Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. AST\\/ALT ratio predicts cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil G. Sheth; Steven L. Flamm; Fredric D. Gordon; Sanjiv Chopra

    1998-01-01

    Objective: A liver biopsy is necessary to grade and stage chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In a previous study of patients with nonalcoholic liver disease, an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio >1 suggested cirrhosis. We sought to examine the value of the AST\\/ALT ratio in distinguishing cirrhotic patients with chronic HCV infection from noncirrhotic patients and

  2. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  3. ALTS

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. Organized and funded by the National Cancer Institute, ALTS included more than 5,000 women. It began in November 1996 and concluded at the end of 2000.

  4. AST

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is even more likely if other liver-related blood tests are abnormal. An increase in AST levels may be due to: Cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) Death of liver tissue Heart attack Hemochromatosis Hepatitis Lack of blood flow to the ...

  5. Differences in circulating MMP-9 levels with regard to viral load and AST:ALT ratio between chronic hepatitis B and C patients.

    PubMed

    Helaly, G F

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the two major causes of chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis. They have the ability to cause persistent infection in susceptible hosts and severely damage liver function. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is one of the gelatinases that may be important in liver fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate whether or not MMP-9 in relation to viral load is involved in the development of liver dysfunction in HBV and HCV Blood samples from 20 patients chronically infected with HBV and 30 with HCV, along with 15 healthy individuals as controls, were investigated. Viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum MMP-9 levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Levels of MMP-9 were significantly higher in HCV than in HBV patients (P < 0.01), and positively correlated with HBV viral load (r = 0.842, P < 0.01) and AST:ALT ratio (r = 0.614, P < 0.05). Conversely, MMP-9 levels did not correlate with HCV viral load but did correlate with AST:ALT ratio (r = 0.652, P < 0.01). Therefore, MMP-9 levels could reflect progressive liver damage in HBV and HCV infection. However, a distinction between the pathological mechanism of HCV and HBV is suggested, as HCV probably promotes hepatocyte damage and fibrosis through mechanisms other than replication. Continuous expression of the HBV genome through replication and secretion of viral antigens may contribute to the transcriptional regulation of MMP-9, thus promoting liver damage and fibrosis. PMID:21473261

  6. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  7. Joseph Brunner AST / EGL 389

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    I reached the age of reason." He let out a slight chuckle. "Oh I see, so you have everything figured eyes and smiled. "I just love you that's all." "... I love you too ma," his tone was calmingJoseph Brunner AST / EGL 389 Metempsychosis or Phantasm? Chapter one Emancipation "Why can't we

  8. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  9. ALT Telomeres Get Together with Nuclear Receptors.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Eric; Lingner, Joachim

    2015-02-26

    Nuclear receptors bind chromosome ends in "alternative lengthening of telomeres" (ALT) cancer cells that maintain their ends by homologous recombination instead of telomerase. Marzec et al. now demonstrate that, in ALT cells, nuclear receptors not only trigger distal chromatin associations to mediate telomere-telomere recombination events, but also drive chromosome-internal targeted telomere insertions (TTI). PMID:25723159

  10. AST 5XXX: Data Analysis Spring 2007 Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Harrington, Joe

    AST 5XXX: Data Analysis Spring 2007 Syllabus Joseph Harrington 1 Course Vitals Room: Physics 2007 Final: project Class URL: http://physics.ucf.edu/~jh/ast/ast5xxx/ast5xxx.html Class directory: /home/ast5xxx on all trailer machines Textbooks: Howell, S. B. 2000. Handbook of CCD Astronomy

  11. Investigation of a persistently raised serum AST.

    PubMed

    Dawson, C M; Connelly, M S; Kennedy, H J; Howe, G D; Tickner, T R

    1989-11-01

    The AST responsible for a raised enzyme activity, with otherwise normal biochemistry, in a single individual over a 16-month period has been characterized as an IgG (lambda)-AST complex by (i) estimation of the molecular size by gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G200, (ii) agarose gel electrophoresis, (iii) immunoprecipitation by anti-immunoglobulin antisera and (iv) adsorption on to protein A-agarose. PMID:2619234

  12. Asteroids Dynamic Site-AstDyS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The AstDyS online information service (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys/) contains data on numbered and multi - opposition asteroids, including orbital elements, their uncertainty, proper elements, ephemerides with uncertainty, and more. AstDyS also provides additional scientific output computed from the raw observational data. This value added currently includes: more accurate orbits computed with advanced dynamical and observational error model s; their uncertainty, as expressed by the covariance matrix formalism; ephemerides computed on request for each observer, with uncertainty; mean and proper orbital elements (for this output, AstDyS is the primary source worldwide); statistical quality control, providing a rigorous observational error model. All this is available with a sophisticated web interface, providing multiple search functions and online computations as well as complete orbital and residual files. There are several ways in which the A stDyS service could be expanded and improved in the next future, like the explicit classification of asteroids into asteroid families, the classification of resonant asteroids, and an updated self - consistent population model (to be used, e.g., for survey simulations). The IAU Division I endorsed the proposal for AstDyS to become an IAU (permanent) service, which would include the IAU supervision of the AstDyS system, keeping under control the quality of the work and the continuous update under conditions of scientific competition.

  13. ALTS Trial Design and Study Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiologic, virologic and molecular studies have clearly demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central cause of cervical cancer. The motivation for the ALTS trial was to use the information we have gained about the role of HPV to design better treatment and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of cervical cancer and its precursors.

  14. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  15. AST2010 Science Whitepaper JWST Transit Science

    E-print Network

    Sirianni, Marco

    AST2010 Science Whitepaper JWST Transit Science 1 Comparative Planetology: Transiting Exoplanet Science with JWST Mark Clampin, JWST Science Working Group, JWST Transits Working Group, Drake Deming, and Don Lindler 1. Introduction The study of transiting exoplanets has provided most of the key data

  16. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  17. Recycling Trees: Mapping Eclipse ASTs to Moose Models

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    Recycling Trees: Mapping Eclipse ASTs to Moose Models Daniel Langone Software Composition Group a certain language when extracting models we recycle those ASTs. We hook into a specific host application

  18. AST 250 Spring 2010 HOMEWORK #3

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    with this telescope? (3) How much more light gathering power does the proposed James Webb Space Telescope have than-steerable telescope in the world. It is located in Green Bank, WV ( = +38o 30'). Since it is an Alt-Az mount are affected by this limitation? (2) My first telescope was an 8-inch f/4.5 Newtonian reflector. How long

  19. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, Walter L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  20. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  1. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  2. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Wolf, G.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Hsu, W.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.

  3. Should chronic HBV infected patients with normal ALT treated: debate.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2008-06-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have traditionally been used for treatment decisions in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHBV) infected patients. But recent data have raised doubts on this wisdom, as a significant proportion of CHBV infected patients with normal ALT have high HBVDNA levels and significant liver injury at presentation especially in areas of intermediate to high endemicity. A normal ALT value only identifies patients less likely to respond to current treatments, rather than patients who are not in need of the treatment. Patients with CHBV infection with normal ALT should be considered for treatment based on the HBV DNA levels and histological injury. PMID:19669302

  4. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries BINARY STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ! Degenerate state of matter. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries CLASSIFICATION OF DOUBLE STARS BinariesIntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries BINARY STARS Importance: ­ A high fraction (2/3?) of stars are members stars - high energy phenomena: X-ray and gamma sources - exotic objects (cataclismic variables, X

  5. Accelerator Science and Technology Centre ASTeC Annual Report

    E-print Network

    by Photographic Reprographic Services. Daresbury Laboratory. www.astec.ac.uk #12;2 ASTeC Annual Report 2004 - 2005Accelerator Science and Technology Centre ASTeC Annual Report 2004 ­ 2005 CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Centre Accelerator Science and Technology Centre Annual Report 2004 ­ 2005 This report covers the work

  6. Aakre Caitlyn Elementary Education Alt Brittney Elementary Education

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Aakre Caitlyn Elementary Education Alt Brittney Elementary Education Anderson Courtney Elementary Education Anderson Jaysen Technology Education Anderson Robert Secondary Education Arnot Caitlin Elementary Education Bailey Molly Elementary Education Bakke Kelsey Elementary Education Beardsley Amberlee Secondary

  7. Literaturhinweise fr Lehramtsprfungen im Fach Alte Kirchengeschichte und Patrologie

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    des Altertums (LeTh 8), Düsseldorf 9 2008. - DASSMANN, ERNST, Kirchengeschichte, 3 Bde. (KStTh 10-DIETER, Lehrbuch der Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte, 2 Bde., Bd. 1: Alte Kirche und Mittelalter, Gütersloh 3 2007

  8. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  9. AltMove Manager 2.1.4

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-24

    AltMove Manager doesn't reinvent the mouse, but it certainly enhances its general functionality. With AltMove Manager, users can quickly and easily minimize and restore windows, grab screenshots, and even magnify a window under the mouse. Visitors can also consult the Actions menu to add a few more functions, if they wish to do so. This version is compatible with computers running Windows NT and newer.

  10. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Barry Baker; Ryan Williams; Thomas E. Drennen; Richard Klotz

    2007-01-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows

  11. Valence quark and meson cloud contributions to the $?^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast(1520)$ form factors

    E-print Network

    G. Ramalho; M. T. Peña

    2014-05-20

    The covariant spectator quark model is applied to the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast(1520)$ reaction. The valence quark contributions to the electromagnetic form factors and helicity transition amplitudes are estimated from the covariant structure of the $N^\\ast(1520)$ wave function calibrated by the experimental data for large squared momentum transfer $Q^2$. The difference between the model results and the experimental data is then used to parameterize the low $Q^2$ behavior, where meson cloud effects are assumed to dominate. This parametrization can be very useful for future studies of the reaction, as well as for the extension of the transition form factors to the timelike region.

  12. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets ROCKY PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    The origin of regii: shield volcanoes. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets No plate tectonics. Only 1 greenhouse effect, H2O oxidised hot surface rocks O now in rocks, H2 escaped. On Earth: liquid water, life

  13. The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50°. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  14. AST/RO: Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bania, T. M.

    AST/RO, a 1.7 meter diameter telescope, was installed in 1994-95 at the South Pole. Since then AST/RO has been in continuous operation, exploiting the consistently clear submillimeter sky above the Antarctic Plateau. This season AST/RO is operating: (1) a 230 GHz SIS receiver; (2) a 492 GHz SIS quasi-optical receiver; and (3) a dual-frequency 492 and 810 GHz SIS waveguide receiver. The spectrometers are two 1.1-GHz bandwidth AOSs, each with 2048 channels, and one 63-MHz bandwidth 2048 channel high-resolution AOS. The entire system is highly automated; we have successfully operated AST/RO from Boston over the Internet. The immediate scientific goals of this instrument are atomic and molecular line spectroscopy of the ISM at wavelengths near 600 microns; however, AST/RO is a general purpose telescope for wavelengths between 200 and 2,000 microns. AST/RO is studying the ISM in the Milky Way, the LMC, and the SMC. We are currently focussing on using the 609 microns CI (3P1 - 3P0) transition as a probe of PDRs. To assess the influence on PDR structure and composition of UV fields, metallicity, and dust opacity, we have focussed initially on (1) specific astrophysical laboratories in order to isolate particular physical conditions, and (2) objects with substantial amounts of information about the other important PDR tracers, namely C+ and CO.

  15. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Williams; Arnold Barry Baker; Thomas E. Drennen

    2009-01-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas

  16. Dr. Susan M. Alt Assistant Professor of Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Scheiber, Laura L.

    ; Archaeology of Gender and Sex; Ceramic Studies; Violence and Warfare; GIS; Geophysics. Grants and Awards 2010 Wall Trenches? Southeastern Archaeology 30: 108-122. 2010 (Alt, Kruchten and Pauketat) The Construction and Use of Cahokia's Grand Plaza: A View from the Trenches. Journal of Field Archaeology, 35

  17. New Features in AST - a WCS Management and Manipulation Library

    E-print Network

    Berry, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the AST library are described, including a Python interface, support for the FITS-WCS "-TAB" system for storing tabular co-ordinate information, and extended support for representing distortions in spatial projections, using several schemes in common use (IRAF TNX/ZPX, Spitzer SIP, NOAO TPV and SCAMP).

  18. Course: AST 375 or CS 378: Cosmic Dawn II --FRI Semester: Fall 2012

    E-print Network

    Course: AST 375 or CS 378: Cosmic Dawn II -- FRI Semester: Fall 2012 Unique No.: 47815 (AST 375 Methods (including AST 376), Cosmic Dawn I, or by permission Textbook: (Optional) Duncan, T & Tyler, C.as.utexas.edu Office Hours: by appointment Overview: As a student in the Cosmic Dawn research stream, you will get

  19. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  20. Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverjanovich, A.; Rodionov, K.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-06-01

    For the first time, the Raman spectra of AsxTe1-x glasses, 0.2?x?0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As2Te3-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model.

  1. High sensitivity 810 GHz SIS receivers at AST/RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Patrick; Glenz, Stefan; Teipen, Rafael; Tils, Thomas; Honingh, Netty; Jacobs, Karl; Hedden, Abigail; Kulesa, Craig; Groppi, Christopher E.; Walker, Christopher K.

    2004-10-01

    In November 2003 the heterodyne receivers WANDA (polarization diplexed 492/810 GHz) and PoleSTAR (2x2 810 GHz array) of AST/RO (Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory, located at the South Pole) were upgraded with new 810 GHz SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) waveguide mixers from KOSMA. Profiting from device development for the HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared) Band 2 SIS mixers of the Herschel Space Observatory, a factor of approx. 2 improvement in receiver noise temperature (from 1100 K to 550 K DSB) was achieved with WANDA. The SIS mixer devices employ low-loss NbTiN-Al tuning circuits and are fabricated using electron beam lithographic junction area definition and CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) of the tuning circuit dielectric. With the South Pole being one of the best possible sites for ground-based submillimeter astronomy, the 1.7 m telescope currently makes AST/RO well suited for sensitive, large scale spectral line mapping at 810 GHz. Low atmospheric opacity (tau < 1) and, consequently, very low system noise temperatures (< 3000 K) are regularly achieved at 810 GHz, making AST/RO an extremely sensitive observatory at these frequencies. "First light" astronomical measurements made with the upgraded 810 GHz channel of WANDA towards the galactic HII region NGC 3576 in CO J=7-6 (806.65 GHz) and the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 (809.3 GHz) lines are presented.

  2. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  3. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  4. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  5. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  6. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  7. Elevated Serum ALT Levels during Pegylated Interferon Monotherapy May Be Caused by Hepatic Iron Overload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miki Nagashima; Masatoshi Kudo; Hobyung Chung; Emi Ishikawa; Tatsuo Inoue; Tatsuya Nakatani; Kensaku Dote

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Persistently elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been observed in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy. We investigated whether elevated serum ALT levels during PEG-IFN therapy are associated with iron overload. Methods: Sixty-three CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN?-2a monotherapy were evaluated. The associations between elevated serum ALT levels (?70 IU\\/l) were investigated before and

  8. Surveillance study of apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben A. Semmekrot; Bregje E. van Sleuwen; Adele C. Engelberts; Koen F. M. Joosten; Jaap C. Mulder; K. Djien Liem; Rob Rodrigues Pereira; Rob P. G. M. Bijlmer; Monique P. L’Hoir

    2010-01-01

    SIDS and ALTE are different entities that somehow show some similarities. Both constitute heterogeneous conditions. The Netherlands\\u000a is a low-incidence country for SIDS. To study whether the same would hold for ALTE, we studied the incidence, etiology, and\\u000a current treatment of ALTE in The Netherlands. Using the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance Unit, pediatricians working in second-\\u000a and third-level hospitals in the

  9. The AST/RO Survey of the Galactic Center Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. L.; Walsh, W. M.; Xiao, K.; Tothill, N. F.; Harnett, J.; Lane, A. P.; Stark, A. A.

    2006-08-01

    To understand the strongly excited gas near the center of our own galaxy, detailed surveys in a variety of higher excitation states are required. To aid in this effort, the Antarctic Sub-millimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO, a 1.7m diameter sub-millimeter-wave telescope at the geographic South Pole) has completed a fully sampled survey of CO(7-6), CO(4-3), [CI](3P2-3P1), and [CI](3P1-3P0) in a three square degree region around the Galactic Center (Martin et al., ApJS, 150, 239 (2004)). In addition to this dataset, AST/RO has recently completed a survey area around Clump 1 and 2, thus covering the bulk of strongly excited gas near the center of the galaxy. This dataset comprises nearly a million distinct telescope pointings over many square degrees of the sky. To handle a sub-mm dataset of this size required the development of new automated observational methodologies, reduction techniques, and visualizations. These interactive 3D visualizations and movies of the full dataset will be presented to illustrate the wealth of information available.

  10. The AST/RO Survey of the Galactic Center Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. L.; Ast/Ro Telescope Team

    2006-08-01

    To understand the strongly excited gas near the center of our own galaxy, detailed surveys in a variety of higher excitation states are required. To aid in this effort, the Antarctic Sub-millimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO, a 1.7m diameter sub-millimeter-wave telescope at the geographic South Pole) has completed a fully sampled survey of CO(7-6), CO(4-3), [CI](3P2-3P1), and [CI](3P1-3P0) in a three square degree region around the Galactic Center (Martin et al., ApJS, 150, 239 (2004)). In addition to this dataset, AST/RO has recently completed a survey area around Clump 1 and 2, thus covering the bulk of strongly excited gas near the center of the galaxy. To fully illustrate the range of information available in this extensive dataset, a series of interactive 3D visualizations and movies will presented.

  11. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...AST, Inc. (previously Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services, and Erickson Air-Crane); Rotorcraft...Development Corporation (previously Garlick Helicopters, Inc.); Global Helicopter Technology, Inc.; Hagglund...

  12. Pickering emulsions stabilized by self-assembled colloidal particles of copolymers of P(St-alt-MAn)-co-P(VM-alt-MAn).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoya; Yi, Chenglin; Zhu, Ye; Yang, Yiqun; Jiang, Jinqiang; Cui, Zhenggang; Jiang, Ming

    2010-11-15

    A new type of copolymer containing two alternating segments, poly-(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-co-poly (7-(4-vinylbenzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin-alt-maleic anhydride) P(St-alt-MAn)-co-P(VM-alt-MAn)(PSMVM), was prepared. The copolymer self-assembled into nanoparticles with internal microphase structures in water because the hydrophilicity of segment P(VM-alt-MAn) is higher than that of P(St-alt-MAn). The particle size, morphology, ? potential and surface properties and their dependence on the pH and slat concentrations were studied with a combination of techniques. The nanoparticles of PSMVM showed surface activity and pH sensitivity for producing Pickering oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsion volume increased and the size of oil/water droplet decreased with increasing salt concentration. Furthermore, cross-linked nanoparticles (CLPs) were obtained by photo-dimerization of the pendent coumarin groups in PSMVM under UV irradiation. The emulsions produced by using the CLPs as emulsifiers showed even better stability upon standing. Solid oil-phase droplets were obtained by preparation of CLPs-stabilized Pickering emulsions with an oil phase of styrene containing the initiator AIBN followed by the polymerization of styrene. Thus, the enrichment and aggregation of the CLPs on the emulsion droplets was visible because the solid droplets remained unchanged during the SEM sample preparation. PMID:20723908

  13. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczy?ska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; St?pie?, ?ukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  14. Data Categories for a Normalized Reference Annotation Scheme Susanne Salmon-Alt*, Laurent Romary**

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Data Categories for a Normalized Reference Annotation Scheme Susanne Salmon-Alt*, Laurent Romary** * ATILF ­ CNRS Nancy, France ** LORIA ­ INRIA Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France Susanne.Salmon, Vieira et al. 2003, Salmon-Alt & Romary 2004, Poesio 2004). In conjunction with the maturity in the field

  15. Identification of allergens homologous to Alt a 1 from Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocladium botrytis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Postigo, Idoia; Guisantes, Jorge A; Suñén, Ester; Martínez, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that proteins homologous to the Alt a 1 major allergen of Alternaria alternata are expressed in other members of the Pleosporaceae family. However, since no direct biochemical data have been reported concerning the presence of Alt a 1 allergen homologues capable of binding IgE in the excretion-secretion products of Stemphylium and Ulocladium, our objective was to explore their presence in Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocladium botrytis. S. botryosum and U. botrytis culture filtrate extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis and 2D-immunoblotting using polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against recombinant Alt a 1, as well as five human sera from patients allergic to Alternaria. Cross-reactivity immunoassays were performed by ImmunoCAP inhibition and 2D-immunoblotting inhibition. IgE-binding proteins recognized by the rabbit antiserum raised against Alt a 1, with apparent molecular weights of 17-18 kDa and isoelectric points of 4, were identified as Alt a 1-like proteins. Alt a 1 inhibited IgE-specific binding to the Alt a 1 homologues from S. botryosum and U. botrytis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that allergens which are homologous to Alt a 1 are expressed in the excretory-secretory materials of the phylogenetically-related species S. botryosum and U. botrytis. PMID:21504377

  16. Laser Ablative Structural Modification of Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride)

    E-print Network

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    Laser Ablative Structural Modification of Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) Josef Pola Manuscript Received July 30, 2003 Pulsed IR laser ablation of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) results rare example of laser ablative deposition of polymeric films that are structurally identical

  17. Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt.alt, albrecht.schmidt}@uni-due.de christoph.evers@stud.uni-due.de Abstract. Cars are ubiquitous and offer large static, with the exception of car-mounted displays that offer dy- namic content. With new display

  18. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS Kepler's first law I. Planets move (ramutatval egyez): retrograde #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler's second law II component of velocity. So the law says r = constant But mr is the angular momentum

  19. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES Planetary The Solar System has 8 planets : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System "Small Solar System Bodies" (SSSB) (IAU 2006

  20. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided. PMID:22733158

  1. Cloning and characterization of the altA alpha-tubulin gene of Physarum.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, D B; Buchschacher, G L; Burland, T G; Dove, W F; Kessler, D; Paul, E C

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone derived from the altA locus, encoding one of several alpha-tubulins in Physarum, was sequenced and used to determine the developmental and cell cycle expression patterns of its corresponding gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the altA gene product, alpha 1A-tubulin, is 92% identical to the other known Physarum alpha-tubulins, alpha 1B and alpha 2B, which are products of two tightly linked genes at the altB locus. The nucleotide sequence of the altA coding region is 82% identical to the two altB genes. Expression of the altA gene was found in all three cell types examined - amoeba, flagellate and plasmodium - but at substantially different levels in each. The peak level of altA message detected in flagellates was 14-fold higher than in amoebae, while the peak level in plasmodia was 5-fold lower than in amoebae. The expression pattern of altA and the predicted amino acid sequence of the alpha-tubulin it encodes suggest that alpha 1A is the substrate for post-translational acetylation, giving rise to the alpha 3-tubulin isoform found specifically in amoebae and flagellates. Northern blot analysis of plasmodial RNA samples from specific times in the cell cycle showed that the level of altA message varies over the cell cycle in a pattern similar to transcripts from other tubulin genes, with a peak at mitosis and little or no message detected during most of interphase. PMID:8450305

  2. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  3. AST-120 for the management of progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Gerald; Vanholder, Raymond; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by promoting glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis with loss of nephrons and vascular damage. AST-120, an orally administered intestinal sorbent, adsorbs indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, thereby reducing serum and urinary concentrations of indoxyl sulfate. AST-120 has been available in Japan since 1991, and subsequently Korea (2005), and the Philippines (2010) as an agent to prolong the time to initiation of hemodialysis and for improvement of uremic symptoms in patients with CKD. A Medline search was performed to identify data supporting clinical experience with AST-120 for managing CKD. Prospective open-label and double-blind trials as well as retrospective analyses were included. In prospective trials and retrospective analyses, AST-120 has been shown to prolong the time to initiation of hemodialysis, and slow decline in glomerular filtration rate and the increase serum creatinine. In an initial randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the United States, AST-120 was associated with a significant dose-dependent reduction in serum indoxyl sulfate levels and a decrease in uremia-related malaise. The Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC) trials, two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials undertaken in North America/Latin America and Europe, are evaluating the efficacy of AST-120 for preventing the progression of CKD. The results of the EPPIC trials will further define the role of AST-120 in this debilitating condition. PMID:24501542

  4. How useful are similarity word lists for indirect anaphora resolution? Caroline Gasperin* Susanne Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira* *PIPCA - Unisinos São Leopoldo, Brazil {caroline, renata}@exatas.unisinos.br **ATILF - CNRS Nancy, France Susanne.Salmon-Alt@atilf.fr Abstract This work tests the use of word, also adopted in our previous work (Vieira et al. 2002, Salmon- Alt & Vieira, 2002) was based

  5. Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games In Education and Research

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games, produced, distributed, and evaluated Con- trol-Alt-HackTM: a recreational tabletop card game in- tended we released Control-Alt-Hack: White Hat Hacking for Fun and ProfitTM--a recreation- al tabletop card

  6. Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness and Education

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness from 22 of these educators about their experiences using Control-Alt-Hack with over 450 students to thinking about security and that facilitates ad hoc, social interactions led us to design Control-Alt-Hack

  7. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  8. CME 331.3 (3L-3P alt week) Microprocessor Based Embedded Systems

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    CME 331.3 (3L-3P alt week) Microprocessor Based Embedded Systems Department of Electrical.usask.ca/university_secretary/honesty/StudentAcademicAppeals.pdf Course Content: Microprocessor - introductory concepts Intro to Stellaris LaunchPad Microcontroller

  9. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system....

  10. Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Samir; Kaul, Zeenia; Gocha, April Sandy; Martinez, Alaina R.; Harris, Julia; Parvin, Jeffrey D.; Groden, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM. PMID:25084169

  11. Seasonal intensity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the intermediate host, Laevicaulis alte.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, R K; Almeida, A J; Sengupta, S R; Renapurkar, D M

    1992-08-01

    The slug, Laevicaulis alte, is a vector of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Greater Bombay area. The seasonal prevalence of A. cantonensis was investigated to determine the maximum intensity of the parasite in a field population occupying an area of approximately 400 m2. The maximum intensity of larvae was observed in the rainy months, June-November. Investigations showed that individual L. alte could tolerate an infecting dose of 150 first-stage A. cantonensis larvae before mortalities occurred. PMID:1399252

  12. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

  13. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

  14. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability...Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, cooperating...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL...SGOT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme aspartate amino transferase (AST) (also...

  16. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice...for an experimental permit from Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX...Program Lead, Office of Commercial Space Transportation, Federal...

  17. AST -- A Library for Handling World Coordinates Systems in Astronomy (Fortran Version)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Smith, R. F.; Berry, D. S.

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. This programmer's manual should be of interest to anyone writing astronomical applications which need to manipulate coordinate system data, especially celestial or spectral coordinate systems. AST is portable and environment-independent.

  18. AST -- A Library for Handling World Coordinates Systems in Astronomy (C Version)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Smith, R. F.; Berry, D. S.

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. This programmer's manual should be of interest to anyone writing astronomical applications which need to manipulate coordinate system data, especially celestial or spectral coordinate systems. AST is portable and environment-independent.

  19. Using the AST Library to Create and Use STC-S Region Descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, D.; Draper, P.

    2010-12-01

    AST is a general purpose library for manipulating coordinate systems stored within astronomical data in various forms (including FITS-WCS). It now includes support for reading and writing WCS information in the IVOA STC-S format, thus making all the power of AST available for manipulating STC-S regions and coordinate systems. These new facilities have been used within the CUPID clump finding package to allow clump catalogues created by CUPID to be more easily used within a VO context.

  20. AST/ASTS Workshop on Increasing Organ Donation in the United States: Creating an "Arc of Change" From Removing Disincentives to Testing Incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  1. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  2. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT).

    PubMed

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2R? (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  3. Preparation and characterization of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)- b -polystyrene block copolymer self-assembled nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingtian Han; Patrick Silcock; A. James McQuillan; Phil Bremer

    2008-01-01

    Block copolymers poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-polystyrene (P(St-alt-MAn)-b-PSt) were synthesized via radical addition fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization. The maleic anhydride-containing\\u000a segments of the block copolymer were hydrolyzed to form amphiphilic poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-b-polystyrene (P(St-alt-MA)-b-PSt). In aqueous solution, P(St-alt-MA)73-b-PSt81 and P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 formed stable dispersed spherical aggregates of approximately 25 and 40 nm, respectively. Particle size was stable under\\u000a alkaline conditions and was little affected by the

  4. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

  5. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  6. Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

    1986-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90/sup 0/ toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary.

  7. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT)

    PubMed Central

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2R? (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. What's new? All cancerous cells share the need to maintain and elongate their telomeres. In approximately 30% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed ALT, making specific therapeutic strategies potentially interesting. Here, the authors showed that intracerebral grafts of an ALT glioma cell line called TG20 in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme, which could aid the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. This model could also support the development of specific therapies, with the study revealing G-quadruplex ligands as a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  8. lambda altSF: a phage variant that acquired the ability to substitute specific sets of genes at high frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, D; Tomich, P; Parsons, C; Olson, E; Deans, R; Flamm, E

    1981-01-01

    We report the isolation of lambda altSF, a variant of Escherichia coli phage lambda that substitutes sets of genes at high frequency. Two forms of the variant phage have been studied: lambda altSF lambda, which exhibits the immunity (repressor recognition) of phage lambda, and lambda altSF22, which exhibits the immunity of Salmonella phage P22. Lysates made from single plaques of lambda altSF lambda contain 10-30% phage of the P22 form. Similarly, lysates from single plaques of lambda altSF22 contain as much as 1% phage of the lambda form. Heteroduplex analyses reveal the following features of the lambda altSF chromosomes: (i) each form has the immunity genes appropriate to its immune phenotype, (ii) the substituted segments include genes involved in regulation and replication, and (iii) the alt phages have unusual additions and substitutions of DNA not normally found associated with either immunity region. In the case of lambda altSF lambda, there is a small insertion in the region of the cI gene. Because revertants that lose this inserted DNA concomitantly lose the ability to substitute, we conclude that the insertion plays a role in the substitution process. In the case of change from lambda altSF lambda to lambda altSF22, the substituting P22 genes are derived from the E. coli host. We have identified a set of Salmonella phage P22 genes in a standard nonlysogenic strain of E. coli K-12 that is apparently carried in a silent form. The reason for this lack of expression is not obvious, because this P22 material includes structural genes and associated promoters and is potentially active. When this set of genes substitutes for the analogous set of genetic material on the genome of lambda altSF lambda, the P22 genes are expressed in a normal manner. Images PMID:6454136

  9. Bridging Waiting Times on Web Pages Florian Alt, Alireza Sahami Shirazi,

    E-print Network

    and add JavaScript code, which allows the bridging content from websites of our choice to be insertedBridging Waiting Times on Web Pages Florian Alt, Alireza Sahami Shirazi, Albrecht Schmidt University of Stuttgart Institute for Visualization and Interactive Systems {firstname

  10. On the Trajectories of the Predetermined ALT Model: What Are We Really Modeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongerling, Joran; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows that the mean and covariance structure of the predetermined autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model are very flexible. As a result, the shape of the modeled growth curve can be quite different from what one might expect at first glance. This is illustrated with several numerical examples that show that, for example, a…

  11. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is created by chemically reacting fatty acids and alcohol. Practically sodium hydroxide). Biodiesel is much more suitable for use as an engine fuel than straight vegetable oil

  12. The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric

    E-print Network

    Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    26, 2002; Revised and Accepted October 7, 2002 Telomerase-negative immortalized human cells maintain but not telomerase positive immortal cell lines or primary cells. BLM interacts in vivo with the telomeric protein fluorescent protein (GFP)-BLM results in marked, ALT cell-specific increases in telomeric DNA. The association

  13. Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: A system with starlike morphology and interactions

    E-print Network

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela

    Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: A system with starlike particle properties and interactions of poly ethylene-alt- propylene -poly ethylene oxide PEP-PEO starlike . The starlike morphology of the corona is confirmed by a direct comparison with SANS measurements of dilute poly

  14. Effects of reconstitution of telomerase activity on telomere maintenance by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer V. Grobelny; Michelle Kulp-McEliece; Dominique Broccoli

    2001-01-01

    Telomere length maintenance is essential for cellular immortalization, and thus tumorigenesis. Most human tumors and immortal cell lines maintain their telomeric DNA via the activity of a specialized reverse tran- scriptase, telomerase. Stabilization of telomeric repeat tracts may also be achieved through a telomerase-inde- pendent mechanism, referred to as alternative length- ening of telomeres (ALT). ALT cells are telomerase negative

  15. Aperture Photometry in Practice AST337 In-Class Exercise (hand me in before you leave!)

    E-print Network

    Lowenthal, James D.

