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1

Can AST/ALT ratio indicate recovery after acute paracetamol poisoning?  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Paracetamol (acetaminophen or APAP) is the most common pharmaceutical exposure in the US. Elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels indicate hepatic toxicity. AST and ALT levels rise in similar proportions but later decline at different rates, with AST falling more rapidly than ALT. Objective. To determine whether the AST/ALT ratio can indicate that a patient has passed the time of peak AST concentration. Methods. We retrospectively identified cases of patients hospitalized for acute APAP poisoning by querying the pharmacy database of all patients treated with acetylcysteine (NAC) from January 1, 2001 to March 19, 2013. We included all patients with severe APAP poisoning, defined as AST or ALT greater than 1000 IU/L. Patients who were given NAC for other indications, those without APAP poisoning, and those receiving liver transplantation were excluded. We then recorded paired AST and ALT concentrations from each patient's hospital course. We classified each pair as clearly post-peak or not, and calculated the AST/ALT ratio for each pair of values. We compared different thresholds of AST/ALT ratio in increments of 0.1 to find the optimal value that reliably indicated resolving transaminases. Results. We identified 1820 patients who received NAC during the study period. Of these, 333 received NAC for suspected poisoning by APAP. After excluding patients without severe APAP poisoning, other diagnoses explaining transaminase elevations, and patients who underwent liver transplantation, we had 37 evaluable patients with 343 evaluable pairs of AST and ALT concentrations. An AST/ALT ratio less than or equal to 0.4 was 99% sensitive for identifying patients with resolving transaminases. Conclusion. An AST/ALT ratio less than or equal to 0.4 following severe hepatoxicity from paracetamol poisoning appears to be highly predictive of recovery in patients treated with NAC. This has potential to be an indicator of safe discontinuation of NAC treatment. PMID:25652258

McGovern, Allison J; Vitkovitsky, Irena V; Jones, Daniel L; Mullins, Michael E

2015-03-01

2

AST\\/ALT ratio predicts cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A liver biopsy is necessary to grade and stage chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In a previous study of patients with nonalcoholic liver disease, an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio >1 suggested cirrhosis. We sought to examine the value of the AST\\/ALT ratio in distinguishing cirrhotic patients with chronic HCV infection from noncirrhotic patients and

Sunil G. Sheth; Steven L. Flamm; Fredric D. Gordon; Sanjiv Chopra

1998-01-01

3

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques  

PubMed Central

The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

2006-01-01

4

ALTS  

Cancer.gov

ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. Organized and funded by the National Cancer Institute, ALTS included more than 5,000 women. It began in November 1996 and concluded at the end of 2000.

5

Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-??8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-??30.2). AST/ALT ratio <1 also increased linearly, as did the prevalence of MetS (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group to 40.3% for the obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-??65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-??31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio <1. WC was the best predictor of elevated ALT (AOR = 7.13). Pearson correlation showed that MetS components were significantly correlated with elevated ALT. Therefore elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and strongly associated with MetS in Mexican children, it should be screened in overweight and obese children. PMID:24548580

Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-González, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Norma G; Martínez, Ubaldo

2014-01-01

6

ALT/Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

2013-01-01

7

$g_{D^{\\ast}_{s}D K^{\\ast}(892)}$ and $g_{B^{\\ast}_{s}B K^{\\ast}(892)}$ coupling constants in QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

The coupling constants $g_{D^{\\ast}_{s}D K^{\\ast}(892)}$ and $g_{B^{\\ast}_{s}B K^{\\ast}(892)}$ are calculated in the framework of three-point QCD sum rules. The correlation functions responsible for these coupling constants are evaluated considering contributions of both $D(B)$ and $K^*(892)$ mesons as off-shell states, but in the absence of radiative corrections. The results, $g_{D^{\\ast}_{s}D K^{\\ast}(892)}=(4.31\\pm1.42) GeV^{-1}$ and $g_{B^{\\ast}_{s}B K^{\\ast}(892)}=(3.24\\pm1.08) GeV^{-1}$ are obtained for the considered strong coupling constants.

K. Azizi; H. Sundu

2010-09-27

8

$g_{D^{\\ast}_{s}D K^{\\ast}(892)}$ and $g_{B^{\\ast}_{s}B K^{\\ast}(892)}$ coupling constants in QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

The coupling constants $g_{D^{\\ast}_{s}D K^{\\ast}(892)}$ and $g_{B^{\\ast}_{s}B K^{\\ast}(892)}$ are calculated in the framework of three-point QCD sum rules. The correlation functions responsible for these coupling constants are evaluated considering contributions of both $D(B)$ and $K^*(892)$ mesons as off-shell states. The results, $g_{D^{\\ast}_{s}D K^{\\ast}(892)}=(4.31\\pm1.42) GeV^{-1}$ and $g_{B^{\\ast}_{s}B K^{\\ast}(892)}=(3.24\\pm1.08) GeV^{-1}$ are obtained for the considered strong coupling constants.

Azizi, K

2010-01-01

9

AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

2014-04-01

10

Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3  

SciTech Connect

ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-13

11

AST 5XXX: Data Analysis Spring 2007 Syllabus  

E-print Network

AST 5XXX: Data Analysis Spring 2007 Syllabus Joseph Harrington 1 Course Vitals Room: Physics 2007 Final: project Class URL: http://physics.ucf.edu/~jh/ast/ast5xxx/ast5xxx.html Class directory: /home/ast5xxx on all trailer machines Textbooks: Howell, S. B. 2000. Handbook of CCD Astronomy

Harrington, Joe

12

Nondestructive inspection requirements aboveground storage tanks (ASTs)  

SciTech Connect

Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are designed, built and nondestructively inspected to a variety of Standards and Codes. This discussion deals only with the nondestructive inspection requirements for the more common Standards and Codes generated in the United States for these type structures. The problems of how to communicate to the NDT technician the required inspection or testing information within these Standard or Code documents for both new ASTs and repaired, reconstructed or altered ASTs are discussed. In the presentation of this paper, NDT applications, acceptance criteria and personnel requirements for welds or components for radiography, ultrasonic alternatives to radiography, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, visual and leak testing for the mentioned Standards and Codes will be reviewed.

Sherlock, C.N.

1995-12-31

13

AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

1996-01-01

14

g_{D^{\\\\ast }_{s}D K^{\\\\ast }(892)} and g_{B^{\\\\ast }_{s}B K^{\\\\ast }(892)} coupling constants in QCD sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling constants g_{D^{\\\\ast }_{s}D K^{\\\\ast }(892)} and g_{B^{\\\\ast }_{s}B K^{\\\\ast }(892)} are calculated in the framework of three-point QCD sum rules. The correlation functions responsible for these coupling constants are evaluated considering contributions of both D(B) and K*(892) mesons as off-shell states, but in the absence of radiative corrections. The results g_{D^{\\\\ast }_{s}D K^{\\\\ast }(892)}=(3.74+\\/- 1.38) \\\\ GeV^{-1} and

K. Azizi; H. Sundu

2011-01-01

15

AST2010 Science Whitepaper JWST Transit Science  

E-print Network

AST2010 Science Whitepaper JWST Transit Science 1 Comparative Planetology: Transiting Exoplanet Science with JWST Mark Clampin, JWST Science Working Group, JWST Transits Working Group, Drake Deming, and Don Lindler 1. Introduction The study of transiting exoplanets has provided most of the key data

Sirianni, Marco

16

ALTS Trial Design and Study Centers  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiologic, virologic and molecular studies have clearly demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central cause of cervical cancer. The motivation for the ALTS trial was to use the information we have gained about the role of HPV to design better treatment and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of cervical cancer and its precursors.

17

ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4  

SciTech Connect

The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, Walter L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-11

18

ALT-3 target design and simulations  

SciTech Connect

ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

Peterson, Jeffrey H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-12

19

IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries BINARY STARS  

E-print Network

! Degenerate state of matter. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries CLASSIFICATION OF DOUBLE STARS BinariesIntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries BINARY STARS Importance: ­ A high fraction (2/3?) of stars are members stars - high energy phenomena: X-ray and gamma sources - exotic objects (cataclismic variables, X

Petrovay, Kristóf

20

Effects of BRCA2 deficiency on telomere recombination in non-ALT and ALT cells  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that BRCA2 affects telomere maintenance. Interestingly, anti cancer treatments that involve BRCA2 and telomerase individually are currently being explored. In the light of the above recent studies their combinatorial targeting may be justified in the development of future treatments. In order to investigate effects of BRCA2 that can be explored for this combinatorial targeting we focused on the analysis of recombination rates at telomeres by monitoring T-SCEs (Telomere Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Results We observed a significant increase in T-SCE frequencies in four BRCA2 defective human cell lines thus suggesting that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. To test this hypothesis further we analyzed T-SCE frequencies in a set of Chinese hamster cell lines with or without functional BRCA2. Our results indicate that introduction of functional BRCA2 normalizes frequencies of T-SCEs thus supporting the notion that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. Given that ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) positive cells maintain telomeres by recombination we investigated the effect of BRCA2 depletion in these cells. Our results show that this depletion causes a dramatic reduction in T-SCE frequencies in ALT positive cells, but not in non-ALT cells. Conclusion BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres in cells that maintain them by conventional mechanisms. Furthermore, BRCA2 depletion in ALT positive cells reduces high levels of T-SCEs normally found in these cells. Our results could be potentially important for refining telomerase-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22152194

2011-01-01

21

Elements of F-ast proton decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gauge coupling unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) strongly suggests the existence of a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), which could be probed by the observation of proton decay. Proton lifetime in the p?(? dimension six mode is proportional in the fourth power to the GUT mass scale, and inversely proportional in the fourth power to the GUT coupling. Flipped SU(5) with strict MSSM field content is known to survive existing null detection limits for proton decay approaching 10 years, and indeed, the lifetime predicted by prior studies can be so long that successful detection is not currently plausible. We provide an updated dictionary of solutions for the relevant flipped unification parameters with generic ?-function coefficients, significantly upgrading the level of detail with which second order effects are treated, and correcting subtle published errors. Recently studied classes of F-theory derived GUT models postulate additional vector-like multiplets at the TeV scale which modify the renormalization group to yield a substantial increase in the SU(3×SU(2 unified coupling. In conjunction with the naturally depressed F-lipped SU(5) partial unification mass M, the F-resh analysis undertaken predicts comparatively F-ast proton decay which only narrowly evades existing detection limits, and likely falls within the observable range of proposed next generation detectors such as DUSEL and Hyper-Kamiokande. The TeV-scale vector multiplets are themselves suitable for cross correlation by the Large Hadron Collider. Their presence moreover magnifies the gap between the dual mass scales of Flipped SU(5), allowing for an elongated second stage renormalization, pushing the F-inal grand unification to the doorstep of the reduced Planck mass.

Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

2011-05-01

22

TD-AltBOC: A new COMPASS B2 modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AltBOC(15,10) is the baseline of COMPASS B2 signal modulation. It is a BOC-like signal having different PN codes in the lower and the upper main split lobes, which allow one signal service per lobe. The two lobes can be received and processed separately like two BPSK(10) signals, or coherently processed to achieve better performance. Interoperability among COMPASS B2, Galileo E5 and GPS L5 is also achievable using AltBOC modulation. However, Galileo's 4-code AltBOC has drawbacks such as low efficiency and great receiver complexity. This paper presents a new modulation type named TD-AltBOC (Time Division AltBOC). The signal generation scheme and receiving method are presented, and are compared with AltBOC in the areas of power spectrum, ranging accuracy, anti-multipath performance, anti-interference performance, processing flexibility and complexity. Analysis results show TD-AltBOC has similar spectrum characteristics, interoperability, flexibility and anti-interference performance with AltBOC. When the frontend bandwidth is more than 50 MHz, TD-AltBOC can achieve better ranging accuracy and anti-multipath performance. It also has such advantages as high efficiency and low receiver complexity. TD-AltBOC could be a good solution to COMPASS B2 navigation signal.

