

228

Governance Areas in EU Direct Tax Policy &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractConventional scholarship on international taxation tends to address competition. It focuses on governments and does not integrate purposeful political strategy with the ideational dimension of policy change. In this article we examine co-operation, use a multi-actor perspective to explain the selection of modes of governance and bridge the gap between the strategic and ideational components of policy change. We show

CLAUDIO M. RADAELLI; ULRIKE S. KRAEMER

2008-01-01

229

Components of CEO Transformational Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract We use transformational leadership theory to explore the role of CEOs in determining the extent to which their firms engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR). We test this theory using data from 56 US and Canadian firms. CEO intellectual stimulation (but not CEO charismatic leadership) is found to be significantly associated with the propensity of the firm to engage

David A. Waldman; Donald S. Siegel; Mansour Javidan

2006-01-01

230

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

231

Physical activity, sedentary time, and liver enzymes in adolescents: the HELENA study.  

PubMed

Background:To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.Methods:The study comprised 718 adolescents (397 girls). PA was measured by accelerometry and expressed as total PA (counts/min), and time (min/d) engaged in moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA). Time spent sedentary was also objectively measured. We measured serum levels of alanine aspartate aminostrasferase (AST), alanine aminostransferase (ALT), and ?-glutamyltrasnferase (GGT), and the AST/ALT ratio was computed.Results:There was an association between MVPA and AST and AST/ALT (age, sex, and center-adjusted ? = 0.096, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.016 to 0.118; and ? = 0.090, 95% CI: 0.006 to 0.112, respectively). Meeting the PA recommendations (60?min/d of MVPA) was significantly associated with higher AST and AST/ALT, which persisted after further adjusting for sedentary time and waist circumference. Sedentary time was not associated with any of the studied liver enzyme levels.Conclusion:Meeting the current PA recommendations of 60?min/d of MVPA is associated with higher levels of AST and AST/ALT regardless of time spent sedentary as well as total and central body fat in European adolescents. PMID:24603293

Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Breidenassel, Christina; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Denes; De Henauw, Stephaan; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

2014-06-01

232

Army AL&T, October-December 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue showcases the magnificent work being done by our program executive offices to provide warfighters with world-class weapon systems and equipment for increased lethality, situational awareness, and survivability. From the success of our Soldier-a...

2008-01-01

233

An RF link analysis of MSBLS during ALT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) ground station to orbiter radio frequency (RF) link was made to determine if the expected signal levels will be compatible with orbiter receiver capabilities. Of primary interest was whether or not loss of data will occur due to interference caused by the orbiter 101 nose boom which provides additional air data during the approach and landing test. The results of the analysis indicate that a small amount of data loss may occur due to the proximity of the MSBLS antennas and the nose boom. Tabulated data of antenna radiation patterns are given.

Speir, R. E.

1975-01-01

234

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1993-08-31

235

Musikalische Entwicklungspsychologie im Wandel: Alte Fragen und neue Perspektiven  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die musikalische Entwicklungspsychologie, deren wissenschaftliche Anfänge sich bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts zurückverfolgen lassen, ist ursprünglich aus der Erforschung zweier Fragestellungen hervorgegangen: Zum einen forschte die noch junge Musikwissenschaft nach den Ursprüngen der Musik. Zum anderen interessierte man sich allgemein für die Entwicklung des Menschen und deren Gesetzmäßigkeiten. Einen großen Einfluß übte dabei die Vorstellung aus, daß sich die

Heiner Gembris

236

Serum ?-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles. RESULTS: Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 ± 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 ± 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 ± 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P < 0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B = 6.988, P = 0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B = 15.763, P < 0.001), (B = 32.345, P < 0.001), (B = 24.415, P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

Khedmat, Hossein; Fallahian, Farahnaz; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Attarchi, Zohre; Alaeddini, Farshid; Holisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Pourali, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Shahin; Zarei, Nasrin

2007-01-01

237

Association of liver enzymes with incident type 2 diabetes: A nested case control study in an Iranian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanin aminotranferase (ALT) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) with incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, AST, ALT, GGT as well as classic diabetes risk factors, insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 133 non-diabetic subjects at baseline of which 68 were cases and 65 were controls.

Maryam Tohidi; Hadi Harati; Farzad Hadaegh; Yadolladh Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

238

Diagnostic Value of Serum Prolidase Enzyme Activity to Predict the Liver Histological Lesions in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Surrogate Marker to Distinguish Steatohepatitis from Simple Steatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the liver histological lesions with noninvasive tests is an important part of the diagnostic work-up of patients\\u000a with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to determine the predictive value of noninvasive biochemical markers,\\u000a serum prolidase enzyme activity (SPEA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and AST\\/ALT ratio\\u000a for the liver histological lesions. Fifty-four liver biopsy-proven patients with

Huseyin Kayadibi; Mustafa Gültepe; Bulent Yasar; Ali T. Ince; Omer Ozcan; Osman M. Ipcioglu; Oya O. Kurdas; Burhanettin Bolat; Yusuf Z. Benek; Hakan Guveli; Sacide Atalay; Selvinaz Ozkara; Ozcan Keskin

2009-01-01

239

Serum enzymes in heat stroke: prognostic implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehy- drogenase (LD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 26 heat stroke (HS) victims and 10 control (non-heat-exhausted) sub- jects during annual Hajj in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. On admission to the HS treatment unit, serum CK, AST, ALT, and LD were higher in HS victims than controls (P <0.05), and

Abdulaziz H. Alzeer; Mohsen A. F. El-Hazmi; Arjumand S. Warsy; Ziauddin A. Ansari; Mohammed S. Yrkendi

240

Factors Predicting Relapse and Poor Outcome in Type I Autoimmune Hepatitis: Role of Cirrhosis Development, Patterns of Transaminases During Remission and Plasma Cell Activity in the Liver Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM:To determine factors predicting relapse and poor outcome in patients with type I autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).METHODS:Patients with AIH were retrospectively recruited. Definitions—remission: AST\\/ALT ULN but within the remission range; abnormal transaminases index (ATI): number of occasions AST\\/ALT abnormal\\/years of remission. Liver biopsies were assessed by Ishak system, and additional score given for portal and parenchymal plasma cells. Data are presented

Sumita Verma; Basuki Gunuwan; Michel Mendler; Sugantha Govindrajan; Allan Redeker

2004-01-01

241

The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time  

PubMed Central

De Ritis described the ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) almost 50 years ago. While initially described as a characteristic of acute viral hepatitis where ALT was usually higher than AST, other authors have subsequently found it useful in alcoholic hepatitis, where AST is usually higher than ALT. These interpretations are far too simplistic however as acute viral hepatitis can have AST greater than ALT, and this can be a sign of fulminant disease, while alcoholic hepatitis can have ALT greater than AST when several days have elapsed since alcohol exposure. The ratio therefore represents the time course and aggressiveness of disease that would be predicted from the relatively short half-life of AST (18 h) compared to ALT (36 h). In chronic viral illnesses such as chronic viral hepatitis and chronic alcoholism as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, an elevated AST/ALT ratio is predictive of long terms complications including fibrosis and cirrhosis. There are methodological issues, particularly whether or not pyridoxal phosphate is used in the transaminase assays, and although this can have specific effects when patient samples are deficient in this vitamin, these method differences generally have mild effects on the usefulness of the assays or the ratio. Ideally laboratories should be using pyridoxal phosphate supplemented assays in alcoholic, elderly and cancer patients who may be pyridoxine deplete. Ideally all laboratories reporting abnormal ALT should also report AST and calculate the De Ritis ratio because it provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information.

Botros, Mona; Sikaris, Kenneth A

2013-01-01

242

Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).  

PubMed

Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

2013-05-31

243

A Novel Method for Diagnosing Cirrhosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: Artificial Neural Network Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed an artificial neural network (ANN) to diagnose cirrhosis in patients with chronic HBV infection. Routine laboratory\\u000a data (PT, INR, platelet count, direct bilirubin, AST\\/ALT, AST\\/PLT) and age were collected from 144 patients. Cirrhosis in\\u000a these patients was diagnosed by liver biopsy. The ANN’s ability was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC)\\u000a analysis and the results were compared with a

Mohammad Reza Raoufy; Parviz Vahdani; Seyed Moayed Alavian; Sahba Fekri; Parivash Eftekhari; Shahriar Gharibzadeh

2011-01-01

244

Effect of yield and price risk on conversion from conventional to organic farming &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the benefits of organic farming are already well known, the conversion to organic farming does not proceed as the Dutch government expected. In order to investigate the conversion decisions of Dutch arable farms, a discrete stochastic dynamic utility-efficient programming (DUEP) model is developed with special attention for yield and price risk of conventional, conversion and organic crops. The model

Szvetlana Acs; Paul Berentsen; Ruud Huirne; Marcel van Asseldonk

2009-01-01

245

Location of R&D and High-Tech Production by Vertically Integrated Multinationals &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of multinational firms by allowing for agglomeration forces in firm-level activities such as R&D as well as in production. We develop a two-country general-equilibrium model where firms make separate choices about the location of R&D and production. There are R&D spillovers and a home-market effect creating incentives for firms to locate production in the relatively

Karolina Ekholm; Katariina Hakkala

2007-01-01

246

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

1999-01-01

247

MARKET POWER, VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND THE WHOLESALE PRICE OF GASOLINE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines empirically the relationship between vertical integration and wholesale gasoline prices. We use discrete and differential changes in the extent of vertical integration generated by mergers in West Coast gasoline refining and retailing markets to test for incentives to raise rivals' costs. The research design allows us to test for a relationship between vertical integration and wholesale prices,

JUSTINE S. HASTINGS; RICHARD J. GILBERT

2005-01-01

248

Comment on ‘minimum wages for ronald mcdonald monopsonies: a theory of monopsonistic competition’ &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bhaskar and To (1999) develop a model of monopsonistic competition and solve explicitly for equilibrium. While a minimum wage set just above the unconstrained optimum leads firms to increase employment it also causes firm exit as profits fall. In this note I show that the employment and welfare effects of the minimum wage which Bhaskar and To had thought to

Frank Walsh

2003-01-01

249

A Meta‐Analysis of the Effect of Common Currencies on International Trade &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Thirty‐four recent studies have investigated the effect of currency union on trade, resulting in 754 point estimates of this effect. This paper uses meta‐analysis to combine, explain, and to summarize these disparate estimates of common currency trade effects. The hypothesis that there is no effect of currency union on trade is easily and robustly rejected at standard significance levels. Combining

Andrew K. Rose; T. D. Stanley

2005-01-01

250

Government Bonds in Domestic and Foreign Currency: the Role of Institutional and Macroeconomic Factors &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn contrast to some recent research, this paper finds that institutional and macroeconomic factors are related to the depth and currency composition of government bond markets. Using panel data for developed and emerging economies, we find several factors to be systematically associated with bond markets. Aside from economic size (already shown to affect the currency composition), this paper shows that

Stijn Claessens; Daniela Klingebiel; Sergio L. Schmukler

2007-01-01

251

Migrants as Minorities: Integration and Inclusion in the Enlarged European Union &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe developing migration and asylum law and policy of the European Union aim to construct a common normative framework to address the admission and residence of diverse categories of third-country nationals in EU territory. The principles of minority protection, however, are absent from EU law, with the exception of some references in the new Constitutional Treaty and the incorporated Charter

RYSZARD CHOLEWINSKI

2005-01-01

252

Why a Multinational Firm Chooses Expatriates: Integrating Resource-Based, Agency and Transaction Costs Perspectives &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This paper develops an integrative organizational economics framework explaining and predicting multinational firms' managerial resource deployments based on resource-based, agency, and transaction costs theories. Our empirical findings suggest that the governance decision for managerial services of multinational firms is influenced not only by the comparative capabilities of managers, but also by the economic costs to the firm of influencing

Danchi Tan; J. T. Mahoney

2006-01-01

253

Program Director Astronomer AD 1330-04 MPS/AST (Closes: 04/15/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... Astronomy Observatories: the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the National Solar ... involving optical/IR instrumentation and technology development, including the optical/IR component ...

254

Program Director, AD-1301-4, MPS/AST (Closes: 04/15/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... Astronomy Observatories: the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the National Solar ... involving optical/IR instrumentation and technology development, including the optical/IR component ...

255

Program Director, AD-1301-4, MPS/AST (Closes: 09/30/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... Astronomy Observatories: the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the National Solar ... involving optical/IR instrumentation and technology development, including the optical/IR component ...

256

New Wine in Old Wineskins: Promoting Political Reforms through the New European Neighbourhood Policy &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe EU's newly launched European neighbourhood policy (ENP) is a fascinating case study in organizational management theory of how the Commission strategically adapted enlargement policies to expand its foreign policy domain. From the use of action plans, regular reports and negotiations to the larger conceptualization and use of socialization and conditionality, the development of the policy shows significant mechanical borrowing

JUDITH KELLEY

2006-01-01

257

A Search for the delta^- Wave-Function Component in Light Nuclei,^AST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (pi^+,pi^± p) reactions in ^3H, ^4He, ^6Li, ^7Li, and ^10B have been studied in quasi-free kinematics. The experiment was performed at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility using two magnetic spectrometers and an incident pion beam energy of 500 MeV. This energy, well above the Delta resonance, and the final-state kinematics were chosen so that the momentum transfer

Y. Tan; J. L. Matthews; V. V. Zelevinsky; C. L. Morris; J. D. Zumbro; R. L. Boudrie; G. Glass; P. A. M. Gram; E. A. Pasyuk; B. J. Kriss

1996-01-01

258

Steam as a general purpose technology: A growth accounting perspective &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of steam to British economic growth in the nineteenth century is estimated using growth accounting methods similar to those recently employed to examine the role of ICT. The results indicate that steam contributed little to growth before 1830 and had its peak impact about a hundred years after Watt's famous invention. Only with the advent of high-pressure steam

Nicholas Crafts

2004-01-01

259

THE IMPACT OF OIL PRICE SHOCKS ON THE U.S. STOCK MARKET &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the reaction of U.S. real stock returns to an oil price shock differs greatly depending on whether the change in the price of oil is driven by demand or supply shocks in the oil market. The demand and supply shocks driving the global crude oil market jointly account for 22% of the long-run variation in U.S.

Lutz Kilian

2009-01-01

260

Uncertainty and Disagreement in Economic Prediction: The Bank of England Survey of External Forecasters &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new source of survey data, namely the Bank of England Survey of External Forecasters. The survey collects point and density forecasts of inflation and GDP growth and, hence, offers the opportunity of constructing direct measures of uncertainty. We present a simple statistical framework in which to define and interrelate measures of uncertainty and disagreement. The resulting

Gianna Boero; Jeremy Smith; Kenneth F. Wallis

2008-01-01

261

Revenue Sharing and Information Exchange under Non-discriminatory Taxation &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe international exchange of tax information, and its merits compared to withholding taxation, has emerged as a central topic in international tax policy. We characterize and compare the outcomes that emerge, in a two-country world, with and without information exchange, under the assumption that countries are unable to tax residents and non-residents differentially. The analysis focuses on the role of

Michael Keen; Jenny E. Ligthart

2007-01-01

262

The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal survey from rural Guatemala, we examine the effect of an early childhood nutritional intervention on adult educational outcomes. An intent-to-treat model yields substantial effects of an experimental intervention that provided highly nutritious food supplements to children, a quarter century after it ended: increases of 1.2 grades completed for women and one quarter SD on standardised reading comprehension

John A. Maluccio; John Hoddinott; Jere R. Behrman; Reynaldo Martorell; Agnes R. Quisumbing; Aryeh D. Stein

2009-01-01

263

The Europeanization of Higher Education: Markets, Politics or Learning? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article looks at increased European co-operation in higher education, taking as its main case study the proposal for universities to adopt a common core curriculum for European studies. The article situates higher education co-operation in the context of political and economic imperatives promoting ‘ever closer union’ and highlights immanent dangers for academic goals. However, it also identifies the scale

IAN BACHE

2006-01-01

264

Encouraging Best Practice in Quantitative Management Research: An Incomplete List of Opportunities &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract The paper identifies some common problems encountered in quantitative methodology and provides information on current best practice to resolve these problems. We first discuss issues pertaining to variable measurement and concerns regarding the underlying relationships among variables. We then highlight several advances in estimation methodology that may circumvent issues encountered in common practice. Finally, we discuss approaches that move

Raj Echambadi; Benjamin Campbell; Rajshree Agarwal

2006-01-01

265

Maternity leave, early maternal employment and child health and development in the US &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore links between mothers’ returns to work within 12?weeks of giving birth and health and developmental outcomes for their children. OLS models and propensity score matching methods are utilised to account for selection bias. Considerable associations between early returns to work and children's outcomes are found suggesting causal

Lawrence M. Berger; Jennifer Hill; Jane Waldfogel

2005-01-01

266

Cities, Europeanization and Multilevel Governance: Governing Climate Change through Transnational Municipal Networks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance. We find that TMNs are networks of pioneers for pioneers.