    Aperture Photometry in Practice AST337 In-Class Exercise (hand me in before you leave!) 7 April in pixels, its brightness in ADU ("Object Counts" in "atv aperture photometry" window), its FWHM in pixels FWHM (ie. aperture radius = FWHM)? Part III: PhotVis, an IDL Photometry and Visualization Tool 1. Run

  16. TREND a low noise terahertz receiver user instrument for AST/RO at the South Pole

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    TREND ­ a low noise terahertz receiver user instrument for AST/RO at the South Pole Eyal Gerechta in the laboratory, we are building a Terahertz REceiver with NbN HEB Device (TREND) to be installed on the 1.7 meter was chosen in order to match the good windows for atmospheric transmission and interstellar spectral lines

  17. AST 337 Exercise #1: IDL Basics Due in class tonight (9/11/12) on Moodle

    E-print Network

    Lowenthal, James D.

    basic tools to extract useful information from data and display it. This exercise will introduce youAST 337 Exercise #1: IDL Basics Due in class tonight (9/11/12) on Moodle Every astrophysicist needs to reading data from a table and making plots, using IDL. Make sure to have the Smith/FCAD IDL Cheat Sheet

  18. PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    2012-12-01

    We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

  19. Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets

    E-print Network

    Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets to Help as the Handy Cricket, with attached light and temperature sensors. In this paper we describe the authentic as they work with middle and high school students. Additionally, by using the Handy Cricket they are able see

  20. Effects of AST120 on Left Ventricular Mass in Predialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Nakai; Hideki Fujii; Keiji Kono; Shunsuke Goto; Masafumi Fukagawa; Shinichi Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. One of the proposed mechanisms assumes that accumulated uremic toxins play an important role in the progression of CVD in CKD. Recently, it has been reported that AST-120 may attenuate progression of CVD through absorption of uremic toxins. In this study, we examined the

  1. RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M.; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, ‘Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres’ (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA–DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA–DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

  2. ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

  3. Antioxidant and antifatigue activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata rhizomes in rats.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-11-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  4. AltPSM contact hole application at DRAM 4xnm nodes with dry 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noelscher, Christoph; Henkel, Thomas; Jauzion-Graverolle, Franck; Hennig, Mario; Morgana, Nicolo; Schlief, Ralph; Moukara, Molela; Koehle, Roderick; Neubauer, Ralf

    2008-03-01

    To avoid expensive immersion lithography and to further use existing dry tools for critical contact layer lithography at 4Xnm DRAM nodes the application of altPSM is investigated and compared to attPSM. Simulations and experiments with several test masks showed that by use of altPSM with suitable 0°/180° coloring and assist placement 30nm smaller contacts can be resolved through pitch with sufficient process windows (PW). This holds for arrays of contacts with variable lengths through short and long side pitches. A further benefit is the lower mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). Nevertheless 3D mask errors (ME) consume benefits in the PW and the assist placement and coloring of the main features (MF) put some constraints on the chip design. An altPSM compatible 4Xnm full-chip layout was realized without loss of chip area. Mask making showed very convincing results with respect to CDU, etch depth uniformity and defectiveness. The printed intra-field CD uniformity was comparable to attPSM despite the smaller target CDs. Room for improvement is identified in OPC accuracy and in automatic assist placement and sizing.

  5. TREND: a low noise terahertz receiver user instrument for AST\\/RO at the South Pole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Gerecht; Sigfrid Yngvesson; John Nicholson; Yan Zhuang; Fernando Rodriguez-Morales; Xin Zhao; Dazhen Gu; Richard Zannoni; Michael J. Coulombe; Jason C. Dickinson; Thomas M. Goyette; Jerry Waldman; Christopher E. Groppi; Abigail S. Hedden; Dathon Golish; Christopher K. Walker; Antony A. Stark; Christopher Martin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the excellent performance of NbN HEB mixer receivers at THz frequencies which we have established in the laboratory, we are building a Terahertz REceiver with NbN HEB Device (TREND) to be installed on the 1.7 meter diameter AST\\/RO submillimeter wave telescope at the Amundsen\\/Scott South Pole Station. TREND is scheduled for deployment during the austral summer season of

  6. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    not cool down? Because of energy production in its core by nuclear fusion: E = mc2 and mHe > 4 · mH energy . At end of supergiant phase: high L superwind: H envelope is blown off in 103 : (11­12). Hot, naked core ­ sustained by hydrogen fusion in the core #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution 1 parameter: mass #12

  7. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

    2013-01-01

    Back ground CKD impairs intestinal barrier function which by allowing influx of noxious products causes systemic inflammation. We have recently shown that intestinal barrier dysfunction in CKD is due to degradation of epithelial tight junction (TJ) which is, in part, mediated by influx of urea and its conversion to ammonia by microbial urease. We hypothesized that by adsorbing urea and urea-derived ammonia, oral activated charcoal (AST-120) may ameliorate CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and systemic inflammation. Methods Rats were randomized to the CKD or control groups. The CKD group was fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks. They were then randomized to receive a chow with or without AST-120 (4 g/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Rats consuming regular diet served as controls. Animals were then euthanized, colons were removed and processed for Western blot and immunohistology and plasma was used to measure endotoxin, and oxidative and inflammatory markers. Results Compared with the controls the untreated CKD rats showed elevated plasma endotoxin, IL-6, TNF?, MCP-1, CINC-3, L-selectin, ICAM-1, and malondialdehyde, and depletions of colonic epithelial TJ proteins; claudin-1, occludin, and ZO1. Administration of AST-120 resulted in partial restoration of the epithelial TJ proteins and reduction in plasma endotoxin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions CKD animals exhibited depletion of the key protein constituents of the colonic epithelial TJ which was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and endotoxemia. Administration of AST-120 attenuated uremia-induced disruption of colonic epithelial TJ and the associated endotoxemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:23689670

  8. Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

  9. Functional analysis of a highly conserved abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2) intron 2 repeat region of lymphatic filarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-06-01

    The filarial-specific protein abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) is expressed exclusively in the infective larval stage (L3) and is a crucial protein for establishing immunopathogenesis in human hosts. The alt-2 gene has a conserved minisatellite repeat (29 or 27bp) in intron 2 (IR2) whose significance within lymphatic filarial species is unknown. Here, we report the role of IR2 in the regulation of alt-2 gene expression using an in vitro model. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified the presence of a putative nuclear protein binding region within IR2. Subsequent transient expression experiments in eukaryotic cell lines demonstrated that the IR2 downregulated the expression of a downstream luciferase reporter gene, which was further validated with RT-PCR. We therefore identify IR2 as a suppressor element that regulates L3 stage-specific expression of alt-2. PMID:24681262

  10. The major allergen of Alternaria alternata (Alt a 1) is expressed in other members of the Pleosporaceae family.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Santamaría, M; Postigo, I; Gutierrez-Rodríguez, A; Cardona, G; Guisantes, J A; Asturias, J; Martínez, J

    2006-03-01

    There is general consensus regarding the scarce cross-reactivity existing between Alternaria alternata and other allergenic moulds such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum or Cladosporium herbarum. However, A. alternata has been shown to have a very significant level of allergenic cross-reactivity with other fungi belonging to the Pleosporaceae family. To date, no biological identity or homologies with other proteins have been described for Alt a 1, and it remains unclear whether the major allergen Alt a 1 contributes to the cross-reactivity shown for these moulds. Specific quantification of Alt a 1 in culture filtrates of Stemphylium botryosum, Ulocladium botrytis, Curvularia lunata, Alternaria tenuissima, C. herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Asp. fumigatus, and immunoblotting using culture filtrate extracts from the above-mentioned moulds and rabbit serum anti-recombinant Alt a 1 have shown significant amounts of Alt a 1 in culture filtrates as well as antigenic components ranging from 14 to 20 kDa that strongly react with the specific serum for all taxonomically related species (Pleosporaceae family). No reactions were revealed in culture filtrates of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. These results restrict the cross-reactivity phenomenon due to Alt a 1 to the scope of the taxonomical term of family. PMID:16466440

  11. Asallar›n Sonsuzluunun Alt› Deiflik Kan›t› M. Aigner ve G. M. Ziegler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre de Fermat

    2005-01-01

    u yaz›da asallar›n sonsuzluunun alt› deiflik kan›t›n› vereceiz. Umar›z okur bu kan›tlar- dan bizim kadar hofllan›r. Farkl› aç›lardan bakmalar›na karfl›n flu temel fikir kan›tlar›n hepsin- de ortak: Doal say›lar s›n›rs›zca büyür ve her do- ¤al say›n›n bir asal böleni vard›r. Bu iki olgu her se- ferinde asal say›lar› sonsuz olmaya zorluyor1. Asallar›n sonsuzluunu ilk olarak Öklid'in ka- n›tlad›¤› san›l›r. Biz

  12. A Metabolomic Approach to Clarifying the Effect of AST-120 on 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Koichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Chitose; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations) in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4 anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, ?-guanidinobutyrate, N-?-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:23202318

  13. Brugia malayi: Comparison of protective immune responses induced by Bm-alt-2 DNA, recombinant Bm-ALT-2 protein and prime-boost vaccine regimens in a jird model

    PubMed Central

    Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Pandiaraja, Pandurangan; Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram; Murugan, Vadivel; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Nandakumar, Krithika; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2009-01-01

    Immunization of jirds with Bm-alt-2 elicited partial protection against challenge infection with the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. In this study, we initially compared the protective immune responses elicited following immunization with recombinant Bm-ALT-2 protein regimen and Bm-alt-2 DNA regimen. These studies showed that protein vaccination conferred approximately 75% protection compared to DNA vaccination that conferred only 57% protection. Analysis of the protective immune responses showed that the protein immunization promoted a Th2-biased response with an increase in IL-4, IL-5 and IgG1 responses, whereas, the DNA vaccine promoted a Th1-biased response with profound IFN-? and IgG2a responses. Since protein vaccination gave better results than DNA vaccination, we then wanted to evaluate whether a prime-boost vaccination that combined DNA prime and protein boost will significantly increase the protective responses induced by the protein vaccine. Our results suggest that prime-boost vaccination had no added advantage and was comparatively less effective (64% protection) than the Bm-ALT-2 protein alone vaccination. Prime boost vaccination generated mixed Th1/Th2 responses with a slightly diminished Th2 responses compared to protein vaccination. Thus, our results suggest that Bm-ALT-2 protein vaccination regimen may be slightly better than prime-boost vaccine regimen and the mechanism of protection appears to be largely mediated by a Th2-biased response. PMID:17442307

  14. AST: an automated sequence-sampling method for improving the taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php. PMID:24892935

  15. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  16. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  17. ArgR-Independent Induction and ArgR-Dependent Superinduction of the astCADBE Operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kiupakis, Alexandros K.; Reitzer, Larry

    2002-01-01

    For Escherichia coli, growth in the absence of ammonia is termed nitrogen limited and results in the induction of genes that assimilate other nitrogen sources, a response mediated by ?54 and nitrogen regulator I (NRI, also called NtrC). The astCADBE operon, which is required for growth with arginine as the sole nitrogen source, is moderately expressed during general nitrogen limitation and maximally expressed in the presence of arginine. The operon is also induced in stationary phase. Primer extension analysis of E. coli revealed the presence of a ?54-dependent promoter utilized in exponential phase during nitrogen limitation and a ?S-dependent promoter active during stationary phase. We used an ast-lacZ fusion to show that arginine stimulates expression, that ArgR, the arginine repressor, enhances expression from both promoters but is not essential, and that transcription by the two forms of the RNA polymerase is competitive and mutually exclusive. We demonstrated the binding of RNA polymerase holoenzymes, NRI, and ArgR to the promoter region in vitro. We also reconstituted transcription from both promoters with purified components, which confirmed the accessory role of ArgR for the ?54-dependent promoter. Thus, the ast operon exhibits nitrogen source-specific induction that is unique for an NRI-dependent gene. The transcriptional regulation of the ast operon in E. coli differs from that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, in which ArgR is required for ast operon expression. PMID:12003934

  18. Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline H; Christie, Andrew E

    2010-06-01

    The C-type allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic's zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e., two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerebral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e., A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion. PMID:20338176

  19. Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion. PMID:20338176

  20. Nuclear-Receptor-Mediated Telomere Insertion Leads to Genome Instability in ALT Cancers.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Paulina; Armenise, Claudia; Pérot, Gaëlle; Roumelioti, Fani-Marlen; Basyuk, Eugenia; Gagos, Sarantis; Chibon, Frédéric; Déjardin, Jérôme

    2015-02-26

    The breakage-fusion-bridge cycle is a classical mechanism of telomere-driven genome instability in which dysfunctional telomeres are fused to other chromosomal extremities, creating dicentric chromosomes that eventually break at mitosis. Here, we uncover a distinct pathway of telomere-driven genome instability, specifically occurring in cells that maintain telomeres with the alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism. We show that, in these cells, telomeric DNA is added to multiple discrete sites throughout the genome, corresponding to regions regulated by NR2C/F transcription factors. These proteins drive local telomere DNA addition by recruiting telomeric chromatin. This mechanism, which we name targeted telomere insertion (TTI), generates potential common fragile sites that destabilize the genome. We propose that TTI driven by NR2C/F proteins contributes to the formation of complex karyotypes in ALT tumors. PMID:25723166

  1. Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in the Production of Photons, Hadrons, and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    We calculate the double spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT in proton-proton (pp) collisions for the production of photons, hadrons, and jets in the collinear twist-3 framework. These processes allows us for the first time to access a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions. We also give numerical estimates for the asymmetries of which photon production shows the most promise of a measurable effect. Furthermore, we comment on how these asymmetries would allow us to probe the gluon helicity down to as of yet unexplored x values, remark on the importance of these effects in determining the evolution of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x, x), and discuss their usefulness in resolving the true mechanism behind the large transverse single spin asymmetries (SSAs) measured in pp collisions.

  2. ALT1, a Snf2 Family Chromatin Remodeling ATPase, Negatively Regulates Alkaline Tolerance through Enhanced Defense against Oxidative Stress in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  3. Synthesis of monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.; Qian, X.F.; Yuan, J.Y.; Yin, J.; He, R.; Zhu, Z.K

    2003-07-14

    Nanocomposite of CdSe/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSM) was successfully prepared via an in situ reaction process at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that CdSe nanoparticles with a small size and narrow size distribution were obtained. The obtained nanocomposite was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. Topotactic conversion of ?-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-10

    AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (?-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1)?hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2)?dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. PMID:24431158

  5. AST/RO Observations of Atomic Carbon near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Stark, Antony A.; Hsieh, Henry H.; Lane, Adair P.; Chamberlin, Richard A.; Bania, Thomas M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jackson, James M.; Wright, Gregory A.

    2001-02-01

    We present a coarsely sampled map of the region |l|<=2deg, |b|<=0.1d in the 492 GHz (3P1-->3P0) fine-structure transition of neutral carbon, observed with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The distribution of [C I] emission is similar on the large scale to that of CO J=1-->0. On average, the ratio of the integrated intensities, I[CI]/I12CO, is higher in the Galactic disk than in the Galactic center region. This result is accounted for by the absorption of 12CO within the clouds located in the outer Galactic disk. The ratio I[CI]/I12CO is surprisingly uniform over the variety of environments near the Galactic center. On average, [C I] is optically thin [or as optically thin as 13CO (J=1-->0)], even in the dense molecular clouds of the Galactic center region.

  6. Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. (Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

  7. Orbital selective overlayer-substrate hybridization in a Pb monolayer on Ag(111) Christian R. Ast,1,2,

    E-print Network

    Brune, Harald

    Orbital selective overlayer-substrate hybridization in a Pb monolayer on Ag(111) Christian R. Ast,1 The electronic structure of low-dimensional metal-on- metal systems has attracted a lot of attention due been observed.3­6 Among the metal-on-metal systems with long period superstructures one distinguishes

  8. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  9. Alagebrium (ALT-711) improves the anti-hypertensive efficacy of nifedipine in diabetic-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; He, Kunlun; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xianfa; Cui, Hao; Zhong, Wu; Li, Song; Wang, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Combining drugs with complementary mechanisms of action may contribute to improved hypertension control in diabetic patients. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) breakers, a new class of candidate drugs targeting aging-related cardiovascular dysfunction, may be useful as novel adjuvant agents to improve the efficacy of diabetic hypertension (DH) treatment. This study evaluated the effects of alagebrium (ALT-711), an AGE breaker, combined with nifedipine, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced DH. Compared with monotherapy, combination treatment significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, increased the pulse pressure, and decreased the coefficient of variation of the systolic blood pressure. Plasma biochemistry indicated that the concentrations of prostacyclin and nitric oxide were increased. Gene expression analysis showed significantly decreased prepro-endothelin-1expression in the aorta. These results reveal that alagebrium significantly improves the anti-hypertensive actions of nifedipine in a rat model of DH and suggest its potential use in the successful control of clinical DH. PMID:24965174

  10. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-10-22

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block. PMID:19320497

  11. Simple synthesis of P(Cbz-alt-TBT) and PCDTBT by combining direct arylation with suzuki polycondensation of heteroaryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Lombeck, Florian; Matsidik, Rukiya; Komber, Hartmut; Sommer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Direct arylation (DA) of 2-chlorothiophene and 2-chloro-3-hexylthiophene with 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole is used to synthesize 4,7-bis(5-chloro-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTCl2) and 4,7-bis(5-chloro-4-hexyl-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DH-TBTCl2) in one step. Suitable conditions of the Suzuki polycondensations (SPC) of TBTCl2 and DH-TBTCl2 with the carbazole comonomer CbzPBE2 are established, furnishing PCDTBT and P(Cbz-alt-TBT) with high molecular weight and yield. Compared with control samples made from the corresponding dibromides, high-temperature NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate similar properties for PCDTBT but an increased content of Cbz-Cbz homocouplings for P(Cbz-alt-TBT). PMID:25333795

  12. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  13. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

  14. Molar mass determination of poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) copolymers by size exclusion chromatography and dilute solution viscometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C Davies; John V Dawkins; Douglas J Hourston; Elizabeth Meehan

    2002-01-01

    The number average molar mass Mn of poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PODMA) copolymers calculated from data obtained by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a polystyrene (PS) calibration was found to be inaccurate. The use of SEC combined with dilute solution viscometry enabled a method to be developed using an iterative approach, which does not require knowledge of the Mark–Houwink constants for PODMA

  15. AST1306, A Novel Irreversible Inhibitor of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 1 and 2, Exhibits Antitumor Activity Both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Linjiang; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Zhuo; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ren, Xiaowei; Qu, Wenchao; Yang, Yang; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yi; Zuo, Jianping; Jiang, Hualiang; Geng, Meiyu; Ding, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Despite the initial response to the reversible, ATP-competitive quinazoline inhibitors that target ErbB-family, such a subset of cancer patients almost invariably develop resistance. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that irreversible ErbB inhibitors have the potential to override this resistance. Here, we found that AST1306, a novel anilino-quinazoline compound, inhibited the enzymatic activities of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 as well as EGFR resistant mutant in both cell-free and cell-based systems. Importantly, AST1306 functions as an irreversible inhibitor, most likely through covalent interaction with Cys797 and Cys805 in the catalytic domains of EGFR and ErbB2, respectively. Further studies showed that AST1306 inactivated pathways downstream of these receptors and thereby inhibited the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Although the activities of EGFR and ErbB2 were similarly sensitive to AST1306, ErbB2-overexpressing cell lines consistently exhibited more sensitivity to AST1306 antiproliferative effects. Consistent with this, knockdown of ErbB2, but not EGFR, decreased the sensitivity of SK-OV-3 cells to AST1306. In vivo, AST1306 potently suppressed tumor growth in ErbB2-overexpressing adenocarcinoma xenograft and FVB-2/Nneu transgenic breast cancer mouse models, but weakly inhibited the growth of EGFR-overexpressing tumor xenografts. Tumor growth inhibition induced by a single dose of AST1306 in the SK-OV-3 xenograft model was accompanied by a rapid (within 2 h) and sustained (?24 h) inhibition of both EGFR and ErbB2, consistent with an irreversible inhibition mechanism. Taken together, these results establish AST1306 as a selective, irreversible ErbB2 and EGFR inhibitor whose growth-inhibitory effects are more potent in ErbB2-overexpressing cells. PMID:21789172

  16. Brush-Like Amphoteric Poly[isobutylene-alt-(maleic acid)-graft-oligoethyleneamine)]/DNA Complexes for Efficient Gene Transfection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Majad; Beniah, Goliath; Wiradharma, Nikken; Guo, Xindong; Yang, Yi Yan

    2010-07-01

    Synthetic gene delivery vectors, especially cationic polymers have attracted enormous attention in recent decades because of their ease of manufacture, targettability, and scaling up. However, certain issues such as high cytotoxicity and low transfection efficiency problems have hampered the advance of nonviral gene delivery. In this study, we designed and synthesized brush-like amphoteric poly[isobutylene-alt-(maleic acid)-graft-oligoethyleneamine] capable of mediating highly efficient gene transfection. The polymers are composed of multiple pendant oligoethyleneimine molecules with alternating carboxylic acid moiety grafted onto poly[isobutylene-alt-(maleic anhydride)]. The polymer formed from pentaethylenehexamine {i.e., poly[isobutylene-alt-(maleic acid)-graft-pentaethylenehexamine)]} was able to condense DNA efficiently into nanoparticles of size around 200?nm with positive zeta potential of about 28-30?mV despite its amphoteric nature. Luciferase expression level and percentage of GFP expressing cells induced by this polymer was higher than those mediated with polyethyleneimine (branched, $\\overline M _{\\rm w} $ 25?kDa) by at least one order of magnitude at their optimal N/P ratios on HEK293, HepG2, and 4T1 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity testing revealed that the polymer/DNA complexes were less cytotoxic than those of PEI, and the viability of the cells after being incubated with the polymer/DNA complexes at the optimal N/P ratios was higher than 85%. This polymer can be a promising gene delivery carrier for gene therapy. PMID:21590867

  17. C\\ast-geometric phase for mixed states: entanglement, decoherence and spin system

    E-print Network

    David Viennot; José Lages

    2012-07-31

    We study a kind of geometric phases for entangled quantum systems, and particularly a spin driven by a magnetic field and entangled with another spin. The new kind of geometric phase is based on an analogy between open quantum systems and dissipative quantum systems which uses a C\\ast-module structure. We show that the system presents from the viewpoint of their geometric phases, two behaviours. The first one is identical to the behaviour of an isolated spin driven by a magnetic field, as the problem originally treated by Berry. The second one is specific to the decoherence process. The gauge structures induced by these geometric phases are then similar to a magnetic monopole gauge structure for the first case, and can be viewed as a kind of instanton gauge structure for the second case. We study the role of these geometric phases in the evolution of a mixed state, particularly by focusing on the evolution of the density matrix coherence. We investigate also the relation between the geometric phase of the mixed state of one of the entangled systems and the geometric phase of the bipartite system.

  18. The production of hidden charm baryon \\text{N}^{\\ast}(4261) from \\pi^{-}\\text{p} \\rightarrow\\eta_\\text{c}\\text{n} reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Xu-Rong

    2015-02-01

    With an effective Lagrangian approach and the isobar model, we explore the discovery potential of the N\\ast(4261) production via ?-p scattering. Moreover, the background from the ?-p? ? cn reaction through s-channel and u-channel by exchanging a nucleon pole is also considered. It is found that the center-of-mass energy W?4.1\\text-4.4 \\text{GeV} is the best energy window for searching the N\\ast(4261) resonance, where the N\\ast(4261) signal can be easily distinguished from background. The relevant calculations will be conductive to search for the N\\ast (4261) resonance in further experiment and have a more comprehensive understanding of hidden charm baryons.

  19. Thermal and Wind Effects on the Azimuth Axis Tilt of the ASTE 10-m Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukita, Nobuharu; Ezawa, Hajime; Ikenoue, Bungo; Saito, Masao

    2007-10-01

    The azimuth axis tilt of the ASTE 10-m antenna induced by thermal and wind loadings was investigated with a dual-axis inclinometer on the azimuth axis, along with thermometers on the pedestal and yoke structures and an ultrasonic anemometer on a nearby weather station. The dependences of the inclinometer zero-point offsets against temperature of the device, temperature gradients in the pedestal and yoke structure were obtained for the measurements over 11 months during the antenna being parked at its home position (azimuth angles = ?180 degrees, an elevation angle = 60 degrees) under wind velocities < 8 m s-1. The temperature dependences of the zero-point offsets were found to be 1.24 and -0.46 arcseconds/degree, and were close to those obtained with an independent method. The azimuth axis tilts due to the temperature difference between the two opposite sides of pedestal walls were found to be about 1.1 and 1.7 arcseconds/degree, and consistent with 1.5 arcseconds/degree estimated with a simple model. The residual axis tilt of the whole samples after removal of the temperature dependences shows dependence against overturning moment estimated from the wind data. The stiffness of the antenna structures between the yoke base section and the ground was estimated to be 5.3 and 3.4 GNm/rad using the observed tilts in two directions; and were smaller than 6.0 GNm/rad from a mechanical model prediction. Based on these field experiments, we discuss the improvements and limitations of pointing performance with the inclinometer metrology system.

  20. Ein salztoleranter Ökotyp von Phascum cuspidatum. var. piliferum (HEDW.) HOOK. & TAYLOR an den Salinen von Bad Kreuznach und Bad Münster a.St

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Oesau

    Zusammenfassung: OESAU, A. (2008): Ein salztoleranter Ökotyp von Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum (HEDW.) HOOK. & TAYLOR an den Salinen von Bad Kreuznach und Bad Münster a.St. Im Rahmen einer Erhebung der Moosflora der Salinen von Bad Kreuznach und Bad Münster a.St. (Rheinland-Pfalz) wurde eine salztolerante Form von Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum gefunden. Diese wächst auf dauerfeuchten Salzböden. Im Gegensatz dazu

  1. A Styrene-alt-Maleic Acid Copolymer Is an Effective Inhibitor of R5 and X4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pirrone, Vanessa; Passic, Shendra; Wigdahl, Brian; Rando, Robert F.; Labib, Mohamed; Krebs, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    An alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic acid (alt-PSMA) differs from other polyanionic antiviral agents in that the negative charges of alt-PSMA are provided by carboxylic acid groups instead of sulfate or sulfonate moieties. We hypothesized that alt-PSMA would have activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) comparable to other polyanions, such as the related compound, poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS). In assays using cell lines and primary immune cells, alt-PSMA was characterized by low cytotoxicity and effective inhibition of infection by HIV-1 BaL and IIIB as well as clinical isolates of subtypes A, B, and C. In mechanism of action assays, in which each compound was added to cells and subsequently removed prior to HIV-1 infection (“washout” assay), alt-PSMA caused no enhancement of infection, while PSS washout increased infection 70% above control levels. These studies demonstrate that alt-PSMA is an effective HIV-1 inhibitor with properties that warrant further investigation. PMID:20589074

  2. Peak Serum AST Is a Better Predictor of Acute Liver Graft Injury after Liver Transplantation When Adjusted for Donor/Recipient BSA Size Mismatch (ASTi).

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite the marked advances in the perioperative management of the liver transplant recipient, an assessment of clinically significant graft injury following preservation and reperfusion remains difficult. In this study, we hypothesized that size-adjusted AST could better approximate real AST values and consequently provide a better reflection of the extent of graft damage, with better sensitivity and specificity than current criteria. Methods. We reviewed data on 930 orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Size-adjusted AST (ASTi) was calculated by dividing peak AST by our previously reported index for donor-recipient size mismatch, the BSAi. The predictive value of ASTi of primary nonfunction (PNF) and graft survival was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results. Size-adjusted peak AST (ASTi) was significantly associated with subsequent occurrence of PNF and graft failure. In our study cohort, the prediction of PNF by the combination of ASTi and PT-INR had a higher sensitivity and specificity compared to current UNOS criteria. Conclusions. We conclude that size-adjusted AST (ASTi) is a simple, reproducible, and sensitive marker of clinically significant graft damage. PMID:25009741

  3. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB.

    PubMed

    Caniato, Fernanda F; Hamblin, Martha T; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

  4. Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB

    PubMed Central

    Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

  5. The AST/RO Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. The Inner 3 Degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher L.; Walsh, Wilfred M.; Xiao, Kecheng; Lane, Adair P.; Walker, Christopher K.; Stark, Antony A.

    2004-01-01

    We present fully sampled maps of 461 GHzCO J=4-->3, 807 GHzCO J=7-->6, and 492 GHz [C I] 3P1--> 3P0 emission from the inner 3 degrees of the Galactic center region taken with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) in 2001-2002. The data cover -1.3d3 emission is found to be essentially coextensive with lower J transitions of CO. The COJ=7-->6 emission is spatially confined to a far smaller region than the lower J CO lines. The [C I] 3P1--> 3P0 emission has a spatial extent similar to the low-J CO emission but is more diffuse. Bright COJ=7-->6 emission is detected in the well-known Galactic center clouds Sgr A and Sgr B. We also detect COJ=4-->3 and COJ=7-->6 absorption from spiral arms in the Galactic disk at velocities near 0 km s-1 along the line of sight to the Galactic center. Analyzing our COJ=7-->6 and COJ=4-->3 data in conjunction with J=1-->012CO and 13CO data previously observed with the Bell Laboratories 7 m antenna, we apply a large velocity gradient (LVG) model to estimate the kinetic temperature and density of molecular gas in the inner 200 pc of the Galactic center region. We show maps of the derived distribution of gas density and kinetic temperature as a function of position and velocity for the entire region. Kinetic temperature was found to decrease from relatively high values (>70 K) at cloud edges to low values (<50 K) in the interiors. Typical gas pressures in the Galactic center gas are n(H2).Tkin~105.2Kcm-3. We present an (l,b) map of molecular hydrogen column density derived from our LVG results.