Tang, Zuping; Zhou, Hongwei; Wei, Jiaolong; Yan, Tao; Liu, Yuqi; Ran, Yihang; Zhou, Yanling

2011-06-01

23

New Features in AST - a WCS Management and Manipulation Library  

E-print Network

Recent developments in the AST library are described, including a Python interface, support for the FITS-WCS "-TAB" system for storing tabular co-ordinate information, and extended support for representing distortions in spatial projections, using several schemes in common use (IRAF TNX/ZPX, Spitzer SIP, NOAO TPV and SCAMP).

Berry, David

2012-01-01

24

Interchromosomal homology searches drive directional ALT telomere movement and synapsis.  

PubMed

Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, ?10%-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multitelomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break (DSB) response at ALT telomeres triggers long-range movement and clustering between chromosome termini, resulting in homology-directed telomere synthesis. Damaged telomeres initiate increased random surveillance of nuclear space before displaying rapid directional movement and association with recipient telomeres over micron-range distances. This phenomenon required Rad51 and the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer, which are essential for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. These findings implicate a specialized homology searching mechanism in ALT-dependent telomere maintenance and provide a molecular basis underlying the preference for recombination between nonsister telomeres during ALT. PMID:25259924

Cho, Nam Woo; Dilley, Robert L; Lampson, Michael A; Greenberg, Roger A

2014-09-25

25

PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers  

SciTech Connect

This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

1988-08-01

26

AltMove Manager 2.1.4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AltMove Manager doesn't reinvent the mouse, but it certainly enhances its general functionality. With AltMove Manager, users can quickly and easily minimize and restore windows, grab screenshots, and even magnify a window under the mouse. Visitors can also consult the Actions menu to add a few more functions, if they wish to do so. This version is compatible with computers running Windows NT and newer.

2008-10-24

27

Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

28

Submillimeter Astronomy from the South Pole (AST/RO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO), a 1.7 m diameter offset Gregorian telescope for astronomy and aeronomy studies at wavelengths between 200 and 2000 ?m, saw first light in 1995 and operated until 2005. It was the first radio telescope to operate continuously throughout the winter on the Antarctic Plateau. It served as a site testing instrument and prototype for later instruments, as well as executing a wide variety of scientific programs that resulted in six doctoral theses and more than one hundred scientific publications. The South Pole environment is unique among observatory sites for unusually low wind speeds, low absolute humidity, and the consistent clarity of the submillimeter sky. Especially significant are the exceptionally low values of sky noise found at this site, a result of the small water vapor content of the atmosphere. Multiple submillimeter-wave and Terahertz detector systems were in operation on AST/RO, including heterodyne and bolometric arrays. AST/RO's legacy includes comprehensive submillimeter-wave site testing of the South Pole, spectroscopic studies of 492 GHz and 809 GHz neutral atomic carbon and 460 GHz and 806 GHz carbon monoxide in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds, and the first detection of the 1.46 THz [N II] line from a ground-based observatory.

Stark, Antony A.

2013-01-01

29

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01

30

R.A. Jansen AST 598/494 'The Distant Universe' course, ASU, Fall 2014  

E-print Network

lecture): http://www.public.asu.edu/rjansen/ast598/ast598 jansen2014.pdf Further reading: 2 An e-Book.pdf 2 Another useful companion book to this section is: Howell, S.B. 2006, Handbook of CCD Astronomy, 2 format was suitable for application as a 2-D detector. · In a CCD, two or more electrodes (called gates

Jansen, Rolf Arthur

31

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS Kepler's first law I. Planets move (ramutatval egyez): retrograde #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler's second law II component of velocity. So the law says r = constant But mr is the angular momentum

Petrovay, Kristóf

32

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES Planetary The Solar System has 8 planets : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System "Small Solar System Bodies" (SSSB) (IAU 2006

Petrovay, Kristóf

33

Restudy on the $\\Delta ^{\\ast}$ resonances in the $pp\\rightarrow nK^{+}\\Sigma ^{+}$ reaction  

E-print Network

In this work, the role of the $\\Delta ^{\\ast }$ resonances in the process of $pp\\rightarrow nK^{+}\\Sigma ^{+}$ are systematically investigated with the effective Lagrangian approach and the isobar model. We find that a $P_{31}$ state, either $\\Delta ^{\\ast }(1750)$ or $\\Delta ^{\\ast }(1910)$, is favored by the data while the $P_{33}$ state, namely $\\Delta ^{\\ast }(1920)$, has small contribution. Besides, either sub-threshold $S_{31}$ $\\Delta ^{\\ast}(1620)$ resonance or strong $n\\Sigma $ final state interaction or both have possible contribution at near threshold region, depending on the measured cross sections. We demonstrate the invariant mass distributions and the Dalitz Plots in order to investigate whether it is possible to distinguish the controversial $K\\Sigma $ production mechanism in these observables.

Wang, Xiao-Yun; Xie, Ju-Jun; Chen, Xu-Rong

2014-01-01

34

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1995-10-10

35

The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric  

E-print Network

The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric DNA telomeres by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway(s), which may involve homologous recombination. We find that endogenous BLM protein co-localizes with telomeric foci in ALT human cells

Ikura, Mitsuhiko

36

Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets  

E-print Network

Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets to Help discoveries (Singer, Hilton & Schwiengruber, 2005). Yet, any biography of a well-known scientist reveals

37

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

2013-04-01

38

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

2012-04-01

39

Biometrika (2014), pp. 115 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast066 Printed in Great Britain  

E-print Network

Biometrika (2014), pp. 1­15 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast066 Printed in Great Britain Measurement bias byguestonMarch18,2014http://biomet.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom Biometrika, 101(2), 423-437, 2014

California at Los Angeles, University of

40

AST1306, a potent EGFR inhibitor, antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

AST1306, an inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2, is currently in phase I of clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of AST306 on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We found that AST1306 significantly sensitized the ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-overexpressing cells to ABCG2 substrate chemotherapeutics. AST1306 significantly increased intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells by blocking ABCG2 efflux function. Moreover, AST1306 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of AST1306 to be within the transmembrane region of ABCG2. In conclusion, AST1306 could notably reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:24747122

Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, De-Shen; Kathawala, Rishil J; Patel, Atish; Talele, Tanaji T; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-Wu

2014-08-01

41

Using the AST Library to Create and Use STC-S Region Descriptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AST is a general purpose library for manipulating coordinate systems stored within astronomical data in various forms (including FITS-WCS). It now includes support for reading and writing WCS information in the IVOA STC-S format, thus making all the power of AST available for manipulating STC-S regions and coordinate systems. These new facilities have been used within the CUPID clump finding package to allow clump catalogues created by CUPID to be more easily used within a VO context.

Berry, D.; Draper, P.

2010-12-01

42

AST -- A Library for Handling World Coordinates Systems in Astronomy (Fortran Version)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. This programmer's manual should be of interest to anyone writing astronomical applications which need to manipulate coordinate system data, especially celestial or spectral coordinate systems. AST is portable and environment-independent.

Warren-Smith, R. F.; Berry, D. S.

43

AST -- A Library for Handling World Coordinates Systems in Astronomy (C Version)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. This programmer's manual should be of interest to anyone writing astronomical applications which need to manipulate coordinate system data, especially celestial or spectral coordinate systems. AST is portable and environment-independent.

Warren-Smith, R. F.; Berry, D. S.

44

Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1 - a unique, ?-barrel protein dimer exclusively found in fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique ?-barrel comprising 11 ?-strands and forms a ‘butterfly-like’ dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (1345Å2) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric ?-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients. PMID:22664167

Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Pomés, Anna; Minor, Wladek

2012-01-01

45

Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

1976-01-01

46

Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

Glenn, G. M.

1976-01-01

47

Testing the molecular nature of $\\bm{D_{s 0}^{\\ast}(2317)}$ and $\\bm{D_{0}^{\\ast} (2400)}$ in semileptonic $\\bm{B_s}$ and $\\bm{B}$ decays  

E-print Network

We study the semileptonic $B_s$ and $B$ decays into the $D_{s 0}^{\\ast} (2317)$ and $D_{0}^{\\ast} (2400)$ resonances, respectively. With the help of a chiral unitarity model in coupled channels we compute the ratio of the decay widths of both processes. Using current values of the width for the $\\bar{B}^{0} \\to D_{0}^{\\ast} (2400)^{+} \\bar{\

Navarra, F S; Oset, E; Sekihara, T

2015-01-01

48

Biometrika (2013), pp. 116 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast026 Printed in Great Britain  

E-print Network

Biometrika (2013), pp. 1­16 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast026 Printed in Great Britain Scaled envelopesUniversityofFloridaonAugust23,2013http://biomet.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom #12;2 R. D. COOK AND Z. SU squares regression

Su, Zhihua "Sophia"

49

Biometrika (2013), pp. 118 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast015 C 2013 Biometrika Trust  

E-print Network

Biometrika (2013), pp. 1­18 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast015 C 2013 Biometrika Trust Printed in Great,2013http://biomet.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom #12;2 W. SHEN, S. T. TOKDAR AND S. GHOSAL model of beta

Ghoshal, Subhashis

50

PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

2012-12-01

51

76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas. The Draft EA was...Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, TX. The Grasshopper...landing vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city...the Draft EA on the FAA/AST Web site at...

2011-09-27

52

Aperture Photometry in Practice AST337 In-Class Exercise (hand me in before you leave!)  

E-print Network

Aperture Photometry in Practice AST337 In-Class Exercise (hand me in before you leave!) 7 April in pixels, its brightness in ADU ("Object Counts" in "atv aperture photometry" window), its FWHM in pixels FWHM (ie. aperture radius = FWHM)? Part III: PhotVis, an IDL Photometry and Visualization Tool 1. Run

Lowenthal, James D.

53

Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.  

PubMed

Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

2014-10-27

54

telomeric DNA (17). It is possible that the extra telomeric sequences in ALT cells are titrating  

E-print Network

telomeric DNA (17). It is possible that the extra telomeric sequences in ALT cells are titrating locus (the clark kent alleles) are associated with dense hypermethylation at noncanonical cytosines (Cp

Jacobsen, Steve

55

CME 331.3 (3L-3P alt week) Microprocessor Based Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

CME 331.3 (3L-3P alt week) Microprocessor Based Embedded Systems Department of Electrical.usask.ca/university_secretary/honesty/StudentAcademicAppeals.pdf Course Content: Microprocessor - introductory concepts Intro to Stellaris LaunchPad Microcontroller

Saskatchewan, University of

56

Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells  

PubMed Central

Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM. PMID:25084169

Acharya, Samir; Kaul, Zeenia; Gocha, April Sandy; Martinez, Alaina R.; Harris, Julia; Parvin, Jeffrey D.; Groden, Joanna

2014-01-01

57

The Uremic Toxin Adsorbent AST-120 Abrogates Cardiorenal Injury Following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

An accelerated progressive decline in renal function is a frequent accompaniment of myocardial infarction (MI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin that accumulates from the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is contributory to both renal and cardiac fibrosis. IS levels can be reduced by administration of the oral adsorbent AST-120, which has been shown to ameliorate pathological renal and cardiac fibrosis in moderate to severe CKD. However, the cardiorenal effect of AST-120 on less severe renal dysfunction in the post-MI setting has not previously been well studied. MI-induced Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either AST-120 (MI+AST-120) or were untreated (MI+Vehicle) for 16 weeks. Serum IS levels were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Echocardiography and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed prior to sacrifice. Renal and cardiac tissues were assessed for pathological changes using histological and immunohistochemical methods, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Compared with sham, MI+Vehicle animals had a significant reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (by 42%, p<0.001) and fractional shortening (by 52%, p<0.001) as well as lower GFR (p<0.05) and increased serum IS levels (p<0.05). A significant increase in interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex was demonstrated in MI+Vehicle animals (p<0.001). Compared with MI+Vehicle, MI+AST-120 animals had increased GFR (by 13.35%, p<0.05) and reduced serum IS (p<0.001), renal interstitial fibrosis (p<0.05), and renal KIM-1, collagen-IV and TIMP-1 expression (p<0.05). Cardiac function did not change with AST-120 treatment, however gene expression of TGF-?1 and TNF-? as well as collagen-I and TIMP-1 protein expression was decreased in the non-infarcted myocardium (p<0.05). In conclusion, reduction of IS attenuates cardio-renal fibrotic processes in the post-MI kidney. KIM-1 appears to be a sensitive renal injury biomarker in this setting and is correlated with serum IS levels. PMID:24349545

Lekawanvijit, Suree; Kumfu, Sirinart; Wang, Bing H.; Manabe, Minako; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Kelly, Darren J.; Krum, Henry; Kompa, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

58

Investigation of the $D^{\\ast}_{s}D_{s} \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ and $B^{\\ast}_{s}B_{s} \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ vertices via QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

The strong coupling constants among mesons are very important quantities as they can provide useful information on the nature of strong interaction among hadrons as well as the QCD vacuum. In this article, we investigate the strong vertices of the $D^{\\ast}_{s}D_{s} \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ and $B^{\\ast}_{s}B_{s} \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ in the framework of the QCD sum rule approach choosing the $\\eta$ or $D_{s} (B_{s})$ meson as an off-shell state. We obtain the results $g_{D_s^*D_s\\eta}=(1.46\\pm 0.30)GeV^{-1}$, $g_{D_s^*D_s\\eta^{\\prime}}=(0.74\\pm 0.16)GeV^{-1}$, $g_{B_s^*B_s\\eta}=(5.29\\pm 1.06)GeV^{-1}$ and $g_{B_s^*B_s\\eta^{\\prime}}=(2.29\\pm 0.48)GeV^{-1}$ for the strong coupling constants under consideration, which can be checked in future experiments.