KRISTINE KERN; HARRIET BULKELEY

2009-01-01

267

International Migration, Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants’ Exchange Rate Shocks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do households respond to overseas members’ economic shocks? Overseas Filipinos in dozens of countries experienced sudden, heterogeneous changes in exchange rates during the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Appreciation of a migrant's currency against the Philippine peso leads to increases in household remittances from overseas. The estimated elasticity of Philippine-peso remittances with respect to the exchange rate is 0.60. Positive

Dean Yang

2008-01-01

268

TAYLOR RULES AND INTEREST RATE SMOOTHING IN THE EURO AREA &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom suggests that central banks implement monetary policy in a gradual fashion. Some researchers claim that this gradualism is due to ‘optimal cautiousness’; in contrast, Rudebusch (Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 49 (2002), pp. 1161–1187) states that the observed policy rate sluggishness is mainly due to serially correlated exogenous shocks. In this paper we use models in first differences

EFREM CASTELNUOVO

2007-01-01

269

The Internationalization Strategy of Spanish Indigenous Franchised Chains: A Resource-Based View &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we identify characteristics of Spanish franchised chains that favor the adoption of an internationalization strategy and those that have a negative influence from a resource-based perspective.Data used were drawn from Annual Franchise Guidebooks published in Spain for 2005. Various independent variables were taken into account and the final sample included 316 Spanish franchised chains. In order to

Rosa Mariz-Pérez; Teresa García-Álvarez

2009-01-01

270

SURVIVAL AND GROWTH IN RETAIL AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCHISED CHAINS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data on franchised chains, which are the type of single-product entities emphasized in industry dynamics models, we show that age and size affect growth and survival even after controlling for chain characteristics and unobserved chain-specific efficiency. This implies that age and size affect firm growth and survival for reasons other than those emphasized in learning-type models. We also find

RENÁTA KOSOVÁ; FRANCINE LAFONTAINE

2010-01-01

271

A Diagnostic Study of the Global Distribution of Contrails Part I: Present Day Climate ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The global distribution of contrail formation potential and contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analyses\\u000a of temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and an aircraft fuel inventory. A large potential for contrail formation is\\u000a found in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics, but also at mid-latitudes. The global potential contrail coverage\\u000a is calculated to be 16%.\\u000a \\u000a The

R. Sausen; K. Gierens; M. Ponater; U. Schumann

1998-01-01

272

Framing the Field of Homeland Security: The Case of Norway &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This paper takes as a point of departure a notion of reorganization as a way of managing risk. It examines the reorganization process in the Norwegian central administration for homeland security. As a central theme the paper explores why the proposal to radically reorganize the administration by replacing a network model with a hierarchical model resulted in a much

Per Lægreid; Synnøve Serigstad

2006-01-01

273

FROM PRIVATE BANKING TO CENTRAL BANKING: INGREDIENTS OF A WELFARE ANALYSIS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier analysis of Cavalcanti and Wallace showing that the set of allocations achievable using outside (government) money is a subset of those achievable using inside (private) money is extended. Here, the class of outside-money allocations is enriched by allowing the planner to make transfers in the form of outside money. At the same time, punishments for defection are weakened.

Neil Wallace

2005-01-01

274

Hepatitis B virus infection among medical aste handlers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 medical and non-medical waste handlers working in three Government hospitals of Addis Ababa between May to July, 2010. Predesigned and tested questionnaire was used to collect soiociodemographic information. Blood sample was taken from 252 waste handlers and serum was tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-Hepatitis core antigen (anti-HBcAg) using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. Of the 126 Medical Waste Handlers and 126 Non Medical Waste Handler, HBsAg was detected in 8 (6.3%) and 1 (0.8%), and anti-HBcAg in 60 (47.6%) and 40 (31.7%), respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBsAg (OR: 8, 95% CI: 1.02, 63.02; p = 0.01), Anti-HB c Ag (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1; p = 0.01) and either markers (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.2; p = 0.001) in medical waste handlers compared to non medical waste handlers. 19.8% were trained to handle medical waste and none was immunized against HBV. Conclusion This study shows a high prevalence of HBV infection in medical waste handlers compared to non medical waste handlers. Lack of training on how to handle medical waste among medical waste handlers was high.

2011-01-01

275

Tropic Trust Versus Nordic Trust: Experimental Evidence From Tanzania And Sweden &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduates in Tanzania and Sweden participated in one Trust game, one Dictator game, and answered a standard set of survey questions relating to trust. In both countries we detected a strong and significant relation between Dictator donations and proportions returned in Trust games, indicating that unconditional distribution preferences matter in Trust game behaviour. In Sweden incentive compatible evaluations of unrevealed

Håkan J. Holm; Anders Danielson

2005-01-01

276

Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviour, Parental Reputation and Strategic Transfers &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines parental reputation formation in intra-familial interactions. In a repeated two-stage game, children decide whether to drop out of high school or daughters decide whether to have births as teens and parents then decide whether to provide support to their children beyond age 18. Drawing on Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982), we show that,

Lingxin Hao; V. Joseph Hotz; Ginger Z. Jin

2008-01-01

277

Credit Default Swaps and the Stability of the Banking Sector &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis paper considers credit default swaps (CDSs) used for the transfer of credit risk within the banking sector. The banks' motive to conclude these CDS contracts is to improve the diversification of their credit risk. It is shown that these CDSs reduce the stability of the banking sector in a recession. However, during a boom or in periods of moderate

FRANK HEYDE; Ulrike Neyery

2010-01-01

278

PENNIES FROM EBAY: THE DETERMINANTS OF PRICE IN ONLINE AUCTIONS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the determinants of prices in online auctions for collectible United States one-cent coins at the eBay web site. Starting with an initial data set of 20,000 auctions, we perform regression analysis on a restricted sample of 461 coins for which we obtained estimates of book value. We have three major findings. First, a

DAVID LUCKING-REILEY; DOUG BRYAN; NAGHI PRASAD; DANIEL REEVES

2007-01-01

279

Corporate Governance – Regulation and Reform: the actuarial governance of UK life insurers &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the Financial Services Authority's (FSA) reforms of the unique corporate governance arrangements of UK life insurers. In particular, the paper explores the need for special arrangements for the governance of with-profits funds, the role of actuaries in corporate governance and the proposals for reform which resulted from the FSA's With Profits Review and Lord Penrose's Report into

Ian P. Dewing; Peter O. Russell

2006-01-01

280

Insurance Regulation in the Public Interest: The Path Towards Solvent, Competitive Markets&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale underlying competition is that market forces are best at allocating resources and enhancing consumer choice and value. Further, the evolution and internationalization of financial services markets could significantly promote economic development throughout the world. Thus, moves to render national and international insurance markets more competitive should be encouraged, taking into account the level of development of each market

Harold D. Skipper Jr; Robert W. Klein

2000-01-01

281

Corporate Governance and Business Ethics: insights from the strategic planning experience &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop an integrated approach towards corporate governance and business ethics. Our central argument is that organisations can learn from the development of strategic planning in the 1970s and 1980s. We identify three weaknesses – a bureaucratic and formalised approach, lack of implementation and lack of integration throughout the organisation – which were prevalent in strategic planning

Ingrid Bonn; Josie Fisher

2005-01-01

282

Astronomer/Program Manager AD-1330-04 MPS/AST (Closes: 10/01/2005)  

NSF Publications Database

... in astronomy, and the management of the electromagnetic spectrum for scientific use. The Division ... astronomy, astrophysics, or a closely related field. In addition, six years of successful research ...

283

Dynamic panel estimation and homogeneity testing under cross section dependence &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This paper deals with cross section dependence, homogeneity restrictions and small sample bias issues in dynamic panel regressions. To address the bias problem we develop a panel approach to median unbiased estimation that takes account of cross section dependence. The estimators given here considerably reduce the effects of bias and gain precision from estimating cross section error correlation. This

Peter C. B. Phillips; Donggyu Sul

2003-01-01

284

A Unique Informationally Efficient Allocation Mechanism In Economies With Consumption Externalities &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the informational requirements of resource allocation processes in pure exchange economies with consumption externalities. It is shown that the distributive Lindahl mechanism has a minimal informational size of the message space, and thus it is informationally the most efficient allocation process that is informationally decentralized and realizes Pareto-efficient allocations over the class of economies that include nonmalevolent

Guoqiang Tian

2004-01-01

285

Fighting for Talent: Risk-Taking, Corporate Volatility and Organisation Change &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that access to finance may affect firms through the labour market. Talented workers want to realise their ideas but also seek insurance against income risk. Large firms default less often than small firms but they investigate more thoroughly and reject more good ideas. With easier access to consumer credit, talented workers become less averse to the income risk

Guido Friebel; Mariassunta Giannetti

2009-01-01

286

The Power of the Presidency: Brokerage, Efficiency and Distribution in EU Negotiations &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractDecision-making in the European Union is subject to the risk of negotiation failure, because of governments’incentives to conceal their true preferences. This article argues that the EU Presidency possesses a set of informational and procedural resources that can help unlock incompatible negotiating positions and secure efficient agreements, while simultaneously allowing the government in office to shape distributional outcomes. Drawing on

JONAS TALLBERG

2004-01-01

287

KAir and H&ast;(10) Rate Constants for Gamma Emitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to estimate the Air Kerma rate constant and the Ambient dose equivalent rate constant for 139 monoenergetic photon sources. The factor that relates activity to air kerma rate or to ambient dose equivalent is useful to estimate the dose from a photon emitter source. Here 139 point-like and monoenergetic gamma-ray sources, ranging from

H. R. Vega-Carrillo; R. Rodri´guez Jua´rez; V. M. Herna´ndez Da´vila; G. A. Mercado

2008-01-01

288

Selected biochemical parameters in captive mountain tortoises (Geochelone pardalis).  

PubMed

The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin, inorganic phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT), creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin in the serum of a captive population of the mountain tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) (n = 13) were determined. Results varied considerably, particularly for most enzymes such as AST (11-113 U/l,ALT (1-72 U/l), CK (12-242 U/l), LD (147-2641 U/l) and ALP (56-168 U/l). PMID:8496893

Rechav, Y; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J; Fielden, L J

1993-03-01

289

Liver markers and development of the metabolic syndrome: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome, although it is not known whether markers of NAFLD, including elevated concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALK), predict the development of metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the associations of elevated AST, ALT, and other liver markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), with incident National Cholesterol Education Program-defined metabolic syndrome among 633 subjects in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline. Insulin sensitivity (Si) and acute insulin response (AIR) were directly measured from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test among African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white subjects aged 40-69 years. After 5.2 years, 127 individuals had developed metabolic syndrome. In separate logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, clinic, and alcohol consumption, subjects in the upper quartiles of ALT, ALK, and CRP were at significantly increased risk of incident metabolic syndrome compared with those in the lowest quartile: ALT, odds ratio 2.50 (95% CI 1.38-4.51); ALK, 2.28 (1.24-4.20); and CRP, 1.33 (1.09-1.63). Subjects in the upper quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio were at significantly reduced metabolic syndrome risk (0.40 [0.22-0.74]). After further adjustment for waist circumference, Si, AIR, and impaired glucose tolerance, the associations of ALT and the AST-to-ALT ratio with incident metabolic syndrome remained significant (ALT, 2.12 [1.10-4.09]; the AST-to-ALT ratio, 0.48 [0.25-0.95]). These associations were not modified by ethnicity or sex, and they remained significant after exclusion of former and heavy drinkers. In conclusion, NAFLD markers ALT and the AST-to-ALT ratio predict metabolic syndrome independently of potential confounding variables, including directly measured Si and AIR. PMID:16249437

Hanley, Anthony J G; Williams, Ken; Festa, Andreas; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Haffner, Steven M

2005-11-01

290

Predictive value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes  

PubMed Central

Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and 30-40% of preterm labors are related to this problem. Early diagnosis of PPROM is very important due to its impact on pregnancy outcomes. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes as a non-invasive and available test. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 pregnant women between the 26th-36th gestational weeks were enrolled in the study. 74 patients were in PROM group and 74 in control group. AST and ALT levels in vaginal fluid were measured in each group. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare AST and ALT levels in each group. Results: The mean of AST level in vaginal fluid was 12.77±10.06 in PROM group vs. 6.91±10.92 in control group (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference between ALT levels in PROM group 1.51±3.17 and control group 0.89±1.15 (p=0.49). Optimal cut point of AST for the diagnosis of PROM was 4.5 IU/L in this study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 82.4%, 63.5%, 69.32% and 78.33% respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, measurement of AST level in vaginal fluid can be used as a reliable test for diagnosis of PROM, but there is no good cut point for ALT level that can be practically used.

Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Salamat, Fatemeh; Ashrafkhani, Babak; Dirbaz, Zahra

2014-01-01

291

Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 megamp flux compression generator experiment ALT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km\\/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or

D. A. Clark; B. G. Anderson; G. Rodriguez; J. L. Stokes; L. J. Tabaka

2001-01-01

292

Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1  

SciTech Connect

A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

Anderson, B. G. (Brodie G.); Rodriguez, G. (George); Stokes, J. L. (John L.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.); Clark, D. A. (David A.)

2001-01-01

293

Salvage surgery of recurrence after laryngectomy - when should the alt free flap be modified?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Reconstruction of the pharynx and cervical esophagus has significantly progressed in the last 2 decades. A revolution in microvascular surgery has provided numerous choices for primary restoration, or in secondary reconstructions necessary for recurrences or complications of primary surgery. The goals of reconstruction after laryngopharyngoesophagectomy are to provide continuity of the alimentary tract, to protect major blood vessels, to heal the primary wound, and to restore the swallowing and breathing functions with minimal donor site and neck morbidity and deformation. Case Report We present 3 cases with complex defects of the laryngopharynx, cervical esophagus and trachea and anterior neck skin following central neck exenteration safely reconstructed with a single anterolateral thigh flap. No postoperative complications occurred in any of the 3 cases of reconstructions, each using a single anterolateral thigh flap. Conclusions This approach significantly simplified the reconstruction, with quick recovery, short hospital stay and excellent functional and aesthetic results.

Maciejewski, Adam; Krakowczyk, Lukasz; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgon, Janusz; Grajek, Maciej; Dobrut, Miroslaw; Szumniak, Ryszard; Jedrzejewski, Piotr; Ulczok, Rafal; Poltorak, Stanislaw

2012-01-01

294

The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

2011-08-01

295

Zirconium adsorption and incorporation on a reconstructed Al-T4 AlN(0001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the energetic stability and electronic structure of zirconium adsorption and incorporation on a 2×2 reconstructed AlN(0001) surface. We employ density-functional theory within the generalized-gradient approximation to study such effects. First-principles total energy calculations reveal that the most stable positions of a Zr adatom on the reconstructed 2×2-T4 AlN(0001) surface are at the S1 and Sp substitutional sites. In addition, calculating the relative surface energy of several configurations, we constructed a phase diagram showing the energetically most stable surfaces as a function of the aluminium chemical potential. Based on these results, we find that incorporation at Al-substitutional sites is energetically favorable compared to adsorption on the top layers. In particular, we find that Zr-S1 and Zr-Sp structures are stable over the entire chemical potential range. This effect can lead to the formation of a non-reactive interfacial ZrN(111) layer on the AlN(0001) surface, which can offer a good interfacial combination between AlN substrate and other metal contacts, i.e. zirconium.

López-Pérez, William; González-Hernández, Rafael; Rodríguez M, Jairo Arbey

2013-10-01

296

Advanced limiter test (ALT-1) in the TEXTOR tokamak: concept and experimental design  

SciTech Connect

The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm/sup 2/. The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable-aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 3 x 10/sup 4/ 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas-conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer.

Conn, R.W.; Grontz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.; Gauster, W.B.; Malinowski, H.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Blewer, R.S.; Whitley, J.B.; Dippel, K.H.; Fuchs, G.