  6. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fiona T M; Chan, F Lyn; R McGhie, James D; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R; Wong, Lee H

    2015-03-11

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  7. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fiona T. M.; Chan, F. Lyn; R. McGhie, James D.; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  8. The MAPk ASTE11 is involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity and in filamentation in Arxula adeninivorans, but not in adaptation to hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Böer, Erik; El Metabteb, Gamal; El Fiki, Ayman; Brückner, Peggy; Wartmann, Thomas; Piontek, Michael; Kunze, Gotthard

    2009-05-01

    In many fungal species, cell growth and morphology, thermo- and osmotolerance are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk) cascades. Ste11p is a MAP kinase kinase kinase, which plays a central role in various pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we describe ASTE11, an STE11 homologue from Arxula adeninivorans, an imperfect, dimorphic, but nonpathogenic and extremophilic yeast. ASTE11 lacks introns, and codes for a protein of 824 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 91.6 kDa. The gene is constitutively expressed at low levels, but is induced by high-salt stress. To facilitate functional analysis of ASTE11, disruption and overexpressing mutants were constructed. The phenotypes of these strains indicate that Aste11p is involved in regulating aspects of cell wall structure and form, but is dispensable for adaptation to hypertonic stress. Despite its structural homology to STE11, ASTE11 cannot complement the mating defect of S. cerevisiae ste11 mutants. These findings emphasize that, although components of MAPk pathways are conserved among yeasts, they often operate in different contexts in different species. PMID:19260971

  9. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15R?-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1?, IL-1? and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

  10. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  11. Beam-Target Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target at 1.422

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A.J. R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X

    2012-01-30

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function gq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production on 3He and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  12. Cross sections and ALT="beta" /> values for ligand-field-split Br 3d orbitals in HBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. F.; Liu, Z. F.; Püttner, R.; Bancroft, G. M.; Aksela, S.

    1999-08-01

    The ligand field in HBr results in the splitting of the Br 3d orbitals into the 3dicons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (dx2-y2, dxy), 3dicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (dxz, dyz), and 3dicons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (dz2) orbitals. In core ionized HBr, the stronger spin-orbit splitting removes the remaining degeneracies and results in five different Br 3d eigenstates from linear combinations of the 3dicons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>, 3dicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>, and 3dicons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> orbitals. In high-resolution Br 3d photoelectron spectra, as presented in this work, these five peaks are resolved. The photoelectron cross sections and icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> values for the different d orbitals have been studied from 5 to 25 eV above threshold. The relative intensities for the different 3d orbitals are quite different at different analysis angles, showing that the icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> values are different. Multiple-scattering-Xicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> calculations give results in semiquantitative agreement with experiment.

  13. The Anopheles stephensi odorant binding protein 1 (AsteObp1) gene: A new molecular marker for biological forms diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, S; Firooziyan, S; Ladonni, H; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Djadid, N Dinparast; Hosseini, A; Raz, A

    2015-06-01

    Anopheles (Cellia) stephensi Liston 1901 is known as an Asian malaria vector. Three biological forms, namely "mysorensis", "intermediate", and "type" have been earlier reported in this species. Nevertheless, the present morphological and molecular information is insufficient to diagnose these forms. During this investigation, An. stephensi biological forms were morphologically identified and sequenced for odorant-binding protein 1 (Obp1) gene. Also, intron I sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees. Despite nucleotide sequence variation in exon of AsteObp1, nearly 100% identity was observed at the amino acid level among the three biological forms. In order to overcome difficulties in using egg morphology characters, intron I sequences of An. stephensi Obp1 opens new molecular way to the identification of the main Asian malaria vector biological forms. However, multidisciplinary studies are needed to establish the taxonomic status of An. stephensi. PMID:25795618

  14. [The phenomenon of increasing of activity of aspartate transaminase in blood plasma ("macro-AST") in healthy persons].

    PubMed

    Mavrutenkov, V V; Mavrutenkova, T V

    2013-06-01

    The article considers the case of several years long increased level of activity of aspartate transaminase in blood plasma of clinically healthy persons from one family (belonging to Caucasioni type)--the father 35 years old and two biologic children, daughter 4 years old and son 3 years old. In all family members with hyper aspartate transaminasemia chronic diseases, alcohol and drugs consumption, regular use of certain medications and dietary supplements or impact of exogenous (ecologic) chemical factors producing persistent increase of activity of aspartate transaminase in blood plasma were totally excluded. On the basis of totality of anamnesis and results of clinical and laboratory examination the given condition was considered as "macro-AST" being a variant of biochemical phenomenon of "macro-enzymes". PMID:24340951

  15. Lack of clinical and histological progression of chronic hepatitis C in individuals with true persistently normal ALT: the result of a 17-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nunnari, G; Pinzone, M R; Cacopardo, B

    2013-04-01

    Thirty to 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C have persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT). Even though traditionally considered as healthy people, most PNALT carriers actually have some degree of clinical progression and histological liver damage. We evaluated the clinical and histological outcome of a 17-year follow-up on a cohort of patients with chronic HCV infection and PNALT. Between 1994 and 2011, 70 PNALTs and 55 Hyper-alanine aminotransferase (ALT) subjects underwent a clinical, biochemical, virological and histological follow-up. At the end of the follow-up, all patients were alive. In the PNALT group, none of the patients developed hepatic decompensation, while 14.5% of Hyper-ALTs were diagnosed as affected by decompensated cirrhosis. No significant variation of the Metavir grading and staging scores was observed among PNALTs by comparing pre- and post-follow-up liver specimens. On the contrary, a significant increase in both Metavir grading and staging scores was noticed within the Hyper-ALT group. Finally, the analysis of IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 revealed no difference between Hyper-ALTs and PNALTs in terms of frequency of C/C genotype. In conclusion, progression of chronic hepatitis C among PNALTs is slow or even absent, because at the end of the 17-year follow-up histological and clinical parameters had not worsened significantly. PMID:23490382

  16. Am 19. Januar 2009 wre Edgar Allan Poe zweihundert Jahre alt geworden. Zu diesem Anlass zeigen wir in der Universittsbibliothek die Ausstellung

    E-print Network

    Ullmann, G. Matthias

    Am 19. Januar 2009 wäre Edgar Allan Poe zweihundert Jahre alt geworden. Zu diesem Anlass zeigen wir in der Universitätsbibliothek die Ausstellung Edgar A. Poe und einige seiner Erben Zur Eröffnung am 22. 1. 09 um 18 Uhr laden wir herzlich ein Poe gilt als einer der Väter der phantastischen Literatur. Viele

  17. Astakine LvAST binds to the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-?) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-? as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

  18. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in water buffaloes with experimental subclinical fasciolosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Yang; Wei Hua Mao; I Ferre; J. E Bayón; X. Z Mao; J González-Gallego

    1998-01-01

    The effect of chronic Fasciola hepatica infection on the activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was investigated in water buffaloes dosed daily with 60 F. hepatica metacercariae over 20 days. Experimental fluke infection caused no clinical signs but provoked an increase in plasma level of IgG directed against F. hepatica from 4 weeks

  19. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  20. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at ? = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-01

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  1. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  2. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  3. Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

    2013-03-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

  4. Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: A system with starlike morphology and interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurati, M.; Stellbrink, J.; Lund, R.; Willner, L.; Zaccarelli, E.; Richter, D.

    2007-10-01

    We report on an experimental study of single particle properties and interactions of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) starlike micelles. The starlike regime is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20) and the number of arms (functionality) is changed by varying the composition of the solvent (the interfacial tension). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data in the dilute regime can be modeled by assuming a constant density profile in the micellar core (compact core) and a starlike density profile in the corona (starlike shell). The starlike morphology of the corona is confirmed by a direct comparison with SANS measurements of dilute poly butadiene star solutions. Comparison of structure factors obtained by SANS measurements in the concentrated regime shows in addition that the interactions in the two systems are equivalent. Micellar structure factors at several packing fractions can be modeled by using the ultrasoft potential recently proposed for star polymers [Likos , Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4450 (1998)]. The experimental phase diagram of PEP-PEO micelles is quantitatively compared to theoretical expectations, finding good agreement for the location of the liquid-solid boundary and excellent agreement for the critical packing fraction where the liquid-to-bcc crystal transition takes place for f<70 . The functionality, i.e., the coronal density, strongly influences the nature of the solid phase: for f<70 the system crystallizes into a bcc phase, high f>70 formation of amorphous arrested states prevents crystallization.

  5. Microwave properties of tuneable TE01ALT="delta" /> mode sapphire-loaded cavity resonators with YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> endplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Young; Kwon, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Yang, W. I.; Kim, Jin Kook; Lee, W. H.; Hur, Jung

    1999-11-01

    A sapphire-loaded cavity resonator with YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO) endplates and the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonant frequency (f0) of about 19 GHz at 77 K was prepared and its microwave properties were investigated at low temperatures. Unloaded Q (Q0) of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator appeared to be more than 1000 000, 600 000 and about 300 000 at 30 K, 60 K and 77 K, respectively, at f0~19.56 GHz with the sapphire rod sandwiched between two YBCO endplates. Q0 appeared to decrease as the gap distance (s) between the sapphire rod and the top endplate increased for the resonator with YBCO endplates at 30 K, which was in contrast with the increase of Q0 for increasing s for the cavity resonator with copper endplates. Microwave losses from the surrounding copper walls appeared to reduce Q0 of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator with YBCO endplates significantly at low temperatures. Experimental values of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonant frequencies appeared to agree well with both the calculated values from analytic expressions and the simulated values from a commercial software within 1.3%. Variations in f0 upon the gap distance were more than 4.8% between s = 0 mm and 1 mm, with Q0 of the TE01icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> mode resonator about 770 000, 530 000 and 350 000 at s = 1 mm at 30 K, 60 K and 77 K, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of CO2-Philicity of Poly(vinyl acetate) and Poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) Copolymers through Molecular Modeling and Dissolution Behavior Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained. PMID:25599262

  7. Structure and recombination in InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures E. A. Fitzgerald, D. G. Ast, P. D. Kirchner, G. D. Pettit, and J. M. Woodall

    E-print Network

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Structure and recombination in InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures E. A. Fitzgerald, D. G. Ast, P. D://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to ] IP: 98.238.241.30 On: Sun, 29 Dec 2013 21:45:34 #12;Structure and recombination in in recombination lines exist in the GaAs buffer layer as far as 4000 Afrom the interface. The density

  8. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AND RELATIONSHIP TO ALANINE TRANSFERASE (ALT) IN SAUDI WORKERS AT YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY

    PubMed Central

    Kashgari, Rashad H.; Mohamad, Adel A.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCP) in a relatively new industrial community in Yanbu, and to find out whether any relationship exists between increased serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) and HBV infection. Method: A group of Saudi male workers (n=332) (mean age = 32 years) were screened for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level and the results were correlated with age and marital status. Results: Overall, the prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HCV were 23.2%, 7.7% and 0.6% respectively. Age-related HBsAg carrier rates were 7.8%, 6.4% and 9.4% for age groups 18-20, 21-30 and over 30 years respec-tively. Anti-HBc positivity rates lucre 7.8%, 24.3% and 23.1 M for the same age groups. Anti-HCV was positive in only two cases (0.6%) of all subjects. Con-sidering marital status, HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity rates were 7.8% and 20.5% for single subjects compared with 7.4% and 24.5% for married subjects (P=> 0.5 and > 0.5). Twenty-two percent of all subjects had ALT levels above 35 U/L with no correlation between the increase of ALT and anti-HBc or HBsAg positivity. Conclusions: The findings of this work: (1) Support the notion of relatively low prevalence of HCV in the Saudi Population as compared to HBV. (2) Provide clues regarding possible routes of transmission of HBV in Saudis that may help in vaccination policies for control of HBV infection. (3) Emphasize the fact that ALT level is an independent factor of HBV infection, and (4) Signify the need to screen industrial workers fir non-viral causes of liver disease. PMID:23008562

  9. Implementation and evaluation of the 5As framework of obesity management in primary care: design of the 5As Team (5AsT) randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a pressing public health concern, which frequently presents in primary care. With the explosive obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need to maximize effective management in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management™ (5As) are a collection of knowledge tools developed by the Canadian Obesity Network. Low rates of obesity management visits in primary care suggest provider behaviour may be an important variable. The goal of the present study is to increase frequency and quality of obesity management in primary care using the 5As Team (5AsT) intervention to change provider behaviour. Methods/design The 5AsT trial is a theoretically informed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Clinic-based multidisciplinary teams (RN/NP, mental health, dietitians) will be randomized to control or the 5AsT intervention group, to participate in biweekly learning collaborative sessions supported by internal and external practice facilitation. The learning collaborative content addresses provider-identified barriers to effective obesity management in primary care. Evidence-based shared decision making tools will be co-developed and iteratively tested by practitioners. Evaluation will be informed by the RE-AIM framework. The primary outcome measure, to which participants are blinded, is number of weight management visits/full-time equivalent (FTE) position. Patient-level outcomes will also be assessed, through a longitudinal cohort study of patients from randomized practices. Patient outcomes include clinical (e.g., body mass index [BMI], blood pressure), health-related quality of life (SF-12, EQ5D), and satisfaction with care. Qualitative data collected from providers and patients will be evaluated using thematic analysis to understand the context, implementation and effectiveness of the 5AsT program. Discussion The 5AsT trial will provide a wide range of insights into current practices, knowledge gaps and barriers that limit obesity management in primary practice. The use of existing resources, collaborative design, practice facilitation, and integrated feedback loops cultivate an applicable, adaptable and sustainable approach to increasing the quantity and quality of weight management visits in primary care. Trial registration NCT01967797. PMID:24947045

  10. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  11. YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> dc SQUID array for multichannel magnetometry and multichannel flip-chip current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Zakosarenko, V.; IJsselsteijn, R.; Stolz, R.; Schultze, V.; Chwala, A.; Hoenig, H. E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    1999-09-01

    We have prepared arrays of single-layer washer-type dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) on 10 mm × 10 mm bicrystal substrates. Each SQUID in the array is equipped with its own modulation loop, which makes a separate operation of them possible. Arrays containing nine or 11 dc SQUIDs have been tested and the crosstalk between neighbouring channels has been found to be 5%. The field sensitivity of the SQUIDs is 85 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 and 105 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 for the nine- and 11-device array, respectively. The equivalent flux noise is typically icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> 20 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 Hz-1/2 down to 1 Hz with ac bias reversal. A field resolution of less than 2.1 pT Hz-1/2 has been obtained for at least eight channels on a chip. By using multiturn YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> input coils and mounting them in a flip-chip configuration together with the single-layer dc SQUIDs we have been able to build three-channel current sensors. The current sensitivity equals 3-3.5 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>A icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 depending on the alignment of the flip-chip configuration. The current resolution of the devices is < 70 pA Hz-1/2. We show the possibility of building sensitive magnetometers by connecting the input coil of these current sensors to a normal-conducting pickup antenna.

  12. Assessing Racial Profiling &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven N. Durlauf

    2006-01-01

    In this article I consider the evaluation of racial profiling in traffic stops from a combination of welfarist and non-welfarist considerations. I argue that benefits from profiling in terms of crime reduction have not been identified and that further, the harm to those who are innocent and stopped is potentially high. I then argue that profiling creates a clear injustice

  13. Trade and Empire &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris James Mitchener; Marc Weidenmier

    2008-01-01

    We employ a new database of over 21,000 bilateral trade observations from 1870–1913 to assess the contemporaneous effects of empire on trade. Our analysis shows that belonging to an empire roughly doubled trade relative to those countries that were not part of an empire. The use of a common language, the establishment of currency unions, the monetisation of recently acquired

  14. ater Quality aste Management

    E-print Network

    Food Recovery Food; North Carolina A; T State

    uits and vegetables; 17.4 billion pounds of fluid milk; 14.6 billion pounds of grain products; 11.9 billion pounds of sweeteners; 10.1 billion pounds of eggs, nuts, beans and nonfluid dairy products; 8.2 billion pounds of meat; and 6.8 billion pounds of fats and oils. Retailers discard food mostly because of overstocking, over-trimming, improper stock rotation, postholiday discard of seasonal items, and perishable items reaching "sell-by" dates. Nonperishable foods get discarded because of damaged packaging and expired shelf dates. However, the majority of food wasted (91 of the 96 billion pounds) is by consumers and food service establishments. Consumer, or household, food losses are the result of overpreparation, food preparation waste, table scraps, cooking losses, spoiled leftovers, and package failure and spillage. Food service businesses throw food away because of overpreparation, expanded menu choices, plate waste, and fluctuations in food sales beyond the control of food servic

  15. Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    M'Kada, Helmi; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ramanujam, Nittia; Fautrel, Bruno; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Ratziu, Vlad; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Leblond, Véronique; Delattre, Jean Yves; Samson, Yves; Caen, Olivier Lyon; Bricaire, François; Khayat, David; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Herson, Serge; Amoura, Zahir; Tilleul, Patrick; Deckmyn, Olivier; Coriat, Pierre; Delpech, Vincent Nicolas; Boulogne, Philippe; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening. Design We prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care strategy for 24-week period based on referral cases to the hepatology unit. In the centralized strategy, a designated study biochemist identified patients with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal values (ULN) and notified the designated hepatologists, who then went to the patients' wards, analyzed the charts, and if necessary, interviewed the identified patients. During these two periods, patients with possible DILI were included after signing an informed consent in an ongoing European diagnostic study (SAFE-T consortium). Results During the 24-week period of the standard strategy, 12 (0.04%) patients out of a total of 28,145 were identified as having possible DILI, and 11 of these accepted to be included in the protocol. During the one-week proactive period, 7 patients out of a total of 1407 inpatients (0.498%) [odds ratio vs. standard?=?12.1 (95% CI, 3.9–32.3); P<0.0001] were identified with possible DILI, and 5 were included in the protocol. Conclusion A simple strategy based on the daily analysis of cases with ALT >3 ULN by designated biochemists and hepatologists identified 12 times more acute cases of drug-induced liver disease than the standard strategy. This pilot cohort is registered on the number AP-HP P110201/1/08-03-2011 and AFSSAPS B110346-70. PMID:22905129

  16. A Hypothetical Protein of Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 (amad1_06475) Predicted to be a Cold-Shock Protein with RNA Chaperone Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Kibria, KM Kaderi; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

    2014-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 is a deep sea protobacteria that is distinct from the surface isolates of the same species. This study was designed to elucidate the biological function of amad1_06475, a hypothetical protein of A. macleodii AltDE1. The 70 residues protein sequence showed considerable homology with cold-shock proteins (CSPs) and RNA chaperones from different organisms. Multiple sequence alignment further supported the presence of conserved csp domain on the protein sequence. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was also determined, and verified by PROCHECK, Verify3D, and QMEAN programs. The predicted structure contained five anti-parallel ?-strands and RNA-binding motifs, which are characteristic features of prokaryotic CSPs. Finally, the binding of a thymidine-rich oligonucleotide and a single uracil molecule in the active site of the protein further strengthens our prediction about the function of amad1_06475 as a CSP and thereby acting as a RNA chaperone. The binding was performed by molecular docking tools and was compared with similar binding of 3PF5 (PDB) and 2HAX (PDB), major CSPs of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus caldolyticus, respectively. PMID:25574135

  17. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  18. A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800 mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500 mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200 mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000 mg BID (n?=?1), 1500 mg BID (n?=?1), 800 mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200 mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6 months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000 mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended. PMID:24612546

  19. Concentrations of total proteins and albumins, and AST, AP, CK and GGT activities in the blood serum Boer and Saanen goats during puerperium.

    PubMed

    Djuricic, D; Dobranic, T; Grizelj, J; Gracner, D; Harapin, I; Stanin, D; Folnozic, I; Getz, I; Cvitkovic, D; Samardzija, M

    2011-08-01

    The metabolism of proteins in the blood serum in Boer and Saanen goats was investigated during puerperium. Twenty Boer goats (10 primiparous and 10 pluriparous) and 10 Saanen goats (five primiparous and five pluriparous) between 2 and 5 years of age were used in this research. Blood for analysis was taken every fourth day from day 3 until day 40 post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture. In the obtained blood serum, the concentration of total proteins (PT) and albumin (ALB), and the activity of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [the Enzyme Commission number (EC number) 2. 6. 1. 1.], gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (EC 2. 3. 2. 2.), creatine kinase (CK) (EC 2. 7. 3. 2.) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC 3. 1. 3. 1.) were determined by spectrophotometry. These parameters were in physiological ranges in Boer goats and in Saanen goats, without significant differences according to number of kids per doe. According to the research results of the blood serum in goats during puerperium, there were no significant differences in the concentration of ALB. Boer goats had significant higher (p < 0.05) concentration of PT and enzyme activity of AP, CK and GGT. Saanen goats had only enzyme activity of AST significantly higher (p < 0.05). Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was significant higher (p < 0.05) in pluriparous goats in both breeds than in primiparous. The obtained results may represent a contribution to a better understanding of protein metabolism during puerperium in dairy and meat goats and for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21114794

  20. Scaling of thermally activated dissipation in epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. H.

    1999-07-01

    We have measured the resistive transition of an epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> thin film in the case of applied field parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis up to 8 T, respectively. When the peak temperature Tp where dR/dT has a peak is defined as the critical temperature, we find that the dissipative resistivity can be well fitted by thermally activated flux motion below Tp in the presence of a magnetic field. Meanwhile, the field dependence of the peak temperature Tp follows the clean limit Ginzburg-Landau formula. The temperature T and field H dependences of the activation energy U can be described as the formula U = U0(1 - T/Tp)nH-icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>, where n = 1.5 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.57 for H || ab and n = 1.4 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.62 for H || c, showing a 3D behaviour.

  1. Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/0... 1 of 2 06/09/2007 20:38

    E-print Network

    Claeys, Philippe

    Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http REAL ESTATE CARS SFGate Web by Sign In | Register (45) Scientists say they know where dinosaur into the Earth some 65 million years ago and drove all the dinosaurs to extinction, the story has taken on a life

  2. Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

  3. Synthesis, biophysical, and pharmacological evaluation of the melanocortin agonist AST3-88: modifications of peptide backbone at Trp 7 position lead to a potent, selective, and stable ligand of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2014-10-15

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (?-, ?-, ?-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a ?-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ?5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII ?-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the ?-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  4. Cytoplasmic enzyme activities involved in energy and amino acid metabolism in pathological human renal cortex.

    PubMed

    González-Buitrago, J M; Corrales, J J; Pastor, I

    1988-12-01

    Enzyme levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in the cytosol of renal cortex samples from either normal and pathologic kidney tissue. The mean enzyme activity values, expressed in Units per gram of cytosolic protein decreased in the following order: normal cortex (LDH = 4,299 +/- 654; AST = 522 +/- 101; ALT = 197 +/- 44). chronic pyelonephritis (LDH = 2,360 +/- 876; AST = 297 +/- 117; ALT = 90 +/- 48), hydronephrosis (LDH = 2,208 +/- 1,264; AST = 279 +/- 165; ALT = 82 +/- 61), pyonephrosis (LDH = 1,410 +/- 596; AST = 158 +/- 69; ALT = 23.4 +/- 16.4) and renal tuberculosis (LDH = 1,149 +/- 481; AST = 93 +/- 34; ALT = 5.6 +/- 2.8). The decrease in the enzyme activities paralleled tissue damage and it was shown to affect cellular functionality in relation with energy and amino acid metabolism. PMID:3244890

  5. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2?-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  6. Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, C?t?lina Ani?oara; Chailan, Jean-François; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules. PMID:23862416

  7. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloísa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2010-03-01

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion ® films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H 2 and O 2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 °C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion ® membranes.

  8. Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD?/NADH reduction.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-09-10

    A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  9. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  10. ALTS Publications 2009-2000

    Cancer.gov

    Castle PE, Rodriguez AC, Burk RD, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Solomon D, Sherman ME, Jeronimo J, Alfaro M, Morales J, Gullen D, Htuchinson ML, Wacholoder S, Schiffman M. Neither one-time negative screening tests nor negative colposcopy provides absolute reassurance against cervical cancer. Int J Cancer.

  11. AST/RO Observations of CO J=4-3 Emission from the N44 Complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-print Network

    Sungeun Kim; Wilfred Walsh; Kecheng Xiao

    2004-06-07

    We present Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) observations of 12CO J=4-3 and C I emission in the N44 H II complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We detected strong 12CO J=4-3 emission toward the H II region called as N44BC, which is located on the rim of an expanding giant shell in the N44 region. Analysis with a photodissociation region (PDR) model showed that the 12CO J=4-3 emitting cloud is very dense, with n ~ 10^5 cm^-3. We also note that there is a high-velocity component associated with the 12CO J=4-3 emission. This probably originates from molecular material accelerated as a result of the motion induced by the expanding giant shell surrounding LH47 in the N44 complex. We found that the kinetic energy of this high-velocity gas observed in the CO J=4-3 emission toward the rim of the expanding H II shell is at least an order of magnitude higher than the kinetic energy derived for the H I and H II gas in this region.

  12. The independent living donor advocate: a guidance document from the American Society of Transplantation's Living Donor Community of Practice (AST LDCOP).

    PubMed

    Hays, R E; LaPointe Rudow, D; Dew, M A; Taler, S J; Spicer, H; Mandelbrot, D A

    2015-02-01

    The independent living donor advocate (ILDA) serves a mandated and supportive role in the care of the living organ donor, yet qualifications and role requirements are not clearly defined. Guidance comes from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Conditions for Transplant Center Participation and interpretive guidelines, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Policy and CMS and OPTN site surveys, yet interpretation of regulations varies. Herein, the AST Living Donor Community of Practice (LDCOP) offers seven recommendations to clarify and optimize the ILDA role: (a) the ILDA must have a certain skill set rather than a specific profession, (b) the ILDA must be educated and demonstrate competence in core knowledge components, (c) the ILDA's primary role is to assess components of informed consent, (d) centers must develop a transparent system to define ILDA independence, (e) the ILDA should have a reporting structure outside the transplant center, (f) the ILDA's role should be integrated throughout the donor care continuum, (g) the ILDA role should include a narrow "veto power." We address controversies in ILDA implementation, and offer pathways to maximize benefits and minimize limitations of approaches that may each meet regulatory requirements but confer different practice benefits. We propose a research agenda to explore the impact of the ILDA. PMID:25612499

  13. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  14. Beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{LT} in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target at 1.4

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2012-02-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16A{LT} asymmetries were extracted from the measured {3}He asymmetries and proton over {3}He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g{1T}{q} and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?{-} production on {3}He and the neutron, while our ?{+} asymmetries are consistent with zero. PMID:22400926

  15. Unusual broadening and splitting of the KALT="approx" />0 transverse-optical phonon in hcp Mg at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    1999-08-01

    The transverse-optical icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>-point phonon mode was studied in the stability range of hcp Mg up to 50 GPa by Raman spectroscopy. A positive frequency shift is observed with increasing pressure in good agreement with recent theoretical studies using the pseudo-potential method. Unexpected broadening and splitting of this mode occurs under pressure. The separation increases to 20 cm-1 at 50 GPa. Slight structural modifications, anharmonic effects or an unusual pressure-induced dispersion around the icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>-point, not observed in other hcp metals so far, are suggested as possible explanations for the splitting.

  16. Chain dynamics of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) melts by means of coarse-grained simulations based on atomistic molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aparicio, R; Colmenero, J; Alvarez, F; Padding, J T; Briels, W J

    2010-01-14

    We present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) melts, ranging in chain length from about N(e) (the entanglement length) to N=6N(e). The coarse-grained parameters, potential of mean force and bare friction, were determined from fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations carried out on a PEP cell containing 12 chains of 80 monomers each and subjected to periodic boundary conditions. These atomistic simulations were previously validated by means of extensive neutron scattering measurements. Uncrossability constrains were also introduced in the coarse-grained model to prevent unphysical bond crossing. The coarse-grained simulations were carried out at 492 K and focus on chain dynamics. The results obtained were analyzed in terms of Rouse coordinates and Rouse correlators. We observe deviations from Rouse behavior for all chain lengths investigated, even when the chain stiffness is incorporated in the Rouse model. These deviations become more important as the chain length increases. The general scenario emerging from the results obtained is that the deviations from Rouse-like behavior are due to correlations among the forces acting upon a chain bead, which seem to be related with the constraint of uncrossability among the chains. As consequence, nonexponentiality of the Rouse correlators and mode- and time-dependent friction are observed. It seems that, in the molecular weight explored, these effects still give not raise to reptation behavior but to a crossover regime between Rouse and reptation. On the other hand, the results obtained are in qualitative agreement with those expected from the so-called generalized Rouse models, based on memory function formalisms. PMID:20095706

  17. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Prieto; Ricardo Palacios; Dulce Aldana; Anna Ferrer; Carmen Perez-Frances; Victoria Lopez; Rocio Rojas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind trial.

  18. Flux creep in a thin disc of YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitakis, E.; Pissas, M.; Kallias, G.; Niarchos, D.

    1999-10-01

    We investigated the flux-creep behaviour of a thin disc of YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> superconductor in the framework of an analytical model, in the temperature range T = 10-60 K and for a perpendicular applied field Ha = 5-50 kG. The relaxation of the magnetic moment shows a logarithmic dependence on time for the whole temperature range. The field and temperature dependences of the critical current jc and the pinning potential U0 can be derived accurately by fitting the relaxation data. The results are discussed within collective pinning theory. The critical current jc shows a power law field dependence of the form jc(H)icons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> H-b with bicons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.50, which is kept during the relaxation process. The E versus j characteristics are quantitatively derived from the relaxation data at the circumference of the disc and show a very steep E(j) relation described by a power law E(j) = Ec(j/jc)n for the whole temperature range, while a change of this behaviour is observed for T = 60 K. The activation barrier U(j,T = 0,H) is derived with the application of Maley's method based on the exact relations for a thin disc and this gives an exponent µicons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.68 for H = 20 kG.

  19. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  20. Spherical Carbon Adsorbent (AST120) Protects Deterioration of Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Rats through Inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species Production from Mitochondria and Reduction of Serum Lipid Peroxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Owada; Teruhiko Maeba; Yasuji Sugano; Aki Hirayama; Atsushi Ueda; Sohji Nagase; Sumie Goto; Fuyuhiko Nishijima; Kenji Bannai; Hideyuki Yamato

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: An imbalance in renal redox status contributes to progression of renal dysfunction. We investigated the effects of an oral charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) on renal redox status, superoxide production from renal mitochondria, and serum lipid peroxidation using chronic kidney disease (CKD) model rats. Methods: CKD was induced by 5\\/6 nephrectomy. CKD rats were divided into 2 groups: controls, and those

  1. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  2. Brominated VSLSs in and over the East Pacific During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific Cruise (HalocAST-P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Smith, R. W.; Shen, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.

    2010-12-01

    Brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2), and dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) can potentially supply a significant amount of inorganic bromine (Bry) to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Bromine radicals are 50 - 100 times more efficient in depleting ozone (O3) than chlorine radicals; therefore, these compounds are important to the ozone chemistry in the atmosphere. CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2 and CHBrCl2 are thought to be produced mainly by phytoplankton in the open ocean. During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific (HalocAST - P) cruise we examined the distributions of halocarbons in the East Pacific Ocean and in the overlying atmosphere. The cruise started from Punta Arenas, Chile on March 29, and finished at Seattle, WA, United States on April 29 2010. Continuous underway measurements of the atmospheric and surface seawater concentrations along with depth profiles of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and a suite of other halogenated compounds were measured over a large cross latitudinal transect. The brominated VSLS measured during this cruise generally exhibit a correlation with chlorophyll a, supporting biogenic production as the predominate source for these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we will be discussing air and seawater concentrations, saturation anomalies, fluxes, and depth profiles for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2. Cyanobacteria counts, pigment compositions, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the water column were also measured and serve as useful tools for understanding the biological production of these brominated VSLSs.

  3. A new epitaxial BaSnO3 buffer layer for YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films on MgO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaida, M.; Takano, Y.; Chiba, K.; Moriya, T.; Kusunoki, M.; Ohshima, S.