Yazici, E; Azizi, K; Sundu, H

2013-01-01

59

Investigation of the $D^{\\ast}_{s}D_{s} ?^{(\\prime)}$ and $B^{\\ast}_{s}B_{s} ?^{(\\prime)}$ vertices via QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

The strong coupling constants among mesons are very important quantities as they can provide useful information on the nature of strong interaction among hadrons as well as the QCD vacuum. In this article, we investigate the strong vertices of the $D^{\\ast}_{s}D_{s} \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ and $B^{\\ast}_{s}B_{s} \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ in the framework of the QCD sum rule approach choosing the $\\eta$ or $D_{s} (B_{s})$ meson as an off-shell state. We obtain the results $g_{D_s^*D_s\\eta}=(1.46\\pm 0.30)GeV^{-1}$, $g_{D_s^*D_s\\eta^{\\prime}}=(0.74\\pm 0.16)GeV^{-1}$, $g_{B_s^*B_s\\eta}=(5.29\\pm 1.06)GeV^{-1}$ and $g_{B_s^*B_s\\eta^{\\prime}}=(2.29\\pm 0.48)GeV^{-1}$ for the strong coupling constants under consideration, which can be checked in future experiments.

E. Yazici; E. Veli Veliev; K. Azizi; H. Sundu

2013-07-09

60

How useful are similarity word lists for indirect anaphora resolution? Caroline Gasperin* Susanne Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira*  

E-print Network

Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira* *PIPCA - Unisinos São Leopoldo, Brazil {caroline, renata}@exatas.unisinos.br **ATILF - CNRS Nancy, France Susanne.Salmon-Alt@atilf.fr Abstract This work tests the use of word, also adopted in our previous work (Vieira et al. 2002, Salmon- Alt & Vieira, 2002) was based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness and Education  

E-print Network

Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness from 22 of these educators about their experiences using Control-Alt-Hack with over 450 students to thinking about security and that facilitates ad hoc, social interactions led us to design Control-Alt-Hack

Kohno, Tadayoshi

62

Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games In Education and Research  

E-print Network

Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games, produced, distributed, and evaluated Con- trol-Alt-HackTM: a recreational tabletop card game in- tended we released Control-Alt-Hack: White Hat Hacking for Fun and ProfitTM--a recreation- al tabletop card

Kohno, Tadayoshi

63

Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking and Aspartate Aminotransferase:Alanine Aminotransferase (AST:ALT) Ratio, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), and Apolipoprotein A1 and B in the U.S. Population*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The misuse of alcohol, even at levels just above two drinks per day, is a public health problem, but identifying patients with this potentially unhealthy drinking is hindered by the lack of tests. Several blood tests, such as those testing for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) or mean corpuscular volume (MCV), are among the commonly used markers to identify very heavy drinking, but combinations of these markers have rarely been tested in lighter drinkers. We examined the relationship between alcohol drinking and the levels of these markers in a national population-based study composed primarily of lighter drinkers. Method: Data were analyzed from 8,708 adult participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey after excluding subjects with iron overload; with hepatitis B and C; who were pregnant; and who were taking prescription drugs such as phenytoin (Dilantin), barbiturates, and hydroxyurea (Droxia and Hydrea). The relationship between the amount of alcohol drinking and GGT, aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase ratio, MCV of erythrocytes, and apolipoprotein A1 and B were analyzed and adjusted for potential liver injury risk factors. Results: The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol drinking (defined as consumption of more than two standard drinks per day) was 6.7%. Heavier drinkers tended to be younger and reported an average of 4.2 drinks per day. When tested alone or in combination, the sensitivity and positive predictive values for these blood tests were too low to be clinically useful in identifying the subjects in the heavier drinking category. Conclusions: In this large, national, population-based study, the markers of heavy drinking studied here, either alone or in combination, did not appear to be useful in identifying unhealthy drinking. More work is needed to find the novel marker(s) associated with risky alcohol drinking. PMID:20230722

Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Qi, Rong; Crabb, David W.; Witzmann, Frank

2010-01-01

64

Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

1976-01-01

65

A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT).  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2R? (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

2015-04-01

66

AST 598 'Instrumentation and Data Analysis' course, ASU, Fall 2013 Astronomy with Charged Coupled Devices  

E-print Network

Devices R.A. Jansen #12;2 The e-Book companion to this section is available from: http://www.public.asu.edu/rjansen/ast598/2006ACCD.ebook...1J.pdf 2 Another useful companion book to this section is: Howell, S.B. 2006 was suitable for application as a 2-D detector. · In a CCD, two or more electrodes (called gates in MOSFET

Rhoads, James

67

$D_{s0}^{\\ast\\pm}(2317)$ and $KD$ scattering from $B^0_s$ decay  

E-print Network

We study the $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D_s^-(DK)^+$ weak decay, and look at the $DK$ invariant mass distribution with the aim of obtaining relevant information on the nature of the $D_{s0}^{\\ast+}(2317)$ resonance. We make a simulation of the experiment using the actual mass of the $D_{s0}^{\\ast+}(2317)$ resonance and recent lattice QCD relevant parameters of the $KD$ scattering amplitude. We then solve the inverse problem of obtaining the $KD$ amplitude from these synthetic data, to which we have added a 5\\% or 10\\% error. We prove that one can obtain from these "data" the existence of a bound $KD$ state, the $KD$ scattering length and effective range, and most importantly, the $KD$ probability in the wave function of the bound state obtained, which was found to be largely dominant from the lattice QCD results. This means that one can obtain information on the nature of the $D_{s0}^{\\ast+}(2317)$ resonance from the implementation of this experiment, in the line of finding the structure of resonances, which is one of t...

Albaladejo, Miguel; Oset, Eulogio

2015-01-01

68

A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT)  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2R? (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. What's new? All cancerous cells share the need to maintain and elongate their telomeres. In approximately 30% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed ALT, making specific therapeutic strategies potentially interesting. Here, the authors showed that intracerebral grafts of an ALT glioma cell line called TG20 in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme, which could aid the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. This model could also support the development of specific therapies, with the study revealing G-quadruplex ligands as a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

2015-01-01

69

EE 362.3 (3L-3P alt. weeks) Digital Signal Processing  

E-print Network

EE 362.3 (3L-3P alt. weeks) Digital Signal Processing Department of Electrical and Computer-Time and Continuous-Time Signals, Sampling Rate Change, Multirate Signal Processing, Digital Processing of Analog Engineering Fall 2014 Description: This course covers the basic theory of discrete-time signal processing

Saskatchewan, University of

70

On the worst-case complexity of the silhouette of a polytope Helmut Alt 1  

E-print Network

On the worst-case complexity of the silhouette of a polytope Helmut Alt 1 Marc Glisse 2 Xavier Goaoc 3 Abstract We give conditions under which the worst-case size of the silhouette of a polytope is sub-linear. 1 Introduction Given a viewpoint, the apparent boundary of a polyhedron, or silhouette

Lévy, Bruno

71

A metabolomic approach to clarifying the effect of AST-120 on 5/6 nephrectomized rats by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CE-MS).  

PubMed

The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations) in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4 anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, ?-guanidinobutyrate, N-?-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:23202318

Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Koichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Chitose; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

2012-11-01

72

ASTS recommended practice guidelines for controlled donation after cardiac death organ procurement and transplantation.  

PubMed

The American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) champions efforts to increase organ donation. Controlled donation after cardiac death (DCD) offers the family and the patient with a hopeless prognosis the option to donate when brain death criteria will not be met. Although DCD is increasing, this endeavor is still in the midst of development. DCD protocols, recovery techniques and organ acceptance criteria vary among organ procurement organizations and transplant centers. Growing enthusiasm for DCD has been tempered by the decreased yield of transplantable organs and less favorable posttransplant outcomes compared with donation after brain death. Logistics and ethics relevant to DCD engender discussion and debate among lay and medical communities. Regulatory oversight of the mandate to increase DCD and a recent lawsuit involving professional behavior during an attempted DCD have fueled scrutiny of this activity. Within this setting, the ASTS Council sought best-practice guidelines for controlled DCD organ donation and transplantation. The proposed guidelines are evidence based when possible. They cover many aspects of DCD kidney, liver and pancreas transplantation, including donor characteristics, consent, withdrawal of ventilatory support, operative technique, ischemia times, machine perfusion, recipient considerations and biliary issues. DCD organ transplantation involves unique challenges that these recommendations seek to address. PMID:19624569

Reich, D J; Mulligan, D C; Abt, P L; Pruett, T L; Abecassis, M M I; D'Alessandro, A; Pomfret, E A; Freeman, R B; Markmann, J F; Hanto, D W; Matas, A J; Roberts, J P; Merion, R M; Klintmalm, G B G

2009-09-01

73

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

74

Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus  

PubMed Central

The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion. PMID:20338176

Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

75

lambda altSF: a phage variant that acquired the ability to substitute specific sets of genes at high frequency.  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation of lambda altSF, a variant of Escherichia coli phage lambda that substitutes sets of genes at high frequency. Two forms of the variant phage have been studied: lambda altSF lambda, which exhibits the immunity (repressor recognition) of phage lambda, and lambda altSF22, which exhibits the immunity of Salmonella phage P22. Lysates made from single plaques of lambda altSF lambda contain 10-30% phage of the P22 form. Similarly, lysates from single plaques of lambda altSF22 contain as much as 1% phage of the lambda form. Heteroduplex analyses reveal the following features of the lambda altSF chromosomes: (i) each form has the immunity genes appropriate to its immune phenotype, (ii) the substituted segments include genes involved in regulation and replication, and (iii) the alt phages have unusual additions and substitutions of DNA not normally found associated with either immunity region. In the case of lambda altSF lambda, there is a small insertion in the region of the cI gene. Because revertants that lose this inserted DNA concomitantly lose the ability to substitute, we conclude that the insertion plays a role in the substitution process. In the case of change from lambda altSF lambda to lambda altSF22, the substituting P22 genes are derived from the E. coli host. We have identified a set of Salmonella phage P22 genes in a standard nonlysogenic strain of E. coli K-12 that is apparently carried in a silent form. The reason for this lack of expression is not obvious, because this P22 material includes structural genes and associated promoters and is potentially active. When this set of genes substitutes for the analogous set of genetic material on the genome of lambda altSF lambda, the P22 genes are expressed in a normal manner. Images PMID:6454136

Friedman, D; Tomich, P; Parsons, C; Olson, E; Deans, R; Flamm, E

1981-01-01

76

The nature of the $Z_b$ states from a combined analysis of $\\Upsilon(5S)\\rightarrow h_b(mP) \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\Upsilon(5S)\\rightarrow B^{(\\ast)}\\bar B^{(\\ast)}\\pi$  

E-print Network

With a combined analysis of the data on $\\Upsilon(5S)\\rightarrow h_b(1P,2P)\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\Upsilon(5S)\\rightarrow B^{(\\ast)}\\bar B^{(\\ast)}\\pi$ in an effective field theory approach, we determine the masses and widths of the $Z_b$ states in two scenarios. In one scenario we assume that the $Z_b$ states are pure molecular states, while in the other one we assume that the $Z_b$ states contain a compact component. We find that the present data favor that there should be some compact components inside $Z_b^{(\\prime)}$ in association with the molecular components. By fitting the invariant mass spectra of $\\Upsilon(5S)\\rightarrow h_b(1P,2P)\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\Upsilon(5S)\\rightarrow B^{(\\ast)}\\bar B^{\\ast}\\pi$, we determine that the probability of finding the compact components in the $Z_b$ states can be as large as about $40\\%$.