1983-01-01

297

A role for monoubiquitinated FANCD2 at telomeres in ALT cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Fanconi anemia (FA) and telomere dysfunction are associated with chromosome instability and an increased risk of cancer. Because of these similari- ties, we have investigated whether there is a rela- tionship between the FA protein, FANCD2 and telomeres. We find that FANCD2 nuclear foci colo- calize with telomeres and PML bodies in immorta- lized telomerase-negative cells. These cells maintain

Qiang Fan; Fan Zhang; Briana Barrett; Keqin Ren; Paul R. Andreassen

2009-01-01

298

Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

Brown, Kevin

2007-01-01

299

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2013-04-01

300

All ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Publications  

Cancer.gov

Gage K. Schiffman M, Solomon D, Wheeler CM, Castle PE. Comparison of measurements of human papillomavirus persistence for postcolposcopic surveillance for cervical precancerous lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.

301

Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

302

Serum Transaminase Elevations during Pegylated Interferon Treatment of Chronic HCV Hepatitis Probably Induced by Polyethylene Glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We report elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-?-2a in a patient with chronic HCV without other clinical manifestations. Case Summary: A 38-year-old man presented for HCV infection evaluation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT levels were 43 and 116 U\\/l, respectively; RT-PCR blood analysis revealed HCV-RNA infection. PEG-IFN-?-2b plus ribavirin treatment induced both a rapid

B. Caroleo; L. Gallelli; O. Staltari; G. De Sarro; V. Guadagnino

2008-01-01

303

Preliminary observations on the plasma composition of liza klunzingeri from the strait of Hormuz (Persian gulf).  

PubMed

Serum biochemistry can be used for monitoring changes in the physiological condition of fish and water quality. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of plasma T3 (Thyroid hormone), thyroxin, TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone), ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase), AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) and cholesterol of Liza klunzingeri caught on the northern side of the strait of Hormuz (Persian Gulf). Biochemical values were: T3 0.96?±?0.58 ng/ml, Thyroxin 76.58?±?28.26 ng/ml TSH 0.03?±?0.01 nmol/L, ALT 1.71?±?0.68 U/L, AST 49.81?±?5.25 U/L and cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di. A significant positive correlation (P?AST and Cholesterol. ALT had a significant and positive correlation with cholesterol and AST (P?AST (P?

Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Afkhami, Majid; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Esmailpoor, Reza

2013-12-01

304

Endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner rapidly improves plasma parameters of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Bariatric surgery reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), nonsurgical bariatric device, on plasma parameters of NAFLD. Seventeen obese subjects with type 2 diabetes received the DJBL for 24 weeks. Before, during, and after DJBL implantation, we determined plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (?-GT), albumin, caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). At baseline, subjects had increased levels of AST (35 ± 4 IU/L), ALT (54 ± 5 IU/L), and ?-GT (66 ± 14 IU/L), compared with healthy individuals; subjects' mean concentrations of caspase-cleaved CK-18 and L-FABP were 214.4 ± 35.6 U/L and 29.3 ± 2.6 ng/mL, respectively. Three months after implantation of DJBL, all NAFLD-related parameters had decreased from baseline (AST, 28 ± 3 IU/L; ALT, 32 ± 2 IU/L; ?-GT, 44 ±7 IU/L; caspase-cleaved CK-18, 140.6 ± 16.3U/L; and L-FABP, 18.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL; all P < .05). After 6 months, levels of ALT and ?-GT had further decreased (ALT, 28 ± 2 IU/L and ?-GT, 35 ± 5 IU/L), whereas levels of AST, caspase-cleaved CK-18, and L-FABP had stabilized (P = not significant). Six months after DJBLs were removed, levels of ALT (37 ± 3 IU/L), ?-GT (42 ± 5 IU/L), and caspase-cleaved CK-18 (124.5 ± 12.5U/L) were still reduced (P < .05), whereas AST and L-FABP had returned to near baseline levels (P = not significant). Therefore, in obese subjects, DJBL reduces plasma parameters of NAFLD. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00985114. PMID:23920034

de Jonge, Charlotte; Rensen, Sander S; Koek, Ger H; Joosten, Mandy F; Buurman, Wim A; Bouvy, Nicole D; Greve, Jan Willem M

2013-11-01

305

Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-? than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer.

2011-01-01

306

Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200?mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50?mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state.

Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

2013-01-01

307

Effect of etonogestrel implant on serum lipids, liver function tests and hemoglobin levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to assess the possible effects of etonogestrel implant (Implanon®, Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Hb levels in a sample of Turkish population.

Berna Dilbaz; Ozlem Ozdegirmenci; Eray Caliskan; Serdar Dilbaz; Ali Haberal

2010-01-01

308

Associative Tolerance of Intravenously Administered Lipid and Gestational Age in Preterm Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of constant amount of lipid during total parenteral nutrition (TPN), by the evaluation of serum levels of: total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, billirubin, AST, ALT, acid base status in the group of sick preterm infants. Material and methods. The tolerance for intravenously administered lipid (IL), with a maximal

Snezhana Palchevska-Kocevska; Ljiljana Kojik

309

Viral Hepatitis Infection Should Be Considered for Evaluating Uremic Pruritus in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the possible association of viral hepatitis infection and degree of pruritus is the primary concern of this study. Ninety-six adequately dialyzed CAPD patients (47 male and 49 female) and 526 normal controls (266 male and 260 female) were enrolled. Blood hemoglobin, ferritin, electrolytes, calcium, phosphate, albumin, urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin were

Kuan-Yu Hung; Ren-Shi Shyu; Tun-Jun Tsai; Wan-Yu Chen

1998-01-01

310

UTILITY OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE AND MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME IN ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to establish the role of Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Serum ?-GT, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein, AST, ALT and ALP were assayed by standard methods in a clinical chemistry autoanalyser. MCV, Hb, PCV and RBC were measured by an automated cell counter. Activity of

N Baral; S Pokhrel; M Lamsal; BN Yadav; SP Sah

311

Salivary enzymes and periodontal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. There are important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death like: aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine cinase (CK), alkaline and acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), gama glutamil transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect

Tatjana Todorovic; Ivan Dozic; Mario Vicente Barrero; Besir Ljuskovic; Janko Pejovic; Marjan Marjanovic

312

Serum ?-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or

Hossein Khedmat; Farahnaz Fallahian; Hassan Abolghasemi; Bashir Hajibeigi; Zohre Attarchi; Farshid Alaeddini; Mohammad Taghi Holisaz; Masoumeh Pourali; Shahin Sharifi; Nasrin Zarei

2007-01-01

313

The protective effect of glycyrrhizin against injury of the liver caused by ischemia-reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of glycyrrhizin (GR) on an injury of the liver caused by ischemia-reperfusion in rats were determined. In the liver ischemia-reperfusion model, levels of serum AST, ALT and LDH, lipid peroxides in the liver tissue, and blood superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased. On the contrary, total glutathione content in the liver tissue was decreased. When rats were given GR

Takayuki Nagai; Toru Egashira; Yasumitsu Yamanaka; Masahiro Kohno

1991-01-01

314

Hypoaminotransferasemia in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: Clinical and biochemical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: It has been reported that patients with chronic renal failure have low serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a result of vitamin B6 deficiency. Chronic hepatitis C is common among patients undergoing hemodialysis, and low aminotransferase levels cause diagnostic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of hypoaminotransferasemia. Methods:

Kazuto Yasuda; Kunio Okuda; Noriko Endo; Yukihisa Ishiwatari; Ritsuko Ikeda; Haruyuki Hayashi; Kazuo Yokozeki; Susumu Kobayashi; Yasubumi Irie

1995-01-01

315

Preoperative clinical and paraclinical predictors of choledocholithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: The comparison between the two groups showed significant differences in anorexia, itching, dark urine, subicterus (slightly elevated serum bilirubin without clinical evidence of jaundice) and jaundice appearance, increased bilirubin level, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotranferase (ALT), CBD diameter >6 mm and stone observation under US (P<0.05). The highest specificity (100%) and PPV (100%) were found in dark urine

Ali Yaghoobi Notash; Javad Salimi; Farzaneh Golfam; Gholamreza Habibi; Kamyab Alizadeh

2008-01-01

316

Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per.) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 body weight over a 60 day study period revealed that continuous exposure of the plant extract had no damaging effects on the organs of xenobiotic metabolism (liver and kidney). results of levels of serum ast, alt, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, bilirubin and triglycerides of the two groups were not significantly different (p ? ? ? ? 0.05) at the end

G. M. Saibu

317

Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.  

PubMed

Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed. PMID:21056949

Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

2011-09-01

318

Melatonin Modulates The Oxidant Antioxidant Imbalance During N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis In Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Melatonin, the principle hormone of pineal gland plays an important role in several biological processes. The effects of melatonin on hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT)), lipid peroxides (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) during N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) - induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats were studied. METHODS:

Mohamed Essa

319

Effect of samh seeds supplementation (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) on liver enzymes and lipid profiles of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic of Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. The rat groups received different food (natural diet or high fat content diet) supplemented with 10% or 15% of samh seeds for 6weeks. At the end of the study, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes have been measured in

Nora A. Al-Faris; Ali D. Al-sawadi; Majed S. Alokail

2010-01-01

320

Effect of a Single Dose of Caffeine Supplementation and Intermittent-interval Exercise on Muscle Damage Markers in Soccer Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

and after exercise to measure hematological parameters, serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) activity. To compare differences among all variables, 2 (time) × 2 (group) repeated measures ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc tests) was conducted. Exercise caused leukocytosis (38.5% and 36.1% in EXP and CONT, respectively),

Marco Machado; Welton D. Antunes; André Luiz M. Tamy; Pedro G. Azevedo; Juliano G. Barreto; Anthony C. Hackney

2009-01-01

321

Liver dysfunction in steady state sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

The liver is one of the organs involved in the multiorgan failure that occurs in sickle cell disease, the pathophysiology of liver disease in this condition is complex because of the interrelated multifactorial causes. Liver dysfunction was assessed in both paediatric and adult sickle cell disease patients in the steady state. The transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were analysed by automation while coagulation studies were done manually. The mean (range) of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were 23.0 (2-77) IU, 48.5 (15-120) IU, 227.5 (37-1200) IU respectively. ALT and AST levels were less than 100 IU in over 95% of the patients. The gender or age of the patients did not significantly affect the level of these three enzymes. There was close association between the liver size and elevation of the liver enzymes except for alkaline phosphatase (ALT=.017, AST=.009, ALP=.056). Twenty-five percent of the patients had normal enzymes while 13% had derangement of the three enzymes, 19%, 50% and 74% had abnormal ALT, AST and ALP respectively. Only 22% and 5% had deranged PT and APTT respectively. In conclusion minimal elevation of the tramsaminases which is not gender or age dependent were observed in steady state sickle cell disease, higher levels of alkaline phosphatase may be due to associated vasoocclussive crises involving the bones rather than a pathology of the liver. PMID:16432491

Kotila, Taiwo; Adedapo, Kayode; Adedapo, Aduragbenro; Oluwasola, Olayiwola; Fakunle, Eyitayo; Brown, Biobele

2005-01-01

322

PERFIL BIOQUÍMICO SANGUÍNEO HEPÁTICO EN COATÍES (Nasua nasua) CRIADOS EN CAUTIVERIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish reference serum values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin (total and direct), alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumin in captive South American coati (Nasua nasua). A total of 19 coatis (11 males and 8 females) from two zoo parks in the area of Lima, Peru were blood sampled. The coatis

323

Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model  

EPA Science Inventory

A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

324

Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treated rats: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanism of aqueous extract from Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. (PA) on ethanol-induced rat hepatic injury. In the in vitro study, PA (1-4 mg/ml) increased %MTT reduction assay and decreased the release of transaminases (AST and ALT) in rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol. Hepatotoxic parameters studied in vivo included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), together with histopathological examination. In acute toxicity study, single dose of PA (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o.) or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent, 5 mg/kg), 24h before ethanol (5 g/kg, p.o.) lowered the ethanol-induced levels of transaminases (AST and/or ALT). The 75 mg/kg PA dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PA (75 mg/(kg day), p.o.) or SL (5 g/(kg day), p.o.) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/(kg day), p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, HTG and TNF-alpha back to normal. Histopathological observations confirmed the beneficial roles of PA and SL against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Possible mechanism may involve their antioxidant activity. PMID:17870264

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Ngamtin, Chanon; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2007-11-01

325

CARACTERIZACIÓN PRELIMINAR DEL ENZIMA POLIFENOL OXIDASA EN FRUTAS TROPICALES: IMPLICACIONES EN SU PROCESO DE INDUSTRIALIZACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a preliminary characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase enzyme (PPO) was done, this enzyme is responsible of nutritional deterioration of Physalis peruviana (uchuva) y Solanum hirtum X Solanum quitoense (lulo), fruits with highly potential international market. In order to do it, the kinetic reaction of an enzymatic concentrate extract from fruits and the inhibitory activity of some compounds from

KATALINA MUÑOZ; Química Farmacéutica; KARENT E. BRAVO MUÑOZ; PAOLA ZAPATA OCAMPO

2007-01-01

326

Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes  

PubMed Central

Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern.

Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

2014-01-01

327

Age-Related Increase in Alanine Aminotransferase Correlates with Elevated Levels of Plasma Amino Acids, Decanoylcarnitine, Lp-PLA2 Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Arterial Stiffness.  

PubMed

We investigated plasma metabolite profiles that correlated with age-related serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The study included 602 healthy, nondiabetic subjects (aged 30-65 years); 393 individuals had normal ALT levels at baseline. Fifty-three (13.5%) individuals developed elevated ALT levels after 3 years. The remaining 340 subjects with normal ALT were matched to the elevated-ALT group (n = 53) for age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, and ALT to form the control group (n = 53). At the 3-year follow-up, the elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in waist circumference, serum free fatty acid, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), bilirubin, plasma oxidized LDL, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? (8-epi-PGF2?), and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (ba-PWV) compared to the control group after baseline adjustment. The elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in plasma l-valine (q = 0.036), l-leucine (q = 0.012), l-phenylalanine (q = 0.012), and decanoylcarnitine (q = 0.002). Mean ALT levels positively correlated with changes in these four metabolites, which correlated with changes in AST, GGT, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-PGF2?, and ba-PWV. Mean ALT changes did not significantly correlate with HOMA-insulin resistance. These results suggest that increased plasma levels of l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, and decanoylcarnitine precede insulin resistance during periods of elevated ALT. This metabolic disturbance coincides with enhanced risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24874467

Jung, Saem; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kim, Minjoo; Song, Juheui; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

2014-07-01

328

Capitalized amenity value of urban wetlands: a hedonic property price approach to urban wetlands in Perth, Western Australia &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 60 per cent of potable water supplied to Perth, Western Australia, is extracted from the groundwater system that lies below the northern part of the metropolitan area. Many of the urban wetlands are groundwater-dependent and excessive groundwater extraction and climate change have resulted in a decline in water levels in the wetlands. In order to inform decisions on

Sorada Tapsuwan; Gordon Ingram; Michael Burton; Donna Brennan

2009-01-01

329

Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both...

T. L. Baker

1998-01-01

330

Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage

1998-01-01

331

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

1984-01-01

332

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

1985-01-01

333

Evidence from an Experiment on Charity to Welfare Recipients: Reciprocity, Altruism and the Empathic Responsiveness Hypothesis &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the determinants of generosity in an experiment on charity to real-life welfare recipients. It tests the effects of various measures of unconditional altruism and conditional or reciprocal altruism. The results show strong support for conditional or reciprocal altruism. However, people who are self-reported unconditional altruists make offers that are highly elastic with respect to the apparent worthiness

Christina M. Fong

2007-01-01

334

DOES NEOCLASSICAL THEORY ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF BIG FISCAL SHOCKS? EVIDENCE FROM WORLD WAR II &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much debate surrounds the usefulness of the neoclassical growth model for assessing the macroeconomic impact of fiscal shocks. We test the theory using data from World War II, which is by far the largest fiscal shock in the history of the United States. We take observed changes in fiscal policy during the war as inputs into a parameterized, dynamic general

Ellen R. M cG rattan; Lee E. Ohanian

2010-01-01

335

Investigating Managers' Exploration and Exploitation Activities: The Influence of Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Horizontal Knowledge Inflows &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract This paper develops and tests hypotheses on the influence of managers' knowledge inflows on managers' exploration and exploitation activities. Based on a survey among managers of a leading electronics firm, the findings indicate, as expected, that top-down knowledge inflows of managers positively relate to the extent to which these managers conduct exploitation activities, while they do not relate to

Tom J. M. Mom; Frans A. J. Van Den Bosch; Henk W. Volberda

2007-01-01

336

Effects of Executive Characteristics and Venture Capital Involvement on Board Composition and Share Ownership in IPO Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the agency perspective, resource-based view and upper echelon research, this paper examines factors affecting board selection and share ownership in initial public offerings (IPOs). In line with socio-cognitive and behavioural research, it shows that board independence, cognitive capacity and the incentives of non-executive directors are negatively associated with the experience and power of executive directors, and that large-block share

Igor Filatotchev

2006-01-01

337

76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors to the Atlas V launch...solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors on the Delta IV vehicle...determined that there is no new information or analysis that would require preparation of a new or supplemental EA or EIS...