    1999-11-01

    45° grain boundaries, which drastically increase surface resistance (RS) in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films for microwave devices on MgO substrates, are eliminated using a new buffer layer of BaSnO3.BaSnO3 buffer layers and YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are grown by ArF pulsed laser deposition. Epitaxial relationships among BaSnO3, YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and MgO are confirmed by x-ray icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>-scanning. The RS values of the YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are measured using a dielectric resonator with 22 GHz TE011 mode. The epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films grown on BaSnO3 buffered MgO substrates show lower RS than YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films directly grown on MgO substrates. The BaSnO3 buffer layer which enables YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films to grow without 45° grain boundaries at a optimum film growth condition is attractive for microwave applications.

  4. Effect of oxygen stoichiometry on the out-of-plane anisotropy of YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> single crystals near optimal doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkaliaris, S.; Deligiannis, K.; Oussena, M.; Zhukov, A. A.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Gagnon, R.; Taillefer, L.

    1999-10-01

    We have performed magnetic measurements on pure detwinned YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> single crystals in order to investigate the influence of variations in the oxygen stoichiometry on the out-of-plane anisotropy icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>ck in the region close to optimal doping (6.90 < 7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> < 6.98). The anisotropy is estimated using the anisotropic London model from the period of the commensurability oscillations of the hysteretic magnetization as observed for fields applied parallel to the a-b-planes. For a variation in the oxygen deficiency icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> by as much as 300%, we find that icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>ck decreases but only slightly (less than 12%) with decreasing oxygen deficiency. The possibility of a temperature-dependent icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>ck is also discussed.

  5. CUSTOMER POACHING AND ADVERTISING &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROSA BRANCA ESTEVES

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a first look at the dynamic effects of customer poaching in homogeneous product markets, where firms need to invest in advertising to generate awareness. When a firm is able to recognize customers with different purchasing histories, it may send them targeted advertisements with different prices. It is shown that only the firm which advertises the highest price

  6. AST 443/ PHY 517 Photometry

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    : transmit light shortward of some fiducial wavelength. Examples are CuSO4 and BG38 magnitudes · Bolometric fluxes and magnitudes · Colors · Atmospheric ex stars, mpg-mV=B-V-0.11 (see colors). · The near-IR bands (J, H, K, L, M, N

  7. Akademischer Stammbaum Andreas Walter Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Andreas

    ) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Disputatio inauguralis de casibus perplexis in jure Universit¨at Altdorf Dissertation angegeben. In einigen F¨allen wurden (s. Leibniz- Linie) jeweils die Sch¨uler durch ihre Vorg

  8. Economics of Social Capital &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PARTHA DASGUPTA

    2005-01-01

    The literature on the idea of ‘social capital’ is now enormous. Offering an alternative to impersonal markets and coercive states, the communitarian institutions built around social capital have looked attractive to scholars in the humanities and social sciences. The literature in consequence has a warm glow to it. In this article, I first study the various contexts in which the

  9. New modulation structures observed in Bi2.13Sr1.87CuO6+ALT="delta" /> superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. F.; Li, C. R.; Mai, Z. H.; Xiong, J. W.; Zhao, Z. X.; Wang, Y. T.; Hatton, P. D.

    1999-09-01

    A new two-dimensional structure modulation along c- and b-axes has been discovered in superconducting single crystals of Bi2.13Sr1.87CuO6+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi2201) by x-ray scattering. Such modulation structure does not exist in non-superconducting Bi2201 single crystals, but instead lattice distortions are observed in the a-b-plane. This phenomenon may indicate that both strain relaxation and charge modulation in the a-b-plane are important to the occurrence of superconductivity in the copper oxides.

  10. Flux pinning characteristics and material power law of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, L.; Sun, A. M.; Xu, X. N.; Tang, Y. L.; Lu, D. W.; Jin, X.; Shen, L. J.; Lam, C. C.; Chen, Y. S.

    1999-12-01

    Low-electric-field E-J curves of YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> were determined from 0.27 to 1.34 T at various temperatures from 52 to 83 K with the magnetic sweeping method by VSM. Using an empirical material power law E = Ec(J/Jc)n, we obtained the characteristic pinning potential U0(T,H) and real critical current density Jc(T,H) by an appropriate definition of Ec. By further investigation of the changing shape of the pinning potential well, we interpreted the peak effect of U0 with temperature in high temperature superconductors (HTSCs).

  11. Energy level alignments at poly[N-9??-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4?,7?-di-2-thienyl-2?,1?,3?-benzothiadiazole)] on metal and polymer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Cho, Shinuk; Leclerc, Mario; Heeger, Alan J.

    2011-02-01

    Energy level alignments of poly[N-9??-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4?,7?-di-2-thienyl-2?,1?,3?-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) cast on top of Au and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) were investigated using ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS) as a function of the concentration of PCDTBT solutions. Although UPS data show similar work functions for Au and PEDOT:PSS, the hole transport barrier (?h) at the PCDTBT/PEDOT:PSS interface is clearly smaller than that at the PCDTBT/Au interface. The XPS spectra show that energy level relaxation occurs at the interface between PCDTBT and electrodes.

  12. 12/17/07 11:02 AMPresence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets Page 1 of 4http://www.air-space.us/alt.sci.planetary/15/Presence-of-Essential-Molecule-in-Space-Could-Support-Life-on-Other-Planets-article6156-.htm

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    12/17/07 11:02 AMPresence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets Page 1 of 4http://www.air-space.us/alt.sci.planetary/15/Presence-of-Essential-Molecule-in-Space-Could-Support-Life-on-Other Author Date Presence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets baalke 09

  13. Study and modelling of oxygen diffusion in YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> under isothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Navarro, M. D.; Kursumovic, A.; Evetts, J. E.

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents a study of oxygen diffusion in YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO) using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Comparing the results of a solution of Fick's second law to the experimental data, it has been possible to calculate an expression for the chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen in YBCO. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data suggests that the diffusion rate is not determined by the formation of a highly oxygenated layer on the outer surface of the sample. The analysis depends on a finite element model developed to study the diffusion process. The model both calculates the fractional weight change of the sample during the isothermal oxygenation stage and determines the change in distribution of oxygen within the sample during the oxygenation process. The treatment presented provides a convenient basis for preliminary analyses of any proposed oxygenation procedure, to check oxygenation times and the final distribution of oxygen within the sample.

  14. Orientation of thin YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />/YSZ films characterization by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. S.; Shen, Z. X.; Zhou, W. Z.; Xu, S. Y.; Ong, C. K.

    1999-05-01

    Micro-Raman scattering of thin YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films of various thicknesses, deposited by pulsed laser deposition on the yttrium-stabilized zirconia (001) substrates, was carried out at different scattering geometries. The fraction of c-axis orientation of the films was calculated from the intensity ratio of the O(2,3)-B1g and O(4)-Ag modes. It is shown that it is strongly dependent on the film thickness and the highest fraction of c-axis orientation occurs for film thickness around 80 nm. The lower c-axis fraction for thinner films was explained by the simultaneous growth of a- and c-axis-oriented grains at the interface region, while the lower c-axis fraction for thicker films was due to the faults and voids in the films. Several a- and b-axis in-plane orientations have been identified using polarized Raman spectra.

  15. Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

  16. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver and kidney of black ducks and mallards.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C

    1982-10-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards. PMID:6130168

  17. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  18. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  19. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  20. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the kidneys are working Liver Tests ALP (alkaline phosphatase) - Enzyme found in the liver and other tissues, ... blood urea nitrogen) Creatinine Liver Tests ALP (alkaline phosphatase) ALT (alanine amino transferase) AST (aspartate amino transferase) ...

  1. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP At a Glance Test ...

  2. Adult Trials Open to Accrual http://cancer.ucsf.edu/clinical-trials

    E-print Network

    Martin, Gail

    L, Total bilirubin within normal institutional limits, unless patient has Gilbert's disease, for which bilirubin must be , Radionuclide Bone scan, and LFTs including total bilirubin, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase * Tumor assay

  3. Associations between liver enzymes, psychopathological and clinical features in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Lorenzo; Castellini, Giovanni; Gabbani, Tommaso; Godini, Lucia; Rotella, Francesco; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-11-01

    Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are frequently reported in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in subjects who are overweight or with hyperlipidemia, which can be found to be associated with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Liver functioning and psychopathological features have been evaluated in 43 patients with AN, 33 with BN, and 32 with BED. Body mass index was found to be inversely associated with AST and ALT in AN, and directly associated with AST and ALT in BED. A positive association between ALT and AST and body shape concern in AN was observed. Liver enzymes could be considered as an index of severity in AN and BED patients. PMID:25139759

  4. John Fagan, 107634405 AST 389 Walter

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    entered World War III, and the threat of nuclear annihilation was everywhere. After years of constant, a strict no birth policy was enacted, but the Empire soon learned that wouldn't work. In desperation I was commander of. All of us were eating in the massive cafeteria when the General came up

  5. ASTRONAUTICS & SPACE ASTE OVERVIEW PROGRAMS AVAILABLE

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    , spacecraft in plasma, radiation effects on space systems, space instrumentation: detec- tors, analyzers missions and thrust requirements. Compressible gas dynamics. Propellant chemistry and thermodynamics

  6. Normative Power Europe: A Credible Utopia? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIBYLLE SCHEIPERS; DANIELA SICURELLI

    2007-01-01

    AbstractStudies on the international identity of the EU have stressed the normative feature of European foreign policy. At the same time, scholars have pointed out that the inconsistency between the EU's rhetoric and behaviour and the lack of reflexivity undermines its credibility. How does reflexivity affect collective identity? To what extent does the EU's utopian rhetoric affect its credibility as

  7. MARKET SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES OF MULTIPRODUCT FIRMS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Doraszelskiw; Michaela Draganskaz

    2006-01-01

    AbstractWe analyze a multiproduct duopoly and ask whether firms should offer general purpose products or tailor their offerings to fit specific consumer needs. Offering a targeted product has two effects: utility increases for some consumers due to increased fit, whereas utility decreases for others due to increased misfit. Previous work has not considered these two effects jointly and has therefore

  8. A European Nuclear Accident Pool&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Skogh

    2008-01-01

    The compensation to victims of nuclear accidents is based on a Paris (OECD) and a Vienna (UN) convention. A problem with the system is that a strictly liable, but insolvent or uninsured plant owner leaves victims without compensation. In this paper, it is argued that a system could be better organised by, for example, the European Union (EU). A State

  9. Above Ground Storage Tank (AST) Inspection Form

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    of leakage or corrosion? YES/NO/NA 7. Spill cleanup materials damaged, in poor condition, or missing? YES. Excessive oil sheen visible in containment area? YES/NO/NA 4. Is signage missing or damaged (applies

  10. Poverty And Worklessness In Britain &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Nickell

    2004-01-01

    Relative poverty in the UK has risen massively since 1979 mainly because of increasing worklessness, rising earnings dispersion and benefits indexed to prices, not wages. The economic force underlying this is the significant shift in demand against the unskilled. This has substantially weakened the low-skill labour market which has increased both pay dispersion and worklessness, particularly among low-skilled men. Practical

  11. Revolutionary Effects of New Information Technologies &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard J. van den Berg

    2006-01-01

    In markets with imperfect information and heterogeneity, the information technology affects the rate at which agents meet, which affects the distribution of production technologies across firms. Multiple equilibria may arise because the reservation utility and the lowest production technology in use affect each other. The adoption of novel information technologies may then entail a revolution in the sense of a

  12. Prewhitening Bias in HAC Estimation &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D onggyu S ul; P eter C. B. P hillips; C hi-Y oung C hoi

    2005-01-01

    AbstractHeteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent (HAC) estimation commonly involves the use of prewhitening filters based on simple autoregressive models. In such applications, small sample bias in the estimation of autoregressive coefficients is transmitted to the recolouring filter, leading to HAC variance estimates that can be badly biased. The present paper provides an analysis of these issues using asymptotic expansions and simulations.

  13. Concentration Courses 20113 AST African Studies

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    0505-464 AM FILM SINCE SIXTIES0505-467 AM POPULAR & ROCK MUSIC0505-471 ST: THEATER ARTS0505-488 ST-422 FORENSIC INVSTIGATN ART0505-437 AM FILM SINCE SIXTIES0505-467 Islam Art: Arabic Tradition0505-487 January-400 ST: Applications Crime Maps0501-405 SR. on Sexual Violence0501-405 Corruption & The Police0501-405 MI

  14. A SIGNALING THEORY OF GRADE INFLATION &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Chan; Li Hao; Wing Suen

    2007-01-01

    When employers cannot tell whether a school truly has many good students or just gives easy grades, a school has incentives to inflate grades to help its mediocre students, despite concerns about preserving the value of good grades for its good students. We construct a signaling model where grades are inflated in equilibrium. The inability to commit to an honest

  15. Noelle Burch AST/EGL: 389

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    knew what I was thinking. "Honey, everything is going to be okay. I know this time will be different to tell my story; you can judge its validity for yourselves but let me be very clear, I am telling you stomach. She was 7 months pregnant. I hoped to myself that the baby would be okay this time. We had

  16. AST 250 Spring 2010 HOMEWORK #5

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    up Teff and L. Understand the ordering based on spectral type. There could be a similar question is usually plotted in logarithmic coordinates (log L vs. log Teff with temperature increasing to the left

  17. Nicolas Pernot AST/EGL 389

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    his sisters had `won.' It was a cold day in January, eight years earlier. His twin sisters, Tessa real name was `Ant Knee.' Later, he found out it was only because the young twins couldn't pronounce replicas he had ever seen. Now, since his sisters collected them, he felt he was a person in a qualified

  18. Anthony Cooke AST/EGL 389

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    for a virus responsible for not only the eradication of the Neanderthals, but billions of deaths in Canada be within reach. The insect, thought to have been extinct since the last Neanderthals vanished from the face

  19. Influence of various diet regimens on deterioration of hepatic function and hematological parameters following carbon tetrachloride: a potential protective role of natural honey.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Akmal, Mohammad; Al-Waili, Faiza S; Al-Waili, Hamza N

    2006-11-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of commercial regular diet as control, total food restriction with honey, commercial regular diet with dextrose, or total food restriction with dextrose, on blood variables after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four groups, 10 rats each; Group 1 rats were on commercial regular diet, Group 2 rats were on commercial regular diet with 50% dextrose, Group 3 rats were on total food restriction with 50% dextrose, and Group 4 rats were on total food restriction with 50% honey. Rats in all the groups were i.m. administered CCL4 (2.4 mL kg b. wt.-1). Blood tests including ALT, AST, serum albumin, serum protein, BUN, blood glucose (BG), hemoglobin (Hb), and white blood cell (WBC) were performed before CCl4 administration and repeated after 48 and 96 h of post-injection. In Group 1, CCl4 caused significant elevation in AST and ALT, and decrease in BS, WBC, and BUN; lower elevation in AST and ALT at 48 h and decreased AST and ALT at 96 h were obtained when dextrose was added to commercial regular diet (Group 2). Using dextrose alone (Group 3), though there was significant elevation of AST and ALT and decrease in BUN and WBC as compared to baseline values, significant decrease in ALT, AST, and BUN as compared to control was obtained. During absolute honey feeding (Group 4), elevation in AST and ALT obtained, following CCl4 administration was significantly less than the values obtained in all other groups; with lower elevation in AST and ALT as compared to baseline values. Honey increased serum albumin, serum protein, BG, and caused lower reduction in Hb. Conclusively, exclusive honey feeding (50% concentration) significantly modifies and ameliorates biochemical and hematological changes obtained after CCl4 injection. PMID:17127519

  20. AST/RO 13CO(J=2-1) and 12CO(J=4-3) Mapping of Southern Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores

    E-print Network

    A. Loehr; T. L. Bourke; A. P. Lane; P. C. Myers; S. C. Parshley; A. A. Stark; N. F. H. Tothill

    2007-03-05

    Forty molecular cloud cores in the southern hemisphere from the initial Spitzer Space Telescope Cores-to-Disks (c2d) Legacy program source list have been surveyed in 13CO(2-1), 12CO(4-3), and 12CO(7-6) with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The cores, ten of which contain embedded sources, are located mostly in the Vela, Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Musca, and Scorpius complexes. 12CO(7-6) emission was undetected in all 40 clouds. We present data of 40 sources in 13CO(2-1) and 12CO(4-3), significant upper limits of 12CO(7-6), as well as a statistical analysis of the observed properties of the clouds. We find the typical 13CO(2-1) linewidth to be 2.0 km/s for cores with embedded stars, and 1.8 km/s for all others. The typical 12CO(4-3) linewidth is 2.6 to 3.7 km/s for cores with known embedded sources, and 1.6 to 2.3 km/s for all others. The average 13CO column density derived from the line intensities was found to be 1.9 x 10^15 cm^(-2) for cores with embedded stars, and 1.5 x 10^15 cm^(-2) for all others. The average kinetic temperature in the molecular cores, determined through a Large Velocity Gradient analysis of a set of nine cores, has an average lower limit of 16 K and an average upper limit of 26 K. The average molecular hydrogen density has an average lower limit of 10^2.9 cm^(-3) and an average upper limit of 10^3.3 cm^(-3) for all cores. For a different subset of nine cores, we have derived masses. They range from 4 to 255 M_sun. Overall, our c2d sample of southern molecular cores has a range of properties (linewidth, column density, size, mass, embedded stars) similar to those of past studies.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-pressure synthesis, crystal growth, phase diagrams, structural and magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x, HgBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+ALT="delta" /> and quasi-one-dimensional cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, J.; Meijer, G. I.; Schwer, H.; Molinski, R.; Kopnin, E.; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Jun, J.; Kazakov, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Hofer, J.; Alyoshin, V.; Sin, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present a review of high-gas-pressure single crystal growth studies of YBa2Cu4O8 and Y2Ba4Cu7O15-x performed in oxygen pressure up to 3000 bar and Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-7) compounds in argon pressure up 11 000 bar at temperature up to 1200 °C. Chain compounds A1-xCuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) have been synthesized at high oxygen pressure up to 2000 bar. High-pressure phase diagram studies of the investigated systems are also discussed. Structure analyses of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x (n = 6-8), Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-8), Sr0.73CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)4Cu6O10 single crystals have been performed. The effects of substitutions and trends in bondlengths are discussed. The vortex state properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu4O8 single crystals are compared. For Hg-based compounds, the influence of oxygen content, chemical substitutions and radiation defects on vortex pinning were determined. The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates Ca0.83CuO2 and Sr0.73CuO2 show an antiferromagnetically ordered state of long-range 3D character at T < 10 K. The spin dynamics of Sr0.73CuO2, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, indicate that this ordered state coexists with a dimerized singlet ground state.

  2. Alte oder Neue Finanzwissenschaft? Ein Plädoyer für das Alte und Bewährte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meine Damen

    wer sich die Frage vorlegt, welchen Nutzen die Finanzwissenschaft heute stiften kann, geht am besten von verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten aus. Diejenigen, die vor Jahrhunderten dazu aufgerufen hatten, die Wissenschaft zu betreiben, hatten konkrete Probleme im Auge. Man kann die Wissenschaft also von den Problemen her fallweise betreiben und sich dann eklektisch das Nötige zusammensuchen. Nach einiger Zeit begannen aber die auf

  3. Ligand-field theory applied to diatomic transition metals. Results for the dA9dB9?2 states of Ni2, the dNi9dCu10?2 states of NiCu, and the dNi8(3F)dCu10?2?&ast;1 excited states of NiCu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen M. Spain; Michael D. Morse

    1992-01-01

    A ligand-field theory has been developed for transition-metal diatomics having electronic configurations of dA9dB10?2, dA9dB9?2, and dA8(3F)dB10?2?&ast;1. The theory treats each atom as a point charge and includes spin–orbit interactions. No contributions due to d-orbital chemical bonding are included. Since the d orbitals are quite small compared to the bond lengths in these molecules, the only inputs to the theory

  4. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  5. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  6. An RF link analysis of MSBLS during ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speir, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) ground station to orbiter radio frequency (RF) link was made to determine if the expected signal levels will be compatible with orbiter receiver capabilities. Of primary interest was whether or not loss of data will occur due to interference caused by the orbiter 101 nose boom which provides additional air data during the approach and landing test. The results of the analysis indicate that a small amount of data loss may occur due to the proximity of the MSBLS antennas and the nose boom. Tabulated data of antenna radiation patterns are given.

  7. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise 747 SCA takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video begins with early morning shots of the Space Shuttle and the SCA being moved out of the shuttle mate-demate device, and follows the two vehicles as they taxi and take off from Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California.

  8. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

  9. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top?performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  10. 10 Cover Story: Prof PHILIP ALtBACH

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    of higher education will take place in India and China. India today only enrols about 13 per cent of its for higher education? Read on 16 · future ProofINg Why schools and universities both have a part to play in advocating for the IB Diploma Programme recognition 10 IBworld cover story Entries into higher education

  11. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  12. Multibiomarker responses upon exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suwen; Xu, Fanfan; Zheng, Binghui; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Shengrui

    2013-10-15

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant. It has been released into aquatic environments, where it is toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, five enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) in serum and liver of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were selected for screening. These enzymes may be suitable for use as early warning indicators of chronic TBBPA exposure. UDPGT, AST, ALT, and GR activities in serum were found to be as more sensitive to TBBPA as those of the liver. When the concentration of TBBPA exceeded 0.50-0.71 mg/L for an exposure period of 32 days, GST, AST, ALT, and UDPGT activities cannot be restored to normal levels, suggesting that fish exposed to TBBPA above this threshold may incur irreversible damage. The activities of AST, ALT, and GR increased more significantly than GST and UDPGT at the lowest concentration of 0.35 mg/L. AST showed the strongest activity with respect to toxic kinetics, followed by ALT and GR. This remained true from day 4 of exposure to TBBPA to day 32. However, GR showed the clearest and most significant dose-effect relationship. This shows that each of these three enzymes can be used as a biomarker for early warning applications focusing on TBBPA pollution. AST and ALT are suitable for use in conventional monitoring of water quality in areas at risk for TBBPA pollution, and GR is more suitable for use in burst TBBPA pollution accidents where GR activity in fish would change with the TBBPA concentration of the flowing water. PMID:24055989

  13. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests.

  14. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was the source of the graft. We hypothesized that the cience of Gal?1,3 Gal in GTKO pig livers may render pig hepatocytes similar to human and baboon hepatocytes in their response to hepatocellular injury. Reviewing the literature, after WT pig liver allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, in the majority of reports, although changes in AST were reported, no mention was made of changes in ALT, suggesting that there was no change in ALT. However, Ramirez et al. reported two cases of liver xenotransplants from hCD55 pigs, following which there were increases in both AST and ALT, suggesting that it is not simply the cience of expression of Gal?1,3 Gal that is the cause. We acknowledge that our observation is based on a small number of experiments, but we believe it is worth recording. PMID:22360753

  15. Trade Liberalisation and Economic Performance: An Overview &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Alan Winters

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on trade liberalisation and economic growth. While there are serious methodological challenges and disagreements about the strength of the evidence, the most plausible conclusion is that liberalisation generally induces a temporary (but possibly long-lived) increase in growth. A major component of this is an increase in productivity. Part 2 stresses the importance of other

  16. Hobbes to Rousseau: Inequality, Institutions and Development &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Cervellati; Piergiuseppe Fortunato; Uwe Sunde

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the endogenous evolution of economic and political institutions and the interdependencies with the process of economic development. Favourable economic institutions in the form of a state of law and absence of societal conflict arise in equilibrium. Democracies are neither necessary nor sufficient to implement a state of law, even if they may be instrumental. Efficient oligarchies can

  17. PRICE COMPETITION IN U.S. BREWING &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTIAN ROJAS

    2008-01-01

    This study utilizes a brand-level dataset that captures a unique natural experiment, a 100% increase in the excise tax, to evaluate different pricing models in the U.S. beer industry. To assess the plausibility of different models, the increase in marginal cost resulting from the tax increase is exploited: observed prices in the post-increase period are compared to the prices that

  18. Gillian Fisher-Reid AST 389 Paper #3: Short Story

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ! Impossible I tell you!" Dr. Malachite shouted. "Erin, I know it may seem that way but the evidence is right found at the deepest part of the ocean proves it." Dr. Erin Malachite was a young woman of 30 minerals, malachite. Although Erin was mostly raised in upstate New York, as geologists her parents would

  19. Nonlinearities and Fractional Integration in the US Unemployment Rate &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G uglielmo M aria C aporale; L uis A. G il-A lana

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis paper proposes a model of the US unemployment rate which accounts for both its asymmetry and its long memory. Our approach introduces fractional integration and nonlinearities simultaneously into the same framework, using a Lagrange multiplier procedure with a standard null-limit distribution. The empirical results suggest that the US unemployment rate can be specified in terms of a fractionally integrated

  20. Economic substitution for US wheat food use by class &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Marsh

    2005-01-01

    Wheat for food use is conceptualised as an input into flour production and demand is derived from an industry profit function to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Price and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring

  1. On Prevention and Control of an Uncertain Biological Invasion &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars J. Olson; Santanu Roy

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how optimal prevention and control policies depend on the economic and biological characteristics of a randomly introduced biological invas ion where the objective is to minimize the expected social costs from prevention, control , and invasion damages. The results characterize how optimal prevention and control policies vary with the initial invasion size, the invasion growth rate, and

  2. COSTLY BUYER SEARCH IN LABORATORY MARKETS WITH SELLER ADVERTISING &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIMOTHY N. CASON; SHAKUN D. MAGO

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, sellers simultaneously choose prices and advertising strategies. Buyers either purchase at an advertised price or search sequentially for other prices. In the unique symmetric equilibrium, sellers charge a high unadvertised price or advertise a price chosen from a lower interval. Increases in search or advertising costs raise equilibrium prices and affect equilibrium advertising intensity. Empirical results are

  3. ASTeC Vacuum Science Group STFC Daresbury Laboratory

    E-print Network

    What affects Hydrogen Outgassing from Stainless Steel Conventional surface treatments (e.g. detergents treatments (e.g. detergents, solvents, glow discharge) have only a small effect · For technological surfaces

  4. Dylan DiStefano AST389 Infinity and Eternity

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    relativistic motion. The planet developed in slow motion, while the universe continued to expand of the isolated planet around the deep red star near the end of time and the death of the universe. As particles of the universe. Their seeds formed relatively soon after the Big Bang when space expanded faster than light can

  5. Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

    2004-01-01

    We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

  6. Climate Change and the Insurance Industry&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Dlugolecki

    2000-01-01

    Even today, many sectors of the insurance industry do not regard climate change as a significant issue. However a certain amount of research and analysis has been performed by progressive companies who now see it as a fundamental which will affect not only the nature of insurance risk, but also public policy towards natural hazards. Additionally they expect climate change

  7. "...My God, it's full of stars!" AST 248 Lecture 5

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    , and Y objects are brown dwarfs, not stars #12;Spectral Type Mnemonics OBAFGKM · O Be A Fine Girl/Guy, Kiss Me. · Old Bald And Fat Generals Keep Mistresses. · O Boy, An F Grade Kills Me. · Only Boring

  8. Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

    2009-01-01

    A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

  9. Parental Divorce and Students’ Performance: Evidence from Longitudinal Data &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A nna S anz-de-G aldeano; D aniela Vuri

    2007-01-01

    AbstractIn this article, we analysed data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to investigate whether experiencing parental divorce during adolescence had an adverse impact on students’ performance on standardized tests. To account for the potential endogeneity of parental divorce we employed double and triple difference models that rely on observing teenagers from intact and divorced backgrounds before and after the

  10. New Technology in Schools: Is There a Payoff? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally; Olmo Silva

    2007-01-01

    Despite its high relevance to current policy debates, estimating the causal effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) investment on educational standards remains fraught with difficulties. We exploit a change in the rules governing ICT funding across different school districts of England to devise an Instrumental Variable strategy to identify the causal impact of ICT expenditure on pupil outcomes. The

  11. Variable Annuities and the New Retirement Realities&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M Condron

    2008-01-01

    People today face the prospect of a retirement that may likely last 25 years or even longer. Concerns about the stock markets' volatility and the potential impact on their portfolios has caused many individuals approaching retirement to retreat from investments in equities and shift into fixed-income assets, despite historical evidence that investment in equities provide long-term returns superior to fixed-income

  12. Financial Regulation and the Convergence Scenario&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Ryan

    2001-01-01

    Convergence is the blurring of conventional boundaries separating the traditional providers of once discrete financial services. Although a relatively new phenomenon, convergence is pervasive globally, as evidenced by bancassurance in Europe and the recent spate of high-profile mergers around the world.This paper looks at the market forces driving convergence. It examines how companies are re-positioning themselves in a more global

  13. Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noëlle Lenoir

    2006-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

  14. Organizational Identity and Employer Image: Towards a Unifying Framework &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Lievens; Greet Van Hoye; Frederik Anseel

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to bridge two research streams that have evolved relatively apart from each other, namely the research streams on organizational identity and on employer branding (employer image). In particular, we posit that it is crucial to examine which factors company outsiders (applicants) as well as company insiders (employees) associate with a given employer. To this end, this study

  15. What Have We Learned from Market Design? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin E. Roth

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses some things we have learned about markets, in the process of designing marketplaces to fix market failures. To work well, marketplaces have to provide thickness, i.e. they need to attract a large enough proportion of the potential participants in the market; they have to overcome the congestion that thickness can bring, by making it possible to consider

  16. Globalfocusing: From Domestic Conglomerates to Global Specialists &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus E. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    abstract? Globalization is changing the competitive terrain on which companies develop their corporate strategy. On the global stage, key competitive advantages are gained through internationally fungible resources. Consequently, diversified conglomerates are converting to global specialists in narrower niche markets and competing with a small number of multinational enterprises operating worldwide. Their internationalization and their reduction of product diversification are opposite

  17. Predictive value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes

    PubMed Central

    Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Salamat, Fatemeh; Ashrafkhani, Babak; Dirbaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and 30-40% of preterm labors are related to this problem. Early diagnosis of PPROM is very important due to its impact on pregnancy outcomes. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes as a non-invasive and available test. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 pregnant women between the 26th-36th gestational weeks were enrolled in the study. 74 patients were in PROM group and 74 in control group. AST and ALT levels in vaginal fluid were measured in each group. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare AST and ALT levels in each group. Results: The mean of AST level in vaginal fluid was 12.77±10.06 in PROM group vs. 6.91±10.92 in control group (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference between ALT levels in PROM group 1.51±3.17 and control group 0.89±1.15 (p=0.49). Optimal cut point of AST for the diagnosis of PROM was 4.5 IU/L in this study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 82.4%, 63.5%, 69.32% and 78.33% respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, measurement of AST level in vaginal fluid can be used as a reliable test for diagnosis of PROM, but there is no good cut point for ALT level that can be practically used. PMID:24976822

  18. Association Between Elevated Serum Hepatic Enzyme Activity and Total Body Fat in Obese Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Weon Choi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the associations between obesity and serum hepatic enzyme activities, we measured total body fat (TBF), body mass index (BMI), and hepatic biochemical parameters in 732 apparently healthy adults. TBF was assessed using a body fat analyzer. Serum activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were determined

  19. Associative Tolerance of Intravenously Administered Lipid and Gestational Age in Preterm Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snezhana Palchevska-Kocevska; Ljiljana Kojik

    Aim. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of constant amount of lipid during total parenteral nutrition (TPN), by the evaluation of serum levels of: total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, billirubin, AST, ALT, acid base status in the group of sick preterm infants. Material and methods. The tolerance for intravenously administered lipid (IL), with a maximal