Huo, Wen-Sheng

2015-01-01

77

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.45.1543 URL: http://www.scientific.net/AST.45.1543  

E-print Network

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.45.1543 URL: http://www.scientific manuscript, published in "Advances in Science and Technology vol. 45 (2006) pp. 1543-1550" DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific@enit.fr Keywords: Ceramic-metal assembly, tensile strength, residual stresses, brazing process, thermo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Asallar›n Sonsuzluunun Alt› Deiflik Kan›t› M. Aigner ve G. M. Ziegler  

Microsoft Academic Search

u yaz›da asallar›n sonsuzluunun alt› deiflik kan›t›n› vereceiz. Umar›z okur bu kan›tlar- dan bizim kadar hofllan›r. Farkl› aç›lardan bakmalar›na karfl›n flu temel fikir kan›tlar›n hepsin- de ortak: Doal say›lar s›n›rs›zca büyür ve her do- ¤al say›n›n bir asal böleni vard›r. Bu iki olgu her se- ferinde asal say›lar› sonsuz olmaya zorluyor1. Asallar›n sonsuzluunu ilk olarak Öklid'in ka- n›tlad›¤› san›l›r. Biz

Pierre de Fermat

2005-01-01

79

RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells  

PubMed Central

A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, ‘Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres’ (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA–DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA–DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M.; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M.

2014-01-01

80

Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)  

SciTech Connect

Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. (Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States))

1991-03-11

81

09/10/12 17:09:44 PM AST 337 IDL Cheat Sheet Page 1 of 4 Smith/FCAD IDL Cheat Sheet  

E-print Network

09/10/12 17:09:44 PM AST 337 IDL Cheat Sheet Page 1 of 4 Smith/FCAD IDL Cheat Sheet James Lowenthal AST 337 IDL Cheat Sheet Page 2 of 4 Type Bytes Range Conversion Routine Name Constant Array Index Byte

Lowenthal, James D.

82

Determination of the Structure of the Catabolic N-Succinylornithine Transaminase (AstC) from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli possesses two acyl ornithine aminotransferases, one catabolic (AstC) and the other anabolic (ArgD), that participate in L-arginine metabolism. Although only 58% identical, the enzymes have been shown to be functionally interchangeable. Here we have purified AstC and have obtained X-ray crystal structures of apo and holo-AstC and of the enzyme complexed with its physiological substrate, succinylornithine. We compare the structures obtained in this study with those of ArgD from Salmonella typhimurium obtained elsewhere, finding several notable differences. Docking studies were used to explore the docking modes of several substrates (ornithine, succinylornithine and acetylornithine) and the co-substrate glutamate/?-ketogluterate. The docking studies support our observations that AstC has a strong preference for acylated ornithine species over ornithine itself, and suggest that the increase in specificity associated with acylation is caused by steric and desolvation effects rather than specific interactions between the substrate and enzyme. PMID:23484010

Newman, Janet; Seabrook, Shane; Surjadi, Regina; Williams, Charlotte C.; Lucent, Del; Wilding, Matthew; Scott, Colin; Peat, Thomas S.

2013-01-01

83

Determination of the structure of the catabolic N-succinylornithine transaminase (AstC) from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli possesses two acyl ornithine aminotransferases, one catabolic (AstC) and the other anabolic (ArgD), that participate in L-arginine metabolism. Although only 58% identical, the enzymes have been shown to be functionally interchangeable. Here we have purified AstC and have obtained X-ray crystal structures of apo and holo-AstC and of the enzyme complexed with its physiological substrate, succinylornithine. We compare the structures obtained in this study with those of ArgD from Salmonella typhimurium obtained elsewhere, finding several notable differences. Docking studies were used to explore the docking modes of several substrates (ornithine, succinylornithine and acetylornithine) and the co-substrate glutamate/?-ketogluterate. The docking studies support our observations that AstC has a strong preference for acylated ornithine species over ornithine itself, and suggest that the increase in specificity associated with acylation is caused by steric and desolvation effects rather than specific interactions between the substrate and enzyme. PMID:23484010

Newman, Janet; Seabrook, Shane; Surjadi, Regina; Williams, Charlotte C; Lucent, Del; Wilding, Matthew; Scott, Colin; Peat, Thomas S

2013-01-01

84

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [152] JULY 2011 1053-5888/11/$26.002011IEEE ast October, as the world  

E-print Network

increased telephone use, relaying of television signals, and other kinds of electronic data transmissionIEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [152] JULY 2011 1053-5888/11/$26.00©2011IEEE L ast October laser in May 1960, it was described as a "solution in search of a problem." In this context, the laser

Murphy, Thomas E.

85

Helium exhaust studies with the ALT-II pump limiter in TEXTOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In TEXTOR helium removal experiments with the pump-limiter ALT-II have started. To simulate the presence of helium ash in the plasma, helium is injected into the discharge (e.g. at t = 0.7s) as a short pulse of ? t = 20ms. It is found that the He is removed from the discharge in an e-folding time of about half a second for neutral beam heated plasmas and in an e-folding time of about 1.5 s in an OH plasma. The exhaust efficiency of helium amounts to about 8% and is close to the one for deuterium. The fuelling efficiency for the injected helium is found to be in the range of 50-100%; the remaining part seems to be stored in the TEXTOR walls. An estimate of the surface density leads to a value of several times 10 13 cm -2. This helium can easily be liberated in succeeding discharges and can be removed efficiently when ALT is pumping.

Finken, K. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Dippel, K. H.; Hardtke, A.; Hogan, J. T.; Moyer, R. A.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Rusbüldt, D.; Akaishi, K.; Conn, R. W.; Euringer, H.; Gray, D. S.; Horton, L. D.; Hulse, R. A.; Isler, R. C.; Klepper, C. C.; Mioduszewski, P. K.; Miyahara, A.; Sengoku, S.; Watkins, J. G.; Wolf, G. H.

1990-12-01

86

Factors underlying the association of body mass index with serum ALT in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases*  

PubMed Central

Objective: High body mass index (BMI) is considered as the most important risk factor for elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration. This study examined an array of factors, including waist circumference (WC) and folate deficiency, which may mediate the association of BMI with serum ALT concentration in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 378 patients with mild or moderate hypertension and without known hepatic diseases were recruited from five hospitals in Harbin, Shanghai, Beijing, Xi’an, and Nanjing. Results: Of the 360 hypertensive patients with complete data in our final analysis, 13.6% had high ALT concentrations (>40 IU/L). Factors including BMI, WC, triglyceride level, and folate concentration were associated with ALT concentration in univariate analysis. Consistently higher prevalence rates of elevated ALT were observed in subjects with lower folate concentrations (?12 vs. <12 nmol/L, 9.9% vs. 17.8%, P=0.03), with higher BMI (?28 vs. <28 kg/m2, 21.5% vs. 11.4%, P=0.02) or higher WC (?90 vs. <90 cm, 18.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.02). However, in multivariate analysis, the association between BMI and ALT concentration disappeared (P=0.802 in males and 0.369 in females), while WC in females (P<0.001) and folate concentration (P=0.036 in males and 0.044 in females) remained as significant predictors for ALT concentration. Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated that WC and low folate concentration were important factors underlying the association between BMI and ALT concentrations in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. PMID:23897794

Zhang, Yan; Qin, Xian-hui; Li, Jian-ping; Cui, Yi-min; Liu, Ze-yuan; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Ge, Jun-bo; Guan, De-ming; Hu, Jian; Wang, Yan-ni; Zhang, Fu-min; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xi-ping; Huo, Yong

2013-01-01

87

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

1994-05-17

88

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1994-05-17

89

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

90

Pole STAR: An 810 GHz Array Receiver for AST/RO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are constructing a 4-channel receiver at 810 GHz for use on the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory located at the South Pole (AST/RO). The 810 GHz mixers and junctions for the array are being provided by KOSMA. The mixers are housed in a hybrid cryostat located in a warm Coude' room just below the 1.7 m telescope. A pair of parabolic mirrors will be used to reimage the telescope's focal plane through a Martin-Puplett LO diplexer onto a 2x2 array of lenses. The lenses efficiently couple the telescope to each mixer's corrugated feedhorn. The SIS junction is matched to the waveguide by an on-chip tuner and a single, fixed backshort. The 1-2 GHz IF output of each mixer is fed into a low-noise, balanced, HEMT amplifier. All bias signals are provided by a computer controlled bias system, which is fully optically isolated from the control computer. This system provides automated adjustment and optimization of bias levels with web based monitoring. The IF outputs are further processed at room temperature and fed into a 4-channel array AOS constructed by KOSMA. A Gunn oscillator (J. Carlstrom) and multiplier (Erickson & Narayanan) are used to drive the array.

Groppi, C.; Walker, C.; Hungerford, A.; Kulesa, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kooi, J.

91

Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

1980-01-01

92

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

93

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

94

pH-responsive poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) alkylamide copolymers for intracellular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Many macromolecular therapeutics such as peptides, proteins, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN), and short interfering RNA (siRNA) are active only in the cytoplasm or nucleus of targeted cells. Endocytosis is the primary route for cellular uptake of these molecules, which results in their accumulation in the endosomal-lysosomal trafficking pathway and loss of therapeutic activity. In this article, we describe the synthesis and pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity of a new "smart" polymer family that can be utilized to enhance the intracellular delivery of therapeutic macromolecules through the endosomal membrane barrier into the cytoplasm of targeted cells. These polymers are propylamine, butylamine, and pentylamine derivatives of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) copolymers. The PSMA-alkylamide derivatives are hydrophilic and membrane-inactive at physiological pH; however, they become hydrophobic and membrane-disruptive in response to endosomal pH values as measured by their hemolytic activity. Results show that the pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity of PSMA derivatives can be controlled by varying the length of the alkylamine group, the degree of modification of the copolymer, and the molecular weight of the PSMA copolymer backbone. Butylamine and pentylamine derivatives of PSMA copolymers exhibited more than 80% hemolysis at endosomal pH values, which suggests their potential as a platform of "smart" polymeric carriers for enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of a variety of therapeutic macromolecules. PMID:16903689

Henry, Scott M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E H; Pirie, Christopher M; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S

2006-08-01

95

Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

2014-01-01

96

Biometrika (2014), 101, 2, pp. 319332 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast062 Printed in Great Britain Advance Access publication 19 February 2014  

E-print Network

Biometrika (2014), 101, 2, pp. 319­332 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast062 Printed in Great Britain Advance,2014http://biomet.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom #12;320 JIAJIE CHEN AND PETER Z. G. QIAN stratification

Qian, Peter Z. G.

97

A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

2014-03-01

98

The effect of IFN-based therapies on the short-term dynamics of alt in HCV-infected patients  

SciTech Connect

IFN therapy of HCV-infection has been shown to reduce production of virus from infected cells, but its effect on hepatocytes is less well understood. One indicator of liver damage is ALT, which has been used as an associated diagnostic for HCV infection.

Ribeiro, R. M. (Ruy M.); Talal, A. H. (Andrew H.); Layden, J. E. (Jennifer E.); Powers, K. A. (Kimberly A.); Layden, T. J. (Thomas J.); Perelson, Alan S.,

2002-01-01

99

Simple Synthesis of P(Cbz-alt-TBT) and PCDTBT by Combining Direct Arylation with Suzuki Polycondensation of Heteroaryl Chlorides.  