2011-08-18

338

AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH{sub 3}OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 ({approx}85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H{sub 2}CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Jorgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O. (Denmark)

2012-02-01

339

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

340

School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative

Robert Bifulco; Helen F. Ladd

2007-01-01

341

INDIRECT NETWORK EFFECTS AND THE PRODUCT CYCLE: VIDEO GAMES IN THE U.S., 1994–2002 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective

MATTHEW T. CLEMENTS; HIROSHI OHASHI

2005-01-01

342

Natural Hazards as the Cause of Toxic Spills in the United States, with some Notes on Liability&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters that create technological emergencies by causing the release of dangerous materials such as oil, chemicals, or radiological\\/infectious agents are called “na-tech” events (Showalter and Myers 1992). Although there has yet to be a catastrophic na-tech event in the United States, low impact events are fairly common. An example of this occurred a few weeks ago when, during flooding

Pamela S Showalter

1995-01-01

343

Serum transaminase level changes in dengue fever and its correlation with disease severity.  

PubMed

It was observed that liver enzymes are elevated in dengue fever. In this study our aims were to determine the changes in serum transaminases in dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and to find out the relation of transaminase level changes with the disease severity. This cross sectional, prospective hospital based observational study was carried out in the department of Gastrointestinal Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic diseases and Internal Medicine department of BIRDEM Hospital, Dhaka. Patients are classified into 3 groups depending on clinical & laboratory findings: Group 1 dengue fever (DF), Group 2 dengue hemorrhagic fever & Group 3 dengue shock syndrome. A total of 240 cases were taken in this study who fulfilled the selection criteria. Out of whom 125 male and 115 female patients. DF was 157(65.4%) & DHF was 83(34.6%). Aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] were significantly raised in DHF cases compared to those of classical dengue fever (AST 84.5±42.4 in DF vs. 507±106.8 IU/L in DHF and ALT 59.9±31.3 in DF vs. 234±30.6 IU/L in DHF). The rise of AST is far greater than ALT in both DF and DHF. Dengue fever is usually associated with mild to moderate elevations of aminotransferase levels. The increase in aminotransferases, mainly AST has been associated with disease severity and serves as an early indicator of dengue infection. PMID:21804492

Mahmuduzzaman, M; Chowdhury, A S; Ghosh, D K; Kabir, I M; Rahman, M A; Ali, M S

2011-07-01

344

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet moderates the association of aminotransferases with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; the ATTICA study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated liver enzymes are markers of liver steatosis and metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association of Mediterranean diet on the relationship between aminotransferases (i.e., AST, ALT, gGT) and the metabolic syndrome. Methods The ATTICA study has randomly enrolled 1514 adult males (18–87 yrs) and 1528 females (18–89 yrs) from the greater area of Athens. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through the MedDietScore. According to NCEP III criteria, participants were classified into those with or without the metabolic syndrome. Results Women with metabolic syndrome had higher ?GT (p = 0.02) and lower AST/ALT levels (p = 0.018) than those without, and men with metabolic had a lower AST/ALT ratio (p = 0.01) compared to those without metabolic syndrome. The AST/ALT ratio was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (rho = 0.17, p < 0.001), while higher MedDietScore was associated with lower likelihood of having the metabolic syndrome in a multi-adjusted analysis (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16–0.73). Stratified analysis by the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, revealed that only in subjects away or with moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet, an increase in the AST/ALT ratio was associated with lower likelihood of having the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.33, p < 0.05 and OR = 0.34, p < 0.09, respectively); however, when we focused in those with greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet, AST/ALT ratio was not associated with the presence of the syndrome (OR = 0.51, p = 0.55). These findings remained similar in both genders, and even when the quantity of alcohol drinking was taken into account. Conclusion Aminotransferases ratio constitutes a marker of the metabolic syndrome among healthy adults; however, this relationship is moderated when individuals are close to the Mediterranean dietary pattern.

Tzima, Natalia; Pitsavos, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skoumas, John; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2009-01-01

345

Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chlorella in 18 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. METHODS: Eighteen adults with chronic infection by HCV genotype 1 received daily oral supplementation of Chlorella for 12 wk. Changes in the RNA levels of HCV, as well as those of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were evaluated following this treatment period. Paired t tests were conducted to compare the means of the different variables at the beginning and end of the study. Side effects and quality of life aspects were also compared between weeks 0 and 12 of the study period. RESULTS: A majority 84.61% of the patients had a significant decrease in their ALT levels from week 0 to week 12. Evaluation of side effects showed that Chlorella was well tolerated. Quality of life assessment showed that 76.9 of the participants reported an improvement in their energy levels and 46.1% reported an improvement in their perception of general health. Although 69.23% also showed a decrease in their AST levels, this was not statistically significant. Most patients that exhibited an improvement in their ALT and AST levels also showed a tendency toward a decreased HCV viral load. The HCV RNA levels showed a decrease in 69.23% of the patients, which along with changes in AST/ALT ratios from week 0 to week 12, these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Chlorella supplementation was well tolerated in patients with chronic HCV and associated with a significant decrease in ALT liver enzyme levels.

Azocar, Jose; Diaz, Arley

2013-01-01

346

Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy  

PubMed Central

By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients.

Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

347

15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen analysis of sediments from a high-altitude (4215 m), Neotropical (9-N) Andean lake was conducted in order to reconstruct local and regional vegetation dynamics since deglaciation. Although deglaciation commenced ?15,500 cal yr B. P., the area around the Laguna Verde Alta (LVA) remained a periglacial desert, practically unvegetated, until about 11,000 cal yr B. P. At this time, a lycopod

Valenti' Rull; Mark B. Abbott; Pratigya J. Polissar; Alexander P. Wolfe

348

Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

2013-09-01

349

Orbiter/carrier separation for the ALT free flight no. 1 reference trajectories. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details of the generation of the separation trajectories are discussed. The analysis culminated in definition of separation trajectories between physical separation and orbiter/carrier vortex clearance. Specifications, assumptions and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories are presented. Results of the analytical approach are evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. Supporting references are listed.

Glenn, G. M.

1976-01-01

350

Quantitation of the major fungal allergens, Alt a 1 and Asp f 1, in commercial allergenic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Alternaria is one of the most important fungi associated with allergic disease, whereas Aspergillus fumigatus is involved in a broad spectrum of pulmonary diseases. Currently, fungal extracts used for diagnosis in the United States are unstandardized, and their allergenic content cannot be compared directly. Objective: The goal of this study was to compare the variability of major allergen levels among

Lisa Vailes; Susheela Sridhara; Oliver Cromwell; Bernhard Weber; Michael Breitenbach; Martin Chapman

2001-01-01

351

S›cak Stresi Alt›ndaki SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) Beyaz Yumurtac› Tavuklarda Gece Yemlemesinin Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Bu çal›flmada, s›cak aylarda gece-gündüz aras›ndaki s›cakl›k fark›ndan yararlan›larak SPF beyaz yumurtac› tavuklar›n geceleri beslenmeleri ile s›cakl›k stresinin olumsuz etkilerinin ne oranda azalt›labileceinin belirlenmesi amaçlanm›flt›r. Bunun içinde SPF kümeslerde her grup için 50 adet SPF tavuk al›nm›flt›r. Tavuklar, kontrol grubunda 0500-2100 saatleri aras›nda, deneme grubunda ise 1700- 0900 saatleri aras›nda yemlenmifltir. Kümes içi s›cakl›klar, kontrol grubunda ortalama 29,5-0,78 ¡C,

352

Toward an MT System without Pre-Editing --- Effects of New Methods in ALT-J\\/E ---  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several types of Japanese-to-English machine translation systems have been developed, but all of them require an initial process of rewriting the original text into easily translatable Japanese. Therefore these systems are unsuitable for translating information that needs to be speedily disseminated. To overcome this limitation, a Multi-Level Translation Method based on the Constructive Process Theory has been proposed. This

Satoru Ikehara; Satoshi Shirai; Akio Yokoo; Hiromi Nakaiwa

1995-01-01

353

Novel approach for high resolution using cycloolefin-alt-maleic acid derivatives polymer for ArF lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyacrylate derivative was first developed as raw material for ArF resist and it was selected the first candidate in spite of some defects. Cycloolefin-maleic anhydride polymer[COMA] and other polymers were therefore given opportunity. The resist based on COMA shows a good dry-etch resistance compared with that based on acrylate polymer. However, the pattern profile of the resist formulated by using COMA has some defects such as taper and low resolution because of transmittance issue of the polymer. In order to solve the issue, we have developed a new polymer [It was named ROMA Resin]. The new polymer has good physical properties such as UV transmittance, stability during storage and moderate glass transition temperature. We also found that the pattern profile of the resist formulated by using the polymer shows good results in terms of pattern profile, CD SEM slimming and PED stability.

Lee, Jong-Bum; Park, Joo Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Chang-Min; Lim, Young T.; Cho, Seung-duk; Joo, Hyun-Sang; Jeon, Hyun P.; Kim, Seong-Ju

2002-07-01

354

Effect of sublethal concentration of Solanum nigrum on transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase of Biomphalria arabica, in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Schistosomes have a complex lifecycle with freshwater intermediate host snails. The snail host represents the weakest point in the lifecycle of parasite. Biomphalaria arabica is intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. In this work, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the tissue homogenate and haemolymph of B. arabica. Besides, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against B. arabica. The studied enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. AST and ALT were slightly affected but LDH was the most significantly altered enzyme. The role of the biochemical manipulation in affecting host-parasite relationship was discussed. PMID:17580567

El-Ansary, Afaf K; Al Daihan, Soad K

2007-04-01

355

Hepatoprotective Effect of Superfine Particles of Herbal Medicine against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the superfine particles of Radix Tetrastigma (SPRT) against CCl4-induced acute liver damage in rats. Animals were treated with SPRT (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2?g/kg) and showed remarkable hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. CCl4 altered various biochemical parameters in rat liver, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), histopathological changes, and Bax and caspase-3 expressions. SPRT significantly prevented increases in ALT and AST levels, reduced MDA level, decreased Bax and caspase-3 protein expression, enhanced SOD activity, and provided significant amelioration in the histopathological lesions. These findings suggested that SPRT has significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats.

Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaocheng; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong

2014-01-01

356

Characterization and quantification of the influence of season and gender on plasma chemistries of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni, Gmelin 1789).  

PubMed

The present study is the first to monitor plasma chemistries of a group of 30 Hermann's tortoises (HTs) over two summer seasons to characterize and quantify seasonal and gender-related influences. The following analytes were analyzed: ALT, ALP, AST, BA, CA, CHO, CK, LDH, GLU, GLDH, P, TP, TRIG, urea and uric acid. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, mean values, confidence intervals were calculated. The overall results showed distinct patterns and somewhat unexpected results concerning the plasma chemistry changes induced by season and gender in a majority of routine biochemical analytes. TRIG, CHO, CA, and P were significantly higher in females. AST, ALT, BA, LDH and GLDH showed an increase in males in midsummer. ALP showed a significant and analogous seasonal variation for both sexes. GLU showed a moderate increase during midsummer. Uric acid and urea concentrations showed a distinct seasonal variation. For some analytes, fitted curves could be calculated describing the seasonal variation. PMID:23535317

Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Schauberger, Günther

2013-08-01

357

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

2009-08-01

358

A case of isoniazid-induced liver injury diagnosed by use of the DLST, and successful reintroduction of isoniazid for pleural tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old woman was admitted for pleural tuberculosis diagnosed by right chest pain and cough. She received combination antituberculosis therapy consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. However, liver damage was observed 15 days after initiation of therapy (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 248 IU/l, alanine transaminase (ALT), 132 IU/l). The patient was given glycyrrhizinate intravenously, but liver damage gradually increased (AST 628 IU/l, ALT 467 IU/l) and all tuberculosis drugs were ceased. We diagnosed drug-induced liver damage due to isoniazid according to results of the drug lymphocyte stimulation test. We successfully reintroduced rifampicin and streptomycin, and carried out desensitization therapy for isoniazid without liver injury recurrence. Reintroduction of a drug suspected to cause drug-induced liver injury is generally not recommended; however, our experience suggests that isoniazid, a first-line antituberculosis drug, may be reintroduced after desensitization. PMID:21188445

Ikegame, Satoshi; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Fujita, Masaki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiki, Akira

2011-08-01

359

Effect of Solanum surattense seed on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Solanum surattense (S. surattense) on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. Methods S. surattense seed extract was orally administered at the dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. for 15 days, after which aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), citric acid and iso-citrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were assayed. Results The activity levels of the enzymes AST and ALT, which are considered to be the androgenicity in the sperm suspension, were depleted in the extract fed rats. The activity level of the enzyme ICDH, was reduced significantly in the treated group (P<0.001). Conclusions It can be concluded that the oral administration of the aqueous seed extract of S. surattense can deplete the oxidative stress of cauda epididymal spermatozoa in albino rats.

Thirumalai, T; David, E; Viviyan, Therasa S; Elumalai, EK

2012-01-01

360

Hepatoprotective Effect of Aged Black Garlic Extract in Rodents  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury.

Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

2014-01-01

361

Regional Adipose Tissue and Elevations in Serum Aminotransferases in HIV-Infected Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume. Results After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (?14.3%, 95% CI: ?24.7 to ?4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (?11.9%, 95% CI: ?18.4 to ?5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (?7.1%, 95% CI: ?22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.