  20. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200?mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50?mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  1. Stability of Blood Biochemistry Levels in Animal Model Research: Effects of Storage Condition and Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Chu Peng; Bang-Gee Hsu; Fwu-Lin Yang; Yann Fen C. Chao; Horng-Jyh Harn; Ru-Ping Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole blood and plasma in terms of the subsequent accuracy of blood lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) measurement. Blood samples were drawn from 8 male Wistar-Kyoto rats. The rats were homologous, weighed 300— 380 g, were housed in the same environment, and

  2. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  3. Oxidative Status in Patients with Alcohol Dependence: A Clinical Study in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Chuo Peng; Sheng-Hui Tang; Ming-Chi Huang; Chiao-Chicy Chen; Tsung-Li Kuo; Shih-Jiun Yin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence and oxidative status. The biochemical parameters and antioxidants status were measured among 28 patients with alcohol dependence. Nineteen healthy persons without drinking problem were recruited as the control subjects. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (?-GT), and levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG),

  4. Untersuchung verschiedener Plasmaenzyme und Plasmasubstrate beim Birkwild ( Lyrurus tetrix L.), Auerwild ( Tetrao urogallus L.), Rebhuhn ( Perdix perdix L.) und Fasan ( Phasianus colchicus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Gremmels

    1987-01-01

    Mit Hilfe eines Enzym-Analyzers wurden verschiedene Plasmaenzyme und Plasmasubstrate beim Birkwild (Lyrurus tetrix), Auerwild (Tetrao urogallus), Rebhuhn (Perdix perdix) und Fasan (Phasianus colchicus) gemessen. Die Untersuchung umfaßte jeweils adulte und juvenile Hähne und Hennen einer Spezies. In der Aktivität der Plasmaenzyme AST, ALT, ?-GT alkalische Phosphatase, LDH und ?HBDH sowie in der Konzentration der Substrate Harnsäure, Harnstoff, Creatinin, Glukose und

  5. Biological studies on the protective role of artich oke and green pepper against potential toxic effect of thermally oxidized oil in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wagdy K. B. Khalil; Heba A. M. Abd; Mariam G. Eshak; Ibrahim M. Farag; Kadry Z. Ghanem

    The present investigation was designed to evaluate oocyte competence including quality, meiotic progression and expression of ERK2 gene and activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ?- GT) in female mice fed diets containing sunflower o il repeatedly used in frying processes (FO). The protective role of artichoke and green pepper again st such potential dangers were also studied. Results

  6. Electrochemical biosensor array for liver diagnosis using a silanization technique on nano-porous silicon electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jung Song; Dong-Hwa Yun; Nam-Ki Min; Suk-In Hong

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol, bilirubin and ALT\\/AST present in the serum are often used as biomarkers for liver diseases. For this study, we describe our biosensor array system consisting of cholesterol, bilirubin and glutamate sensors. We determined that porous silicon (PS) layers formed on each working electrode greatly increased the effective surface area. The electrodes in the sampling wells minimized a cross-interference effect

  7. Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

  8. Evaluation of metabolic enzymes in response to Excel Mera 71, a glyphosate-based herbicide, and recovery pattern in freshwater teleostean fishes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P<0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST>ALT>ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT>AST>ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

  9. Metadoxine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Kotacherry T.; Balakumaran, Leena K.; Mathew, Philip; Prasad, Mohan; Prabhakar, Boddu; Sood, Ajit; Singh, Shivaram P.; Rao, Nagaraj P.; Zargar, Shoukat A.; Bignamini, Angelo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective and design The study aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy and safety of metadoxine versus placebo on the ultrasonographic and histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Subjects 134 subjects with biopsy-confirmed NASH were randomized to receive metadoxine 500 mg two times daily (n = 75) or placebo (n = 59) added to the standard of care, over 16 weeks. Efficacy endpoints Originally, the primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of: reduction in the steatosis by ?1 grade, reduction in hepatic necro-inflammation by ?1 grade and ALT normalization. Since >50% of patients refused the second biopsy, it was decided to analyze only the individual parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the treatment and the placebo groups in either liver histology or ALT or AST. Overall, as expected both groups showed reduction in serum ALT and AST compared to baseline. Compared to placebo (9 out 54), patients on metadoxine (34 out of 75) had significantly higher rates of improvement in 1-point in steatosis grade on ultrasound (P-value <0.001). Safety and tolerability did not differ between treatments. Conclusion Metadoxine is not effective in improvement of liver histology or serum ALT or AST in patients with NASH. However, there was significant improvement of steatosis assessed by ultrasound. To properly estimate the effects on histology and transaminases, further studies of longer duration and at higher doses are needed. PMID:25755546

  10. Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Azocar, Jose; Diaz, Arley

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chlorella in 18 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. METHODS: Eighteen adults with chronic infection by HCV genotype 1 received daily oral supplementation of Chlorella for 12 wk. Changes in the RNA levels of HCV, as well as those of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were evaluated following this treatment period. Paired t tests were conducted to compare the means of the different variables at the beginning and end of the study. Side effects and quality of life aspects were also compared between weeks 0 and 12 of the study period. RESULTS: A majority 84.61% of the patients had a significant decrease in their ALT levels from week 0 to week 12. Evaluation of side effects showed that Chlorella was well tolerated. Quality of life assessment showed that 76.9 of the participants reported an improvement in their energy levels and 46.1% reported an improvement in their perception of general health. Although 69.23% also showed a decrease in their AST levels, this was not statistically significant. Most patients that exhibited an improvement in their ALT and AST levels also showed a tendency toward a decreased HCV viral load. The HCV RNA levels showed a decrease in 69.23% of the patients, which along with changes in AST/ALT ratios from week 0 to week 12, these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Chlorella supplementation was well tolerated in patients with chronic HCV and associated with a significant decrease in ALT liver enzyme levels. PMID:23467073

  11. [The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-3 and omega-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Marchenko, M M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p < 0.05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0.92 +/- 0.08 and 0.79 +/- 0.12 vs 1.26 +/- 0.10. The use of high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0.47 +/- 0.04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2.53 +/- 0.23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum. PMID:25059053

  12. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

  13. Discrimination of novel bunyavirus infection using routine laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Q-B; Yang, Z-D; Wang, L-Y; Qin, S-L; Cui, N; Wang, H-Y; Li, H; Liu, K; Hu, J-G; Zhang, X-A; Liu, W; Cao, W-C

    2015-02-01

    The wide epidemic and high case fatality rate have made severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) a significant public health problem. The diagnosis and discrimination of SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection at an early stage of the disease is important for treatment choice. A prospective study was performed in an SFTS reference hospital during 2011-2013. Suspected SFTS patients were recruited and prospectively observed. Comparison between SFTSV-positive and -negative patients was made to identify the parameters that were related to positive detection by discriminant and classification tree analysis. A total of 538 SFTSV-positive and 396 negative patients were recruited and observed. Multiple logistic regression models demonstrated the significant parameters associated with positive detection, including decreased platelet counts and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level during the first stage (1?4 days), decreased white blood cell and platelet counts, elevated creatine kinase (CK) and AST levels during the second stage (5?7 days), and older age, decreased consciousness and elevated CK and AST during the third stage (8-11 days). The classification trees disclosed that the significant predictors for positive SFTSV detection were AST >50.6 U/L and AST/alanine transaminase (ALT) >1.3 at the first stage, CK >257 U/L or 57.7 U/L < CK ?98.5 U/L with AST/ALT >1.6 at the second stage, as well as CK >630.7 U/L or 114.3 U/L < CK ?630.7 U/L with decreased consciousness at the third stage. In making the clinically probable diagnosis of SFTS, the supplementation of AST and CK evaluations might remarkably improve the diagnostic capacity of routine laboratory tests, while the leukopenia is of limited use. PMID:25658566

  14. The protective effects of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine on ethanol-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaokun; Wang, Wei; Miao, Ningshu; Xu, Mengxin; Zhang, Chunlei; Sun, Mengmeng; Xu, Mingbo; Liu, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of SF and OMT on ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. The animal liver wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and liver tissue histopathology, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) levels were measured. The data indicated that the levels of ALT, AST, TG, CRP, IL-6, NF-?B and MDA significantly decreased and that SOD activity improved after treatment with the combination of SF and OMT; the same effects were not observed with the same dose of SF or OMT when used alone. These results indicated that the combination of SF and OMT had a protective effect on ethanol-induced liver damage in mice and that antioxidation and anti-inflammatory effects might be involved in this protective mechanism. PMID:24441025

  15. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  16. Mean platelet volume in children with Reye-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sert, Ahmet; Kilicaslan, Cengizhan; Solak, Ece Selma; Arslan, Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Reye-like syndrome (RLS) is considered to be a systemic disorder in which the cytokine storm plays a major role. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to study MPV in children with RLS. The study population consisted of 30 children with RLS and 30 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) count, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) values were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with RLS at an early stage of illness when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased in patients with RLS after the treatment when compared to baseline whereas MPV values were increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC. In conclusion, at an early stage of RLS MPV values were lower when compared to controls. PMID:25806657

  17. Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation. PMID:22736883

  18. Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia ( Syzygium cumini ) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman M. El-Anany; Rehab F. M. Ali

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm)\\u000a of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities\\u000a and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase\\u000a (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid

  19. Hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride: protective effect of Gongronema latifolium.

    PubMed

    Etim, O E; Akpan, E J; Usoh, I F

    2008-07-01

    The protective effect of the ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium (GLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatic toxicity was studied. Liver enzymes studied included alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotraferase (AST), and alkaline phosphates (ALP). Hepatic injuries involved with possible necrosis which may have contributed to its possible pathogenesis was explored. Administration of toxicant only showed that the ALT level was significantly (P<0.05) increased to 345.83% when compared to control. Pretreatment with Gongronema latifolium extract (GLE) non-significantly (P<0.05) decreased to 13.08% when compared to those treated with toxicant only. Also under experimental conditions, increasing the concentration of Gongronema latifoluim extract (GLE) non-significantly (P<0.05) decreased dose-dependently the level of ALT to 18.20%. The AST level was non-significantly (P<0.05) increased to 41.55% on treatment with toxicant only. Pretreatment with GLE decreased the AST level non-significantly (P<0.05) to 25.76%. No evident increase or decrease in the level of ALP was observed. Treatments with toxicant showed liver cells filled with uniformly distributed dense small fat droplets, large nuclei, inflamed cells and evidence of necrosis and fibrosis. Pretreatment with 100mg/kg of the extract showed microvesicular fatty change with no evidence of inflammation, necrosis or fibrosis. The protective effect of the GLE was more pronounced in ALT and AST. However, the GLE has a strong modulatory effect against the hepatocellular damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. PMID:18614423

  20. Comparative biochemical assessment of the amniotic fluid and maternal plasma of pregnant rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Chuka Ozegbe

    2005-01-01

    The following were determined for pregnant New Zealand White x Chinchilla rabbits on day 28 post-service: maternal plasma and the amniotic fluid concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (PO4), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), amylase, total proteins, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, cholesterol,

  1. Serum Fibronectin Levels in Acute and Chronic Viral Hepatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    ERTURK, Ayse; CURE, Erkan; OZKURT, Zulal; PARLAK, Emine; CURE, Medine Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum fibronectin (FN) levels and liver enzyme activities in patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C) and chronic viral hepatitis (B, C); determine whether the virus types correlated with disease severity; and assess whether FN could be used as a marker of virus type or disease severity in patients. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 20 patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C), 20 with chronic hepatitis (B, C), and 20 healthy controls. Serum fibronectin (FN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and albumin were measured in all patients from blood samples. Results: Serum FN levels were significantly lower in acute (122.9 ?g/mL (SD 43.1), P < 0.001) and chronic hepatitis patients (135.7 ?g/mL (SD 46.0), P < 0 .001) compared to controls 221.4 ?g/mL (SD 32.5). A negative correlation was found between serum FN and AST (r2 = 0.528, P < 0.001), ALT (r2 = 0.425, P < 0.001), and GGT (r2 = 0.339, P < 0.001). Additionally, high serum GGT levels (? = –0.375, P = 0.010), and low serum albumin levels (? = –0.305, P = 0.008) were associated with low serum FN levels. Conclusion: Serum FN levels were lower in both acute and chronic hepatitis patients, and an inverse relationship between serum FN and serum AST, ALT, and GGT levels was found. A decrease in serum FN levels may indicate hepatitis severity as AST and ALT represent hepatocyte damage. PMID:24639609

  2. Protective effect of reduced glutathione on the liver injury induced by acute omethoate poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Lu; Xiuli Wang; Liwei Lang; Fenghua Fu

    2010-01-01

    Omethoate is an organophosphate insecticide with high toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) on omethoate-induced liver injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, OM (omethoate poisoning), and OM+GSH (omethoate poisoning treated with GSH). The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma,

  3. Comparison of serum enzyme activity in great sturgeon, Huso huso , cultured in brackish and freshwater earth ponds in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhad Rajabipour; Davar Shahsavani; Ali Moghimi; Shahla Jamili; Nassrin Mashaii

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 60 great sturgeons, Huso huso, to establish the following serum enzyme activity: aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), lactic\\u000a acid dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using an autoanalyzer, and acid phosphatase\\u000a (ACP) by manual method. Thirty 5-year-old cultured fish were caught from each of two sites; a brackish-water earth pond in

  4. Some physiological studies on the effect of onion and garlic juices on the fish, Clarias lazera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Al-Salahy

    2002-01-01

    Fish, Clarias Lazera were orally administered onion (Allium cepa) or garlic (Allium sativum) juices. Contents of glucose, free amino acids, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, aspartate\\u000a aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum as well as glycogen, free amino acids, total lipids, triglycerides\\u000a and cholesterol contents in liver, white and red muscle were determined 5 h and

  5. Assessment of canine liver function by metabolism of lidocaine to monoethylglycinexylidide: a preclinical study

    E-print Network

    Fradkin, Jonathan Matthew

    2000-01-01

    all the members of my committee and the other faculty members who supported me during my training programs. l would also like to thank the graduate students and house oAicers of the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, and Small... the response to therapy. ROUTINE TESTS EVALUATING THE LIVER Most routine clinical laboratories include measuremcnt of serum liver enzymes such as alanine transferase (ALT), aspariate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase...

  6. COMPARISON OF SERUM 0-HEXOSAMTNIDASE ISOENZYME B ACTIVITY WITH SERUM CARBOHYDRATE-DEFICIENT TRANSFERRIN AND OTHER MARKERS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. STOWELL; A. STOWELL; N. GARRETT; G. ROBINSON

    We have compared \\/i-hexosaminidase (\\/J-Hex) activity, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CUT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), y-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values in serum from male alcoholic patients with the corresponding values in moderate and non-drinking subjects. The total \\/J-Hex activity was 2.5 times higher in the alcoholics than in the moderate drinkers and this increase was mainly due

  7. Elevated Liver Enzyme Tests Among Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriatic Arthritis Patients treated with Methotrexate and/or Leflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Beukelman, Timothy; Onofrei, Alina; Cassell, Sarah; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Reed, George; Strand, Vibeke; Kremer, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Potential hepatotoxicity associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs [DMARDs] requires laboratory monitoring. In rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis [RA, PsA] patients, we examined the incidence of elevated alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) enzymes associated with methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide (LEF), and MTX+LEF vs. other DMARDs. Methods RA and PsA patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) initiating DMARDs were identified. Abnormalities were identified when either was 1 or 2-fold time above the upper limits of normal (ULN). Odds ratios [OR] between MTX/LEF dose and elevated ALT/AST enzymes were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Interaction terms for use of MTX+LEF quantified the incremental risk of the combination compared to each individually. Results Elevated ALT/AST levels (>1× ULN) occurred in 22, 17, 31, and 14% RA patients receiving MTX, LEF, MTX+LEF, or neither, respectively; elevations were 2.76 fold (95% CI 1.84 – 4.15) more likely in PsA patients. Elevations > 2× ULN occurred in 1–2% of patients on MTX or LEF monotherapy compared to 5% with the combination. After multivariable adjustment and compared with either monotherapy, combination MTX + LEF was associated with greater risk according to MTX dose used as part of the combination: MTX 10–17.5mg/week, OR=2.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–6.90) and MTX ?20 mg/week, OR=3.98 (95% CI: 1.72–9.24). Conclusions 14–35% of RA and PsA patients initiating DMARD therapy developed abnormal ALT/AST levels. Risks were incrementally greater in those with PsA and in those receiving MTX (? 10mg/day) + LEF. These findings should help inform monitoring for potential hepatotoxicity in these patient populations. PMID:19147616

  8. Prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in adult celiac patients and effect of gluten-free diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Bardella; Mirella Fraquelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Nicoletta Molteni; Paolo Bianchi; Dario Conte

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia and the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) were evaluated in 158 consecutive adult celiac patients, 127 women and 31 men, aged 18 to 68 years (mean, 32). At diagnosis, 67 patients (42%) had raised aspartate and\\/or alanine transaminase levels (AST and ALT; mean, 47 IU\\/L, range, 30 to 190; and 61 IU\\/L, range, 25 to 470,

  9. Elevated liver enzyme tests among patients with rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis treated with methotrexate and\\/or leflunomide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J R Curtis; T Beukelman; A Onofrei; S Cassell; J D Greenberg; A Kavanaugh; G Reed; V Strand; J M Kremer

    2010-01-01

    Introduction:Potential hepatotoxicity associated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) requires laboratory monitoring. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the incidence of elevated alanine aminotransferase\\/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT\\/AST) enzymes associated with methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide (LEF) and MTX+LEF versus other DMARDs was examined.Methods:Patients with RA and PsA enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) initiating DMARDs

  10. Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2003-11-01

    Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

  11. Long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats (Efectos a largo plazo del aceite esencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume en algunos parametros fisiológicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talal A. ZARI; Ayed Sh

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while high density lipoprotein HDL- cholesterol, total protein and uric acid

  12. Associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-6 and related cytokine genes and serum liver damage markers: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yuka; Wakai, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Suma, Shino; Sasakabe, Tae; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Ogawa, Shin; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kuriyama, Nagato; Arisawa, Kokichi; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Hosono, Satoyo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-02-25

    Cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), play an important role in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between common polymorphisms in potential functional promoters of cytokine genes and liver damage markers among enrollees of a large Japanese cohort study. Subjects included 3257 Japanese individuals (1608 men and 1649 women, aged 35-69 years). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of five cytokine genes, IL1B (T-31C), IL6 (C-634G), IL8 (T-251A), IL10 (T-819C), tumor necrosis factor-A (TNFA) (T-1031C), and TNFA (C-857T), were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. Information regarding alcohol intake, smoking habits, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured during a routine health check-up. Of the six SNPs genotyped, an IL6 polymorphism (rs1800796, C-634G) was most strongly associated with a liver damage marker, AST. Mean serum AST was significantly different among the three genotypes (mean ± SD, 22.7 ± 7.3 IU/L for CC, 22.8 ± 7.7 IU/L for CG, and 24.3 ± 8.6 IU/L for GG, p=0.011 by analysis of variance). The differences remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders by general linear models. The variations in mean serum AST and ALT levels were marked especially among men. Thus, the functional polymorphism IL6 C-634G may affect serum AST and ALT levels, possibly through different IL-6 production. PMID:25523094

  13. Safety evaluation of olive phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Farag, R S; El-Baroty, G S; Basuny, Amany M

    2003-05-01

    Free and total polyphenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits and leaves of the Picual cultivar. The safety limits of these compounds were recognized by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total lipids of rat serum. The free and total phenolic compounds (400, 800, and 1600 ppm) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) (200 ppm) were daily ingested for 7 weeks. The administration of olive total and free phenolic compounds at 400 and 800 ppm did not cause any significant changes on ALT and AST activities and serum total lipids. These compounds at 1600 ppm caused significant increase in ALT and AST activities and the content of total lipids. Both olive phenolic compounds were superior to that of BHT in increasing HDL-cholesterol level. Nutritional experiments demonstrated that BHT at 200 ppm caused an enlargement in the kidney and liver of the rat compared with the administration of total and free olive phenolic compounds at 1200 and 1600 ppm. Microscopical examination of kidney and liver tissues of rats administered free and total phenolic compounds at 1200 ppm had the same histological character as that of control rats, while the administration of BHT (200 ppm) and phenolic compounds (1600 ppm) induced severe damage to the tissues of the rat kidney and liver. PMID:12775365

  14. Role of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular injury: effect of CrPic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijiang; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenhang; Teng, Anguo; Liu, Anjun; Ming, Dongfeng; Yan, Peng

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium picolinate (CrPic, Fig. 1) hepatoprotective activity from alloxan-induced hepatic injury. Diabetes is induced by alloxan-treatment concurrently with the hepatic injury in mice. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of CrPic treatment in hepatic injury and the signal role of liver fatty acid binding protein in early hepatocellular injury diagnostics. In this study, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) levels in the alloxan group were higher 71% and 50%, respectively, than those of the control group (ALT: 14.51±0.74; AST: 22.60±0.69). The AST and ALT levels in CrPic group were of minimal difference compared to the control groups. Here, CrPic exhibited amelioration alloxan induced oxidative stress in mouse livers. A significant increase in liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was observed, which indicates increased fatty acid utilization in liver tissue [1]. In this study, the mRNA levels of L-FABP increased in both the control (1.1 fold) and CrPic (0.78 fold) groups compared the alloxan group. These findings suggest that hepatic injury may be prevented by CrPic, and is a potential target for use in the treatment of early hepatic injury. PMID:23603011

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Abel Felipe; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Grespan, Renata; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3?g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, ?-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, ?-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25821491

  16. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-08-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  17. Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with optical coherence tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Kova?evi?, Igor; Radosavljevi?, Aleksandra; Kalezi?, Bojan; Poti?, Jelena; Damjanovi?, Goran; Stefanovi?, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938546

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine amongst Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Guan, R; Ng, H S; Fock, K M; Ho, K Y; Yap, I; Kang, J Y; Chow, W C; Chew, C N; Ng, C; Teo, C J

    1995-06-01

    The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine was studied in healthy Singaporean adult volunteers. One hundred and forty healthy volunteers with normal alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) transaminases and no previous exposure to HAV, received three 1 ml doses (720 ELISA units) of an inactivated HAV vaccine (Smithkline Beechams Biologicals) following a 0, 1, 6 months vaccination schedule. All subjects were asked to record and grade the severity of any reactions for three consecutive days after each dose. Serum ALT and AST as well as anti-HAV were measured at 0, 1, 2, 6 and 7 months after the first vaccine dose. Anti-HAV seroconversion occurred when levels rose above 40 mIU/ml. Eighty-five percent of vaccinees seroconverted after the first innoculation and 99% after the second injection. All vaccinees seroconverted after the third dose. Geometric mean anti-HAV titers (GMTs) were, respectively, 119, 391, 4406 mIU/ml one month after each of the three doses. The most common side effect was transient pain and tenderness at the vaccination site. No elevation of ALT or AST levels were noted during the study period. The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine used in this study is safe and highly immunogenic in the local adult population. Two doses one month apart appeared to give adequate protection. PMID:8629058

  19. Cerulenin blockade of fatty acid synthase reverses hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Palanisamy, Arun P; Evans, Zachary P; Sutter, Alton G; Jin, Lan; Singh, Inderjit; May, Harold; Schmidt, Michael G; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic steatosis is a common health problem associated with abnormal liver function and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin on hepatic function in steatotic ob/ob mice. Different dosages of cerulenin were administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice for 2 to 7 days. Body weight, serum AST/ALT, hepatic energy state, and gene expression patterns in ob/ob mice were examined. We found that cerulenin treatment markedly improved hepatic function in ob/ob mice. Serum AST/ALT levels were significantly decreased and hepatic ATP levels increased in treated obese mice compared to obese controls, accompanied by fat depletion in the hepatocyte. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? and uncoupling protein 2 were suppressed with cerulenin treatment and paralleled changes in AST/ALT levels. Hepatic glutathione content were increased in some cases and apoptotic activity in the steatotic livers was minimally changed with cerulenin treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fatty acid synthase blockade constitutes a novel therapeutic strategy for altering hepatic steatosis at non-stressed states in obese livers. PMID:24086674

  20. Cerulenin Blockade of Fatty Acid Synthase Reverses Hepatic Steatosis in ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Zachary P.; Sutter, Alton G.; Jin, Lan; Singh, Inderjit; May, Harold; Schmidt, Michael G.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic steatosis is a common health problem associated with abnormal liver function and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin on hepatic function in steatotic ob/ob mice. Different dosages of cerulenin were administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice for 2 to 7 days. Body weight, serum AST/ALT, hepatic energy state, and gene expression patterns in ob/ob mice were examined. We found that cerulenin treatment markedly improved hepatic function in ob/ob mice. Serum AST/ALT levels were significantly decreased and hepatic ATP levels increased in treated obese mice compared to obese controls, accompanied by fat depletion in the hepatocyte. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? and uncoupling protein 2 were suppressed with cerulenin treatment and paralleled changes in AST/ALT levels. Hepatic glutathione content were increased in some cases and apoptotic activity in the steatotic livers was minimally changed with cerulenin treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fatty acid synthase blockade constitutes a novel therapeutic strategy for altering hepatic steatosis at non-stressed states in obese livers. PMID:24086674

  1. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds. PMID:17305967

  2. Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system.

  3. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3?g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, ?-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, ?-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals.

  5. [Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

  6. Biochemical alterations and liver toxicity analysis with pioglitazone in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sajal Kumar; Das, Sreedam Chandra; Abdullah-Al-Emran; Sarker, Mithun; Uddin, Md Aftab; Chowdhury, A K Azad; Bachar, Sitesh Chandra

    2013-04-01

    Pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinediones, is a potent, highly selective agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and is an excellent insulin sensitizer used in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effect of pioglitazone on glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total proteins, albumin (ALB), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in 20 healthy Bengali male volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Blood samples were collected before and 0.5-24.0 hours after a single oral dose of a 30 mg pioglitazone tablet. Plasma pioglitazone level was determined using a validated method of reverse-phase binary high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood lipid profile and levels of glucose, ALT, and AST were estimated using enzyme assay kits, plasma protein level was estimated by the biuret method, and plasma ALB level was determined colorimetrically. No significant change in blood glucose, total proteins, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, and LDL levels was observed over the 24-hour assessment period, indicating no plasma biochemical alterations. There were no significant differences between baseline and 24-hour values of ALB, ALT, and AST levels, indicating a lack of liver toxicity. Our results indicate that a single dose of 30 mg of pioglitazone has no hypoglycemic or hypolipidemic effect or liver toxicity within 24 hours of treatment among healthy Bengali males. PMID:22486205

  7. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  8. Time of growth of Opelika Dome, Henderson and Van Zandt counties, Texas

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Thomas Lowe

    1958-01-01

    ?icknssses of salt were deix&sitec w'}ich covered ruch of the '. ast Texas rsgicn. Later t. :is salt becar'e 1};e source ?ed . '"or the zany &alt iicmes. &&t le&&st 27 cf t} e zi, ;, ctural domes in ast, exes have been prove&. ti. lie s?'t dc&ice by the find.... RFGEO:JAL GFGLGGY The Opelika fielf 's located in a broad b?sin wkrick: ?as been referred to by various writers ao the Fast Tex?s 3'sin, th Tyler Basin, the ast Texas Geosync'ine, ?n, . 4?e Fast ~ ox?s T'zbaym 'rt. Coon (195o) defined ths basin...

  9. Audit on the appropriateness of integrated COPD management: the “ALT-BPCO” project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non communicable chronic diseases (including respiratory ones) are the leading cause of death and disability. To cope with them we need to redesign the health system, improving primary prevention, screening, and outpatient services, while fully integrating different branches of the health service. The Italian Ministry of Health published extended guidelines on integrated COPD management (COPD-GL) in 2010. In2011 a condensed version was produced. These documents define appropriateness of management regarding both the specialist and the health service. Methods An internal audit on how clinical practice conforms to COPD-GL standards was implemented in one Italian region involving 29 respiratory units (RU) (65.8% of the total regional RU): data were collected from the clinical database at time zero and after 6 months. In the meantime, specialists of RU underwent education on COPD-GL. Results At time zero, significant gaps between current practice and recommendations emerged both in medical practice (mean agreement 25%) and in the health organization (48%). At month 6 the gaps were reduced more in clinical practice (60.7%) than in organization (54.7%). Conclusions It is easier to resolve the gaps in specialist clinical practice than the organizational gaps, changing which is the politicians’ task. Correcting specialists’ inappropriateness may be worthless if this is not accompanied by improvement of the organizational obstacles. The search for appropriateness should not be limited only to specialists or to a strict control of drug prescription but should include all the organizational aspects. Implementation of COPD-GL calls for actions on the part of both specialists and the health system. PMID:25097757

  10. late with the presence of acetaminophen-induced elevation of serum ALT levels in the

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans responds to increases in temperature by initiating a transi- tion from that survive passage to the Pyrenees are not spore-forming species. Some of the African soil samples contain

  11. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B. G. (Brodie G.); Rodriguez, G. (George); Stokes, J. L. (John L.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.); Clark, D. A. (David A.)

    2001-01-01

    A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

  12. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  13. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  14. Zu alt für einen Wechsel? Zum Zusammenhang von Alter, Lohndifferentialen und betrieblicher Mobilität

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Schneider

    2007-01-01

    Due to the well known fact of a reduced mobility of older employees the workforce aging will have strong consequences for job mobility in Germany. On the basis of the IAB-Beschäftigtenstichprobe (IABS) the subsequent article analyzes the impact of age on (inter-firm) job mobility. In particular the study answers the question, how wage differentials of a potential job change evolve

  15. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  16. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  17. Invited Talk at ALT 2012 Conference Manchester 11 Sept 2012 Draft: Under Development -20 Sep 2012

    E-print Network

    Sloman, Aaron

    Computer Scientists · What is computational thinking? Seeing the universe as made of matter, energy, designers of educational technology, art historians, theologians, politicians, managers, ... parents

  18. Analysis of the double-spin asymmetry ALT in inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.; Schäfer, A.; Zhou, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the collinear twist-3 framework, we analyze the double-spin asymmetry in collisions between longitudinally polarized nucleons and transversely polarized nucleons with focus on hadron and jet production. As was the case in direct photon production, the double-spin dependent cross section for hadron and jet production has the advantage of involving a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions for a transversely polarized nucleon. In addition, we outline further benefits of this observable for a potential future measurement at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which includes insight on the gluon helicity distribution as well as information on the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function TF(x,x) that plays a crucial role in single-spin asymmetries.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  3. A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt

    E-print Network

    Darken, Christian J.

    of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

  4. Development and molecular recognition of Calixcrownchip as an electrochemical ALT immunosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afsaneh AmiriEui; Eui Yul Choi; Huyn Jeong Kim

    2010-01-01

    The developments of immunosensors with a variety of formats are increasingly finding applications in clinical diagnostics\\u000a and biological researches. A strategy for the immunoassay and preparation of Calixcrownchips is proposed. This strategy is\\u000a based on the immobilization of antigens or antibodies on the surface of Calixcrown and the direct electrochemistry of horseradish\\u000a peroxidase (HRP) that was labeled to an antibody

  5. Zirconium adsorption and incorporation on a reconstructed Al-T4 AlN(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Pérez, William; González-Hernández, Rafael; Rodríguez M, Jairo Arbey

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the energetic stability and electronic structure of zirconium adsorption and incorporation on a 2×2 reconstructed AlN(0001) surface. We employ density-functional theory within the generalized-gradient approximation to study such effects. First-principles total energy calculations reveal that the most stable positions of a Zr adatom on the reconstructed 2×2-T4 AlN(0001) surface are at the S1 and Sp substitutional sites. In addition, calculating the relative surface energy of several configurations, we constructed a phase diagram showing the energetically most stable surfaces as a function of the aluminium chemical potential. Based on these results, we find that incorporation at Al-substitutional sites is energetically favorable compared to adsorption on the top layers. In particular, we find that Zr-S1 and Zr-Sp structures are stable over the entire chemical potential range. This effect can lead to the formation of a non-reactive interfacial ZrN(111) layer on the AlN(0001) surface, which can offer a good interfacial combination between AlN substrate and other metal contacts, i.e. zirconium.