PubMed

Direct arylation (DA) of 2-chlorothiophene and 2-chloro-3-hexylthiophene with 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole is used to synthesize 4,7-bis(5-chloro-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTCl2 ) and 4,7-bis(5-chloro-4-hexyl-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DH-TBTCl2 ) in one step. Suitable conditions of the Suzuki polycondensations (SPC) of TBTCl2 and DH-TBTCl2 with the carbazole comonomer CbzPBE2 are established, furnishing PCDTBT and P(Cbz-alt-TBT) with high molecular weight and yield. Compared with control samples made from the corresponding dibromides, high-temperature NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate similar properties for PCDTBT but an increased content of Cbz-Cbz homocouplings for P(Cbz-alt-TBT). PMID:25333795

Lombeck, Florian; Matsidik, Rukiya; Komber, Hartmut; Sommer, Michael

2015-01-01

100

Seguiment de flora vascular protegida o amenaçada al Parc Natural de l’Alt Pirineu (Pirineus centrals)  

Microsoft Academic Search

En aquest treball es donen dades sobre set espècies de flora protegida i amenaçada presents al Parc Natural de l’Alt Pirineu: Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri, Astragalus penduliflorus, Cerinthe glabra, Hippuris vulgaris, Hypericum linariifolium, Leontopodium alpinum i Matthiola valesiaca. S’aporten censos i\\/o estimacions de l’àrea d’ocupació, informació sobre l’estructura de les poblacions i s’avalua el seu estat de conservació local. La

Pere Aymerich i Boixader

2009-01-01

101

Bortezomib and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma: higher AST and LDH levels associated with a worse prognosis on overall survival  

PubMed Central

Background Bortezomib offers a novel approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma producing rapid control. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of bortezomib and dexamethasone-treated patients with multiple myeloma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 44 consecutively-treated multiple myeloma patients with bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle or 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously 1, 8, 15, and 22 of every 35-day cycle) and dexamethasone. Results The median time to progression, progression free survival time, and overall survival time in the treatment groups was 14.9, 14.9, and 38.3 months, respectively. The present study also suggests the possibility that the prognosis of patients with high levels of AST and LDH might be worse. Conclusions Our results indicate that the treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone is feasible. PMID:24952705

2014-01-01

102

Optics characterization of a 900-GHz HEB receiver for the ASTE telescope: design, measurement and tolerance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optics of a 900-GHz HEB receiver for the ASTE telescope have been analyzed by quasi-optical analysis and Physical Optics simulations in combination with beam pattern measurements. The disagreement between simulations and measurements has motivated an extensive campaign of Monte Carlo analyses to find out the cause of such a difference in results. Monte Carlo analyses have considered fabrication and assembly tolerances in all components in the RF chain, as well as some non-expected fabrication errors. This strategy has allowed determining the defective component. In short, the use of all available analyses techniques together with measurements has allowed singling out an underperforming element in an astronomical receiver. The change of this component will improve the optical efficiency and ease astronomical observations. These ideas can be of interest for any quasi-optical receiver at THz frequencies.

Gonzalez, A.; Soma, T.; Shiino, T.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

2014-09-01

103

AST to Platelet Index Correlates with Hepatic Cirrhosis But Not with Fibrosis in Pediatric Patients with Intestinal Failure  

PubMed Central

Patients with Intestinal failure (IF) require parenteral nutrition (PN) support to obtain enough nutrients to sustain growth. long-term PN use is associated with significant liver damage. Objective To analyze the utility of a non-invasive test, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), in the diagnosis of liver disease in pediatric patients with IF. Methods Medical records of all Boston Children’s Hospital patients who received PN and underwent a liver biopsy from January 2006 until November 2010 were reviewed. Patients with a clinical diagnosis with IF were selected. APRI was calculated as follows (AST (U/L)/ upper normal limit) × 100/ platelets (109/L). Presence of fibrosis and cirrhosis was estimated using the METAVIR score in liver biopsies. Results 62 liver biopsies from 48 patients (22 female) were studied. Mean APRI values in the different METAVIR categories (0-1; 2-3; 4) were: 1.80, 1.17, and 4.24 respectively (ANOVA; P=0.053; Bonferroni test for cirrhosis versus fibrosis P=0.048). APRI could significantly predict cirrhosis (OR 1.2.; 95% CI 1.001-1.43) but not significant fibrosis (METAVIR 2-3, OR 1.00; 95% CI =0.86-1.18). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for cirrhosis was 0.67 (95% CI= 0.45-0.89; p=0.13). Conclusion APRI, a non invasive, easy to obtain bedside test significantly predicts cirrhosis but not fibrosis in pediatric patients with IFALD. As the clinicians need a non invasive test to differentiate among different stages of liver fibrosis rather than differentiating cirrhosis from normal, we cannot recommend the use of this test in pediatric patients with IFALD for this purpose. PMID:23666459

Díaz, Juan J; Gura, Kathleen M.; Roda, Juliamna; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Duggan, Christopher; Jaksic, Tom; Lo, Clifford W.

2013-01-01

104

Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB  

PubMed Central

Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

2014-01-01

105

Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection for $\\Pra\\ \\simeq 0.8$ and $4\\times 10^{11} \\alt \\Ra\\ \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$: Ultimate-state transition for aspect ratio $\\Gamma = 1.00$  

E-print Network

We report experimental results for heat-transport measurements by turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio $\\Gamma \\equiv D/L = 1.00$ ($D = 1.12$ m is the diameter and $L = 1.12$ m the height). They are for the Rayleigh-number range $4\\times10^{11} \\alt \\Ra \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$ and for Prandtl numbers \\Pra\\ between 0.79 and 0.86. For $\\Ra \\Ra_1^*$ the data rise above the classical-state power-law and show greater scatter. In analogy to similar behavior observed for $\\Gamma = 0.50$, we interpret this observation as the onset of the transition to the ultimate state. Within our resolution this onset occurs at nearly the same value of $\\Ra_1^*$ as it does for $\\Gamma = 0.50$. This differs from an earlier estimate by Roche {\\it et al.} which yielded a transition at $\\Ra_U \\simeq 1.3\\times 10^{11} \\Gamma^{-2.5\\pm 0.5}$. A $\\Gamma$-independent $\\Ra^*_1$ would suggest that the boundary-layer shear transition is induced by fluctuations on a scale less than the sample dimensions r...

He, Xiaozhou; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter

2012-01-01

106

Astakine LvAST binds to the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-?) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-? as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

2015-03-01

107

Lifetime vibrational interference during the NO 1s-1? ^ast resonant excitation studied by the NO^+(A ^1Pi ? X ^1?^+) fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersed fluorescence from fragments formed after the de-excitation of the 1s-1? ast resonances of NastO and NOast has been measured in the spectral range of 118 142 nm. This range is dominated by lines of atomic nitrogen and oxygen fragments and by the A 1Pi ?ft(vprimeright) ? X 1?+?ft(vprime primeright) bands in the NO+ ion which result from the participator Auger decay of the 1s-1? ast resonances. Ab-initio calculations of the transition probabilities between vibrational levels during the reaction NO X 2Pi?ft(v0=0right) ? Nast O?ft( NOastright) 1s-1? ast ?ft( vrright) Longrightarrow NO+ A 1Pi ?ft(vprimeright) ? X 1?+?ft(vprime primeright) were used to explain the observed intensity dependence for the A?ft(vprime right) ? X?ft(vprime primeright) fluorescence bands on the exciting-photon energy across the resonances and on both vprime and vprime prime vibrational quantum numbers. The multiplet structure of the 1s-1? ast resonance and lifetime vibrational interference explain the observed exciting-photon energy dependence of the A?ft( vprimeright) ? X?ft(vprime primeright) fluorescence intensity. A strong spin-orbit coupling between singlet and triplet states of NO+ is proposed to reduce additional cascade population of the A 1Pi state via radiative transitions from the W 1? and Aprime 1?- states and to explain remaining differences between measured and calculated integral fluorescence intensities.

Ehresmann, A.; Kielich, W.; Werner, L.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Omel'Yanenko, D. V.; Sukhorukov, V. L.; Schartner, K.-H.; Schmoranzer, H.

2007-11-01

108

Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE  

SciTech Connect

We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Masaaki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan (China); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [Institute of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); Saito, Masao [ALMA Project Office, NAOJ (Japan)

2009-08-05

109

ASTS Advanced Transplant Provider Award Mr. Monge's active participation in and dedication to multi-organ transplant programs over the past  

E-print Network

ASTS Advanced Transplant Provider Award Mr. Monge's active participation in and dedication to multi-organ transplant programs over the past two decades clearly illustrate how deserving he is of this award. Surgeons, hepatologists, transplant fellows, PAs, nurses, residents, and students have all benefited from his generosity

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

110

Biometrika (2013), 100, 4, pp. 955970 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast031 Printed in Great Britain Advance Access publication 30 August 2013  

E-print Network

Biometrika (2013), 100, 4, pp. 955­970 doi: 10.1093/biomet/ast031 Printed in Great Britain Advance(·) is the variance function, and f0 is C 2013 Biometrika Trust atSerialsDeptonDecember15,2013http://biomet

Shen, Jinglai

111

Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

Baber, H. T., Jr.

1979-01-01

112

Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in water buffaloes with experimental subclinical fasciolosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chronic Fasciola hepatica infection on the activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was investigated in water buffaloes dosed daily with 60 F. hepatica metacercariae over 20 days. Experimental fluke infection caused no clinical signs but provoked an increase in plasma level of IgG directed against F. hepatica from 4 weeks

Qian Yang; Wei Hua Mao; I Ferre; J. E Bayón; X. Z Mao; J González-Gallego

1998-01-01

113

Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection for $\\Pra\\ \\simeq 0.8$ and $4\\times 10^{11} \\alt \\Ra\\ \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$: Ultimate-state transition for aspect ratio $?= 1.00$  

E-print Network

We report experimental results for heat-transport measurements by turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio $\\Gamma \\equiv D/L = 1.00$ ($D = 1.12$ m is the diameter and $L = 1.12$ m the height). They are for the Rayleigh-number range $4\\times10^{11} \\alt \\Ra \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$ and for Prandtl numbers \\Pra\\ between 0.79 and 0.86. For $\\Ra \\Ra_1^*$ the data rise above the classical-state power-law and show greater scatter. In analogy to similar behavior observed for $\\Gamma = 0.50$, we interpret this observation as the onset of the transition to the ultimate state. Within our resolution this onset occurs at nearly the same value of $\\Ra_1^*$ as it does for $\\Gamma = 0.50$. This differs from an earlier estimate by Roche {\\it et al.} which yielded a transition at $\\Ra_U \\simeq 1.3\\times 10^{11} \\Gamma^{-2.5\\pm 0.5}$. A $\\Gamma$-independent $\\Ra^*_1$ would suggest that the boundary-layer shear transition is induced by fluctuations on a scale less than the sample dimensions rather than by a global $\\Gamma$-dependent flow mode. Within the resolution of the measurements the heat transport above $\\Ra_1^*$ is equal for the two $\\Gamma$ values, suggesting a universal aspect of the ultimate-state transition and properties. The enhanced scatter of \\Nu\\ in the transition region, which exceeds the experimental resolution, indicates an intrinsic irreproducibility of the state of the system.

Xiaozhou He; Denis Funfschilling; Eberhard Bodenschatz; Guenter Ahlers

2012-05-26

114

Fabrication of superhydrophilic poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)/silica hybrid surfaces on poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes.  

PubMed

Superhydrophilic organic/inorganic hybrid surfaces have been fabricated on blend membranes of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA). The blend membranes were prepared from PVDF/SMA mixed solution with N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as solvent by immersion-precipitation phase inversion process. The gained blend membranes were immersed into ?-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) solution to generate SMA/silica hybrid surfaces by the reaction between anhydrides and APTS. The hybrid surfaces chemical compositions, morphologies and hydrophilicity were investigated in detail. It demonstrates that the hybrid surfaces possess micro-nano hierarchical structure and display superhydrophilicity property and good stability. Finally, the reaction and formation mechanism of the superhydrophilicity hybrid surface was discussed. PMID:21862031

Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

2011-11-15

115

An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminum tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L).  