Tien, Phyllis C.; Kotler, Donald P.; Overton, E. Turner; Lewis, Cora E.; Rimland, David; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gripshover, Barbara

2009-01-01

362

Effect of squalene on tissue defense system in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the effects of squalene on tissue antioxidant status in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats. Levels of diagnostic marker enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK)] in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and the activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)] and

K. H Sabeena Farvin; R Anandan; S. Hari Senthil Kumar; K. S Shiny; T. V Sankar; T. K Thankappan

2004-01-01

363

Carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme in the liver of male rats: role of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases and glutathione play an important role in the detoxification of most toxic agents. In the present study, the protective effects of some antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid (AA), vitamin E (VE) or garlic) on carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the level of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric

S. A Sheweita; M Abd El-Gabar; M Bastawy

2001-01-01

364

Protective effects of remifentanil on septic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abtract  This study is to explore the effect of remifentanil on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, IL-6 and IL-10 levels,\\u000a myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, white blood cell count in bronchoalveolar (BALF), ALT and AST activity in septic mice. Forty\\u000a male KM mice were randomly divided into four groups, sham group, cecal ligation and puncture group (CLP group), remifentanil\\u000a treatment group (R1

Zhang Zongze; Zhan Jia; Chen Chang; Chen Kai; Wang Yanlin

2010-01-01

365

Protective effect of reduced glutathione on the liver injury induced by acute omethoate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Omethoate is an organophosphate insecticide with high toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) on omethoate-induced liver injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, OM (omethoate poisoning), and OM+GSH (omethoate poisoning treated with GSH). The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma,

Lina Lu; Xiuli Wang; Liwei Lang; Fenghua Fu

2010-01-01

366

Evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of jigrine post-treatment against thioacetamide induced hepatic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jigrine a polypharmaceutical herbal formulation containing aqueous extracts of 14 medicinal plants developed on the principles of unani system of medicine is used for liver ailments. The hepatoprotective potential of jigrine post-treatment at the dose of 0.5 ml\\/kg per day p.o. for 21 days was evaluated against thiocetamide induced liver damage in rats. Biochemical parameters like AST, ALT in serum

Aftab Ahmad; K. K Pillai; Abul K Najmi; Shibli J Ahmad; S. N Pal; D. K Balani

2002-01-01

367

A fungal taxol from Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., attenuates 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced biochemical changes during mammary gland carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of fungal taxol against dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. After 90 days of tumor induction, fungal and commercial taxol were administered intraperitoneally once a week for four weeks. Tissues were analyzed for biochemical markers that included aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase

M. Pandi; P. Rajapriya; G. Suresh; N. Ravichandran; R. Manikandan; R. Thiagarajan; J. Muthumary

2011-01-01

368

Serum Copper, Ceruloplasmin and 24-h Urine Copper Evaluations in Celiac Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to evaluate the serum copper, ceruloplasmin and 24-h urine copper levels in celiac patients.Serum\\u000a copper, ceruloplasmin and 24-h urine measurements were evaluated in patients with celiac (n = 32), Crohn’s (n = 25), Wilson’s (n = 11) and in a healthy group (n = 35). Serum and 24-h urine zinc levels, AST, ALT, BUN,

Ali Tüzün Ince; Hüseyin Kayadibi; Aliye Soylu; Oya Ovunç; Mustafa Gültepe; Ahmet Burak Toros; Bülent Ya?ar; Tulin Kendir; Evren Abut

2008-01-01

369

Abnormal liver function test results are related to metabolic syndrome and BMI in Taiwanese adults without chronic hepatitis B or C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Metabolic syndrome (MS) is considered a cause of abnormal deposition of fat into hepatocytes, which might be associated with hepatic steatosis or abnormal liver function.Objective:The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with MS and the relationship between MS and abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in Taiwanese subjects without chronic

M-H Hsieh; C-K Ho; N-J Hou; M-Y Hsieh; W-Y Lin; J-F Yang; C-C Chiu; J-F Huang; N-C Chang; C-L Wang; C-Y Dai; W-L Chuang; M-L Yu

2009-01-01

370

Effect of folic acid and vitamin B 12 administration on phenytoin induced toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folic acid and vitamin B12 are very important vitamins needed for normal cellular metabolic activities. The effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 on liver integrity of growing Wistar albino rats following therapeutic dose of phenytoin administration were investigated.\\u000a The activities of serum AST, ALT, ALP were investigated. Serum total protein level and lipid profile were also measured as\\u000a indices

Itemobong S. Ekaidem; Monday I. Akpanabiatu; Friday E. Uboh; Offiong U. Eka

2007-01-01

371

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet moderates the association of aminotransferases with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; the ATTICA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated liver enzymes are markers of liver steatosis and metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association of Mediterranean diet on the relationship between aminotransferases (i.e., AST, ALT, gGT) and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The ATTICA study has randomly enrolled 1514 adult males (18–87 yrs) and 1528 females (18–89 yrs) from the greater area of Athens. Adherence to Mediterranean

Natalia Tzima; Christos Pitsavos; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christina Chrysohoou; Evangelos Polychronopoulos; John Skoumas; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2009-01-01

372

Serum liver enzymes in Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes are sometimes observed, in the absence of clinical symptoms of liver disease,\\u000a in patients with Turner syndrome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in our Turner patients, serum liver enzyme levels\\u000a and to find a cause for their increase. In 70 Turner patients, serum AST, ALT, GGT levels were evaluated every 6

D. Larizza; M. Locatelli; L. Vitali; C. Viganò; V. Calcaterra; C. Tinelli; M. G. Sommaruga; A. Bozzini; R. Campani; F. Severi

2000-01-01

373

The Treatment with Antibody of TNF-? Reduces the Inflammation, Necrosis and Fibrosis in the Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Induced by Methionine and Choline-deficient Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of anti-TNF-? antibody (infliximab) in experimental steatohepatitis induced by methionine- and choline-deficient\\u000a (MCD) diet. The study included thirty rats. One group received normal rat food, and two groups received MCD diet. The treatment\\u000a group received a single dose intra-peritoneal infliximab (4 mg\\/kg), at week 8. MCD diet increased levels of AST, ALT, TNF-?,\\u000a TGF-?1, tissue and plasma MDA

Suleyman Serdar Koca; Ibrahim Halil Bahcecioglu; Orhan Kursat Poyrazoglu; Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan; Kazim Sahin; Bilal Ustundag

2008-01-01

374

Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver Fibrosis induced by Bile duct ligation and scission in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from\\u000a myceiial liquid culture ofCordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL\\/S) operation, duration\\u000a of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL\\/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase\\u000a (ALP),

Ji-Xing Nan; Eun-Jeon Park; Byung-Keun Yang; Chi-Hyun Song; Geonil Ko; Dong Hwan Sohn

2001-01-01

375

CLINICAL CHALLENEGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35-year-old man living in Sistan was reffered to our center because of fever, night sweats, myalgia, fatigue and elevated Alk-P, ALT and AST from which he was suffering for 8 weeks. He had no history of blood transfusion, IV drug abuse, systemic disease, or family history of hepatitis. He had not received any drugs for 3 months. He had

376

Acute Brucella Hepatitis in an Urban Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35-year-old man was referred to our center because of low grade fever, vomiting, yellow sclera, and tenderness in the upper-right quadrant of his abdomen. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell (WBC) of 7100\\/?L, a platelet of 184,000\\/?L, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 4 mm\\/h, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 525 U\\/L, an as- partate aminotransferase AST of

Mina Asef Zadeh; Abbas Allami; Seyed Moayed Alavian

2009-01-01

377

Synergistic effect of hepatitis virus infection and occupational exposures to vinyl chloride monomer and ethylene dichloride on serum aminotransferase activity  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study the synergistic effect of occupational chemical exposure and hepatitis virus infection on serum aminotransferase activity. Methods: A total of 568 male workers who were employed in five polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or four vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) manufacturing factories were studied. Information relating to current job title, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking was obtained. Exposure level of chemical mixtures was classified by hygienic effect (a summation of personal time weighted average/reference permissible exposure level of each chemical) into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and anti-hepatitis C antibody were assayed. Results: Hepatitis virus infection and increased body mass index were associated with abnormal serum aminotransferase activity. In workers with hepatitis virus infection, those with high exposure had a higher prevalence of abnormal AST and ALT compared to low exposure; among those without hepatitis virus infection, the differences of prevalence of abnormal AST and ALT were not significant between different chemical exposure groups. There was a significant trend of increasing risks of increased AST and ALT in moderate and high exposure groups with hepatitis virus infection. Such a synergistic effect was more prominent among HBeAg-positive workers. Conclusions: Mixed exposures to 1,2-ethylene dichloride and VCM have a positive synergistic effect with hepatitis virus infection on liver damage. Assessment of fitness for work should be considered in workers with hepatitis B and C infection, when they have potential exposure to hepatotoxins in the workplace.

Hsieh, H; Wang, J; Chen, P; Cheng, T

2003-01-01

378

Ibuprofen hepatic encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, gastric lesion and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic ibuprofen (0.4g\\/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation\\/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In

Spomenko Ilic; Domagoj Drmic; Kamelija Zarkovic; Danijela Kolenc; Luka Brcic; Bozo Radic; Viktor Djuzel; Alenka Boban Blagaic; Zeljko Romic; Senka Dzidic; Livije Kalogjera; Sven Seiwerth; Predrag Sikiric

2011-01-01

379

Doxorubicine-congestive heart failure-increased big endothelin-1 plasma concentration: reversal by amlodipine, losartan, and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 in rat and mouse.  

PubMed

Overall, doxorubicine-congestive heart failure (CHF) (male Wistar rats and NMRI mice; 6 challenges with doxorubicine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout 15 days and then a 4-week-rest period) is consistently deteriorating throughout next 14 days, if not reversed or ameliorated by therapy (/kg per day): a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, promisingly studied for inflammatory bowel disease (Pliva; PL 10, PLD-116, PL 14736)) (10 microg, 10 ng), losartan (0.7 mg), amlodipine (0.07 mg), given intragastrically (i.g.) (once daily, rats) or in drinking water (mice). Assessed were big endothelin-1 (BET-1) and plasma enzyme levels (CK, MBCK, LDH, AST, ALT) before and after 14 days of therapy and clinical status (hypotension, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, and ascites) every 2 days. Controls (distilled water (5 ml/kg, i.g., once daily) or drinking water (2 ml/mouse per day) given throughout 14 days) exhibited additionally increased BET-1 and aggravated clinical status, while enzyme values maintained their initial increase. BPC157 (10 microg/kg) and amlodipine treatment reversed the increased BET-1 (rats, mice), AST, ALT, CK (rats, mice), and LDH (mice) values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) and losartan opposed further increase of BET-1 (rats, mice). Losartan reduces AST, ALT, CK, and LDH serum values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) reduces AST and ALT serum values. Clinical status of CHF-rats and -mice is accordingly improved by the BPC157 regimens and amlodipine. PMID:15153646

Lovric-Bencic, Martina; Sikiric, Predrag; Hanzevacki, Jadranka S; Seiwerth, Sven; Rogic, Dunja; Kusec, Vesna; Aralica, Gorana; Konjevoda, Pasko; Batelja, Lovorka; Blagaic, Alenka B

2004-05-01

380

Development of a New Animal Model of Liver Cirrhosis in Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to develop a new experimental model of liver cirrhosis in swine by using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ethanol. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 twice a week for 9 weeks. Maize flour was the only food provided and the animals drunk a 5% alcohol-water mixture. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, bilirubin and

J.-J. Zhang; X.-K. Meng; C. Dong; J.-L. Qiao; R.-F. Zhang; G.-Q. Yue; H.-Y. Zhong

2009-01-01

381

Circulating microRNA 122 in the methionine and choline-deficient mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The methionine choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a frequently used hepatotoxicity animal model of NASH that induces hepatic transaminase (ALT, AST) elevations and hepatobiliary histological changes similar to those observed in human NASH. Liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown as a key regulator of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in adult liver, and has recently been proposed as a sensitive and specific circulating biomarker of hepatic injury. The purpose of this study was to assess miR-122 serum levels in mice receiving an MCD diet for 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days and compare the performance vs. routine clinical chemistry when benchmarked against the histopathological liver findings. MiR-122 levels were quantified in serum using RT-qPCR. Both miR-122 and ALT/AST levels were significantly elevated in serum at all timepoints. MiR-122 levels increased on average by 40-fold after 3 days of initiating the MCD diet, whereas ALT and AST changes were 4.8- and 3.3-fold, respectively. In general, miR-122 levels remained elevated across all time points, whereas the ALT/AST increases were less robust but correlated with the progressive severity of NASH as assessed by histopathology. In conclusion, serum levels of miR-122 can potentially be used as a sensitive biomarker for the early detection of hepatotoxicity and can aid in monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury in mouse efficacy models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24217942

Clarke, John D; Sharapova, Tatiana; Lake, April D; Blomme, Eric; Maher, Jonathan; Cherrington, Nathan J

2014-06-01

382

FR167653 attenuates murine immunological liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract AIM: Tostudy the effect of FR167653 on immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. METHODS: ILI was,established by tail vein injection of 2.5 mg Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG), and 10 d later with 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 0.2 mL saline (BCG plus LPS). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in sera,and,malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) contents in liver homogenates,were,assayed,by spectrophotometry. The

Hong-wei Yao; Jun Li; Ji-qiang Chen; Zhejiang Respiratory Drugs

383

Effect of leflunomide on immunological liver injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the effect of leflunomide on immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. METHODS: ILI was induced by tail vein injection of 2.5 mg Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), and 10 d later with 10 ?g lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 0.2 mL saline (BCG+LPS). The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO) level in plasma and molondiadehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase

Hong-Wei Yao; Jun Li; Yong Jin; Yun-Fang Zhang; Chang-Yu Li; Shu-Yun Xu

384

Salivary enzymes as diagnostic markers for detection of gingival/periodontal disease and their correlation with the severity of the disease  

PubMed Central

Context: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. Important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death are aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), and gama glutamyl transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in the gingiva and periodontium, in the inflammation. Aims: In this article we examined the activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, before and after periodontal treatment (experimental group — 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontitis patients), and in the saliva from healthy subjects (control group — 20 samples). Settings and Design: Periodontal disease was determined based on the clinical parameters (gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)). Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods: The stimulated saliva of the patient was collected in a sterile test tube and analyzed using the Automatic Analyzer. Results: The obtained results showed statistically significant increased activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, in relation to the control group. A significant reduction in the enzyme levels was seen after conventional periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Based on these results, it can be assumed that the salivary enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP) can be considered as biochemical markers for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of the functional condition of periodontal tissues in disease and health, and in the evaluation of the therapy effects in periodontal disease.

Dabra, Sarita; China, Kamalpreet; Kaushik, Alka

2012-01-01

385

Protective effects of thymoquinone and desferrioxamine against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and desferrioxamine (DFO) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. A single dose of CCl4(20 ?lkg, i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity, manifested biochemically by significant elevation of activities of serum enzymes, such as alanine transaminase (ALT, EC: 2.6.1.2), aspartate transaminase (AST, EC: 2.6.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC: 1.1.1.27). Hepatotoxicity was further evidenced by significant decrease of

Mahmoud A Mansour

2000-01-01

386

Effects of clomazone herbicide on hematological and some parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.  

PubMed

The effects of clomazone (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) according to nominal concentrations used in paddy rice fields (0.4-0.7 mg/L) on protein and carbohydrate metabolism and haematological parameters were evaluated in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h of exposure with a recovery period of 96 and 192 h. Liver glycogen increased significantly (P<0.05) in all periods and concentrations tested. The maximum glycogen increase reaches 250% after 12h of exposure. Muscle glycogen reduced significantly after 24, 48, 96 and 192 h for both clomazone concentrations (P<0.05). Significantly elevated plasma glucose values (P<0.05) and variation in glucose in the liver and muscle of exposed fish were observed. Muscle lactate levels increased after 12, 24 and 48 h of clomazone exposure (22-67%), but reduced in the liver (P<0.05). Protein levels were enhanced in the liver and white muscle, except at 96 and 192 h of exposure, whereas it increased in the plasma in the period from 48 to 96 h (P<0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were significantly elevated in the plasma (P<0.05). In the liver, ALT increased after 24 h, while AST activity was enhanced only after 12 h of exposure. Hematocrit contents were reduced after 96 and 192 h of exposure. Most of the metabolic disorders observed did not persist after the recovery period, except for the liver AST and ALT activity. Clomazone concentrations used in this study appear safe to fish, Rhamdia quelen, because overall parameters can be recovered after 96 and 192 h in clean water. ALT and AST activity may be an early biomarker of clomazone toxicity. PMID:16099506

Crestani, Márcia; Menezes, Charlene; Glusczak, Lissandra; Dos Santos Miron, Denise; Lazzari, Rafael; Duarte, Marta F; Morsch, Vera Maria; Pippi, Amy Lee; Vieira, Vânia Pimentel

2006-09-01

387

Prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in adult celiac patients and effect of gluten-free diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia and the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) were evaluated in 158 consecutive adult celiac patients, 127 women and 31 men, aged 18 to 68 years (mean, 32). At diagnosis, 67 patients (42%) had raised aspartate and\\/or alanine transaminase levels (AST and ALT; mean, 47 IU\\/L, range, 30 to 190; and 61 IU\\/L, range, 25 to 470,

Maria Teresa Bardella; Mirella Fraquelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Nicoletta Molteni; Paolo Bianchi; Dario Conte

1995-01-01

388

Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.  