  6. Salvage surgery of recurrence after laryngectomy – when should the alt free flap be modified?

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Adam; Krakowczyk, ?ukasz; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgo?, Janusz; Grajek, Maciej; Dobrut, Miros?aw; Szumniak, Ryszard; J?drzejewski, Piotr; Ulczok, Rafa?; Pó?torak, Stanis?aw

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Reconstruction of the pharynx and cervical esophagus has significantly progressed in the last 2 decades. A revolution in microvascular surgery has provided numerous choices for primary restoration, or in secondary reconstructions necessary for recurrences or complications of primary surgery. The goals of reconstruction after laryngopharyngoesophagectomy are to provide continuity of the alimentary tract, to protect major blood vessels, to heal the primary wound, and to restore the swallowing and breathing functions with minimal donor site and neck morbidity and deformation. Case Report We present 3 cases with complex defects of the laryngopharynx, cervical esophagus and trachea and anterior neck skin following central neck exenteration safely reconstructed with a single anterolateral thigh flap. No postoperative complications occurred in any of the 3 cases of reconstructions, each using a single anterolateral thigh flap. Conclusions This approach significantly simplified the reconstruction, with quick recovery, short hospital stay and excellent functional and aesthetic results. PMID:22460099

  7. All ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Gage K. Schiffman M, Solomon D, Wheeler CM, Castle PE. Comparison of measurements of human papillomavirus persistence for postcolposcopic surveillance for cervical precancerous lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.

  8. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  9. Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) release, an early indicator of acute hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangping; Lin, Yuexia; Li, Zhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Qing; Liu, Yingshu; Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Jingli; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang; Gao, Li

    2014-09-01

    Three acute hepatic injury models (a CCl4-induced model, APAP-induced model and ethanol-induced model) in mice were used to study the importance of GSTA1 in acute hepatic injury by comparison with a standard enzyme marker, alanine aminotransferase (ALT). GSTA1 release was demonstrated to be an earlier and more sensitive indicator of hepatotoxicity than was ALT. Significant increases in GSTA1 were detected at 2 h after CCl4 exposure, while ALT was undetected at this time. GSTA1 was also a more sensitive indicator of hepatotoxicity than ALT after 6 h. In the APAP and ethanol models, GSTA1 was markedly increased earlier than ALT, at 2 h post exposure. The release of GSTA1 was significantly increased at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg (CCl4 model), 100 mg/kg (APAP model) and 10 ml/kg (ethanol model), the lowest exposure concentration for each model. In contrast, AST release was not statistically significant. These results suggest that GSTA1 can be detected at low concentrations during the early stages of acute hepatic injury and that GSTA1 is a more sensitive and more accurate indicator than ALT. PMID:24964013

  10. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  11. Effect of intra-arterial infusion with triolein emulsion on rabbit liver

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Woo; Park, Young Mi; Yoon, Sik; Kim, Hak Jin; Park, Do Yoon; Cho, Byung Mann; Choi, Seon Hee

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether intra-arterial infusion of triolein emulsion has biochemical and histopathologic effect on rabbit liver. METHODS: An emulsion of 0.2 mL triolein in 20 mL of saline was infused into either the hepatic arteries of nine rabbits (group 1) or the superior mesenteric arteries of 12 rabbits (group 2). Five rabbits infused with 20 mL of normal saline were used as a control group (group 3). The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured to evaluate liver function in each group just before the infusion, at 2 h, day 1, day 4, and day 7 following infusion. Each rabbit in all of the groups was infused with Evans blue on day 7 to evaluate changes in vascular permeability, and obtain the stained area of the hepatic surface. If the stained area was not available, the anteroinferior portion of the right hepatic lobe was selected. The obtained tissues were examined by light, electron and confocal microscopy. The changes in AST and ALT levels at each time point were calculated and statistically analyzed using a mixed linear model. A P value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: In group 1 (hepatic artery group), both the AST and ALT serum levels increased significantly on day 1 (P = 0.0016 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with the control group, followed by a decrease thereafter. In group 2 (portal vein group), the AST level increased on day 4 (P = 0.0095), while the ALT level increased significantly on day 1 (P < 0.0001), and decreased thereafter, as compared with the control. For the remainder of the examination days, there were no significant changes in the AST and ALT levels (P > 0.05). Only three rabbits in each group showed hepatic surface staining with the Evans blue dye. Light and electron microscopic findings showed no specific changes in the selected hepatic tissues. Confocal microscopic examination with transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling stain revealed lack of hepatocyte apoptosis in any of the groups. There were no differences in the results between group 1 and group 2. CONCLUSION: Infusion of triolein emulsion into rabbit livers revealed a minimal transient decrease of liver function, and no specific histopathologic changes. PMID:25339830

  12. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  13. Entertainment Education and Social Change The Communicative Dynamics of Social Capital&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Singhal; Michael J. Papa; Devendra Sharma; Saumya Pant; Tracy Worrell; Nithya Muthuswamy; Kim Witte

    2006-01-01

    This study explored processes of social change initiated by an entertainment education radio programme in India, Taru, which led to certain socially desirable effects in four villages in Bihar state. Data was collected primarily in the form of in-depth individual and focus group interviews, participant observation, and the design and implementation of a participatory theatre production by the respondents. We

  14. EDGEWORTH PRICE CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM THE TORONTO RETAIL GASOLINE MARKET &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL D. NOEL

    2007-01-01

    I exploit a new station-level, twelve-hourly price dataset to examine the strong retail price cycles in the Toronto gasoline market. The cycles appear similar to theoretical Edgeworth Cycles: strongly asymmetric, tall, rapid, and highly synchronous across stations. I test a series of predictions made by the theory about how firm behaviors would differentially evolve over the path of a cycle.

  15. A Nordic Nirvana? Gender, Citizenship, and Social Justice in the Nordic Welfare States&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Lister

    2009-01-01

    The Nordic model has emerged as some kind of exemplar in much center-left political debate. This overview article starts with a brief account of this political positioning and of the values underpinning the Nordic model. The main focus, however, is the extent to which the Nordic welfare states have been successful in promoting a women-friendly, gender-inclusive model of citizenship, taking

  16. The Effect of Women's Rights on Women's Welfare: Evidence from a Natural Experiment &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Pezzini

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores whether the welfare of women increased following the extension of women's rights between 1960s and 1990s. Using individual level data on life satisfaction and focusing on changes in birth control rights in twelve European countries, it shows that the extension of both abortion rights and the pill is strongly linked to an increase in life satisfaction of

  17. CO (J = 3 ? 2) observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Kitamoto, Shoko

    2014-10-01

    We present the first map of 12CO (J = 3 ? 2) and the first detection of 13CO (J = 3 ? 2) in the nearby starburst galaxy with a superwind, NGC 1808. The molecular gas is concentrated in the inner 2 kpc region of the galaxy with extended structure along the galactic bar and along the minor galactic axis. The minor-axis structure can be explained as molecular gas entrained in a galactic wind observed as a dust outflow at optical wavelengths. We have carried out a radiative transfer analysis of the excitation conditions of molecular gas in the starburst region (radius 550 pc) by using the ratios of J = 1 ? 0, J = 2 ? 1, and J = 3 ? 2 emission lines of 12CO and 13CO, and the large velocity gradient approximation. The beam-averaged density and kinetic temperature of molecular gas can be fitted at n H2 ? 103.5 cm-3 and Tk ? 35 K, indicating the presence of warm molecular gas, close to the estimated dust temperature of Td ? 34-37 K. The abundance ratio of the CO isotopologues is found to be [12CO]/[13CO] ? 34. The calculations show that, for the derived physical parameters, J = 2 ? 1 and J = 3 ? 2 transitions of 12CO are optically thick, 12CO J = 1 ? 0 is moderately optically thick, and all transitions of 13CO are optically thin. We have estimated an average CO-H2 conversion factor of XCO ? 0.8 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 in the central 550 pc by using a simple theoretical model assuming homogeneous, gravitationally bound gas clouds with turbulent velocities. In the same region the molecular gas mass is 3.0 × 108 M? available to fuel the nuclear starburst.

  18. TARGETED ADVERTISING: THE ROLE OF SUBSCRIBER CHARACTERISTICS IN MEDIA MARKETS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMBARISH CHANDRA

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the importance of targeted advertising in media markets. Using zip-code level circulation for U.S. newspapers, I show that newspapers facing more competition have lower circulation prices but higher advertising prices than similar newspapers facing little or no competition. I explain this by showing that newspapers in more competitive markets are better able to segment readers

  19. Stewardship vs. Stagnation: An Empirical Comparison of Small Family and Non-Family Businesses &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Miller; Isabelle Le Breton-Miller; Barry Scholnick

    2008-01-01

    abstract? Two major perspectives can be construed in the literature concerning the nature of family owned businesses (FOBs). The first implies that these enterprises have unique characteristics of stewardship. FOB owners are said to care deeply about the long-term prospects of the business, in large part because their family's fortune, reputation and future are at stake. Their stewardship is said

  20. Water Supply Security and Willingness to Pay to Avoid Drought Restrictions &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID HENSHER; NINA SHORE; KENNETH TRAIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies Canberra households' and businesses' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid drought water restrictions, using stated choice experiments. We find that customers evidence a lack of WTP to avoid most types of drought-induced restrictions. Respondents appear unwilling to pay to avoid low-level restrictions at all and to avoid higher levels of restrictions that are not in place every

  1. What Have we Learnt about Monetary Integration since the Maastricht Treaty? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL DE GRAUWE

    2006-01-01

    AbstractThe present governance of the euro area has been devised assuming that the world fits the monetarist-real-business-cycle theory. But that theory is not a correct representation of the world. The European monetary union is a remarkable achievement, but remains fragile because of the absence of a sufficient degree of political union.

  2. A Wider Europe? The View from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN WHITE; JULIA KOROSTELEVA; IAN MCALLISTER

    2008-01-01

    AbstractOn the evidence of national surveys conducted between 2000 and 2006, there is a declining sense of European self-identity in the three Slavic post-Soviet republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Attitudes towards the European Union and the possibility of membership are broadly supportive, but with a substantial proportion who find it difficult to express a view, and substantial proportions are

  3. Natural Endowments, Production Technologies and the Quality of Wines in Bordeaux. Does Terroir Matter? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Gergaud; Victor Ginsburgh

    2008-01-01

    We study whether quality assessments made by wine experts and by consumers (based on prices obtained at auction between 1980 and 1992) can be explained by variables describing endowments (land characteristics, exposures of vineyards) and technologies (from grape varieties and picking, to bottled wines). However, since technological choices are likely to depend on endowments, the effects can only be identified

  4. Stochastic wealth dynamics and risk management among a poor population &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis J. Lybbert; Christopher B. Barrett; Solomon Desta; D. Layne Coppock

    2004-01-01

    We use herd history data collected among pastoralists in southern Ethiopia to study stochastic wealth dynamics among a poor population. Although covariate rainfall shocks plainly matter, household-specific factors, including own herd size, account for most observed variability in wealth dynamics. We find no support for the tragedy of the commons hypothesis. Past studies may have conflated costly self-insurance with stocking

  5. FIRE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON: A SPATIALLY EXPLICIT MODEL FOR POLICY IMPACT ANALYSIS&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Y. Arima; Cynthia S. Simmons; Robert T. Walker; Mark A. Cochrane

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?This article implements a spatially explicit model to estimate the probability of forest and agricultural fires in the Brazilian Amazon. We innovate by using variables that reflect farm-gate prices of beef and soy, and also provide a conceptual model of field management and deforestation fires to simulate the impact of road-paving, cattle exports, and conservation area designation on the occurrence

  6. Remarks by NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver Annual FAA AST Space Transportation Conference

    E-print Network

    across the Solar System. Space tourism is a catalyst that has sparked a whole new industry of passenger to the private sector, its organizational structure, business culture, and management processes ... must in the world, behind Russia, Europe, and Ukraine. We are in danger of falling further behind, as the Indians

  7. Are Older Workers Less Productive? A Case Study of Aged Care Workers in Australia &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHANG WEI; SUE RICHARDSON

    2010-01-01

    Employers are reluctant to employ older workers. Is this because they are less productive than equivalent younger workers? This paper uses data from a 2007 census of residential aged care homes in Australia to examine the productivity differentials of workers at different ages. We estimate production functions that take into account the age profile of the workforce in each aged

  8. Energy Prices and the Adoption of Energy-Saving Technology &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Linn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the link between factor prices, technology and factor demands. Using plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures, I compare the energy intensity of entrants and incumbents from 1967–97. A 10% increase in the price of energy reduces the relative energy intensity of entrants by 1%. The estimate implies that technology adoption by incumbents explains a statistically significant

  9. FOREIGN CAPITAL INFLOW, FISCAL POLICIES AND INCIDENCE OF CHILD LABOUR IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARBAJIT CHAUDHURI; JAYANTA KUMAR DWIBEDI

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the incidence of child labour taken as a whole has declined in the developing countries with economic growth due to foreign capital. But, in some high-growth-prone areas, the problem has been on the rise. A pertinent question is why liberalized investment policies have produced dissimilar results in different cases. The present paper is intended to provide

  10. The Evolution of Health Insurance in the United States&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E Compton; Neil Schlackman

    1998-01-01

    Aetna Chairman Ronald E. Compton and Dr. Neil Schlackman, senior medical director for Aetna U.S. Healthcare, provide an overview of the continuing evolution in the U.S. health insurance market, the growing dominance of managed care and the many ways in which managed care can and does enhance the quality of care while controlling costs.Managed care is an organized system of

  11. PILL, PATCH, OR SHOT? SUBJECTIVE EXPECTATIONS AND BIRTH CONTROL CHOICE &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeline Delavande

    2008-01-01

    When choosing a contraception method, women base their decisions on their subjective expectations about the realizations of method-related outcomes. Examples of outcomes include getting pregnant and contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). I combine innovative data on probabilistic expectations with observed contraceptive choices to estimate a random utility model of birth control choice. The availability of expectations data is essential

  12. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0307830.

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Eric L. N.

    ).COMPARISON WITH OTHER WORK Song, Bessell, & Zuckerman (2002) observed another binary system in the BPMG, HIP Myr old) and nearby (10­50 pc; Zuckerman & Song 2001) making it ideal to test models of pre- main., Dufour, E., & Forestini, M. 2000, A&A, 358, 593 Song, I., Bessell, M.S., & Zuckerman, B. 2002, ApJ, 581

  13. ASPIRATION LEVEL, PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE, AND EXPECTED UTILITY &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Diecidue; Jeroen van de Ven

    2008-01-01

    Aspiration levels are a relevant aspect of decision making. We develop a model that includes the overall probabilities of success and failure relative to the aspiration level into an expected utility representation. This turns out to be equivalent to expected utility with a discontinuous utility function. We give a behavioral foundation to the proposed model and provide conditions to determine

  14. International Migration, Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants’ Exchange Rate Shocks &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Yang

    2008-01-01

    How do households respond to overseas members’ economic shocks? Overseas Filipinos in dozens of countries experienced sudden, heterogeneous changes in exchange rates during the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Appreciation of a migrant's currency against the Philippine peso leads to increases in household remittances from overseas. The estimated elasticity of Philippine-peso remittances with respect to the exchange rate is 0.60. Positive

  15. Political Interests and the Emergence of Commercial Banking in Transition Economies &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Tihanyi; W. Harvey Hegarty

    2007-01-01

    abstract? This paper examines how interactions between government agencies and banking organizations led to the emergence of commercial banking in the Czech Republic and Hungary during the 1990s. We rely on interviews with bank managers at six large banks, government officers, and experts at other organizations to learn how actions based on different political ideologies shaped the banking field. We

  16. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...vehicle proposed to launch from the California Spaceport is the Athena III, consisting of a two-stage Castor 120 solid-propellant rocket motor with the addition of up to six Castor IVA or Castor IVXL rocket motors strapped to the first stage. The...

  17. ARGOS seminar on intersections of modular correspondences, Ast'erisque 312 (2007) ### (5)

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Shin

    2007-01-01

    =Qp # #####, ## ss = ssK , ### Fq L=K # ####, ###### e = e(L=K) Os := OK + sssOL # OL ###, conductor=s # order-aigebra ##### ~ : L ! D # fix ##. OK -linear map r~ : OL_~__//OD = Endk(G)Lie//_k #### OL~|| fflffl|~ fflffl| OL _____//OD

  18. The Interaction of Human and Physical Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Grier

    2005-01-01

    SummaryIn this paper, a simultaneous model of the evolution of human and physical capital in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated. It can be shown that the two types of capital are jointly endogenous, in that increases in human capital significantly raise the per-worker physical capital stock, and increases in the physical capital significantly raise primary education levels. Unlike the implications of

  19. Outside Offers And The Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence From the UK Academic Labour Market &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Blackaby; Alison L Booth; Jeff Frank

    2005-01-01

    Using a unique data source on academic economist labour market experiences, we explore gender, pay and promotions. In addition to earnings and productivity measures, we have information on outside offers and perceptions of discrimination. We find both a gender promotions gap and a within-rank gender pay gap. A driving factor may be outside offers: men receive more outside offers than

  20. The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Maluccio; John Hoddinott; Jere R. Behrman; Reynaldo Martorell; Agnes R. Quisumbing; Aryeh D. Stein

    2009-01-01

    Using a longitudinal survey from rural Guatemala, we examine the effect of an early childhood nutritional intervention on adult educational outcomes. An intent-to-treat model yields substantial effects of an experimental intervention that provided highly nutritious food supplements to children, a quarter century after it ended: increases of 1.2 grades completed for women and one quarter SD on standardised reading comprehension

  1. The Decision Maker Matters: Individual Versus Group Behaviour in Experimental Beauty-Contest Games &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. Kocher; Matthias Sutter

    2005-01-01

    Economics has devoted little attention to whether the type of decision maker matters for economic decisions. However, many important decisions like those on monetary policy or a company's business strategy are made by (small) groups rather than an individual. We compare behaviour of individuals and small groups in an experimental beauty-contest game. Our findings suggest that groups are not smarter

  2. Weak Identification of Forward-looking Models in Monetary Economics &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophocles Mavroeidis

    2004-01-01

    AbstractRecently, single-equation estimation by the generalized method of moments (GMM) has become popular in the monetary economics literature, for estimating forward-looking models with rational expectations. We discuss a method for analysing the empirical identification of such models that exploits their dynamic structure and the assumption of rational expectations. This allows us to judge the reliability of the resulting GMM estimation

  3. Sin City? Why is the Divorce Rate Higher in Urban Areas? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter A. Gautier; Michael Svarer; Coen N. Teulings

    2009-01-01

    AbstractDivorce rates are higher in cities. Based on Danish register data, this paper shows that of the marriages formed in the city, those couples who remain in the city have a 23% higher divorce rate than those who move out. In this paper, we test whether this observation is due to sorting of more stable marriages into rural areas or

  4. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  5. Tropic Trust Versus Nordic Trust: Experimental Evidence From Tanzania And Sweden &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håkan J. Holm; Anders Danielson

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduates in Tanzania and Sweden participated in one Trust game, one Dictator game, and answered a standard set of survey questions relating to trust. In both countries we detected a strong and significant relation between Dictator donations and proportions returned in Trust games, indicating that unconditional distribution preferences matter in Trust game behaviour. In Sweden incentive compatible evaluations of unrevealed

  6. Modelling Different Types of Bundled Automobile Insurance Choice Behaviour: The Case of Taiwan&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Jyh Wang; Chieh-Hua Wen; Lawrence W Lan

    2010-01-01

    Automobile insurance policies (AIPs) are typically offered by the insurers in different bundled formats and some of which may be highly similar. This study proposes a two-component modelling system, which consists of choice of physical damage coverage and choice of non-physical damage coverage. Both multinomial logit (MNL) and paired combinatorial logit (PCL) models are attempted to explain the choice behaviours

  7. Interest Costs and the Optimal Maturity Structure Of Government Debt &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Nosbusch

    2008-01-01

    The government faces a trade-off between the benefits of tax smoothing and an associated increase in expected interest costs when choosing its optimal debt portfolio. The article solves for optimal policies in an incomplete markets model where the government uses two debt instruments, long-term and short-term non-contingent, nominal bonds. In this setup the basic prescription is to borrow long and

  8. Rethinking Risk Management: The Combination of Financial and Industrial Risk&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurgen Zech

    2001-01-01

    At the dawn of the new millennium, risk management is taking a different route. International corporations as well as (re-)insurance companies are increasingly turning their focus to shareholder value and the optimization of their company's value, based primarily on return on capital and the stability and growth of future earnings. The industrial insurance market has experienced a transition from regulated

  9. THE IMPACT OF OIL PRICE SHOCKS ON THE U.S. STOCK MARKET &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Kilian

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the reaction of U.S. real stock returns to an oil price shock differs greatly depending on whether the change in the price of oil is driven by demand or supply shocks in the oil market. The demand and supply shocks driving the global crude oil market jointly account for 22% of the long-run variation in U.S.

  10. MARKET POWER, VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND THE WHOLESALE PRICE OF GASOLINE &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUSTINE S. HASTINGS; RICHARD J. GILBERT

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the relationship between vertical integration and wholesale gasoline prices. We use discrete and differential changes in the extent of vertical integration generated by mergers in West Coast gasoline refining and retailing markets to test for incentives to raise rivals' costs. The research design allows us to test for a relationship between vertical integration and wholesale prices,

  11. Differences in Entrepreneurial Opportunities: The Role of Tacitness and Codification in Opportunity Identification &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett R. Smith; Charles H. Matthews; Mark T. Schenkel

    2009-01-01

    The role of opportunities in the entrepreneurial process remains relatively underdeveloped. To address this issue, we develop a definition of an entrepreneurial opportunity and draw upon a distinction from the domain of knowledge management to suggest a continuum of entrepreneurial opportunities ranging from codified to tacit. Though both traditional and contemporary research has examined how individual differences relate to the

  12. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) The distribution of stars THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ) The distribution of stars SURFACE BRIGHTNESS Astronomical unit: 1µ = 1m / " Night sky: 22µ Night sky in city: 18µ Daytime sky: -8µ Solar disk: -13µ Physical unit: I intensity energy/time/area/solid angle [W/m2 /sr the number of stars / in a given direction. Then, with large enough telescope, N d where d is the distance

  13. Two-dimensional froths and the dynamics of biological tissues B. Dubertret,* T. Aste,

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    the possible cell configurations can be explored by mitosis and disappearance. Cell mitosis and disappearance by mitosis or disappearance, but its averaged value s 6 is fixed throughout the evolu- tion of the tissue

  14. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement, indicating that separate reference intervals should be established for serum and plasma. Finally, storage of these enzymes at -70 degrees C for 1 mo resulted in up to a 25% decrease in enzymatic activity in manatee plasma. PMID:18634208

  15. Effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    SONG, YING-MING; LIAN, CHANG-HONG; WU, CHENG-SONG; JI, AI-FANG; XIANG, JUAN-JUAN; WANG, XIAO-YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis. BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Then, the labeled BMSCs were injected into rats with liver injury via the portal vein or tail vein. Two weeks after transplantation, three rats in each group were sacrificed to test the distribution of GFP in the liver and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Six weeks later, the remaining rats were sacrificed, and serum ALT, AST, albumin, hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and procollagen type III (PC-III) levels were measured. The expression of albumin in the liver was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Two weeks after BMSC transplantation, GFP-positive cells were detected in the livers of rats with BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein. Compared with pre-transplantation levels, the ALT levels of the groups with BMSC transplantation via the portal vein and tail vein were significantly decreased after two and six weeks of BMSC transplantation (P<0.05), whereas the AST and albumin levels were not significantly different at two weeks after BMSC transplantation in the two groups (all P>0.05). However, the AST and albumin levels were significantly reduced at six weeks after BMSC transplantation (all P<0.05). At six weeks after BMSC transplantation, the serum HA, LN and PC-III levels in rats transplanted with BMSCs via the portal vein or tail vein had decreased significantly (all P<0.05), as compared with the levels prior to BMSC transplantation. BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein achieved similar improvements in liver function in rats with liver cirrhosis, which suggests that peripheral venous administration is a convenient and effective route for BMSC transplantation. PMID:25780424

  16. Liver function alterations after laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Gui-Ae; Cho, Gyu-Seok; Shin, Eung-Jin; Lee, Moon-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Song, Ok-Pyung

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the factors associated with liver function alterations after laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) for gastric cancer. METHODS: We collected the data of gastrectomy patients with gastric cancer and divided them into 2 groups: open gastrectomy (OG) and LAG. We also collected the data of patients with colon cancer to evaluate the effect of liver manipulations during surgery on liver function alterations. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase were measured on the preoperative day and postoperative day 1 (POD1), POD3, POD5, and POD7. RESULTS: No changes in liver function were observed after the operation in patients with colon cancer (n = 121). However, in gastric cancer patients (n = 215), AST and ALT levels increased until POD5 compared to those in colon cancer patients and these findings were observed both in the LAG and OG without a significant difference except at POD1. The mean hepatic enzyme levels at POD1 in the LAG group were significantly higher than those in the OG group (P = 0.047 for AST and P = 0.039 for ALT). The factors associated with elevated ALT on POD1 in patients with gastric cancer were body mass index (P < 0.001), operation time (P < 0.001), intraoperative hepatic injury (P = 0.048), and ligation of an aberrant left hepatic artery (P = 0.052) but not type of operation (OG vs LAG, P = 0.094). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the liver function alteration after LAG may have been caused by direct liver manipulation or aberrant hepatic artery ligation rather than the CO2 pneumoperitoneum. PMID:21253398

  17. Laboratory utilization improvement through a computer-aided algorithm developed with general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Asencio, Alberto; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lugo, Javier; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Background: One of the main duties of healthcare workers is to get an appropriate use of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The aim of this study was to show how strategies can be designed and established in consensus with general practitioners (GPs) to reach an optimal laboratory test request. Methods: The laboratory serves a population of approximately 235,000 inhabitants, including nine primary care centers. GPs could request every test in profiles and individually. In meetings between the laboratory and GPs our request patterns were compared to other geographic regions, and we investigated the appropriateness of test requesting. The group devised strategies that consisted of removing tests from profiles [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and phosphate], removing tests from GPs requests (iron and transferrin), substituting tests (IgA antigliadin antibody), and measuring total bilirubin (tBil) only when the icteric index value was above 34.2 mmol/L (2 mg/dL). We analyzed every test request in the post- (years 2012-2013) and pre-intervention period (years 2010-2011), and the tBil measured in the post-intervention period. We studied if AST/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and GGT/ALT achieved indicators targets and calculated the economic savings in the post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant drop in every test request in the post-intervention period. AST/ALT achieved the indicator target. GGT/ALT, never achieved the indicator goal. The strategies resulted in a savings of more than €34,000. Conclusions: The strategies designed between the laboratory and the requesting clinicians and automatically established by using our laboratory information system were successful. PMID:25460286

  18. Academic Board Special Meeting 7 February 2014: Minutes ACADEMIC BOARD

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    (Alt); Dr Pammer (Alt); Professor Kirk; Professor Taylor; Dr Greig; Associate Professor Ferris; Dr Hall (Alt); Associate Professor Goode (Alt); Dr Coleman (Alt); Mr Russell; Professor Cuevas; Associate

  19. Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Sample of Iranian Adult Population: Age is a Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Rogha, Mehran; Najafi, Nazila; Azari, Azadeh; Kaji, Mahboubeh; Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Rajabi, Fereshteh; Rezaee, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a cause of cirrhosis. Detecting its preventable causes could be useful in decreasing the disease and its complications. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of NASH in adult population living in Isfahan city as a sample of Iranian population. Methods: Blood samples of 2030 individuals referring to Dr. Shariati Hospital for routine health checkup were collected. All individuals with high liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or Alanine aminotransferease (ALT)] were included in the study. Known causes of altered liver enzymes were excluded. Second blood samples were obtained 6 months later and those cases with persistent enzyme elevation were surveyed with ultrasonography. Results: In the first survey, 234 individuals (11.5 %) had ALT levels of more than 40 U/L. By rechecking samples after 6 months, 50% of all high serum ALT individuals remained at high level. After conducting complementary biochemical tests, 3.3% of the population was considered to have NASH; 20% of NASH cases did not have any abnormal findings in ultrasonography. Hypercholesterolemia was the most coexisting risk factor in NASH cases. We found a reverse correlation between ALT level and age (P = 0.02). Conclusions: The prevalence of NASH was comparable with other countries. According to the significantl correlation between ALT level and age, preventive interactions in younger individuals would decrease the incidence of NASH. PMID:21448401

  20. Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpenia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumalatha, Suhani; Pai, K Shridhar R; Kumar, Nitesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity is one of the inevitable side effects of long term use of medicines in many different disorders, chronic use of alcohol and in certain infectious disorders. Even though there are few effective drugs to treat such hepatotoxicity, mortality due to hepatotoxicity is increasing day by day. Therefore, in search of alternative and more effective medicine we found that Caesalpenia bonduc (CB), a shrub grows in hotter places of south Asia has been effectively used to treat such hepatotoxicity in folk medicine. Aim: Aim of the study is to scientifically evaluate the hepatoprotective nature of aqueous extract of CB using Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxic rat model. Materials and Methods and Result: Elevated levels of blood ALT, AST and ALT enzymes were found in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rat models. Treating these animals with CB either prior or after the induction of hepatotoxicity, shows significant decrease in the levels of ALP, AST, and ALT in their blood in comparison with the untreated hepatotoxic group. Additionally, histologically, hepatotoxic rats show necrotic changes & vacuolation in their hepatocytes, altered hepatic architecture and congested hepatic sinusoids. However, such histopathological adverse changes were minimized when these animals treated with CB. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that CB acts as both preventive and curative hepatoprotector PMID:25584245

  1. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal A.; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130–190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy. PMID:19918318

  2. Preconditioning somatothermal stimulation on Qimen (LR14) reduces hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human beings or animals, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the liver may occur in many clinical conditions, such as circulating shock, liver transplantation and surgery and several other pathological conditions. I/R injury has a complex pathophysiology resulting from a number of contributing factors. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve effective treatment or protection by individually targeting the mediators. This study aimed at studying the effects of local somatothermal stimulation preconditioning on the right Qimen (LR14) on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats were preconditioned with thermal tolerance study, which included one dose of local somatothermal stimulation (LSTS) on right Qimen (LR14) at an interval of 12 h, followed by hepatic ischemia for 60 min and then reperfusion for 60 min. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have been used to assess the liver functions, and liver tissues were taken for the measurements such as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Results The results show that the plasma ALT and AST activities were higher in the I/R group than in the control group. In addition, the plasma ALT and AST activities decreased in the groups that received LSTS. The hepatic SOD levels reduced significantly by I/R injury. Moreover, the hepatic MPO activity significantly increased by I/R injury while it decreased in the groups given LSTS. Conclusions Our findings show that LSTS provides a protective effects on the liver from the I/R injury. Therefore, LSTS might offer an easy and inexpensive intervention for patients who have suffered from I/R of the liver especially in the process of hepatotomy and hepatic transplantation. PMID:24417801

  3. Splenic transposition is superior to caudal shunt as a model of murine total hepatic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tadashi; Efron, Philip A; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Tschoeke, Sven K; Ungaro, Ricardo; Fujita, Shiro; Foley, David P; Hemming, Alan; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2005-01-01

    Murine total hepatic ischemia (THI) followed by reperfusion without shunting of the portal vein induces significant lethality in rodents due to intestinal congestion. Two methods have been promulgated to study THI and reperfusion in mice without intestinal congestion: subcutaneous splenic transposition which creates a portosystemic shunt via epigastric vessels, and a caudal shunt with 30% hepatectomy, which creates a portosystemic shunt via the small remnant of remaining caudal lobe. We compared outcome, inflammatory response and hepatic injury due to THI and reperfusion in these two models. Female C57BL/6 mice underwent ST, caudal shunt or no surgery prior to having 30 min of total hepatic ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Survival, surgical complications, serum AST/ALT and IL-6 were determined. Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes were identified by morphological criteria. Complication rates for the ST and caudal shunt procedures were 6.7 and 20%, respectively. Subsequent mortality rates following THI and 60 min reperfusion were 5.9 and 50% in mice with ST and caudal shunt, respectively. Both groups had elevated serum AST/ALT concentrations. However, in mice undergoing caudal shunt, AST/ALT levels were also significantly increased even without THI. The number of apoptotic hepatocytes after THI and reperfusion in mice following caudal shunt was significantly higher compared with those of ST (P<0.001). Both ST and caudal shunt can be used in models of THI and reperfusion to prevent significant lethality due to intestinal congestion. However, ST is a simple, safe and suitable model, whereas caudal shunt requires manipulation of the liver, and is associated with significant hepatic injury and morbidity. PMID:15558060

  4. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and other markers of high alcohol consumption: a study of 502 patients admitted consecutively to a medical department.