PubMed

Aluminum toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated Triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes homologous to the single-copy Al-activated malate transporter (TaALMT1) Al-tolerance gene of wheat. Tolerant (M39A-1-6) and intolerant (M77A-1) rye haplotypes contain five and two genes, respectively, of which two (ScALMT1-M39.1 and ScALMT1-M39.2) and one (ScALMT1-M77.1) are highly expressed in the root tip, typically the main site of plant Al tolerance/susceptibility. All three transcripts are upregulated by exposure to Al. High-resolution genetic mapping identified two resistant lines resulting from recombination within the gene cluster. These recombinants exclude all genes flanking the gene cluster as candidates for controlling Alt4 tolerance, including a homolog of the barley HvMATE Al-tolerance gene. In the recombinants, one hybrid gene containing a chimeric open reading frame and the ScALMT1-M39.1 gene each appeared to be sufficient to provide full tolerance. mRNA splice variation was observed for two of the rye ALMT1 genes and in one case, was correlated with a approximately 400-bp insertion in an intron. PMID:18493079

Collins, N C; Shirley, N J; Saeed, M; Pallotta, M; Gustafson, J P

2008-05-01

116

ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... disease Iron tests and genetic tests for hereditary hemochromatosis A liver biopsy may be performed to help ... Conditions: Liver Disease , Hepatitis , Cirrhosis , Alcoholism , Wilson Disease , Hemochromatosis Elsewhere On The Web MayoClinic.com: Liver Function ...

117

Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Award: Standard or Continuing Grant Estimated Number of Awards: 6 to 10 - standard or continuing ... Conditions: Standard NSF award conditions apply. Reporting Requirements: Standard NSF reporting ...

118

Search for the rare decays $J/?\\to D_s^-?^+$ and $J/?\\to \\overline{D}{}^0\\overline{K}{}^{\\ast0}$  

E-print Network

A search for the rare decays of $J/\\psi \\to D_s^-\\rho^+ + c.c.$ and $J/\\psi \\to \\overline{D}{}^0\\overline{K}{}^{\\ast0} + c.c.$ is performed with a data sample of 225.3 million $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector. No evident signal is observed. Upper limits on the branching fractions are determined to be $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to D_s^-\\rho^+ + c.c.) < 1.3 \\times 10^{-5}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to \\overline{D}{}^0\\overline{K}{}^{\\ast0} + c.c.) < 2.5 \\times 10^{-6}$ at the $90\\%$ confidence level.

BESIII Collaboration; M. Ablikim; M. N. Achasov; X. C. Ai; O. Albayrak; M. Albrecht; D. J. Ambrose; F. F. An; Q. An; J. Z. Bai; R. Baldini Ferroli; Y. Ban; J. V. Bennett; M. Bertani; J. M. Bian; E. Boger; O. Bondarenko; I. Boyko; S. Braun; R. A. Briere; H. Cai; X. Cai; O. Cakir; A. Calcaterra; G. F. Cao; S. A. Cetin; J. F. Chang; G. Chelkov; G. Chen; H. S. Chen; J. C. Chen; M. L. Chen; S. J. Chen; X. Chen; X. R. Chen; Y. B. Chen; H. P. Cheng; X. K. Chu; Y. P. Chu; D. Cronin-Hennessy; H. L. Dai; J. P. Dai; D. Dedovich; Z. Y. Deng; A. Denig; I. Denysenko; M. Destefanis; W. M. Ding; Y. Ding; C. Dong; J. Dong; L. Y. Dong; M. Y. Dong; S. X. Du; J. Z. Fan; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; Y. Fang; L. Fava; C. Q. Feng; C. D. Fu; O. Fuks; Q. Gao; Y. Gao; C. Geng; K. Goetzen; W. X. Gong; W. Gradl; M. Greco; M. H. Gu; Y. T. Gu; Y. H. Guan; A. Q. Guo; L. B. Guo; T. Guo; Y. P. Guo; Y. L. Han; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; Z. Y. He; T. Held; Y. K. Heng; Z. L. Hou; C. Hu; H. M. Hu; J. F. Hu; T. Hu; G. M. Huang; G. S. Huang; H. P. Huang; J. S. Huang; L. Huang; X. T. Huang; Y. Huang; T. Hussain; C. S. Ji; Q. Ji; Q. P. Ji; X. B. Ji; X. L. Ji; L. L. Jiang; L. W. Jiang; X. S. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; Z. Jiao; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; T. Johansson; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; X. L. Kang; X. S. Kang; M. Kavatsyuk; B. Kloss; B. Kopf; M. Kornicer; W. Kuehn; A. Kupsc; W. Lai; J. S. Lange; M. Lara; P. Larin; M. Leyhe; C. H. Li; Cheng Li; Cui Li; D. Li; D. M. Li; F. Li; G. Li; H. B. Li; J. C. Li; K. Li; K. Li; Lei Li; P. R. Li; Q. J. Li; T. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; Y. F. Liang; Y. T. Liang; D. X. Lin; B. J. Liu; C. L. Liu; C. X. Liu; F. H. Liu; Fang Liu; Feng Liu; H. B. Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; J. P. Liu; K. Liu; K. Y. Liu; P. L. Liu; Q. Liu; S. B. Liu; X. Liu; Y. B. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Zhiqiang Liu; Zhiqing Liu; H. Loehner; X. C. Lou; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; H. L. Lu; J. G. Lu; X. R. Lu; Y. Lu; Y. P. Lu; C. L. Luo; M. X. Luo; T. Luo; X. L. Luo; M. Lv; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; S. Ma; T. Ma; X. Y. Ma; F. E. Maas; M. Maggiora; Q. A. Malik; Y. J. Mao; Z. P. Mao; J. G. Messchendorp; J. Min; T. J. Min; R. E. Mitchell; X. H. Mo; Y. J. Mo; H. Moeini; C. Morales Morales; K. Moriya; N. Yu. Muchnoi; H. Muramatsu; Y. Nefedov; I. B. Nikolaev; Z. Ning; S. Nisar; X. Y. Niu; S. L. Olsen; Q. Ouyang; S. Pacetti; M. Pelizaeus; H. P. Peng; K. Peters; J. L. Ping; R. G. Ping; R. Poling; N. Q.; M. Qi; S. Qian; C. F. Qiao; L. Q. Qin; X. S. Qin; Y. Qin; Z. H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; K. H. Rashid; C. F. Redmer; M. Ripka; G. Rong; X. D. Ruan; A. Sarantsev; K. Schoenning; S. Schumann; W. Shan; M. Shao; C. P. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; M. R. Shepherd; W. M. Song; X. Y. Song; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; G. X. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. J. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; Z. T. Sun; C. J. Tang; X. Tang; I. Tapan; E. H. Thorndike; D. Toth; M. Ullrich; I. Uman; G. S. Varner; B. Wang; D. Wang; D. Y. Wang; K. Wang; L. L. Wang; L. S. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; P. L. Wang; Q. J. Wang; S. G. Wang; W. Wang; X. F. Wang; Y. D. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Y. Q. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. G. Wang; Z. H. Wang; Z. Y. Wang; D. H. Wei; J. B. Wei; P. Weidenkaff; S. P. Wen; M. Werner; U. Wiedner; M. Wolke; L. H. Wu; N. Wu; Z. Wu; L. G. Xia; Y. Xia; D. Xiao; Z. J. Xiao; Y. G. Xie; Q. L. Xiu; G. F. Xu; L. Xu; Q. J. Xu; Q. N. Xu; X. P. Xu; Z. Xue; L. Yan; W. B. Yan; W. C. Yan; Y. H. Yan; H. X. Yang; L. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. X. Yang; H. Ye; M. Ye; M. H. Ye; B. X. Yu; C. X. Yu; H. W. Yu; J. S. Yu; S. P. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; W. L. Yuan; Y. Yuan; A. Yuncu; A. A. Zafar; A. Zallo; S. L. Zang; Y. Zeng; B. X. Zhang; B. Y. Zhang; C. Zhang; C. B. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. J. Zhang; J. Q. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; J. Y. Zhang; J. Z. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; X. J. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Z. H. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; G. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; Lei Zhao; Ling Zhao; M. G. Zhao; Q. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; S. J. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; A. Zhemchugov; B. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; Y. H. Zheng; B. Zhong; L. Zhou; Li Zhou; X. Zhou; X. K. Zhou; X. R. Zhou; X. Y. Zhou; K. Zhu; K. J. Zhu; X. L. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; J. Zhuang; B. S. Zou; J. H. Zou

2014-02-17

119

Crystal Structure of N-succinylarginine Dihydrolase AstB, Bound to Substrate and Product, an Enzyme from the Arginine Catabolic Pathway of Escherichia Coli  

SciTech Connect

The ammonia-producing arginine succinyltransferase pathway is the major pathway in Escherichia coli and related bacteria for arginine catabolism as a sole nitrogen source. This pathway consists of five steps, each catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, the second enzyme of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway, providing the first structural insight into enzymes from this pathway. The enzyme exhibits a pseudo 5-fold symmetric {alpha}/{beta} propeller fold of circularly arranged {beta}{beta}{alpha}{beta} modules enclosing the active site. The crystal structure indicates clearly that this enzyme belongs to the amidinotransferase (AT) superfamily and that the active site contains a Cys-His-Glu triad characteristic of the AT superfamily. Structures of the complexes of AstB with the reaction product and a C365S mutant with bound the N-succinylarginine substrate suggest a catalytic mechanism that consists of two cycles of hydrolysis and ammonia release, with each cycle utilizing a mechanism similar to that proposed for arginine deiminases. Like other members of the AT superfamily of enzymes, AstB possesses a flexible loop that is disordered in the absence of substrate and assumes an ordered conformation upon substrate binding, shielding the ligand from the bulk solvent, thereby controlling substrate access and product release.

Tocilj,A.; Schrag, J.; Li, Y.; Schneider, B.; Reitzer, L.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.

2005-01-01

120

Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

121

Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: A system with starlike morphology and interactions  

SciTech Connect

We report on an experimental study of single particle properties and interactions of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) starlike micelles. The starlike regime is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20) and the number of arms (functionality) is changed by varying the composition of the solvent (the interfacial tension). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data in the dilute regime can be modeled by assuming a constant density profile in the micellar core (compact core) and a starlike density profile in the corona (starlike shell). The starlike morphology of the corona is confirmed by a direct comparison with SANS measurements of dilute poly butadiene star solutions. Comparison of structure factors obtained by SANS measurements in the concentrated regime shows in addition that the interactions in the two systems are equivalent. Micellar structure factors at several packing fractions can be modeled by using the ultrasoft potential recently proposed for star polymers [Likos et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4450 (1998)]. The experimental phase diagram of PEP-PEO micelles is quantitatively compared to theoretical expectations, finding good agreement for the location of the liquid-solid boundary and excellent agreement for the critical packing fraction where the liquid-to-bcc crystal transition takes place for f<70. The functionality, i.e., the coronal density, strongly influences the nature of the solid phase: for f<70 the system crystallizes into a bcc phase, high f>70 formation of amorphous arrested states prevents crystallization.

Laurati, M.; Stellbrink, J.; Lund, R.; Willner, L.; Richter, D. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zaccarelli, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM-CRS SOFT, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazza A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy)

2007-10-15

122

Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

Merlin, Peter W.