PubMed

Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets. PMID:21902856

Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

2012-05-01

389

Weight Loss and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Falls In Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Concentrations are Associated with Histologic Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ability for aminotransferase levels to track histological features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)\\u000a with weight loss has not been examined. Methods: We examined the effect of weight loss following laparoscopic adjustable gastric\\u000a banding surgery on the histological features of NAFLD and plasma aminotransferase concentrations (AST, ALT and GGT) in 60\\u000a (12M, 48F) selected severely obese patients. All

John B. Dixon; Prithi S. Bhathal; Paul E O'Brien

2006-01-01

390

Efficacy of MK615 for the treatment of patients with liver disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of MK615, a Japanese apricot extract, in an animal model, and its clinical therapeutic effect. METHODS: Wistar rats were administered physiological saline (4 mL/kg) or MK615 solution (4 mL/kg) for 7 d. On the sixth d, acute hepatic injury was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection (ip) of D-galactosamine hydrochloride (D-GalN) (600 mg/kg). Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined, and liver tissues were used for histopathological analysis. Fifty-eight patients with liver disorders [hepatitis C (n = 40), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 15), and autoimmune liver disease (n = 3)] were orally administered commercially available Misatol ME-containing MK615 (13 g/d) daily for 12 wk. Blood and urine were sampled immediately before and 6 wk, 12 wk, and 16 wk after the start of intake to measure various biochemical parameters. The percentage change in ALT and AST levels after 12 wk from the pre-intake baseline served as a primary endpoint. RESULTS: D-GalN effectively induced acute hepatic injury in the rats. At 48 h after the ip injection of D-GalN, the plasma levels of ALT (475.6 ± 191.5 IU/L vs 225.3 ± 194.2 IU/L, P < 0.05) and AST (1253.9 ± 223.4 IU/L vs 621.9 ± 478.2 IU/L, P < 0.05) in the MK615 group were significantly lower than the control group. Scattered single cell necrosis, loss of hepatocytes, and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in hepatic tissue samples collected from the control group. However, these findings were less pronounced in the group receiving MK615. At the end of the clinical study, serum ALT and AST levels were significantly decreased compared with pre-intake baseline levels from 103.5 ± 58.8 IU/L to 71.8 ± 39.3 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 93.5 ± 55.6 IU/L to 65.5 ± 34.8 IU/L (P < 0.05), respectively. A reduction of ? 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 26 (45%) of the 58 patients, while 25 (43%) patients exhibited similar AST level reductions. The chronic hepatitis C group exhibited significant ALT and AST level reductions from 93.4 ± 51.1 IU/L to 64.6 ± 35.1 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 94.2 ± 55.5 IU/L to 67.2 ± 35.6 IU/L (P < 0.05), respectively. A reduction of ? 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 20 (50%) of the 40 patients. ALT levels in both the combined ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment and the UDCA uncombined groups were significantly lower after Misatol ME administration. MK615 protected hepatocytes from D-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in rats. Misatol ME decreased elevated ALT and AST levels in patients with liver disorders. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MK615 and Misatol ME are promising hepatoprotective agents for patients with liver disorders.

Hokari, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Matsuda, Takahide; Ishii, Osamu; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Zeniya, Mikio

2012-01-01

391

A paper-based multiplexed transaminase test for low-cost, point-of-care liver function testing  

PubMed Central

In developed nations, monitoring for drug-induced liver injury via serial measurements of serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) in at-risk individuals is the standard of care. Despite the need, monitoring for drug-related hepatotoxicity in resource-limited settings is often limited by expense and logistics, even for patients at highest risk. This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of AST and ALT in a fingerstick specimen. Using 223 clinical specimens obtained by venipuncture and 10 fingerstick specimens from healthy volunteers, we have shown that our assay can, in 15 minutes, provide visual measurements of AST and ALT in whole blood or serum which allow the user to place those values into one of three readout “bins” (<3x upper limit of normal (ULN), 3-5x ULN, and >5x ULN, corresponding to tuberculosis/HIV treatment guidelines) with >90% accuracy. These data suggest that the ultimate point-of-care fingerstick device will have high impact on patient care in low-resource settings.

Pollock, Nira R.; Rolland, Jason P.; Kumar, Shailendra; Beattie, Patrick D.; Jain, Sidhartha; Noubary, Farzad; Wong, Vicki L.; Pohlmann, Rebecca A.; Ryan, Una S.; Whitesides, George M.

2013-01-01

392

Improvement of liver function in humans using a mixture of schisandra fruit extract and sesamin.  

PubMed

This was a randomized, parallel, and placebo-controlled study. Forty subjects were divided into a test group and a placebo group. The study was focused on the potential effects of a mixture of Schisandra fruit extract and sesamin (hereinafter called 'SCH') in the subjects with borderline high levels (40-60 U/L) of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Twenty subjects taking SCH (four tablets per day) and 20 subjects taking a placebo (four tablets per day) were studied. The effects of SCH on ALT, AST, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, free radical levels, total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation were determined. The total test period was 5?months. Intervention of SCH clearly reduced the levels of ALT and AST, but it made no change in the total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. Intake of SCH also greatly increased the antioxidant capacity and decreased the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total free radicals, and superoxide anion radicals in the plasma. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and reductase in the erythrocytes were significantly increased. In addition, the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation, an inflammatory marker, was evidently increased. Fatty liver was found to have been significantly improved in this study. SCH proved to have the effects of antioxidation and improving liver function. PMID:22610748

Chiu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Tzeng, Yu-Te; Wang, Chin-Kun

2013-03-01

393

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with normal aminotransferase values  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the aspects of liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) who had normal aminotransferase levels. METHODS: Thirty-four patients diagnosed with liver steatosis by ultrasonographic examination participated in the study. We compared all non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and NASH cases, according to aminotransferase level, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and presence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Sixteen of 25 patients with high aminotransferase levels were diagnosed with NASH and nine with simple fatty liver according to liver histology. Among the nine patients with normal aminotransferase levels, seven had NASH and two had simple fatty liver. The patients with normal and high liver enzyme levels had almost the same prevalence of NASH and metabolic syndrome. Liver histology did not reveal any difference according to aminotransferase levels and AST/ALT ratio. CONCLUSION: Aminotransferase levels and AST/ALT ratio do not seem to be reliable predictors for NASH. Despite numerous non-invasive biomarkers, all patients with fatty liver should undergo liver biopsy.

Uslusoy, Huseyin Saadettin; Nak, Selim Giray; Gulten, Macit; B?y?kl?, Zeynep

2009-01-01

394

Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.  

PubMed

The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from mycelial liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL/S) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dramatically increased. The WEC or IPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) in BDL/S rats reduced the serum AST, ALT and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). The EPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) reduced the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde contents in liver treated with WEC, IPC or EPC were significantly reduced (p<0.05). But Liver hydroxyproline content was decreased only in EPC treated BDL/S rats to 55% that of BDL/S control rats (p<0.01). The morphological characteristics and expression of alpha smooth muscle like actin in fibrotic liver, which appeared in BDL/S control group were improved in EPC treated fibrotic liver. These results indicate that EPC (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) has an antifibrotic effect on fibrotic rats induced by BDL/S. PMID:11534766

Nan, J X; Park, E J; Yang, B K; Song, C H; Ko, G; Sohn, D H

2001-08-01

395

Evaluation of genotoxicity and subclinical toxicity of Agaricus blazei Murrill in the Ames test and in histopathological and biochemical analysis.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in order to assess the safety and tolerability of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) in general toxicological studies by Ames tests in vitro and in 28-day feeding toxicity experiments. There were no dose-dependent increases or decreases in the number of revertant colonies both with and without metabolic activation in Ames tests. Doses of 10, 5 and 0.1 mg/per mouse of ABM daily were administered by oral gavage to mice (n=10) for 28 days. The effects on clinical observations, clinical pathology, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no significant changes in the brain, heart, kidney, liver, spleen, adrenal gland, testes or ovaries visually. With increasing doses, male and female treated mice did not show any gradual elevation of serum concentration in any of the nine items we examined, except for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in females. The AST levels of the treatment by medium or high dose and the ALT levels of the treatment by high dose in females were abnormal in comparison to those of the baseline control group, with significant differences. On studying the histological changes in mice, tissue sections of negative control and experimental groups exhibited no apparent pathological alterations. In summary, the Ames test, pathology determinations, biochemical analysis and routine blood parameters were all normal, except for AST and ALT in females. Results showed that the statistical differences observed in one sex were not observed in the other and were not dose dependent. PMID:22523296

Chang, Jin-Biou; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Lee, Ching-Sung; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chung, Ming-Teng; Man-Kuan, Au; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

2012-01-01

396

Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with optical coherence tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938546

Kova?evi?, Igor; Radosavljevi?, Aleksandra; Kalezi?, Bojan; Poti?, Jelena; Damjanovi?, Goran; Stefanovi?, Ivan

2012-08-01

397

The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

2012-08-01

398

Profile of Hepatic Involvement by Dengue Virus in Dengue Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background: The spectrum of liver dysfunction in children with dengue infection is wide and has been associated with disease severity. Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the range of hepatic involvement in dengue infection in children. Materials and Methods: This study assessed the biochemical and clinical profile of hepatic involvement by dengue virus in 120 children with serologically positive dengue fever (DF), aged 2 months to 14 years. Results: All cases were grouped into DF without warning signs (Group 1), DF with warning signs (Group 2) and severe dengue (Group 3) according to revised World Health Organization 2009 criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (80.8%), hepatic tenderness (46.3%), jaundice (60%), raised aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and prolonged prothrombin time (41.7%) and reduced serum albumin (56%). Conclusions: Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in Groups 2 and 3. There was 84.4% and 93.75% ALT and AST elevation respectively in Group 2 and 94.5% and 95.9% ALT and AST elevation respectively in Group 3 and fulminant hepatic failure was observed in Group 3. Therefore in a child with fever, jaundice, hepatomegaly and altered liver function tests, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered in areas where dengue infection is endemic.

Roy, Amrita; Sarkar, Debalina; Chakraborty, Sohini; Chaudhuri, Jasodhara; Ghosh, Pramit; Chakraborty, Swapna

2013-01-01

399

The antioxidant effect of Rosa rugosa.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of Rosa rugosa (Rosa rugosa Thunb) on lipid peroxidation, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glutathione and protein oxidation levels in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated male Wistar rats. Two control groups and one treatment group of rats were formed. The control groups were fed a standard diet, while the Rosa rugosa group was fed a standard diet enriched with 6% by weight dried Rosa rugosa fruit powder. After 3 months, a single dose of CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally in the Control II and Rosa rugosa groups (1 ml/kg, as 20% in olive oil) and a similar dose of olive oil was administered i.p. to rats in the Control I group. The rats were sacrificed 2 hours later. Lipid peroxide levels in liver, protein oxidation in liver, glutathione (GSH) levels in liver, and ALT and AST in plasma were measured. The rats in the Rosa rugosa group were found to have significantly lower liver peroxide, protein oxidation, glutathione levels and plasma ALT and AST activities compared with the rats in the CCl4 treated control group. These findings suggest that Rosa rugosa possesses antioxidant activity. PMID:19326775

Altiner, Dehen; Kiliçgün, Hasan

2008-01-01

400

Role of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular injury: effect of CrPic treatment.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium picolinate (CrPic, Fig. 1) hepatoprotective activity from alloxan-induced hepatic injury. Diabetes is induced by alloxan-treatment concurrently with the hepatic injury in mice. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of CrPic treatment in hepatic injury and the signal role of liver fatty acid binding protein in early hepatocellular injury diagnostics. In this study, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) levels in the alloxan group were higher 71% and 50%, respectively, than those of the control group (ALT: 14.51±0.74; AST: 22.60±0.69). The AST and ALT levels in CrPic group were of minimal difference compared to the control groups. Here, CrPic exhibited amelioration alloxan induced oxidative stress in mouse livers. A significant increase in liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was observed, which indicates increased fatty acid utilization in liver tissue [1]. In this study, the mRNA levels of L-FABP increased in both the control (1.1 fold) and CrPic (0.78 fold) groups compared the alloxan group. These findings suggest that hepatic injury may be prevented by CrPic, and is a potential target for use in the treatment of early hepatic injury. PMID:23603011

Fan, Weijiang; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenhang; Teng, Anguo; Liu, Anjun; Ming, Dongfeng; Yan, Peng

2013-07-01

401

Molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei.  

PubMed

Aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments and recent studies include the genus in the emergent pathogens group because of its frequent association with local and systemic infections in immunocompetent humans. Aiming to search for virulence genes in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei, we designed specific primers to detect act/hlyA/aer complex and alt genes. Primers described elsewhere were used to detect ast. Eighty-seven strains previously identified using phenotypic and genotypic tests as A. hydrophila (41) and A. jandaei (46) were analysed for the presence of the virulence genes using PCR. DNA fragments of expected size were purified and directly sequenced. Among the 41 strains of A. hydrophila 70.7% (29), 97.6% (40) and 26.8% (11) possessed act/hlyA/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Among the 46 strains of A. jandaei, 4.4% (2), 0% (0) and 32.6% (15) were positive for act/hly A/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Sequencing allowed for the confirmation of amplified products using BLAST. The present work proposes a specific and rapid diagnostic method to detect the main virulence determinants of Aeromonas, a genus potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:19590136

Balsalobre, L C; Dropa, M; Matté, G R; Matté, M H

2009-12-01

402

[Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

2012-05-01

403

Rise in liver enzymes after laproscopic cholecystectomy: a transient phenomenon.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laparoscopic surgery on liver function in humans and the possible mechanisms behind such effect. Blood samples from 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and 20 patients who underwent open cholecystectomy (OC) were tested for liver function by measuring the level of serum alanine aminotrasferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotrasferase (AST) before and after surgery. The level of serum ALT and AST increased significantly during the first 24 hours after surgery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, no significant change of the serum liver enzymes was detected in open cholecystectomy patients. As a result, there was statistically significant difference in change of both ALT and AST levels between LC and OC patients. The effect was transient and reverted back to normal by the 7th day post operation. Transient elevation of hepatic transaminases occurred after laparoscopic surgery. The major causative factor seemed to be the CO2 pneumoperitoneum. In most of the laparoscopic surgery patients, the transient elevation of serum liver enzymes showed no apparent clinical implications. PMID:24047021

Koirala, R; Shakya, V C; Khania, S; Adhikary, S; Agrawal, C S

2012-09-01

404

Cerulenin Blockade of Fatty Acid Synthase Reverses Hepatic Steatosis in ob/ob Mice  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver or hepatic steatosis is a common health problem associated with abnormal liver function and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin on hepatic function in steatotic ob/ob mice. Different dosages of cerulenin were administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice for 2 to 7 days. Body weight, serum AST/ALT, hepatic energy state, and gene expression patterns in ob/ob mice were examined. We found that cerulenin treatment markedly improved hepatic function in ob/ob mice. Serum AST/ALT levels were significantly decreased and hepatic ATP levels increased in treated obese mice compared to obese controls, accompanied by fat depletion in the hepatocyte. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? and uncoupling protein 2 were suppressed with cerulenin treatment and paralleled changes in AST/ALT levels. Hepatic glutathione content were increased in some cases and apoptotic activity in the steatotic livers was minimally changed with cerulenin treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fatty acid synthase blockade constitutes a novel therapeutic strategy for altering hepatic steatosis at non-stressed states in obese livers.

Evans, Zachary P.; Sutter, Alton G.; Jin, Lan; Singh, Inderjit; May, Harold; Schmidt, Michael G.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

405

Study on protecting effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: The SAP rat models were prepared and randomly assigned to the model control group, Baicalin treated group, and Octreotide treated group while other healthy rats were assigned to the sham-operated group. Rat mortality, levels of ALT, AST, liver and pancreas pathological changes in all groups were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Tissue microarray (TMA) sections of hepatic tissue were prepared to observe expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 protein and Caspase-3, and changes of apoptotic indexes. RESULTS: Rat survival at 12 h, expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 protein and apoptotic indexes of liver were all significantly higher in treated groups than in model control group. While the liver and pancreas pathological scores, contents of ALT, AST, and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein were all lower in treated groups than in the model control group. CONCLUSION: Both Baicalin and Octreotide can protect rats with SAP by decreasing the contents of ALT, AST and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein, and improving the expression levels of Bax protein, Caspase-3 protein, and inducing apoptosis.

Zhang, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Zheng; Feng, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Yang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Ju, Tong-Fa; Xie, Qi; Yuan, Wen-Qin

2008-01-01

406

Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties  

PubMed Central

The hepatoprotective potential of earthworm extract (EE) (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) was evaluated against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar albino rat, in comparison with silymarin, the standard hepatoprotective drug. We observed a reduction in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) and in serum total protein, and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum aspertate aminotranferase (AST), serum alanine aminotranferase (ALT), bilirubin and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) due to liver injury in the paracetamol-administered rats (2 g/kg). On the contrary, increased activities of liver GSH, SOD, GPx, CAT and serum total protein level, and decrease in the contents of serum ALP, AST, ALT, bilirubin and liver TBARS were observed in rats administered with different doses of EE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg), which are similar to the activities of hepatoprotective drug silymarin (150 mg/kg). The mode of action of EE as evidenced by the above parameters may suggest that EE, on the one hand, prevents the formation of the reactive oxygen groups, or scavenges these groups, thereby preventing the damage on the hepatic cells, and, on the other hand, modulates the genes responsible for synthesis of antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, CAT and SOD in liver tissue and decreases the serum enzymatic activities such as ALP, AST and ALT.

Balamurugan, Mariappan; Parthasarathi, Kasi; Ranganathan, Lalpet Souri; Cooper, Edwin L.