    PubMed

    Bell, H; Tallaksen, C M; Try, K; Haug, E

    1994-10-01

    An isoform of transferrin, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is increased in a high percentage of abusing alcoholics and has been found superior in its specificity compared with other biological markers. We used serum CDT as a screening parameter in 502 patients consecutively admitted to our medical department during a 4-week period. The intake of ethanol during the last 4 weeks was registrated by personal interviews and the mean daily consumption calculated. Serum CDT was measured at admission (CDTect) and compared with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), AST, ALT, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Serum CDT detected 18 of 26 (69%) patients who consumed > 50 g ethanol daily. The clinical sensitivity of CDT of detection ethanol consumption > 50 g daily was 69%, compared with 73%, 50%, 35%, and 52% for increased values of GGT, AST, ALT, and MCV, respectively. Altogether, 38 of 476 patients (8%) with a daily ethanol consumption < 50 g also had increased serum CDT levels. The specificity of CDT was 92%, compared with 75%, 82%, 86%, and 85% for GGT, AST, ALT, and MCV, respectively. In the 60 patients who consumed > 10 g ethanol daily, we found a significantly positive correlation between CDT and ethanol consumption (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). A positive correlation was also found between serum transferrin and CDT (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the specificity of CDT is much higher compared with GGT in detecting alcohol abuse. Some acute and chronic illnesses may increase the serum level of CDT. False-positive CDT levels may be caused by changes in serum transferrin concentration. PMID:7847591

  5. Temporal changes in hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities after ischemia and reperfusion in a rat liver ischemia model: effect of dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, S A; Abdelkafi, S; Jbahi, S; van Pelt, J; El-Feki, A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that administration of tilapia fish oil diet would attenuate warm liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and whether fish oil modulates prooxidant/antioxidant status. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of approximately 70% hepatic ischemia followed by 1, 12, and 24 h reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (SO), control-warm hepatic ischemia (WI) group, and Oil-WI group given tilapia oil for 3 weeks followed by liver IRI. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured in the plasma. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in liver fractions. In the sham group, there was no enzymatic or histological change. I/R caused significant increase in serum AST, ALT, and tissue TBARS levels. As compared to the control group, animals treated with tilapia oil experienced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in AST and ALT levels in reperfusion periods. Tissue TBARS levels in Oil-WI group were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced as compared to control group at 60 min after reperfusion. After ischemia, 1, 12, and 24 h of reperfusion, CAT, SOD, and GPx values were the lowest in the Oil-WI group and highest in the control group and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Histological analysis also revealed that fish oil provided some protection compared with the control group. Tilapia oil exerts a protective effect during the early phase of reperfusion, and it modulates prooxidant/antioxidant status of rat liver subjected to warm IRI. PMID:24939873

  6. Serum biochemical changes in rabbits on a regular diet with and without flax lignan complex following a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kailash

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flax lignan complex (FLC) isolated from flaxseed suppresses development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. It does not produce regression of atherosclerosis, but prevents its regular diet-induced acceleration following a high-cholesterol diet. It is not known if replacement of a high-cholesterol diet with a regular diet has deleterious effects on body organs. OBJECTIVES: To determine if short-term use of a high-cholesterol diet, and a regular diet with or without FLC following the high-cholesterol diet, have any adverse effects on serum electrolytes, glucose and enzymes related to the liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle and intestines. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from the rabbits before and at various intervals during the high-cholesterol diet, and while on the regular diet with or without FLC, following the high-cholesterol diet. Measurements of serum total cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), albumin, creatinine, electrolytes (sodium [Na], potassium [K], chloride [Cl]) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken. RESULTS: The high-cholesterol diet produced hypercholesterolemia, which was associated with reductions in serum glucose and no significant changes in serum Na, K, Cl, CO2, ALT, ALP, AST, GGT, albumin or creatinine. Regular diet with or without FLC, following the high-cholesterol diet, reduced serum total cholesterol and glucose, increased serum Na, Cl and creatinine, but produced no significant alterations in serum K, CO2, ALT, AST, GGT or albumin. FLC reduced serum ALP, but regular diet produced no significant change. CONCLUSION: Short-term use of a high-cholesterol diet, or a regular diet with or without FLC following the high-cholesterol diet, does not produce deleterious effects in the liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle, intestine or bone, as shown by changes in serum electrolytes, glucose and enzymes. PMID:22477368

  7. Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHI-BIN; LI, QING; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; SUN, XIAO-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson’s staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

  8. Carnosine and taurine treatments decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by D-galactose in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaz, Esra Betül; Çoban, Jale; Ayd?n, A Fatih; Do?an-Ekici, I??n; Do?ru-Abbaso?lu, Semra; Öztezcan, Serdar; Uysal, Müjdat

    2014-03-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of carnosine (CAR) or taurine (TAU), having antioxidant effects, on hepatic injury and oxidative stress in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days/week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days/week) or TAU (2.5 % w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-0050x), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined. Hepatic expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Ki-67 were evaluated. Serum ALT, AST, hepatic MDA, and PC levels were observed to increase in GAL-treated rats. Hepatic Bax expression, but not Bcl-2, increased, Ki-67 expression decreased. GAL treatment caused decreases in GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD, but not GSH-Px, also diminished. CAR or TAU treatments caused significant decreases in serum ALT and AST activities. These treatments decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation and ameliorated histopathological findings in the livers of GAL-treated rats. Both CAR and TAU reduced MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px (non significant in TAU?+?GAL group) activities. These treatments did not alter hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU restored liver prooxidant status together with histopathological amelioration in GAL-induced liver damage. PMID:23872881

  9. Predicting Clinical Outcomes Using Baseline and Follow-up Laboratory Data From The Hepatitis C Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghany, Marc G.; Kim, Hae-Young; Stoddard, Anne; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Lok, Anna S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C is challenging. We used the HALT-C Trial database to develop two models, using baseline values of routinely available laboratory tests together with changes in these values during follow-up to predict clinical decompensation and liver-related death/liver transplant in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Methods Patients randomized to no treatment and who had ?2 year follow-up without a clinical outcome were included in the analysis. Four variables (platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, total bilirubin and albumin) with three categories of change (stable, mild or severe) over two years were analyzed. Cumulative incidence of clinical outcome was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome. Results 470 patients with 60 events were used to develop models to predict clinical decompensation. Baseline values of all four variables were predictive of decompensation. There was a general trend of increasing outcomes with more marked worsening of laboratory values over 2 years, particularly for patients with abnormal baseline values. A model that included baseline platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, bilirubin and severe worsening of platelet count, bilirubin and albumin was the best predictor of clinical decompensation. 483 patients with 79 events were used to evaluate predictors of liver-related death or liver transplant. A model that included baseline platelet count and albumin as well as severe worsening of AST/ALT ratio and albumin was the best predictor of liver-related outcomes. Conclusion Both the baseline value and the rapidity in change of the value of routine laboratory variables were shown to be important in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22045670

  10. Liver iron overload induced by tamoxifen in diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jatobá, Carlos André Nunes; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; de Paiva Rodrigues, Sarah Jane; de Almeida Câmara, Maria Margareth; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Freire-Neto, Francisco; da Rocha, Luiz Reginaldo Menezes; da Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Brandão-Neto, José; de Carvalho Formiga, Maria Célia; de Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2008-04-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a drug used in the treatment of breast cancer, may cause hepatic changes in some patients. The consequences of its use on the liver tissues of rats with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between plasma hepatic enzyme levels and the presence of iron overload in the hepatic tissue of female Wistar rats with or without streptozotocin-induced DM and using TX. Female rats were studied in control groups: C-0 (non-drug users), C-V (sorbitol vehicle only) and C-TX (using TX). DM (diabetic non-drug users) and DM-TX (diabetics using TX) were the test groups. Sixty days after induced DM, blood samples were collected for glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin measures. Hepatic fragments were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Perls. The hepatic iron content was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. AST, ALT and ALP levels were significantly elevated in the DM and DM-TX groups, with unchanged bilirubin levels. Liver iron overload using Perls stain and atomic absorption spectrometry were observed exclusively in groups C-TX and DM-TX. There was positive correlation between AST, ALT and ALP levels and microscopic hepatic siderosis intensity in group DM-TX. In conclusion, TX administration is associated with liver siderosis in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In addition, TX induced liver iron overload with unaltered hepatic function in non-diabetic rats and may be a useful tool for investigating the biological control of iron metabolism. PMID:17636394

  11. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

  12. Anti-carcinogenic potential of Euphorbia neriifolia leaves and isolated flavonoid against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Pracheta

    2013-12-01

    Anti-carcinogenic potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (EN) leaves and an isolated flavonoid (ENF) was investigated against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice. Experimental mice were pretreated with 150 and 400 mg/kg body wt of EN, 0.5% and 1% mg/kg body wt of butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) as a standard antioxidant and 50 mg/kg body wt of ENF for 21 days prior to the administration of a single dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of DENA. Levels of renal markers (urea and creatinine), xenobiotic metabolic enzymes (Cyt P450 and Cyt b5), lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH) and other biochemical parameters--AST, ALT, ALP, total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured to determine the renal carcinogenesis caused by DENA. DENA administration significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the body weight and increased the tissue weight. It significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced the levels of Cyt P450, Cyt b5 and LPO and decreased the levels of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH content. The activities of AST, ALT and ALP and the TP content and renal markers were also significantly decreased (p < 0.001), while TC level was markedly increased after DENA administration, as compared with the normal control group (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with EN and ENF counteracted DENA-induced oxidative stress (LPO) and exerted its protective effects by restoring the levels of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, TP and TC), renal markers (urea and creatinine) and xenobiotic enzymes (Cyt P450 and Cyt b5) in renal tissue. In conclusion, the present study showed significant anti-carcinogenic potential of the hydro-ethanolic extract of E. neriifolia and ENF against DENA-induced renal carcinogenicity. PMID:24772977

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  14. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

  15. Chi'08 alt.chi \\/ do we bump into things more while speaking on a cell phone?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noam Tractinsky; David Shinar

    2008-01-01

    We observed more than 8,800 cases of people passing by an obstacle that was placed at different heights at the entrance to a university cafeteria. Of those cases, 491 were of pedestrians speaking on a cell phone. Overall, 2,422 bumping cases were recorded. Using a cell phone while walking did not increase the risk of bumping into protruding obstacles. The

  16. Quantitation of the major fungal allergens, Alt a 1 and Asp f 1, in commercial allergenic products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Vailes; Susheela Sridhara; Oliver Cromwell; Bernhard Weber; Michael Breitenbach; Martin Chapman

    2001-01-01

    Background:Alternaria is one of the most important fungi associated with allergic disease, whereas Aspergillus fumigatus is involved in a broad spectrum of pulmonary diseases. Currently, fungal extracts used for diagnosis in the United States are unstandardized, and their allergenic content cannot be compared directly. Objective: The goal of this study was to compare the variability of major allergen levels among

  17. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  18. Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

  19. Preliminary temperature accelerated life test (ALT) on lattice mismatched triple-junction concentrator solar cells-on-carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Vincenzo; Espinet, Pilar; Nuñez, Neftalí; Eltermann, Fabian; Contreras, Yedileth; Bautista, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel; Bett, Andreas W.; Algora, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on concentrator lattice mismatched Ga0.37In0.63P/Ga0.83In0.17As/Ge triple-junction solar cells-on-carrier is being carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 125, 145 and 165°C and the nominal photo-current condition (500X) is emulated by injecting current in darkness. The final objective of these tests is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of these solar cells in a moderate period of time. Up to now only the test at 165°C has finished. Therefore, we cannot provide complete reliability information, but we have carried out preliminary data and failure analysis with the current results.

  20. High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)

    E-print Network

    , glass transition temperature and impact strength under both sets of experimental conditions Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA c Department in molecular weight and glass transition temperature in PEP (at a slower rate relative to PMMA), but induces

  1. Measurement of global oceanic winds from Seasat-SMMR and its comparison with Seasat-SASS and ALT derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Prem C.

    1987-01-01

    The retrieval of ocean-surface wind speed from different channel combinations of Seasat SMMR measurements is demonstrated. Wind speeds derived using the best two channel subsets (10.6 H and 18.0 V) were compared with in situ data collected during the Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) experiment and an rms difference of 1.5 m/s was found. Global maps of wind speed generated with the present algorithm show that the averaged winds are arranged in well-ordered belts.

  2. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    diesel.This can be a real benefit for spill cleanups. The quality of petroleum diesel fuel tends"(FAEE). introduction Biodiesel is a liquid fuel that is created by chemically process- ing vegetable oil and altering petroleum diesel. Some types of oil are more of a problem than others.This is a concern, especially

  3. A controlled, iterative synthesis and the electronic properties of oligo[(p-phenyleneethynylene)-alt-(2,5-siloleneethynylene)]s.

    PubMed

    Boydston, Andrew J; Yin, Youshi; Pagenkopf, Brian L

    2004-08-25

    An introductory series of conjugated siloleneethynylene co-oligomers has been prepared from a key 2-chloro-5-iodosilole intermediate via site-specific cross-coupling reactions. The tetramer (9) and pentamer (10) both exhibit absorption maxima matching those of the corresponding silole copolymers. Extinction coefficients for the oligomers in this series are large, and in the case of the pentamer (10) the value exceeds 180 000 M(-1) cm(-1). The compounds all emit in the visible region with the greatest quantum efficiencies being 8.97 x 10(-2) (monomer) and 2.99 x 10(-2) (pentamer). PMID:15315449

  4. A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Wu, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Li

    2010-12-01

    A new saponin, cristatain (1), together with four other saponins, celosin A (2), celosin B (3), celosin C (4) and celosin D (5) were isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. (Amaranthaceae). Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. For the first time, the saponins were found in C. cristata L. In addition, compound 1 exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, which were evidenced by significant decreases in the values of asparate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of serum and histopathological examinations compared to controls. PMID:20804825

  5. Changes in metabolic enzymes, cortisol and glucose concentrations of Beluga ( Huso huso ) exposed to dietary methylmercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad GharaeiMostafa Ghaffari; Mostafa Ghaffari; Saeed Keyvanshokooh; Reza Akrami

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on several blood biochemical parameters including GLU (glucose), LDH\\u000a (lactate dehydrogenase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and\\u000a cortisol were investigated in the Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). Beluga juveniles were fed for 32 days on four diets containing MeHg (control: 0.04 mg kg?1; low: 0.76 mg kg?1; medium: 7.88 mg kg?1; and high 16.22 mg kg?1 treatment). Significant

  6. The sero-prevalence of anti-adenovirus 5 neutralizing antibodies is independent of a chronic hepatitis B carrier state in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dao; Hennequi, Marie; Elvachev, Alexei; Menguy, Thierry; Silvestre, Nathalie; Yu, DeMin; Han, Yue; Inchauspé, Geneviève; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhu, Ren

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA) to human Adenovirus (Ad) 5 both in healthy subjects (HS) and Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Shanghai. Detection of anti-Ad5 NA (percentage of detection and titers) was similar between HS and CHB patients. A high percentage of subjects harbored no detectable antibodies (32.2 %) while proportion of subjects displaying very high antibody titers was low (4 %). Neither demographic factors (gender, age, health) nor AST/ALT or HBV circulating DNA titers affected detection of Ad5-specific NA. These observations pave the ground for development of Ad5-based immunotherapeutics aiming at treating CHB patients in China. PMID:25616844

  7. Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The artificial infection with Vibrio anguillarum also showed the cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extracts were about 57-80%. The present study suggested that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1-0.20% anthraquinone extracts could prevent high temperature stress and promote the growth of prawns. PMID:20219682

  8. Liver injury during acute pancreatitis: The role of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (paaf), p38MAPK, and caspase-3 in inducing hepatocyte apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yang; Adam Fier; Yvette Carter; Gouqing Liu; P. K. Epling-Burnette; Fanqi Bai; Thomas P. Loughran; Stephen Mastorides; James G. Norman; Michel M. Murr

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated that pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid contributes to hepatocyte injury during acute pancreatitis;\\u000a a phenomenon independent of ascites' enzymatic content and Kupffer cell-derived cytokines. Our aim is to characterize the\\u000a mechanisms of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid induced hepatocyte death. NIH mice were injected intraperitoneally with\\u000a pathogen-free pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid. Twenty-four hours later, serum AST, ALT, LDH, and hepatocyte apoptosis\\u000a (TUNEL)

  9. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness with elevated hepatic enzyme and liver fat in Japanese patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Mayumi; Sasaki, Haruka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2010-01-01

    No study has so far determined whether a favorable level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF) contributes to a reduced risk of elevated hepatic enzymes and a high degree of liver fat in patients having various metabolic risks. This study investigated the association between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and high liver fat, while considering such factors as abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and the other metabolic risks. The study enrolled newly diagnosed Japanese patients (n = 84; 52 males and 32 females; aged 25-69 years) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2DM) who did not receive any intervention or pharmacological therapy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the distribution of the VO2max for each sex. The odds ratios (ORs) for the prevalence of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) and high degree of liver fat adjusted for age, sex, disease type, daily ethanol intake, and current smoking were significantly lower in the moderate- and high CF groups in comparison to the low CF group. In addition, a significant OR for AST was maintained in the moderate and high CF group after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. The significant ORs for the prevalence of elevated ALT and a high degree of liver fat were attenuated after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. No significant OR for the prevalence of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was recognized in all logistic models. These results indicated that CF was negatively and independently associated with the prevalence of elevated AST even in Japanese diabetic patients having various metabolic risks. It was concluded that the AST level might be useful as a simple marker reflecting physical inactivity in such subjects. Key pointsThe prevalence of elevated AST was negatively, and strongly associated with the CF level independent of abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and the other confounders in the subjects with glucose intolerance.The association between the CF level and both an elevated ALT level and a high degree of liver fat, as defined by the L/S ratio of CT images depended on abdominal fat and/or hyperinsulinemia in the subjects with glucose intolerance.No association was recognized between CF and elevated GGT in the subjects with glucose intolerance in the subjects with glucose intolerance.Having a favorable level of CF could lead to a reduced risk of hepatic-related abnormalities even in diabetic patients having the other metabolic risks. PMID:24149634

  10. The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, ?-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001). Odds ratios (ORs) of instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ? 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ? 3 times/week to ?-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets. PMID:24284330

  11. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases: systematic review with individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic and manual searches were combined. Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. Participants Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. Main outcome measures Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Data synthesis The results of included trials were combined in meta-analyses. Sequential, subgroup and regression analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias. Results We included 12 RCTs on lixisenatide versus placebo and 3 RCTs with the active comparators liraglutide, exenatide or sitagliptin. The mean treatment duration was 29?weeks. Lixisenatide increased the proportion of patients with normalisation of ALT (risk difference: 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14; number needed to treat: 14 patients, p=0.042). The effect was not confirmed in sequential analysis. No effects of lixisenatide were identified on AST, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. No evidence of bias was identified. Mixed effect multilevel meta-regression analyses suggest that the benefit of lixisenatide on ALT was limited to patients who were overweight or obese. Conclusions This review suggests that lixisenatide increases the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. Trial registration number PROSPERO; CRD42013005779. PMID:25526792

  12. AStA Adv Stat Anal (2009) 93: 6171 DOI 10.1007/s10182-008-0092-z

    E-print Network

    Boehning, Dankmar

    .a.w.bohning@reading.ac.uk #12;62 R. Kuhnert, D. Böhning Table 1 Data from the Bangkok heroin users capture­recapture study of the n = 7048 heroin users had one treatment episode up to one case with 19 treatment episodes (f19 = 1

  13. IntroAst1 (Petrovay) Our Place in the Universe SHAPE, SIZE AND ROTATION OF THE EARTH

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    system: ­ Phases of Venus ­ Discovery of Jovian satellites (Galileo) ­ Kepler: elliptic orbits now in the Universe EARTH'S REVOLUTION AROUND THE SUN Arguments: ­ motion of inner planets (Mercury, Venus) bound

  14. Natural Hazards as the Cause of Toxic Spills in the United States, with some Notes on Liability&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela S Showalter

    1995-01-01

    Natural disasters that create technological emergencies by causing the release of dangerous materials such as oil, chemicals, or radiological\\/infectious agents are called “na-tech” events (Showalter and Myers 1992). Although there has yet to be a catastrophic na-tech event in the United States, low impact events are fairly common. An example of this occurred a few weeks ago when, during flooding

  15. Interest Rate Restrictions in a Natural Experiment: Loan Allocation and the Change in the Usury Laws in 1714 &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Temin; Hans-Joachim Voth

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of interest rate restrictions on loan allocation. In 1714, the British government tightened the usury laws, reducing the maximum permissible interest rate from 6 to 5 percent. A sample of individual loan transactions from a goldsmith bank allows us to examine how interest rate restrictions affected loan allocation. Average loan size and minimum loan size

  16. Country Size and the Gains from Trade Bloc Enlargement: an Empirical Assessment for the European Community &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Badinger; Fritz Breuss

    2006-01-01

    Modern trade theory suggests that size matters in determining the allocation of the gains from enlarging a trade bloc among its members. Casella (1996), as a prominent example, postulates that small members gain relatively more. In this paper we provide a comprehensive assessment for the case of European integration, using aggregate and sectoral trade data over the period 1960-90. The

  17. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Jorgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O. (Denmark)

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH{sub 3}OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 ({approx}85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H{sub 2}CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  18. Effects of Executive Characteristics and Venture Capital Involvement on Board Composition and Share Ownership in IPO Firms &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Filatotchev

    2006-01-01

    Combining the agency perspective, resource-based view and upper echelon research, this paper examines factors affecting board selection and share ownership in initial public offerings (IPOs). In line with socio-cognitive and behavioural research, it shows that board independence, cognitive capacity and the incentives of non-executive directors are negatively associated with the experience and power of executive directors, and that large-block share

  19. The road not taken: how psychology was removed from economics, and how it might be brought back &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigino Bruni; Robert Sugden

    2007-01-01

    This article explores parallels between the debate prompted by Pareto's reformulation of choice theory at the beginning of the twentieth century and current controversies about the status of behavioural economics. Before Pareto's reformulation, neoclassical economics was based on theoretical and experimental psychology, as behavioural economics now is. Current ‘discovered preference’ defences of rational-choice theory echo arguments made by Pareto. Both

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERT REVIEWS ON CONSUMER DEMAND FOR EXPERIENCE GOODS: A CASE STUDY OF MOVIE CRITICS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Reinstein; Christopher M. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    An inherent problem in measuring the influence of expert reviews on the demand for experience goods is that a correlation between good reviews and high demand may be spurious, induced by an underlying correlation with unobservable quality signals. Using the timing of the reviews by two popular movie critics, Siskel and Ebert, relative to opening weekend box office revenue, we

  1. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  2. INDIRECT NETWORK EFFECTS AND THE PRODUCT CYCLE: VIDEO GAMES IN THE U.S., 1994–2002 &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW T. CLEMENTS; HIROSHI OHASHI

    2005-01-01

    We examine the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective

  3. IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [152] JULY 2011 1053-5888/11/$26.002011IEEE ast October, as the world

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Thomas E.

    , as the world rejoiced at the successful res- cue of 33 miners trapped for 70 days inside Chile's San Jose mine on the attainable data rates. The maximum data rates that were generally available even at C-band (4­8 GHz) and Ku Nobel Prize in Physics. BACKGROUND In the late 1950s and thereafter, Charles Kao was an electrical

  4. Boric acid reversibly inhibits the second step of pre-mRNA splicing Noam Shomron, Gil Ast

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    (reviewed in [1]). The assembly of the spliceosome proceeds through a coordinated assembly of complexes (rep- resented by the letters E, A, B, C and I) or, alternatively, as recently reported, through a one-step, a multicomponent complex of proteins and RNA, is assembled on the newly synthesized precursor messenger RNA (pre

  5. Carbonic adsorbent AST120 retards progression of renal failure by additive effect with ACEI and protein restriction diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enyu Imai; Masaru Takenaka; Yoshitaka Isaka; Toshiki Moriyama; Yoshitaka Akagi; Jyunji Kakuchi; Takashi Fujii; Takahito Ito; Masatsugu Hori; Masaru Horio; Tatsuya Syoji; Yoshiharu Tsubakihara

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to slow the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF), a multimodal approach should be applied if the efficacy is proved. Although compelling evidence of a beneficial effect exists for the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and low-protein diets, there is little evidence on whether carbon adsorbent has an effect on retardation of the progression of CRF.

  6. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...evaluate the potential environmental impacts of adding up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors to the Atlas V launch vehicle and larger solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors on the Delta IV vehicle. The FAA participated...

  7. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors (SRMs) on the Atlas V medium lift...the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors (SRMs) would be added to the...

  8. School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Bifulco; Helen F. Ladd

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative

  9. Price Regulation in US Automobile Insurance A Case Study of Massachusetts Private Passenger Automobile Insurance 1978–1990&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A Derrig

    1993-01-01

    This short note highlights price regulation in the United States Personal Automobile Market by reviewing the results of the most highly-regulated U. S. market, the fix-and-establish system in Massachusetts during 1978 to 1990. Financial outcomes of the state-run market are shown. Effects of pricing policy on the size of the residual market, interclass subsidies and the participation of national property-casualty

  10. Can Insurance Firms Easily Exit from the Market? A Global Comparative Analysis of Regulatory Structures&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Jean Kwon; Hunsoo Kim; Soon-Jae Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with market exit issues in the insurance industry. It examines theoretical and practical aspects of exit regulation in insurance as well as internal and external factors that firms may use to select a market exit strategy. From comparing regulatory stringency and permitted forms of market exit in selected countries in Asia, Europe, and North America, the authors

  11. Annual Progress Report on NSF Award No. AST-0504677: ATI: Searching for Low-Frequency Radio Transients

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    spectrum. An important class of these in- volves the relativistic expansion of a shell of charged particles bright "giant nanopulses" of the Crab pulsar and other transients provides additional motivation designed to achieve reliable ( 5) detection of giant pulses from the Crab pulsar, providing an excellent

  12. Dragon Children: Identifying the Causal Effect of the First Child on Female Labour Supply with the Chinese Lunar Calendar &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J ames P. V ere

    2008-01-01

    AbstractInstrumental variables (IV) estimates of the effect of fertility on female labour supply have only been able to identify the causal effect of second and higher parity children. This study uses exogenous variation in fertility caused by the Chinese lunar calendar to identify the effect of the first child. Additionally, weighting formulas are presented to interpret IV estimates as weighted

  13. ASTE observations in the 345 GHz window towards the HII region N113 of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P. A.; Rubio, M.; Fariña, C.; Komugi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: The HII region N113 is located in the central part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with an associated molecular cloud that is very rich in molecular species. Most of the previously observed molecular lines cover the frequency range 85-270 GHz. Thus, a survey and study of lines at the 345 GHz window is required for a more complete understanding of the chemistry and excitation conditions of this region. Methods: We mapped a region of 2.´5 × 2.´5 centred at N113 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 13CO J = 3-2 line with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. In addition, we observed 16 molecular lines as single pointings towards its centre. Results: From the 13CO J = 3-2 map we estimate the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and virial masses in about 1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104M? for the molecular cloud associated with N113. From the dust continuum emission at 500 ?m we additionally obtain a mass of gas of 7 × 103M?. Towards the cloud centre we detected emission from 12CO, 13CO, C18O (3-2), HCN, HNC, HCO+, C2H (4-3), and CS (7-6); these are the first reported detections of the HCN, HNC, and C2H (4-3) lines from this region. We confirm the detection of CS (7-6), which was previously tentatively detected. From analysing the HCN, HNC, and C2H lines we suggest that they might be emitted from a photodissociation region (PDR). Moreover, we suggest that the chemistry involving the C2H lines in N113 is probably similar to that in Galactic PDRs. We analysed the HCN J = 4-3, J = 3-2, and J = 1-0 lines with the code RADEX and we conclude that we observe very high density gas, between some 105 and 107 cm-3.