2006-01-01

123

Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

2013-03-01

124

Implementation and evaluation of the 5As framework of obesity management in primary care: design of the 5As Team (5AsT) randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a pressing public health concern, which frequently presents in primary care. With the explosive obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need to maximize effective management in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management™ (5As) are a collection of knowledge tools developed by the Canadian Obesity Network. Low rates of obesity management visits in primary care suggest provider behaviour may be an important variable. The goal of the present study is to increase frequency and quality of obesity management in primary care using the 5As Team (5AsT) intervention to change provider behaviour. Methods/design The 5AsT trial is a theoretically informed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Clinic-based multidisciplinary teams (RN/NP, mental health, dietitians) will be randomized to control or the 5AsT intervention group, to participate in biweekly learning collaborative sessions supported by internal and external practice facilitation. The learning collaborative content addresses provider-identified barriers to effective obesity management in primary care. Evidence-based shared decision making tools will be co-developed and iteratively tested by practitioners. Evaluation will be informed by the RE-AIM framework. The primary outcome measure, to which participants are blinded, is number of weight management visits/full-time equivalent (FTE) position. Patient-level outcomes will also be assessed, through a longitudinal cohort study of patients from randomized practices. Patient outcomes include clinical (e.g., body mass index [BMI], blood pressure), health-related quality of life (SF-12, EQ5D), and satisfaction with care. Qualitative data collected from providers and patients will be evaluated using thematic analysis to understand the context, implementation and effectiveness of the 5AsT program. Discussion The 5AsT trial will provide a wide range of insights into current practices, knowledge gaps and barriers that limit obesity management in primary practice. The use of existing resources, collaborative design, practice facilitation, and integrated feedback loops cultivate an applicable, adaptable and sustainable approach to increasing the quantity and quality of weight management visits in primary care. Trial registration NCT01967797. PMID:24947045

2014-01-01

125

Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion  

PubMed Central

Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15R?-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1?, IL-1? and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

2014-01-01

126

Assessing Racial Profiling &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I consider the evaluation of racial profiling in traffic stops from a combination of welfarist and non-welfarist considerations. I argue that benefits from profiling in terms of crime reduction have not been identified and that further, the harm to those who are innocent and stopped is potentially high. I then argue that profiling creates a clear injustice

Steven N. Durlauf

2006-01-01

127

Inverse Campaigning &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

It can be advantageous for an ‘office motivated’ party A to spend effort to make it public that a group of voters will lose from party A's policy proposal. Such effort is called inverse campaigning. The inverse campaigning equilibria are described for the case where the two parties can simultaneously reveal information publicly to uninformed voters. Inverse campaigning dissipates the

Kai A. Konrad; FÜR SOZIALFORSCHUNG

2004-01-01

128

INEQUALITY IN CITIES &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Much of the inequality literature has focused on national inequality, but local inequality is also important. Crime rates are higher in more unequal cities; people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is a negative association between local inequality and the growth of city-level income and population, once we control for the initial distribution

Edward L. Glaeser; Matt Resseger; Kristina Tobio

2009-01-01

129

A Comparison of Linear Array and Hybrid Capture 2 for Detection of Carcinogenic HPV, and Cervical Precancer in ALTS  

PubMed Central

Background We were interested in comparing the performance of Linear Array (LA; Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA) to Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2; Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD) for the detection of carcinogenic HPV and cervical precancer. Methods LA and hc2 results were compared on baseline specimens collected from women with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap referred into ALTS (n = 3,488). Hybrid Capture 2 was conducted at the time of the study on liquid cytology specimens. LA was conducted retrospectively on aliquots from a second, stored cervical specimen masked to the hc2 results and clinical data. Paired LA and hc2 results (n = 3,289, 94%) were compared for the detection of carcinogenic HPV (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) and 2-year cumulative ?CIN3 as diagnosed by the quality control pathology review. Results LA was more likely to test positive for carcinogenic HPV than hc2 (55% vs. 53%, p = 0.001). For two-year cumulative ?CIN3, LA and hc2 had similar sensitivities (93.3% vs. 92.6%, respectively, p = 1.0), and LA was marginally less specific than hc2 (48.1% vs. 50.6%, respectively, p = 0.05). LA and hc2 had similar negative predictive values (98.70% vs. 98.64% respectively, p = 0.4), and LA had a slightly lower PPV than hc2 (14.6% vs. 15.1%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Conclusion We observed that LA and hc2 performed similarly in the detection of carcinogenic HPV and identification of CIN3 among women with an ASCUS Pap. PMID:18483347

Gravitt, Patti E.; Schiffman, Mark; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Castle, Philip E.

2009-01-01

130

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

2004-01-01

131

Orbiter altitude at ALT interface based on ALSES (Approach and Landing Shuttle Engineering Simulation) analyses. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of the orbiter altitude attainable at the approach and landing tests (ALT) interface determined by the approach and landing shuttle engineering simulation (manned) were documented. The analysis culminated in the verification of the trends observed in a similar analysis performed previously on the space vehicle dynamics simulation (unmanned). Altitude variations attributable to pilot steering variability ranged between 492

C. L. Colwell

1976-01-01

132

AltMV TGB1 nucleolar localization requires homologous interaction and correlates with cell wall localization associated with cell-to-cell movement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...

133

A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800 mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500 mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200 mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000 mg BID (n?=?1), 1500 mg BID (n?=?1), 800 mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200 mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6 months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000 mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended. PMID:24612546

2014-01-01

134

Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/0... 1 of 2 06/09/2007 20:38  

E-print Network

Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http REAL ESTATE CARS SFGate Web by Sign In | Register (45) Scientists say they know where dinosaur into the Earth some 65 million years ago and drove all the dinosaurs to extinction, the story has taken on a life

Claeys, Philippe

135

24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research 1-888-777-NAAR ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism,  

E-print Network

24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 · Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research · 1-888-777-NAAR L ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism, resumed a project of building his own article sets me to musing about cures and treatments for autism - Alex is never far from my mind. Indeed

136

A Hypothetical Protein of Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 (amad1_06475) Predicted to be a Cold-Shock Protein with RNA Chaperone Activity  

PubMed Central

Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 is a deep sea protobacteria that is distinct from the surface isolates of the same species. This study was designed to elucidate the biological function of amad1_06475, a hypothetical protein of A. macleodii AltDE1. The 70 residues protein sequence showed considerable homology with cold-shock proteins (CSPs) and RNA chaperones from different organisms. Multiple sequence alignment further supported the presence of conserved csp domain on the protein sequence. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was also determined, and verified by PROCHECK, Verify3D, and QMEAN programs. The predicted structure contained five anti-parallel ?-strands and RNA-binding motifs, which are characteristic features of prokaryotic CSPs. Finally, the binding of a thymidine-rich oligonucleotide and a single uracil molecule in the active site of the protein further strengthens our prediction about the function of amad1_06475 as a CSP and thereby acting as a RNA chaperone. The binding was performed by molecular docking tools and was compared with similar binding of 3PF5 (PDB) and 2HAX (PDB), major CSPs of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus caldolyticus, respectively. PMID:25574135

Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Kibria, KM Kaderi; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

2014-01-01

137

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

138

Synthesis and characterization of novel polymer-drug conjugates based on the poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a potential method for drug release.  

PubMed

Six well known drugs, captopril, metformin-HCl, metroniazole, nortriptyline-HCl, fluoxetine-HCl and betahistin-HCl, were grafted to poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA). Grafting was attained by combining of anhydride groups in the PSMA with therapeutic agents containing NH, OH or SH groups. The covalently grafted drugs were identified by infrared, (1)H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The drug release data at different times fits well to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The analysis of the exponent n of this model revealed a dominant Fickian diffusion mechanism under the in vitro conditions. Furthermore, mean dissolution time values (45.9 to 86.7 h) indicate a high resistance against drugs transport, the highest being obtained for betahistin-HCL. PMID:24362974

Khazaei, Ardeshir; Saednia, Shahnaz; Saien, Javad; Borazjani, Maryam Kiani; Rahmati, Sadegh; Hashempour-Zaviye, Ali; Abbasi, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

139

The Independent Living Donor Advocate: A Guidance Document From the American Society of Transplantation's Living Donor Community of Practice (AST LDCOP).  

PubMed

The independent living donor advocate (ILDA) serves a mandated and supportive role in the care of the living organ donor, yet qualifications and role requirements are not clearly defined. Guidance comes from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Conditions for Transplant Center Participation and interpretive guidelines, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Policy and CMS and OPTN site surveys, yet interpretation of regulations varies. Herein, the AST Living Donor Community of Practice (LDCOP) offers seven recommendations to clarify and optimize the ILDA role: (a) the ILDA must have a certain skill set rather than a specific profession, (b) the ILDA must be educated and demonstrate competence in core knowledge components, (c) the ILDA's primary role is to assess components of informed consent, (d) centers must develop a transparent system to define ILDA independence, (e) the ILDA should have a reporting structure outside the transplant center, (f) the ILDA's role should be integrated throughout the donor care continuum, (g) the ILDA role should include a narrow "veto power." We address controversies in ILDA implementation, and offer pathways to maximize benefits and minimize limitations of approaches that may each meet regulatory requirements but confer different practice benefits. We propose a research agenda to explore the impact of the ILDA. PMID:25612499

Hays, R E; LaPointe Rudow, D; Dew, M A; Taler, S J; Spicer, H; Mandelbrot, D A

2015-02-01

140

AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

Myers, William; Winter, Steve

2006-01-01

141

Galactic conformity and central / satellite quenching, from the satellite profiles of M$^{\\ast}$ galaxies at $0.4  

E-print Network

We explore the redshift evolution of a curious correlation between the star-formation properties of central galaxies and their satellites (`galactic conformity') at intermediate to high redshift ($0.49.7$, around central galaxies at the characteristic Schechter function mass, ${\\rm M} \\sim {\\rm M}^{\\ast}$. We fit the radial profiles of satellite number densities with simple power laws, finding slopes in the range -1.1 to -1.4 for mass-selected satellites, and -1.3 to -1.6 for passive satellites. We confirm the tendency for passive satellites to be preferentially located around passive central galaxies at $3\\sigma$ significance and show that it exists to at least $z\\sim2$. Meanwhile, the quenched fraction of satellites around star-forming galaxies is consistent with field galaxies of equal stellar masses. We find no convincing evidence for a redshift-dependent evolution of these trends. One simple interpretation of these results is that only passive central galaxies occupy an environment that is capable of ind...

Hartley, William G; Mortlock, Alice; Foucaud, Sebastien; Simpson, Chris

2014-01-01

142

ALTS Publications 2009-2000  

Cancer.gov

Castle PE, Rodriguez AC, Burk RD, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Solomon D, Sherman ME, Jeronimo J, Alfaro M, Morales J, Gullen D, Htuchinson ML, Wacholoder S, Schiffman M. Neither one-time negative screening tests nor negative colposcopy provides absolute reassurance against cervical cancer. Int J Cancer.

143

Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-based diblock copolymer micelles exhibit versatile hydrophobic drug loading, drug-dependent release, and internalization by multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(styrene) (PSMA-b-PS) and poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PSMA-b-PBA) were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations. Polymers were well-controlled with respect to molecular weight evolution and polydispersity indices (PDI < 1.2). Additionally, RAFT allowed for control of diblock compositions (i.e., ratio of hydrophilic PSMA blocks to hydrophobic PS/PBA blocks) and overall molecular weight, which resulted in reproducible self-assembly of diblocks into micelle nanoparticles with diameters of 20-100 nm. Parthenolide (PTL), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, was loaded and released from the micelles. The highest loading and prolonged release of PTL was observed from predominantly hydrophobic PSMA-b-PS micelles (e.g., PSMA100-b-PS258), which exhibited the most ordered hydrophobic environment for more favorable core-drug interactions. PSMA100-b-PS258 micelles were further loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), as well as two hydrophobic fluorescent probes, nile red and IR-780. While PTL released quantitatively within 24 h, DOX, IR-780, and nile red showed release over 1 week, suggesting stronger drug-core interactions and/or hindrance due to less favorable drug-solvent interactions. Finally, uptake and intracellular localization of PSMA100-b-PS258 micelles by multidrug resistant (MDR) ovarian cancer cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, in vitro analyses showed DOX-loaded PSMA-b-PS micelles exhibited greater cytotoxicity to NCI/ADR RES cells than equivalent free DOX doses (75% reduction in cell viability by DOX-loaded micelles compared to 40% reduction in viability by free DOX at 10 ?M DOX), likely due to avoidance of MDR mechanisms that limit free hydrophobic drug accumulation. The ability of micelles to achieve intracellular delivery via avoidance of MDR mechanisms, along with the versatility of chemical constituents and drug loading and release rates, offer many advantages for a variety of drug delivery applications. PMID:24955779

Baranello, Michael P; Bauer, Louisa; Benoit, Danielle S W

2014-07-14

144

Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD?/NADH reduction.  