2008-01-01

407

Probiotics Restore Bowel Flora and Improve Liver Enzymes in Human Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on the bowel flora and the potential therapeutic role of probiotics in alcohol-induced liver injury have not previously been evaluated. In this study, sixty-six adult Russian males admitted to a psychiatric hospital with a diagnosis of alcoholic psychosis were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial to study the effects of alcohol and probiotics on the bowel flora and alcohol-induced liver injury. Patients were randomized to receive 5 days of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum 8PA3 vs. standard therapy alone (abstinence plus vitamins). Stool cultures and liver enzymes were performed at baseline and again after therapy. Results were compared between groups and with 24 healthy, matched controls who did not consume alcohol. Compared to healthy controls, alcoholic patients had significantly reduced numbers of bifidobacteria (6.3 vs. 7.5 log CFU/g), lactobacilli (3.15 vs. 4.59 log CFU/g), and enterococci (4.43 vs. 5.5 log CFU/g). The mean baseline AST, ALT and GGT activities were significantly elevated in the alcoholic group when compared to the healthy control group (AST: 104.1 vs. 29.15 U/L; ALT: 50.49 vs. 22.96 U/L; GGT 161.5 vs. 51.88 U/L) indicating that these patients did have mild alcohol-induced liver injury. After 5 days of probiotic therapy, alcoholic patients had significantly increased numbers of both bifidobacteria (7.9 vs. 6.81 log CFU/g) and lactobacilli (4.2 vs. 3.2 log CFU/g) when compared to the standard therapy arm. Despite similar values at study initiation, patients treated with probiotics had significantly lower AST and ALT activity at the end of treatment than those treated with standard therapy alone (AST: 54.67 vs. 76.43 U/L; ALT 36.69 vs. 51.26 U/L). In a subgroup of 26 subjects with well-characterized mild alcoholic hepatitis (defined as AST and ALT greater than 30 U/L with AST to ALT ratio greater than one), probiotic therapy was associated with a significant end of treatment reduction in ALT, AST, GGT, LDH and total bilirubin. In this subgroup, there was a significant end of treatment mean ALT reduction in the probiotic arm vs. the standard therapy arm. In conclusion, patients with alcohol-induced liver injury have altered bowel flora when compared to healthy controls. Short-term oral supplementation with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum 8PA3 was associated with restoration of the bowel flora and greater improvement in alcohol-induced liver injury than standard therapy alone.

Kirpich, Irina A.; Solovieva, Natalia V.; Leikhter, Svetlana N.; Shidakova, Natalia A.; Lebedeva, Oxsana V.; Sidorov, Pavel I.; Bazhukova, Tatjana A.; Soloviev, Andrej G.; Barve, Shirish S.; McClain, Craig J.; Cave, Matt

2008-01-01

408

Probiotics restore bowel flora and improve liver enzymes in human alcohol-induced liver injury: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on the bowel flora and the potential therapeutic role of probiotics in alcohol-induced liver injury have not previously been evaluated. In this study, 66 adult Russian males admitted to a psychiatric hospital with a diagnosis of alcoholic psychosis were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial to study the effects of alcohol and probiotics on the bowel flora and alcohol-induced liver injury. Patients were randomized to receive 5 days of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum 8PA3 versus standard therapy alone (abstinence plus vitamins). Stool cultures and liver enzymes were performed at baseline and again after therapy. Results were compared between groups and with 24 healthy, matched controls who did not consume alcohol. Compared to healthy controls, alcoholic patients had significantly reduced numbers of bifidobacteria (6.3 vs. 7.5 log colony-forming unit [CFU]/g), lactobacilli (3.15 vs. 4.59 log CFU/g), and enterococci (4.43 vs. 5.5 log CFU/g). The mean baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities were significantly elevated in the alcoholic group compared to the healthy control group (AST: 104.1 vs. 29.15 U/L; ALT: 50.49 vs. 22.96 U/L; GGT 161.5 vs. 51.88 U/L), indicating that these patients did have mild alcohol-induced liver injury. After 5 days of probiotic therapy, alcoholic patients had significantly increased numbers of both bifidobacteria (7.9 vs. 6.81 log CFU/g) and lactobacilli (4.2 vs. 3.2 log CFU/g) compared to the standard therapy arm. Despite similar values at study initiation, patients treated with probiotics had significantly lower AST and ALT activity at the end of treatment than those treated with standard therapy alone (AST: 54.67 vs. 76.43 U/L; ALT 36.69 vs. 51.26 U/L). In a subgroup of 26 subjects with well-characterized mild alcoholic hepatitis (defined as AST and ALT greater than 30 U/L with AST-to-ALT ratio greater than one), probiotic therapy was associated with a significant end of treatment reduction in ALT, AST, GGT, lactate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin. In this subgroup, there was a significant end of treatment mean ALT reduction in the probiotic arm versus the standard therapy arm. In conclusion, patients with alcohol-induced liver injury have altered bowel flora compared to healthy controls. Short-term oral supplementation with B. bifidum and L. plantarum 8PA3 was associated with restoration of the bowel flora and greater improvement in alcohol-induced liver injury than standard therapy alone. PMID:19038698

Kirpich, Irina A; Solovieva, Natalia V; Leikhter, Svetlana N; Shidakova, Natalia A; Lebedeva, Oxsana V; Sidorov, Pavel I; Bazhukova, Tatjana A; Soloviev, Andrej G; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J; Cave, Matt

2008-12-01

409

Improvement in psoriasis with rosiglitazone in a diabetic and a nondiabetic patient.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a prospective, open-label, pilot trial of the effects of the antidiabetic thiazolidinedione (TZD) rosiglitazone in two patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Case 1: A lean, euglycemic 43-year-old nondiabetic man with a 2-year history of plaque psoriasis presented with lesions involving 10% of his body surface (Figures 1A, 1B, 1C). He had no other chronic or acute medical problems. He had previously been managed sporadically with topical triamcinolone acetonide, an intermediate-strength glucocorticoid, and was off antipsoriatic medication for 5 months. He was started on rosiglitazone p.o., 8 mg q.d. After 10 weeks on rosiglitazone, the lesions developed increased erythema, spreading, and shedding of scale (Figures 2A, 2B, 2C). After an additional 26 weeks, the lesions had largely disappeared (Figures 3A, 3B, 3C). The patient remained euglycemic throughout the study. His liver function enzymes (alanine transferase [ALT] and aspartate transferase [AST]) remained normal throughout the study: ALT, 23 IU/L; AST, 47 IU/L before treatment; ALT, 25 IU/L; AST, 33 IU/L after treatment. There were no adverse events. Case 2: An overweight 68-year-old woman (body mass index, 29 kg/m2; with a 12-year history of type 2 diabetes and 5-year history of psoriasis presented with generalized plaque psoriasis over 20% of her body, including two large, thick, silvery plaques with the texture of leather over the lower part of the back (Figure 4A). She was given rosiglitazone p.o., 4 mg b.i.d. for 24 weeks, which resulted in significant improvement in psoriasis (Figure 4B). After an additional 26 weeks on rosiglitazone, the plaques had cleared on her back (Figure 4C) and over her entire body, including scalp, ears, and posterior forearms (not shown). Her glycemic control improved (hemoglobin A1c decreased from 7.7% to 7.2%) and liver function remained normal throughout the study (ALT, 24 IU/L; AST, 14 IU/L before treatment; and ALT, 26 IU/L; AST, 15 IU/L after treatment). There were no adverse events. PMID:16276161

Pershadsingh, Harrihar A; Benson, Steven C; Ellis, Charles N

2005-01-01

410

Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

2012-12-01

411

Effect of chronic consumption of Piliostigma thonningii on activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum and liver in Rattus novergicus.  

PubMed

The effect of chronic consumption of Piliostigma thonningii on the activities of Aspartate Aminotransferases (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferases (ALT) on serum and liver of Rattus novergicus was investigated in this research. The aim of this study was to check the possible effect of chronic consumption of Piliostigma thonningii on the activities of the liver biomarkers (ALT and AST) in Rattus novergicus. The results from this study revealed that the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, showed a significant increase (34.20 +/- 12.9*) at (p < 0.05) upon chronic consumption of ethanolic extract of P. thonningii when compared with that of the control B (18.02 +/- 1.54). The result also showed that the liver AST was significantly increased (32.75 +/- 5.89*) when compared to that of the control B (17.01 +/- 1.81) at (p < 0.05). The results from the study also revealed that there was a significant increase in the activity of alanine aminotransferase in the liver (17.01 +/- 5.86*) when compared with that of the control B (5.1 +/- 1.11) at (p < 0.05). There was a corresponding increase in serum activity of the enzyme ALT (13.65 +/- 3.79*) when compared with that of the control B (9.4 +/- 1.98) at (p < 0.05). The results from this research has shown that chronic consumption of P. thonningii may cause liver injury thereby, increasing the liver enzyme activity (17.01 +/- 5.86*). This was shown in the corresponding increase in the serum level. Excessive consumption of the extract of P. thonningii has a toxicity potential on the liver and possibly other organs and tissues. PMID:24517031

Awhin, E P; Jeroh, E; Anigboro, A A; Rachael, Nwaoroko

2013-12-15

412

Defining the Relationship among Founding Resources, Strategies, and Performance in Technology-Intensive New Ventures: Evidence from the Semiconductor Silicon Industry &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which a firm's performance is dependent on its resources and strategies is widely debated in the literature. We examine this issue by analyzing historical data on the entire population of new independent firms started worldwide in the semiconductor silicon industry for the first 50 years of its existence. We measure resources (managerial capabilities and technological competencies) and

Scott L. Newbert; Bruce A. Kirchhoff; Steven T. Walsh

2007-01-01

413

Improving Work Incentives and Incomes for Parents: The National and Geographic Impact of Liberalising the Family Tax Benefit Income Test &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective tax rates and possible work disincentives created by Australia’s tax and welfare systems have been receiving extensive policy attention in recent years. Family Tax Benefit-Part A (FTB-A) is one of the key causes of high effective marginal tax rates for many families. This study uses national and spatial microsimulation models to evaluate the national and local impacts of

ANN HARDING; QUOC NGU VU; ROBERT TANTON; YOGI VIDYATTAMA

2009-01-01

414

AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

415

Prevalence of resistance to three fluoroquinolones: assessment of levofloxacin disk test error rates and surrogate predictors of levofloxacin susceptibility. AST Surveillance Group.  

PubMed Central

More than 3,000 consecutive clinical bacterial isolates from 10 U.S. medical centers were subjected to standard broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests to determine their susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, D-ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Levofloxacin was confirmed to be twice as active as ofloxacin and to have activity comparable to that of ciprofloxacin, with minor variations in activity against some species. The prevalence of resistant isolates was 7.1% to levofloxacin, 9.3% to ciprofloxacin, and 11.2% to ofloxacin. The susceptibilities of some species to the quinolones were less than those reported in previous studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates had the greatest variability in their susceptibilities to the three drugs between the participating centers. Two proposed zone size breakpoints for levofloxacin disk tests yielded similar low error rates. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin susceptibility test results correlated reasonably well with those of levofloxacin and could be used as surrogate indicators of levofloxacin susceptibility, but that resulted in some serious errors, and thus, direct testing of levofloxacin susceptibility is preferable. Replicate testing of standard quality control strains confirmed the established and proposed quality control parameters for all three quinolones tested.

Fuchs, P C; Barry, A L; Brown, S D

1996-01-01

416

Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using cation-exchange prior to hydridegeneration permits accurate arsenic(III) determinations in acid mine waters containing high concentrations of interfering metals. Stabilization of the arsenic redox species for as many as 15 months is demonstrated for samples that have been properly filtered and acidified with HCl in the field. The detection limits for the method described in this report are 0.1 micrograms per liter for total arsenic and 0.8 micrograms per liter for arsenic(III).

McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

2003-01-01

417

Dynamics and Countervailing Pressures of Visa, Asylum and Immigration Policy Treaty Revision: Explaining Change and Stagnation from the Amsterdam IGC to the IGC of 2003–04 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe objective of this article is to account for the varying, and sometimes puzzling, outcomes of the past three Treaty revisions of EU/EC visa, asylum and immigration policy. The article focuses on decision rules and the institutional set-up of these policies, subjecting the results of the Intergovernmental Conference negotiations leading to the Treaties of Amsterdam and Nice and the Constitutional

ARNE NIEMANN

2008-01-01

418

Measurement of the decay rate and the parameter $\\\\alpha_{K}^{\\\\ast}$ of the decay K $_{L} \\\\rightarrow \\\\mu \\\\mu \\\\gamma$  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of the decay of the neutral K meson into K$^0_{\\\\mbox{\\\\tiny L}} \\\\rightarrow \\\\mu \\\\mu \\\\gamma$ has been measured with the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS. A total of 59 events has been observed with an estimated background of 14 events. The overall Kaon flux was determined to be $ 1.2 \\\\times 10^9$. This observation corresponds to a

A. Lai; L. Musa; A. Nappi; G. Barr; G. Bocquet; J. Bremer; A. Ceccucci; J. Cogan; D. Cundy; N. Doble; G. Fischer; W. Funk; L. Gatignon; A. Gianoli; A. Gonidec; P. Grafstrom; W. Kubischta; V. Marzulli; G. Kesseler; A. Norton; S. Palestini; B. Panzer-Steindel; H. Taureg; M. Velasco; O. Vossnack; H. Wahl; V. Kekelidze; I. Kojevnikov; I. Potrebenikov; G. Tatichvili; A. Tkatchev; L. Bertolotto; O. Boyle; B. Hay; G. Oakland; H. Parsons; C. Talamonti; A. Walker; P. Dalpiaz; J. Duclos; A. Formica; M. Martini; F. Petrucci; M. Porcu; F. Rossi; M. Savrie; C. Simani; A. Bizzeti; M. Calvetti; M. Lenti; A. Michetti; T. Beier; H. Bl; P. Buchholz; D. Coward; C. Ebersberger; A. Kalter; K. Kleinknecht; U. Koch; F. Leber; S. Luitz; B. Renk; J. Scheidt; J. Schmidt; V. Sch; R. Wilhelm; O. Zeitnitz; L. Fayard; J. Ocariz; G. Unal

1997-01-01

419

Te Pikaunga-Mahi Me Te Kohukihuki (Workload and Stress)=A National Survey of Maori Aste Te Hau Takitini O Aotearoa Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996 a national survey was undertaken of 24 Maori members of the Association of Staff in Tertiary Education in New Zealand. It followed an earlier study and sought to investigate further the workloads of Maori staff members and related issues. The research process gave fundamental priority to ensuring culturally appropriate research practices.…

Sisley, Renee; Waiti, Danica

420

Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis. PMID:20466777

Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

2010-08-01

421

Cyclosporine-A Versus Prednisolone for Induction of Remission in Auto-immune Hepatitis: Interim Analysis Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Corticosteroids are used to induce remission in auto-immune hepatitis.They are not universally effective; therefore, alternative treatments are needed.In this study Cysclosporine-A has been compared with prednisolone as an alternativetreatment in a randomized controlled trial. This paper is an interimanalysis of an ongoing clinical trial. METHODS Sixteen years and older consenting patients were enrolled. Group-A receivedprednisolone and group-B cyclosporine-A according to a preset protocoland followed at regular intervals for 48 weeks. Final assessment was doneat week 48. Primary outcome was response rate as defined below. “Completeresponse” was defined as achieving AST and ALT in the normal range andabsence of any clinical signs of deterioration, and partial response was definedas a decrease in AST and ALT by less than half of their original values but notto within normal limit. Non-responding ones at week eight were switched tothe other arm. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were enrolled (24 group-A, 9 male). Mean AST andALT at baseline were higher in group-B, but other variables were comparable.At week 12, 34.8% and 64.3% of group-A and B had achieved AST and ALTin the normal range (less than 40 IU/L) respectively (p=0.081). Correspondingfigures at week 48 were 50.0% and 47.6% (p=0.62 & 0.48 respectively).At week 12, 86.9% and 85.7% of patients had AST and ALT levels less thantwice upper normal limit in groups-A and B respectively (p=0.54 & 0.42).Corresponding figures at week 48 were 90.0% for both groups. There was onetreatment failure in group-B which did not respond to prednisolone either.Serious adverse events (death and liver transplantation) occurred in group-Aonly. Serum creatinine did not change during the study period in either group. CONCLUSION According to our data, Cyclosporine-A is as effective as prednisolone forinduction of remission in AIH. Adverse events and serious adverse events weremore common with prednisolone.

Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Nikfam, Sepideh; Karimian, Saied; Khashayar, Patricia; Malekzadeh, Reza

2013-01-01

422

Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. RESULTS: Four RCTs including 338 patients met the prede?ned inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00?001; I2 = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. CONCLUSION: Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections.

Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

2011-01-01

423

Effects of Echinacea purpurea on Hepatic and Renal Toxicity Induced by Diethylnitrosamine in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrites are mainly used in food preservation. These materials could change to nitrosamine due to the effect of heat and gastric acid. Nitrosamine is absorbed in intestine and enters the liver and hepatocytes by portal venous system, and hampers the detoxification system of liver by interfering in cytochrome P450 enzymes, so, the liver gently proceeds to cirrhosis and cancer. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the hepatic and renal protective effects of aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Materials and Methods Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups were as follow: Control group (normal saline), DEN (200 mg/kg, IP, a single dose), EPE (100 mg/kg, orally, daily) and DEN + EPE which received as group DEN and EPE. After 30 days, Blood samples, and liver and kidney tissues were taken for further examination. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), BUN, Creatinine and total and direct bilirubin were estimated in serum. Results DEN induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in all the treated animals by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and BUN, creatinin and total and direct bilirubin levels. AST, BUN and total and direct bilirubin significantly decreased in DEN + EPE compared to DEN group. After 30 days of DEN administration, histopathological investigation revealed proliferation of hepatic stellate cells and early fibrosis which were partly improved by EPE administration. Conclusions The current study findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract played an important role in the protection against DEN toxicity in rats.

Rezaie, Annahita; Fazlara, Ali; Haghi Karamolah, Mojtaba; Shahriari, Ali; Najaf Zadeh, Hossein; Pashmforosh, Marzieh

2013-01-01

424

Hepatic injury and gluconeogenesis after subcutaneous injection of monochloroacetic acid in rats.  

PubMed

Objective: Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is corrosive to skin, and causes not only chemical injury but also fatal systemic poisoning. Little is known about the cause of death. We studied the acute toxicity of MCA before clinical symptoms appeared in fasting rats. Methods: Blood samples were analyzed 2 h after subcutaneous MCA injection (Ld(90): 162 mg/ml kg body weight). Control rats were injected with saline. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were about 1.5-fold higher than in the controls, and mitochondrial AST (mAST) was 2-fold higher. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly increased, while serum glucose was significantly decreased in the treated group. Lactate was 6-fold higher and pyruvate was 13-fold higher than in the controls. Conclusions: MCA caused injury to the liver and kidneys but these injuries were slight. However, the larger increase in mAST indicated that hepatocellular mitochondria were selectively targeted. Hepatocellular mitochondrial injury decreased gluconeogenesis and caused hypoglycemia and extremely high levels of lactate and pyruvate. Hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis were insidious before the critical symptoms appeared and this combination accelerated to death, affecting other organs such as the heart and brain. Nosotropic therapy of these abnormalities up to the appearance of symptoms may help to establish an early therapy for skin exposure to MCA. PMID:21432300

Toshina, Yumi; Dote, Tomotaro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Tominaga, Mika; Kono, Koichi

2004-03-01

425

Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water.

Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

2014-01-01

426

The predictive value of transaminases at admission in patients hospitalized for heart failure: findings from the RO-AHFS registry  

PubMed Central

Background: Transaminases are commonly elevated in both the inpatient and ambulatory settings in heart failure (HF). Aims: To determine the prevalence and degree of elevated transaminase levels at admission and to evaluate the association between transaminase levels and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Methods: Over a 12-month period, the Romanian Acute Heart Failure Syndromes (RO-AHFS) registry enrolled consecutive patients hospitalized for HF at 13 medical centres. A post-hoc analysis of the 489 patients (15.2%) with alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (upper limits of normal 31 IU/l and 32 IU/l, respectively) measured at baseline was performed. In-hospital mortality was compared across quartiles using multivariable Cox regression models. Results: The prevalences of elevated ALT and AST were 28% and 24% and the medians (interquartile range) were 22 (16–47) and 23 (16–37 IU/L). Patients with elevated transaminases more commonly had right HF, cardiogenic shock, or an ejection fraction <45%. Patients with an ALT in the highest quartile were more likely to present with hypotension and a low pulse pressure, to have electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dyssynchrony and echocardiographic findings including increased left ventricular dimensions, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and valvular heart disease, to require inotropic or vasopressor support during hospitalization, and to report lower ?-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor utilization. After adjusting for potential confounders, ALT was directly associated with BUN increases ?10 mg/dl, necessity for intensive care unit admission, and longer length of stay. Patients in the highest quartile of ALT experienced significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality. Conclusions: In patients hospitalized for HF, there is a graded relationship between admission transaminase levels and surrogates for in-hospital morbidity, while more pronounced elevations of ALT predict in-hospital mortality independent of known prognostic indicators.

Ambrosy, Andrew P; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Bubenek, Serban; Vinereanu, Dragos; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Macarie, Cezar

2013-01-01

427

Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. (Center for the Research of Environmental and Occupational Disease, Graduate Institute of Public Health and Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine (China))

1991-05-01

428

Biochemical Evaluation of Patients of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Non-alcoholic Liver Disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is due to excessive alcohol intake for long duration. Distinguishing ALD from non-ALD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatitis of viral origin) is difficult as patient may deny alcohol abuse. Clinical examination, histology and serology may not differentiate these conditions. Accurate diagnosis is important as management of ALD differs from non-ALD patients. The aim of our study was (1) To evaluate the patients of ALD and non-ALD by biochemical parameters compared to controls, (2) To assess whether these parameters can differentiate ALD from non-ALD. Study was carried out on 50 patients of ALD in group I and 35 patients of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and acute viral hepatitis each in group II. Age matched healthy controls n = 50. Selection criteria-history of alcohol intake (amount and duration), clinical examination, sonography of abdomen, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin levels. Blood samples were analyzed for bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) by kinetic method. Statistical analysis was done by Student unpaired 't' test. Patients of ALD have raised AST/ALT ratio (De Ritis ratio) (>2), ALP and GGT compared to controls (P < 0.01).There is significant difference in AST/ALT ratio, serum GGT and ALP in ALD group compared to that in NASH and acute viral hepatitis (P < 0.05). This study suggests that De Ritis ratio >2 in ALD patients may be due to alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial injury and pyridoxine deficiency. High GGT and ALP values may indicate enzyme induction by alcohol and mild cholestasis. Thus ALD patients have severe hepatic damage. De Ritis ratio <1 and normal to mild elevation in GGT level in NASH and acute viral hepatitis suggest mild hepatic injury of non-alcoholic origin. Our study concludes that ALD patients can be differentiated from NASH and acute viral hepatitis with certainty by measuring serum AST/ALT ratio, GGT and ALP. These biochemical parameters may help clinicians to support the diagnosis of ALD and non-ALD. PMID:24478554

Torkadi, Prasad P; Apte, I C; Bhute, A K

2014-01-01

429

Enzymatic and morphological evaluation of the hepatic cytoprotective effect of somatostatin and octreotide during extended experimental liver preservation.  

PubMed

Cytoprotective effects on the liver of somatostatin (ST) and octreotide (OT) have been previously described in normothermic ischemia-reperfusion models. The purpose of this study was an enzymatic and morphological assessment of hepatic cytoprotective effects during extended cold storage. Rat livers were washed in situ via the portal vein with University of Wisconsin solution (UW) UW+ST, or UW+OT. After 24 or 48 hours of cold ischemia time (CIT), livers were reperfused for 2 hours via the portal vein with oxygenated KHB at 37 degrees C using a nonrecirculating ex situ isolated perfusion system. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatinine kinase (CK) were assessed in the perfusate during ex situ isolated reperfusion. After a 24-hour cold ischemia time (CIT) ALT, LDH, and CK levels were significantly lower (P < .05) in the UW+ST and the UW+OT livers than the UW livers. After 48-hour CIT, AST, ALT, LDH, and CK levels were significantly lower (P < .05) in the UW+ST and the UW+OT livers than the UW livers. Histopathological examination revealed mild differences after 24-hour CIT but an evidently less ischemically damage organ after 48-hour CIT. With the limitations of an in vitro model, ST and OT showed enzymatic and morphological effects during extended liver preservation. PMID:17889110

Cascales-Sanchez, P; Tomas-Gomez, A; Fernandez-Cornejo, V; Terol-Calpena, F; Sanchez-Del Campo, F

2007-09-01

430

Biochemical profile of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).  

PubMed

The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the activity of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata were investigated after exposure to five or 50 miracidia. The biochemical concentrations were measured weekly until the end of the fourth week after exposure. There was a significant decrease in the concentrations of total proteins in the snails exposed both to five and 50 miracidia, as well as an increase in the nitrogenous products of excretion, ALT and AST activities. The higher ALT activity in the hemolymph of the snails after infection with 50 miracidia suggests highest energetic requirement in these snails in relation to snails exposed to five miracidia. The results also suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities, frequently associated with tissue damages. This can be explained by damage due to penetration by the miracidia and subsequent development of intramolluscan sporocysts and rediae. PMID:21537991

Tunholi, Victor M; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Mello-Silva, Clélia C C; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

2011-09-01

431

Role of liver function enzymes in diagnosis of choledocholithiasis in biliary colic patients.  

PubMed

Liver functional tests due to inflammatory process which induced by cholecystitis might changed and some clinicians suggested that these changes might help us to stone prediction in common bile ducts and decrease hazards of performing ERCP and other invasive procedures. Present study was performed for assessment of role of liver functional test in diagnosis of common bile duct stone in patients with cholecystitis and help in their management. Present prospective study was performed between April 2010 and March 2011 on 350 patients who come to our hospital with cholecystitis or biliary colic diagnosis. Patients with cholesistitis diagnosis were underwent operation for removing gall bladder stone and retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed for patients with suspicious to biliary colic and common bile duct (CBD) stones. Ultrasonography, aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct and total serum bilirubin were measured for all of participated patients. Mean of AST. ALT, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were had no significant differences between two study groups. In logistic regression analysis, after entering into the model only CBD diameter (OR: 20; P=0.00) and elevated serum level of ALT (OR: 2; P=0.04) were remained into the model and were known as independent predictor of cholelithiasis. Elevated level of liver enzymes had not main role in CBD diagnosis and ERCP had no to perform for suspicious CBD stone only with elevated liver enzyme and even with normal ultrasonography findings. Endosonography as non invasive procedure recommend for patients before ERCP. PMID:22071641

Zare, Mohammad; Kargar, Saeed; Akhondi, Mohsen; Mirshamsi, Mohammad Hussein

2011-01-01

432

All-trans retinoic acid modifies the expression of clock and disease marker genes.  

PubMed

Restricted feeding (RF), a regimen that restricts the duration of food availability with no calorie restriction, entrains the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Restricted feeding leads to high-amplitude circadian rhythms, which have been shown to promote wellness and reduce disease and inflammatory markers. Retinoids, such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), act as anti-inflammatory agents. Thus far, the effect of ATRA combined with RF on the ability to delay the occurrence of age-associated changes, such as cancer and inflammation, is not known. We measured circadian expression of clock genes, disease marker genes and inflammatory markers in the serum, liver and jejunum in mice fed ad libitum (AL) or RF supplemented with 15 or 250 ?g/kg body/day ATRA for 16 weeks. Our results show that ATRA supplementation led to phase shifts and reduced amplitudes in clock genes. Under AL, ATRA reduced the average daily messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of some disease markers, such as liver Afp and jejunum Afp, Alt and Gadd45? and aspartate transaminase (AST) protein in the serum, but increased the expression level of liver Crp mRNA. Under RF, ATRA reduced the average daily levels of jejunum Alt and Gadd45? and AST protein in the serum, but increased liver Afp, Alt, Gadd45? and Arginase mRNA. Altogether, our findings suggest that ATRA strongly affects circadian oscillation and disease marker levels. Moreover, its impact is different depending on the feeding regimen (AL or RF). PMID:21497500

Sherman, Hadas; Gutman, Roee; Chapnik, Nava; Meylan, Jenny; le Coutre, Johannes; Froy, Oren

2012-03-01

433

Preferential virological response to interferon- ? 2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C infected by virus genotype 3a and exhibiting a low ? GT\\/ALT ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus infection causes acute and often chronic hepatitis. Therapy with interferon-? has been shown to induce remission of the inflammatory process within the liver and also elimination of the virus. However, only about 50% of treated patients respond in terms of at least a transient disappearance of viral RNA from the circulation below the limit of detection. In

Sabine Mihm; Heinz Hartmann; Afshin Fayyazi; Giuliano Ramadori

1996-01-01

434

Descriptions of the Distributions of ALT Within and Across Classes During the A-B Period. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study; Technical Note Series. Technical Note IV-1a.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides descriptive statistical information from Phase III-B of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. Within the sample of second and fifth grade classrooms in public schools in California, approximately six students were identified as target students to be studied during the school year. These students were observed approximately…

Filby, Nikola N.; Marliave, Richard

435

Improved protein-adsorption resistance of polyethersulfone membranes via surface segregation of ultrahigh molecular weight poly(styrene- alt-maleic anhydride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA) alternating copolymer with ultrahigh molecular weight (Mw>106) synthesized in super critical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) medium was used as hydrophilic polymeric additive in the preparation of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. The PES\\/SMA blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that the hydrolyzed SMA preferentially segregated to membrane–coagulant interface during membrane

Li-Ping Zhu; Xin-Xin Zhang; Li Xu; Chun-Hui Du; Bao-Ku Zhu; You-Yi Xu

2007-01-01

436

Performance analysis of MBOC, AltBOC and BOC modulations in terms of multipath effects on the carrier tracking loop within GNSS receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work is the evaluation of the impact of new modulation strategies foreseen for the galileo signal in space (SIS) on the carrier tracking operation within the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receiver (namely frequency locked loop (FLL)\\/phase locked loop (PLL)) in presence of multipath. Although multipath has more relevant effects in term of measurement errors on

Maurizio Fantino; Gianluca Marucco; Paolo Mulassano; Marco Pini

2008-01-01

437

?çerik Tabanli Sayisal Mamogram Eriim Sistemi için Alt Düzey Öznitelik Çikarimi Low Level Feature Selection for a Content Based Digital Mammography Image Retrieval System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems enables to retrieve images from large image archieves based on its contents as well as external attributes associated to each image. This study aims at extracting low level attr ibutes to be used in a CBIR model that enables the utilization of low level image based attributes together with high level con cepts. The

Özlem Öztürk; Hakan Bulu; Adil Alpkoçak; Cüneyt Güzeli; Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi

438

Success in Accrual and Retention in a Large, Multi-Institutional Cancer Screening Trial: The NCI ALTS Experience | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This abstract describes efforts to enhance recruitment and retention of minority women to a large, multi-institutional cervical cancer screening trial. Additional funding was made available to select sites to support targeted efforts to recruit and retain minority women. Resulting retention rates were higher than in any previously reported study for this patient population. The authors conclude that planning, adequate funding, and central and site-specific efforts can enhance recruitment and retention for other similar large-scale cancer screening and prevention trials.

439

Adult T-cell leukaemia-derived factor/thioredoxin expression on the HTLV-I transformed T-cell lines: heterogeneous expression in ALT-2 cells.  

PubMed Central

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-derived factor (ADF), originally described as an inducer of interleukin-2 receptor-alpha (IL-2R alpha/Tac), has homology with the co-enzyme thioredoxin which is involved in many dithiol-dependent reducing processes. Using antibody against the C-terminal synthetic polypeptide of ADF and RNA probe of ADF, we examined the expression of ADF in various cell lines by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and in situ hybridization. ADF was intensely expressed on HTLV-I+ T-cell lines as compared with HTLV-I- T-cell lines. While the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B-lymphoblastoid cell lines were intensely positive for ADF, Burkitt-derived B cell line Jijoye with defective EBV was negative for ADF. Electron microscopic and photomicroscopic analysis of HTLV-I+ ATL-2 cells showed that ADF was localized on both the cell membrane and cytosol. In ATL-2 cells, a marked heterogeneity of ADF expression was observed. In in situ hybridization, heterogeneity of ADF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was also demonstrated, indicating that ADF expression was regulated in the transcriptional level. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Makino, S; Masutani, H; Maekawa, N; Konishi, I; Fujii, S; Yamamoto, R; Yodoi, J

1992-01-01

440

Expansion of circulating TFH cells and their associated molecules: involvement in the immune landscape in patients with chronic HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells are defined as circulating T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which is required for effective humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the role of circulating TFH cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection. Methods The frequency and phenoty