  14. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

  15. Surviving extremes ast0838 | Adaptations 4: Surviving extremes (fact sheet) developed for the Department of Education WA

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    .wa.edu.au/usage version 1.0 reviewed October 2012 page 1 Licensed for NEALS Samphires are succulent, salt-loving plants of inland salt lakes. A key feature of many of these environments is salinity. Most plants are unable All plants need salts to survive but too much salt can impede normal cellular functions. w ater salt

  16. Effect of a polyherbal formulation, Ambrex, on butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Devi, R S; Narayan, Shoba; Mohan, K Vijai; Sabitha, K E; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2003-11-01

    Effect of polyherbal formulation Ambrex was evaluated in butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) induced toxicity of lungs and liver in rats. Toxicity was produced by administering BHT (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 days. Lung damage was evidenced by elevated levels of broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BAL) parameters such as protein, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Liver damage was proved by elevated levels of serum protein and markers such as LDH, ALP, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), decreased level of lipid peroxides (LPO) in serum and glutathione (GSH) in liver. Administration of aqueous suspension of Ambrex (50 mg/kg orally) retained these elevated levels of BAL-protein, lactate, LDH, ALP, ACP, G6PDH and serum-protein, LDH, ALP, AST and ALT at near normal values. Decreased level of liver GSH was retained at near normalcy in Ambrex pretreated BHT-administered animals. There was no change in liver LPO in all the four groups. PMID:15332500

  17. Effect of curcumin supplementation on physiological fatigue and physical performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Tang, Deh-Wei; Lee, Zon-Min; Wei, Li; Chen, Fu-An; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (CCM) is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 ?g/mL) by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK). CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue. PMID:25647661

  18. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pósa, Anikó; Kupai, Krisztina; Szalai, Zita; Veszelka, Médea; Török, Szilvia; Varga, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX) or sham operation (SO). OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running) and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL), high triglyceride diet (HT), or restricted diet (CR). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet. PMID:25874022

  19. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  20. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl(4) on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl(4) administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl(4) was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl(4) and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

  2. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis after acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yijing; Zou, Zhuolin; Liu, Liyuan; Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Keqing; Xu, Lanman; Chen, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on acute liver injury (ALI) rats. Material and Methods: BMSCs were extracted from rat bone marrow, cultured and expansion in vitro, and identified by flow cytometer. Rat model with acute liver injury was established by employing D-galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide. Male rats were randomly divided into ALI model group and BMSCs transplantation group. Rats were sacrificed 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after BMSCs injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 (GPC3) were performed to analysis proliferation. Terminal deoxynucleontidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to analyze apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent-pathway related factors Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the ALI model group, the BMSCs transplantation group presented the lower levels of ALT, AST, decreased Bax proteins expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. The mRNA levels of AFP and GPC3 and expression of PCNA were significantly higher in BMSCs transplantation group. Conclusions: BMSCs transplantation could significantly restore liver function. These effects were supposed to be mediated by suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis as well as promoting proliferation. Reduction of apoptosis seemed to correlate with mitochondria-dependent-pathway. PMID:25755697

  3. A prospective study of multiple supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in febrile children.

    PubMed

    Kozer, Eran; Barr, Joseph; Bulkowstein, Mordechai; Avgil, Meytal; Greenberg, Revital; Matias, Atalica; Petrov, Irena; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2002-04-01

    Repeated doses of acetaminophen given for therapeutic reasons have been reported to cause hepatotoxicity in adults and children. We studied the effect of repeated acetaminophen (APAP) overdoses administered for therapeutic purposes in a prospective cohort of children. Forty-four children, aged 2 mo to 10 y were referred with a fever of >38.5 C for more than 48 h, and received >60 mg APAP/kg/d. In each patient AST, ALT and APAP blood levels were measured. The mean total daily dose of APAP was 92+/-26 (63-171) mg/kg. There was a weak, but significant, negative correlation between age and daily dose of APAP where younger children received higher doses of APAP. In 4 children (9.1%) an elevation of AST and ALT was found. Three of the 4 patients with elevated liver enzymes had received >90 mg APAP/kg/day; APAP blood levels ranged from 0 to 23 mg/mL. No correlation was found between the time since last APAP dose and the serum drug level. Ill children receiving repeated supratherapeutic doses of acetaminophen may show abnormalities in liver function. However, severe liver injury was rare. PMID:11931497

  4. Antihypernociceptive activity of anethole in experimental inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra M V; Domiciano, Talita P; Verri, Waldiceu A; Zarpelon, Ana Carla; da Silva, Lorena G; Barbosa, Carmem P; Natali, Maria Raquel M; Cuman, Roberto K N; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A

    2013-04-01

    Anethole has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, and anesthetic properties. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of anethole in two pain models of inflammatory origin: acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and persistent inflammation induced by Complete Freund's adjuvant. We evaluated the effects of anethole (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) on the development of paw oedema and mechanical hypernociception. The liver was collected for histological analysis. Paw skin was collected to determine the levels of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and myeloperoxidase activity. Blood was collected to assess alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The chemical composition of star anise oil was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), showing a presence of anethole of 98.1%. Oral pretreatment with anethole in mice inhibited paw oedema, mechanical pernociception, myelopewroxidase activity, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-17 levels in acute and persistent inflammation models. Additionally, anethole treatment did not alter prostaglandin E2-induced mechanical hypernociception. Possible side effects were also examined. Seven-day anethole treatment did not alter plasma AST and ALT levels, and the histological profile of liver tissue was normal. The present study provides evidence of the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of anethole in acute and persistent inflammation models. PMID:23054333

  5. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  6. Protective effects of BML-111 against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    El-Agamy, Dina S; Makled, Mirhan N; Gamil, Nareman M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the new formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A4 receptor agonist BML-111 on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in mice and explore its possible mechanism(s). Male Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally injected with BML-111 (1 mg/kg) twice daily for five consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (500 mg/kg). Results have shown that APAP injection caused liver damage as indicated by significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Liver histopathological examination revealed marked necrosis and inflammation. Additionally, APAP decreased activities of hepatic glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) with significant increase in the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, APAP increased serum nitrite/nitrate (NO(2) (-)/NO(3) (-)) level and hepatic tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). Pretreatment with BML-111 significantly reversed all APAP-induced pathological changes. BML-111 prevented the increase of AST, ALT, and ALP. Also, BML-111 markedly attenuated APAP-induced necrosis and inflammation. It decreased MDA with increase in SOD and GSH. Importantly, BML-111 decreased NO(2) (-)/NO(3) (-) level and TNF-?. These findings suggest that BML-111 has hepatoprotective effects against APAP-induced liver injury in mice. Its protective effect may be attributed to its ability to counteract the inflammatory ROS generation and regulate cytokine effects. PMID:24037794

  7. Hepatoprotective Potential of Prosopis farcta Beans Extracts against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wister Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Akram; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash; Torbati, Mohammad Bagher Montazar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. Prosopis farcta beans extract (PFE) has some antioxidant property and may alleviate hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PFE against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats weighing 220 ± 30 g were distributed into six groups. Two groups were pretreated with PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) for 7 days before administration of acetaminophen (600 mg/kg). Two were given acetaminophen or PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) alone, and the control received normal saline. One day after acetaminophen, administration blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver function enzymes markers; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high, low, and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL). Results: In acetaminophen-treated rat plasma AST (314 ± 18.54 vs. 126.37 ± 4.13), ALT (304 ± 49.24 vs. 187.33 ± 3.71), cholesterol, TG, LDL, and VLDL were increased by 149, 160, 37, 92, 60, and 94%, respectively. PFE at both doses significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the above biochemical indices to near normal. Conclusions: Prosopis farcta beans extract (50 and 75 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against APAP. PMID:25400887

  8. How useful are clinical liver function tests in in vitro human hepatotoxicity assays?

    PubMed

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chougule, Anil; Singh, Prafull Kumar

    2014-08-01

    In preclinical hepatotoxicity testing cell based assays are frequently employed. However, prediction of clinical drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major challenge. Here we examined the usefulness of frequently employed markers of hepatocellular injury in cultures of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) in response to treatment with either paracetamol, rifampicin, petadolex and/or amiodarone. The changes in the metabolic competency (urea and albumin) and cellular injury (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?GT and succinate dehydrogenase) were determined at therapeutic and above drug concentrations as to evaluate the utility of these markers in in vitro systems. Initially, treatment of PHH with any of the drugs caused a statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities to suggest a switch from basic amino acid metabolism towards induced detoxification. However, treatment for prolonged periods of time caused cytolysis, as evidenced by the significant rise in extracellular LDH and the concomitant increase in ALT and AST activity. Notably, amongst the various endpoints studied, urea was best to demonstrate dose dependent metabolic stress, while other markers of hepatocellular injury were highly variable. Taken collectively, urea measurement proofed to be robust in predicting hepatocellular stress; therefore it should be included in preclinical testing strategies for an improved prediction of DILI. PMID:24685772

  9. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

  10. Effect of Methylsulfonylmethane Pretreatment on Aceta-minophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bohlooli, Shahab; Mohammadi, Sadollah; Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Mirzanejad-asl, Hafez; Yosefi, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Nei, Amir; Chinifroush, Mir Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound found in a wide range of human foods including fruits, vegetables, grains and beverages. In this study the effect of MSM pretreatment on acetaminophen induced liver damage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 100 mg/kg MSM for one week. On day seven rats were received acetaminophen (850 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were taken to determine serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Tissue samples of liver were also taken for the determination of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity together with histopathological observations. Results: High dose of acetaminophen administration caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the liver tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in SOD activity and increases in tissue MDA level and MPO activity. Serum ALT, AST levels were also found elevated in the acetaminophen-treated group. Pretreatment with MSM for one week was significantly attenuated all of these biochemical indices. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MSM pretreatment could alleviate hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen intoxication, may be through its sulfur donating and antioxidant effects. PMID:24106592

  11. Optimization of recovery patterns in common carp exposed to roundup using response surface methodology: evaluation of neurotoxicity and genotoxicity effects and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalil; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Kosari, Ali Asghar; Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalal; Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jamal

    2013-12-01

    The present study is the first report on optimization of recovery conditions of fishes exposed to pesticides using response surface methodology-central composite rotatable design (RSM-CCRD). The sub-lethal toxicity bioassay of Roundup® (2 ppm ~10 percent LC??, 96 h) in common carp (1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 35 and 40 day) was investigated. After exposure for 16 days to Roundup®, some the fishes were introduced to herbicide-free water. The effects of four recovery parameters including time (5-25 d), temperature (18-26 °C), water exchange rate (WER, 10-30), and salinity (0-8 ppt) on the levels of biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE)), and the serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase in plasma were studied. The polynomial equations were significantly fitted for all response variables with high R² values (>0.95), which revealed no indication of lack of fit. The optimum conditions for the maximum AChE activity (37.14 nmol/min/mg protein) and the minimum levels of DNA damage (8.00 percent tail DNA), ALT (27.0 IU/L) and AST (91.0 IU/L) were time of 20 d, temperature of 20 °C, WER of 25 and water salinity of 6 ppt. Thus, a promising improvement for the recovery trend of fishes exposed to Roundup® stress was obtained under the optimized conditions using RSM-CCRD. PMID:24094415

  12. The Benefits of vitamin E on liver function and the hemopoietic System in thalassemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Z; Hashemi, A; Fateminasab, M

    2012-01-01

    Background ??Thalassemic children have oxidative stress and antioxidant deficiency even without iron overload status. In these patients, tissue damage due to oxidative stress may be occurred. Also, it seems that thalassemic patients have higher levels of ALT, AST therefore, the main aim of the present study was to determine the benefits of vitamin E as an antioxidant supplements in ?-Thalassemia children. Materials and Methods This clinical trial was carried out on 45 beta-thalassemic patients undergoing occasional transfusions (24 males, 21 females), mean age 16± 8 years, admitted to Yazd and Shahid Sadoughi hospital in 2011. Fallowing three months treatment of vitaminE (vitamin E 400-600 unit/day),liver function test and hemopoitic system parameters were measured. Results Fourty five patients with laboratory confirmation of ?-Thalassemia were recruited following three months vitamin E supplementation, liver function test had higher improvement compared to hemopoitic system parameters , and also serum SGOT was significantly reduced (P-value<0.004 ). Conclusion It seems clear that treatments of ?-thalassemic patients with vitamins E have benefits in promoting antioxidant status and may improve liver function test, as AST and ALT to decrease but this supplement is not effective for hemopoietic system variables. PMID:24575256

  13. Sublethal toxicity of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and permethrin on selected biochemical constituents and enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of Anabas testudineus.

    PubMed

    Sapana Devi, Maisnam; Gupta, Abhik

    2014-10-01

    The freshwater fish Anabas testudineus was exposed for 21 days to two commercial formulations of synthetic pyrethroids deltamethrin and permethrin at sublethal concentrations of 0.007 and 0.0007 mg L(-1), and 0.093 and 0.0093 mg L(-1), that represented 10% and 1%, respectively, of the 96 h LC50 of these two pesticides for this fish. The glycogen, protein and lactic acid contents, along with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of control and pesticide-exposed fish were estimated. When compared with those of control fish, significant depletion of glycogen content was observed in liver, and that of protein in muscle tissue of fish treated with both the pesticides at their higher as well as lower concentrations. Lactic acid reduction was significant only in fish muscle treated with deltamethrin. SDH level was reduced significantly in both liver and muscle tissues except in fish exposed to 0.0093 mg L(-1) permethrin. AST level was reduced significantly in liver and muscle tissues and ALT in muscle tissue of deltamethrin treated fish only. It is concluded that deltamethrin, a type-II pyrethroid, is more toxic to fish than the type-I pyrethroid permethrin and is capable of rendering toxicity at a dose as low as 1% of its LC50 value. PMID:25307465

  14. Salidroside Attenuates Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis via Modulating Cytokines Secretion and Lymphocyte Migration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jiali; Li, Jinbao

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an “adaptogen.” This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50?mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated I?B? and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF-?B partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice. PMID:24808635

  15. Salidroside attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis via modulating cytokines secretion and lymphocyte migration in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baoji; Zou, Yun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jiali; Li, Jinbao; Bo, Lulong; Deng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an "adaptogen." This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50?mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated I?B? and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF-?B partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice. PMID:24808635

  16. Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Yesilyaprak, B

    2005-07-14

    In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 28, 14 days after experimental animals done hyperlipidemia. The degenerative changes were observed in hyperlipidemic rats, light and electron microscopically. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum cholesterol, total lipid, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a significant decrease in the levels of liver tissue glutathione (GSH), a significant increase in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in this group. On the other hand, the administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract reduced total cholesterol, total lipid, ALT, AST and ALP levels in serum, and LPO levels in liver tissue, moreover increased glutathione levels in the tissue. As a result, it was suggested that Melissa officinalis L. extract exerted an hypolipidemic effect and showed a protective effect on the liver of hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:15946812

  17. [The catalase inhibitor aminotriazole alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing; Ge, Pu; Dai, Jie; Liang, Tian-Cai; Yang, Qing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the effects of catalase (CAT) inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury were investigated to explore the potential roles of CAT in alcoholic liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and various doses of ATZ (100-400 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 30 min before alcohol exposure. After 24 h of alcohol exposure, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were determined. The degree of hepatic histopathological abnormality was observed by HE staining. The activity of hepatic CAT, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue were measured by corresponding kits. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that treatment with ATZ dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of ALT, AST and LDH levels induced by alcohol exposure, and that ATZ alleviated alcohol-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, ATZ inhibited the activity of CAT, reduced hepatic levels of H2O2 and MDA in alcohol exposed rats. ATZ also decreased the levels of plasma TNF-? and IL-6 in rats with alcohol exposure. These results indicated that ATZ attenuated alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats, suggesting that CAT might play important pathological roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25672632

  18. Gemfibrozil attenuates the inflammatory response and protects rats from abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    CÁMARA-LEMARROY, CARLOS R.; GUZMAN-DE LA GARZA, FRANCISCO J.; CORDERO-PEREZ, PAULA; IBARRA-HERNANDEZ, JUAN M.; MUÑOZ-ESPINOSA, LINDA E.; FERNANDEZ-GARZA, NANCY E.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious condition characterized by an infectious process that induces a severe systemic inflammatory response. In this study, the effects of gemfibrozil (GFZ) on the inflammatory response associated with abdominal sepsis were investigated using a rat model of cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operated group (sham), where laparotomy was performed, the intestines were manipulated, and the cecum was ligated but not punctured; control group, subjected to CLP; and GFZ group, which received GFZ prior to undergoing CLP. The groups were then subdivided into three different time-points: 2, 4 and 24 h, indicating the time at which blood samples were obtained for analysis. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1 (IL-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. The LDH, AST and ALT values were significantly elevated following CLP compared with those in the sham group, and GFZ treatment was able to reduce these elevations. GFZ also reduced the sepsis-induced elevations of TNF-? and IL-1. In conclusion, GFZ treatment was able to attenuate the inflammatory response associated with CLP-induced sepsis, by diminishing the release of inflammatory cytokines, thereby reducing tissue injury and oxidative stress. PMID:25667670

  19. The Effect of Thiamine and Thiamine Pyrophosphate on Oxidative Liver Damage Induced in Rats with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Mehmet Ibrahim; Siltelioglu Turan, Isil; Mammadov, Renad; Alt?nkaynak, Konca; Kisaoglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on oxidative stress induced with cisplatin in liver tissue. Rats were divided into four groups; thiamine group (TG), TPP + cisplatin group (TPG), healthy animal group (HG), and cisplatin only group (CG). Oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver tissue and AST, ALT, and LDH levels in rat sera were measured in all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the CG, TG, TPG, and HG groups were 11?±?1.4, 9?±?0.5, 3?±?0.5, and 2.2?±?0.48??mol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 2?±?0.7, 2.8?±?0.4, 7?±?0.8, and 9?±?0.6?nmol/g protein, respectively. Levels of 8-OH/Gua, a product of DNA damage, were 2.7?±?0.4?pmol/L, 2.5?±?0.5, 1.1?±?0.3, and 0.9?±?0.3?pmol/L, respectively. A statistically significant difference was determined in oxidant/antioxidant parameters and AST, ALT, and LDH levels between the TPG and CG groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the TG and CG groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin causes oxidative damage in liver tissue. TPP seems to have a preventive effect on oxidative stress in the liver caused by cisplatin. PMID:23841092

  20. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH?:?GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  1. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  2. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Bauhinia hookeri extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and characterization of its bioactive compounds by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Martiskainen, Olli; Seif el-Din, Sayed H; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Bauhinia hookeri ethanol extract (BHE) against CCl4-induced liver injury was investigated in mice. BHE was administered (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) along with CCl4 for 6 weeks. The hepatic marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in the serum. The antioxidant parameters: glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in the liver homogenate. BHE treatment significantly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in ALT (44 and 64%), AST (36 and 46%), ALP (28 and 42%), and MDA (39 and 51%) levels at the tested doses, respectively. Moreover, BHE treatment markedly increased the activity of antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, GR, GST, and SOD. Histological observations confirmed the strong hepatoprotective activity. These results suggest that a dietary supplement of BHE could exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress and various liver diseases by enhancing the antioxidant defense status, reducing lipid peroxidation, and protecting against the pathological changes of the liver. The hepatoprotective activity of BHE is mediated, at least in part, by the antioxidant effect of its constituents. The active constituents of BHE were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS. PMID:24955350

  3. Protective effect of reduced glutathione on the liver injury induced by acute omethoate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lina; Wang, Xiuli; Lang, Liwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2010-11-01

    Omethoate is an organophosphate insecticide with high toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) on omethoate-induced liver injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, OM (omethoate poisoning), and OM+GSH (omethoate poisoning treated with GSH). The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, free organophosphate (FOP) in the liver were determined, and the histopathological changes in the liver were observed. Furthermore, TNF-? and NO in liver homogenate were assayed. The results showed that AChE activity was significantly inhibited by omethoate, but was not altered by GSH treatment. GSH was able to prevent hepatocellular edema and fatty degeneration, decrease liver FOP, attenuate the increased AST and ALT activity, and decline the increase of TNF-? and NO induced by omethoate. These results indicate GSH can attenuate liver injury, and suggest that GSH may be administered to protect the organ from injury in patients with acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:21787660

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Noor Aisyah; Shamsahal-Din, Nor Syafawati; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Zabidi, Zalina; Wan Zainulddin, Wan-Noraziemah; Kamisan, Farah Hidayah; Yahya, Farhana; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Mohd-Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of Dicranopteris linearis L. (family Gleicheniaceae) leaf aqueous extract (DLAE) using two models of liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into ten groups (n=6) and received dH2O (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control) or DLAE (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 consecutive days and on the 8th day subjected to the hepatotoxic induction either using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or paracetamol (PCM). The bloods and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. From the data obtained, only the highest dose of DLAE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the ALP, ALT and AST levels in CCl4-and PCM-induced hepatotoxic rats while the other doses caused significant (P<0.05) reduction only in the levels of ALT and AST. The histological results obtained were in line with the biochemical analysis wherein reduction in the CCl4- and PCM-induced tissue formation of necrosis, steatosis and inflammation occurred in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the DLAE possesses hepatoprotective activity, which could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activities, and high flavonoids content. Thus, in-depth studies regarding the hepatoprotective activity of DLAE are warranted. PMID:25015448

  5. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  6. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

  7. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 ?g/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  8. Gastroprotective activity and mechanism of novel dichlorido-zinc(II)-4-(2-(5-methoxybenzylideneamino)ethyl)piperazin-1-iumphenolate complex on ethanol-induced gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim

    2012-01-25

    Zinc complexes were reported to have anti-ulcer activity and used as drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. A novel compound dichlorido-zinc(II)-4-(2-(5-methoxybenzylidene amino)ethyl)piperazin-1-iumphenolate (ZnHMS) was synthesized, characterized and evaluated for its gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. Gross and microscopic lesions, histochemical staining of glycogen storage, biochemical and immunological parameters were taken into consideration. Oral administration of ZnHMS (30 and 60 mg/kg; 14 days) dose-dependently inhibited gastric lesions. It significantly increased the mucus content and total acidity compared to the control group (P<0.01). Serum levels of aspartate (AST), alanine (ALT) transaminases, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the rats exposed to ethanol induced ulceration have been altered. ZnHMS considerably enhances (P<0.05) the protection of gastric epithelia by modulating the acute alterations of AST, ALT, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-? and stomach glycogen. Interestingly, ZnHMS did interfere with the natural release of nitric oxide. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the rats treated with ZnHMS (2000 mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of ZnHMS might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to the gastric mucosa. PMID:22178775

  9. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  10. Pretreatment of Albino Rats with Methanolic Fruit Extract of Randia Dumetorum (L.) Protects against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Noorani, Arshad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and its medical and social consequences are a major health problem in many areas of the world. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of methanolic fruit extract of Randia dumetorum (L.) on alcohol-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n=6), group I served as a control, group II received ethanol (3 ml/100 g/day p.o.), group III served as standard group and received silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o.), group IV and V served as extract treatment groups and received 50 & 100 mg/kg methanolic extract of R. dumetorum. All the treatment protocols followed 30 days and after rats were sacrificed blood and liver were used for biochemical and histological studies, respectively. The activities serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB) and lipid peroxidation were statistically increased in rats exposed to alcohol while total protein and glutathione decreased compared to control rats. Treatment with R. dumetorum significantly decreased the elevated levels of ALT, AST, TG, DB, TB and lipid peroxidation compared to the group exposed to alcohol only. R. dumetorum significantly resulted in increased levels of total protein and reduced glutathione compared to the group that received alcohol only. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with R. dumetorum improved the hepatotoxicity caused by alcohol. Hence the study concluded that R. dumetorum has potential hepatoprotective activity. PMID:22563258

  11. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  12. Effect of cypermethrin, carbendazim and their combination on male albino rat serum

    PubMed Central

    Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Hwang, InHo; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin and carbendazim are synthetic; ?-cypermethrin belongs to a class of synthetic pyrethroids and carbendazim belongs to the class of carbamate fungicides. The current study was carried out to evaluate the low-dose exposure of individual and mixed forms of cypermethrin and carbendazim. ?-cypermethrin was used at 0.06, 0.12, 0.30 and 0.60 mg/kg body weight (bw), carbendazim was at 0.48, 0.96, 2.4 and 4.8 mg/kg bw and combined doses (cypermethrin: 0.06, 0.12, 0.30 and 0.60 mg/kg.bwt + carbendazim: 0.48, 0.96, 2.4 and 4.8 mg/kg.bwt) for 12 h and 24 h. The biochemical parameters and serum markey enzymes were analysed. The biochemical parameters include serum total protein, glucose, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, calcium, phosphorous, albumin and creatinine and serum marker enzymes such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and amylase were ascertained. Results indicated simultaneous changes in serum marker enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and amylase) and biochemical markers (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001). The experimental results indicate that even low-dose use of the synthetic pyrethroid carbamate and their combined form results in consequential negative effects on cell function. PMID:22974217

  13. Association between Duration of Carbon Dioxide Pneumoperitoneum during Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery and Hepatic Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to accurately assess whether the duration of intraoperative carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum (CDP) is associated with the induction of hepatic injury. Methods We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases (through February 2014) to identify case-match studies that compared high-pressure CDP with low-pressure CDP or varied the duration of CDP in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. The outcome of interest was postoperative liver function (ALT, AST, TB). Results Eleven comparative studies involving 2,235 participants were included. Overall, levels of ALT, AST, and TB (on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7) were significantly elevated in the study groups. However, the results of the subanalyses of those who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection (LCR) versus open colorectal cancer resection (OCR) and those who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGBP) versus open gastric bypass (OGBP) were inconsistent. Conclusions The current evidence suggests that the duration of CDP during laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with hepatic injury. Additional large-scale, randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to further confirm this. PMID:25110982

  14. Routine Testing of Liver Function Before and After Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Is It Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Liver function tests (LFTs) include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin. The role of routine testing before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was evaluated in this study. Patients and Methods: A total of 355 patients were retrospectively analyzed by examining the LFTs the day before, the day after, and 3 weeks after the surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student t test were performed to determine statistical significance. Results: Alterations in the serum AST, ALT, and GGT were seen on the first postoperative day. Minor changes were seen in bilirubin and ALP. An overall disturbance in the LFTs was seen in more than two-thirds of the cases. Repeat LFTs performed after 3 weeks on follow-up were found to be within normal limits. Conclusion: Mild-to-moderate elevation in preoperative LFTs may not be associated with any deleterious effect, and, in the absence of clinical indications, routine preoperative or postoperative liver function testing is unnecessary. PMID:21902946

  15. Peroxisome proliferators-activated alpha agonist treatment ameliorates hepatic damage in rats with obstructive jaundice: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Cindoruk, Mehmet; Kerem, Mustafa; Karakan, Tarkan; Salman, Bulent; Akin, Okan; Alper, Murat; Erdem, Ozlem; Ünal, Selahattin

    2007-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activation modulates cholesterol metabolism and suppresses bile acid synthesis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of short-term administration of fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, on proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and hepatocellular damage in cholestasis. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I = sham operated, II = bile duct ligation (BDL), III = BDL + vehicle (gum Arabic), IV = BDL + fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day). All rats were sacrificed on 7th day after obtaining blood samples and liver tissue. Total bilirubin, aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase, (GGT), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 ?), and total bile acid (TBA) in serum, and liver damage scores; portal inflammation, necrosis, bile duct number, in liver tissue were evaluated. Apoptosis in liver was also assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Results Fenofibrate administration significantly reduced serum total bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT, TNF-?, IL-1 ? levels, and TBA (P < 0.01). Hepatic portal inflammation, hepatic necrosis, number of the bile ducts and apoptosis in rats with BDL were more prominent than the sham-operated animals (P < 0.01). PPAR? induction improved all histopathologic parameters (P < 0.01), except for the number of the bile duct, which was markedly increased by fenofibrate therapy (P < 0.01). Conclusion Short-term administration of fenofibrate to the BDL rats exerts beneficial effects on hepatocellular damage and apoptosis. PMID:18045488

  16. Protective Effects of Garlic and Silymarin on NDEA-Induced Rats Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shaarawy, Sabry M; Tohamy, Amany A; Elgendy, Saad M.; Elmageed, Zakaria Y Abd; Bahnasy, Abeer; Mohamed, Maha S; Kandil, Emad; Matrougui, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Background ­— The present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garlic extract and silymarin on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Methods and Results — Animals were pretreated with garlic, silymarin or both for one week prior to the injection of NDEA. Then animals received a single injection of NDEA followed by weekly subcutaneous injections of CCl4 for 6 weeks. Oral administration was then continued along with the injection of CCl4 for the duration of the experiment. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were measured. Injection of NDEA induced a significant elevation in serum AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NDEA increased oxidative stress through the increase in LPO and decrease in SOD, and GSH-dependent enzymes. Although administration of garlic or silymarin significantly reduced the liver toxicity, combined administration was more effective in preventing the development of hepatotoxicity. Conclusion — These novel findings suggest that silymarin and garlic have a synergistic effect, and could be used as hepatoprotective agents against hepatotoxicity. PMID:19742242

  17. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Jing; Ye, Lin-Bai; Yang, Fan; Ye, Li; Gao, Jin-Rong; Wu, Zheng-Hui

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. METHODS: A liver injury model was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined with an automatic multifunction-biochemical analyzer and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TNF-? were determined following the instructions of SOD kit and TNF radioimmunoassay kit. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological evaluation and examined under light microscope. RESULTS: We found that GLPG can alleviate the L-02 liver cells injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through the measurements of ALT and AST activities and the administration of GLPG to L-02 cells did not display any toxicity. Furthermore, histological analysis of mice liver injury induced by CCl4 with or without GLPG pretreatment indicated that GLPG can significantly suppress the toxicity induced by CCl4 in mice liver. We also found that GLPG reduced TNF-? level induced by CCl4 in the plasma of mice, whereas increased SOD activity in the rat serum. CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-? level and the free radical scavenging activity. PMID:16552805

  18. Interleukin 6 increases dysfunction of organs in sepsis rats through sirtuin 1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Lin, Yongjun; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Man; Xu, Qiuping

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis-induced organ failure is the major cause of death, and is characterized by a massive dysregulated inflammatory response. The present study was to determine whether interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression was increased in sepsis rats and the roles of IL-6 in the damage of cardiac, liver and renal function in the sepsis rats. Sepsis rat models were elicited by intravenous injection of LPS. The mRNA and protein of IL-6 levels were increased in the sepsis rats. The Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and average ±dP/dt were significantly reduced in sepsis rats compare with sham group. ALT and AST activities and creatinine level were increased in the sepsis rats. IL-6 significantly reduced LVDP and average ±dP/dt, increased the activities of ALT and AST, and increased the concentration of creatinine in the sepsis rats. EX527, a sirtuin 1 (SIRT 1) inhibitor, blocked the effects of IL-6 in the sepsis rats. These results indicate that IL-6 plays important roles in the damage of cardiac, liver and renal function in the sepsis rats through SIRT 1. PMID:25356114

  19. Caffeine protects against alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by dampening the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Dai, Xuefei; Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, He; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Yang, Yan; Li, Jun; Lv, Xiongwen

    2015-04-01

    Alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF) is characterized by hyperplasia of extracellular matrix under long-term alcohol stimulation. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation plays an important role in promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Caffeine, as the main active component of coffee and tea, was widely consumed in daily life. It was always a thought that caffeine can reduce the probability of suffering from liver diseases. In this study, we attempt to validate the hypothesis that caffeine inhibits activation of HSCs which were isolated from rat ALF model. The rats were gavaged by ethanol to establish ALF model and then treated with different concentrations of caffeine or colchicine. Serum was collected to measure the contents of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), N-terminal peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and type IV collagen (CIV). Then liver tissues were obtained for hematoxylin-eosin staining and Sirius-red staining. Others were treated through liver perfusion to isolate primary rat HSCs. Interestingly, we found that caffeine significantly decreased ALT, AST, HA, LN, PIIINP and CIV levels and reversed liver fibrosis in rat ALF models. Results of immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and western blot indicated that caffeine could reduce fibrosis and inhibit cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway in HSC. Caffeine has a preventive effect on ALF. The mechanism may be interpreted that caffeine inhibits the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway through adenosine A2A receptors in HSC. PMID:25701503

  20. Occurrence of HBV/HIV coinfection by laboratory values in Roma, Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Senauoane, Mamakoli Blandina; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Nyandoro, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was an assessment of the coinfection status of patients with human immunode?ciency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Lesotho, and this has been rarely reported. Methods This was a retrospective study, in a laboratory setting, on HBV/HIV coinfection among 304 HIV-positive patients who were screened for HBsAg in St Joseph's Hospital records between March 2011 and December 2013. Demographic characteristics, HIV status, indications for HBsAg screening, HBsAg results and liver function test results including alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase were reviewed from the patient and laboratory registers. Results In this study 10.5% of 304 HIV-positive patients had HBV/HIV coinfection. With respect to gender, males had a significantly higher (p=0.048) rate of HBV/HIV coinfection in this study. Increased levels of ALT (p=0.013) and AST (p=0.014) were significantly associated with HBV/HIV coinfection status. Conclusion Gender and liver function tests are important predictors for HBV/HIV coinfection. Screening for HBV coinfection in HIV-positive patients is recommended.