PubMed

A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

2014-09-10

145

Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction  

PubMed Central

A 2,2?-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

2014-01-01

146

Equilibrium in the Jungle &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the jungle, power and coercion govern the exchange of resources. We study a simple, stylised model of the jungle that mirrors an exchange economy. We define the notion of jungle equilibrium and demonstrate that a number of standard results of competitive markets hold in the jungle.

Michele Piccione; Ariel Rubinstein

2007-01-01

147

SOCIALLY IMPROVING TAX REFORMS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes graphical methods to determine whether commodity tax changes are “socially improving,” in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. It also shows how estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios can be used to characterize socially improving tax reforms. The methodology is illustrated using

Jean-Yves Duclos; Paul Makdissi; Quentin Wodon

2008-01-01

148

ASTE Conference 2010 Sacramento, CA  

E-print Network

with science degrees but little or no training in education. These ill-prepared, new science teachers face are forced to hire teachers with science degrees but little or no training in education. Research indicates, 2009; Marvel, et al, 2006). Impact of Teacher Training on Student Achievement There are high costs

Lien, Jyh-Ming

149

Akademischer Stammbaum Andreas Walter Aste  

E-print Network

) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Disputatio inauguralis de casibus perplexis in jure Universit¨at Altdorf Dissertation angegeben. In einigen F¨allen wurden (s. Leibniz- Linie) jeweils die Sch¨uler durch ihre Vorg

Aste, Andreas

150

SELLING ONLINE VERSUS LIVE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seller choosing between auctioning online and live faces a tradeoff: lower transaction costs online against more rents left with the bidders. We model this tradeoff, and apply the theory to auctions of art. The crucial parameter for whether the seller does better online than live is not the expected price but the valuation uncertainty.

EIICHIRO KAZUMORI; JOHN MCMILLAN

2005-01-01

151

AST443 / PHY517 Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

photometry with narrowband filters. It consists of observing a series of single of adjacent measures of the brightness as a funcNon of wavelength. · Filter'nuua. Spectra of conNnuua can determine the spectral energy distribuNon (SED). ­ Filter

Walter, Frederick M.

152

Generalized Faddeev equations in the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas form for deuteron stripping with explicit inclusion of target excitations and Coulomb interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical description of reactions in general, and the theory for (d,p) reactions, in particular, needs to advance into the future. Here deuteron-stripping processes off a target nucleus consisting of A nucleons are treated within the framework of the few-body integral equations theory. The generalized Faddeev equations in the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas (AGS) form, which take into account the target excitations, with realistic optical potentials provide the most advanced and complete description of the deuteron stripping. The main problem in practical application of such equations is the screening of the Coulomb potential, which works only for light nuclei. In this paper we present a formulation of the Faddeev equations in the AGS form taking into account the target excitations with explicit inclusion of the Coulomb interaction. By projecting the (A+2)-body operators onto target states, matrix three-body integral equations are derived, which allow for the incorporation of the excited states of the target nucleons. Using the explicit equations for the partial Coulomb scattering wave functions in the momentum space we present the AGS equations in the Coulomb distorted wave representation without screening procedure. We also use the explicit expression for the off-shell two-body Coulomb scattering T matrix, which is needed to calculate the effective potentials in the AGS equations. The integrals containing the off-shell Coulomb T matrix are regularized to make the obtained equations suitable for calculations. For NN and nucleon-target nuclear interactions we assume the separable potentials what significantly simplifies solution of the AGS equations.

Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Eremenko, V.; Sattarov, A. I.

2012-09-01

153

Beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{LT} in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target at 1.4  

PubMed

We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16A{LT} asymmetries were extracted from the measured {3}He asymmetries and proton over {3}He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g{1T}{q} and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?{-} production on {3}He and the neutron, while our ?{+} asymmetries are consistent with zero. PMID:22400926

Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

2012-02-01

154

Treatment Effects of Cervical Headgear and Lower Utility Arch Mechanics in Angle Class II Division 1 Low-Angle Patients Angle Sinif II Bölüm 1 Malokluzyona Sahip Low-angle Hastalarda Servikal Headgear ve Alt Utility Ark Mekani?inin Tedavi Üzerine Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaç: Sinif II bölüm 1 malokluzyona sahip low- angle hastalarda servikal headgear ve alt utility ark (CHG+LUA) uygulamasinin etkilerini incele- mek ve üst birinci molar distalizasyonu sirasinda mandibulada \\

Müge AKSU DDS; Filiz YUKAY DDS

155

42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT) Albumin Alkaline phosphatase Amylase Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) Bilirubin, total...10%. Alkaline phosphatase Target value ±30%. Amylase Target value ±30%. Aspartate aminotransferase...

2013-10-01

156

42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT) Albumin Alkaline phosphatase Amylase Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) Bilirubin, total...10%. Alkaline phosphatase Target value ±30%. Amylase Target value ±30%. Aspartate aminotransferase...

2014-10-01

157

Alt/Space 12(3)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

2014-01-01

158

ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

Killen, R.

1978-01-01

159

Evaluation of caspofungin susceptibility testing by the new Vitek 2 AST-YS06 yeast card using a unique collection of FKS wild-type and hot spot mutant isolates, including the five most common candida species.  

PubMed

FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard" and compared to those of the CLSI and EUCAST methodologies. The categorical agreement for Vitek 2 was 93.9%, compared to 88.4% for the CLSI method and 98.7% for the EUCAST method. Vitek 2 misclassified 19.4% (6/31) of the fks mutant isolates as susceptible, in contrast to <4% for each of the reference methods. The overall essential agreement between the CLSI method and Vitek 2 MICs was 92.6% (88/95) but was substantially lower for fks mutant isolates (78.6% [22/28]). Correct discrimination between susceptible and intermediate Candida glabrata isolates was not possible, as the revised species-specific susceptibility breakpoint was not included in the Vitek 2 detection range (MIC of ?0.250 to ?4 mg/liter). In conclusion, the Vitek 2 allowed correct categorization of all wt isolates as susceptible. However, despite an acceptable categorical agreement, it failed to reliably classify isolates harboring fks hot spot mutations as intermediate or resistant, which was in part due to the fact that the detection range did not span the susceptibility breakpoint for C. glabrata. PMID:23089746

Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K; Jensen, Rasmus H; Arendrup, Maiken C

2013-01-01

160

Concentration Courses 20113 AST African Studies  

E-print Network

: Wrongful Convictions0501-405 TECHNOLOGY IN CJ0501-406 JUVENILE JUSTICE0501-440 LAW & SOCIETY0501-422 FORENSIC INVSTIGATN ART0505-437 AM FILM SINCE SIXTIES0505-467 Islam Art: Arabic Tradition0505-487 January

Zanibbi, Richard

161

ASTRONAUTICS & SPACE ASTE OVERVIEW PROGRAMS AVAILABLE  

E-print Network

. Liquid- and solid-fueled rockets. Nuclear and electric propulsion. (Duplicates credit in former AME 473 and chemistry, and will learn spacecraft and rocket design and operations, propulsion, orbital mechanics, spacecraft systems, rocket propulsion, and communications. Laboratory: introduction to graphics, computation

Rohs, Remo

162

AST 443/PHY 517 Homework 1 Solutions  

E-print Network

8.9s -16o 42' 58" Canopus 6h 23m 57.2s -52o 41' 44" Centauri 14h 39m 36.2s -60o 50' 7" Arcturus 14h )? None Which, if any, are above the horizon? Canopus, Cen, and Vega are above the horizon. See column (2 min ZD SD (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Sirius -8:39 112.6 Jan 2 13o .4 100o .1 Canopus -8:17 84.0 Dec 28 22o .5

Walter, Frederick M.

163

Anthony Cooke AST/EGL 389  

E-print Network

against your palm.... "Campania's theory of Vitality originating during the Big Bang is entirely with the Big Bang out of a one in a million chance, and remained exiled in space, waiting. "In fact by gestating as the Big Bang expanded. As you know, the universe itself is still expanding today. Who knows

Walter, Frederick M.

164

astronautical aste overview majors & areas of emphasis  

E-print Network

in areas such as electric propulsion, plasma physics, heliospheric structure, fundamental processes and chemistry, and will learn spacecraft and rocket design and operations, propulsion, orbital mechanics dynamics, Euler's equation, introduction to space plasma physics, spacecraft in plasma, radiation effects

Rohs, Remo

165

AST 443 / PHY 517 Photon Detectors  

E-print Network

wavelengths (sub-mm, radio), the wave characteris>cs dominate. · At wavelengths up-magne>c radia>on · Crossed electric and magne>c vectors · Self-propaga>ng · Travels;Photons · Light has characteris>cs of both waves and par>cles · At long

Walter, Frederick M.

166

Nicolas Pernot AST/EGL 389  

E-print Network

expensive controlled- gravity boots available. That way, he could do the advanced hiking camp through parents had made in order to purchase the expensive boots. Not long after he arrived at the campsite, he- gravity boots and purchased a pair of the exquisite dinosaurs for his sisters. He was so ecstatic about

Walter, Frederick M.

167

John Fagan, 107634405 AST 389 Walter  

E-print Network

entered World War III, and the threat of nuclear annihilation was everywhere. After years of constant of the Solar System is under Earth control, and the Empire needs an army to help protect the System from any, and I'm a VT pilot of USIF. VT stands for Vertical Tank, which is a two legged mech armed to the teeth

Walter, Frederick M.

168

University Radio Observatories Program (AST-URO)  

NSF Publications Database

... scientific investigations, and student training at university-based radio facilities. A primary ... environment, in order to foster innovation and train upcoming generations of students in the field ...

169

The characteristic pattern of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the bitch with the cystic hyperplasia-pyometra complex: Effect of medical or surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 75 clinically normal unspayed female control dogs between two and eleven years old the average plasma level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 21.6±5.7 (±SD) IU\\/l, of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 40.4±13.0 IU\\/l and of the AST\\/ALT ratio 0.6±0.2. These values showed only minor changes over years.

J. DE SCHEPPER; J. VAN DER STOCK; E. Capiau

1987-01-01

170

Alte oder Neue Finanzwissenschaft? Ein Plädoyer für das Alte und Bewährte  

Microsoft Academic Search

wer sich die Frage vorlegt, welchen Nutzen die Finanzwissenschaft heute stiften kann, geht am besten von verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten aus. Diejenigen, die vor Jahrhunderten dazu aufgerufen hatten, die Wissenschaft zu betreiben, hatten konkrete Probleme im Auge. Man kann die Wissenschaft also von den Problemen her fallweise betreiben und sich dann eklektisch das Nötige zusammensuchen. Nach einiger Zeit begannen aber die auf

Meine Damen

171

Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

Franson, J.C.

1982-01-01

172

Pen and Pal are nucleotide-sugar-dehydratases that convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and then to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc for CMP-pseudaminic acid synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-D-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4"-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

2014-11-20

173

A Quortarlypublirhcdby cALtFORNTAA{AIACOZOOLOGICALSOCIETY,tNC.  

E-print Network

THE VELIGER Paec -15 Observationson the Food and Feeding of someVermivorousConuson the Great Barrier Reef on the diet of Conus on the Great Barrier Reef Details of the feeding, food, and degree of dietary) Rosnnr R. T,lr,u.locE Observations on the Fmd and Feedine of some Vermivorotrs Conus on the Great Barrier

Marsh, Helene

174

Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise 747 SCA takeoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video begins with early morning shots of the Space Shuttle and the SCA being moved out of the shuttle mate-demate device, and follows the two vehicles as they taxi and take off from Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California.

1977-01-01

175

Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

1977-01-01

176

Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

2010-01-01

177

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1993-08-31

178

Transfer of copper from a chelated 67Cu-antibody conjugate to ceruloplasmin in lymphoma patients 1 1 Abbreviations: TETA (macrocyclic chelater), 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane- N,N?,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid; BAT (bifunctional macrocyclic chelater), 6-[ p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane- N,N?,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid; 2IT (linker), 2-iminothiolane; 67Cu and 64Cu, isotopes of copper; 131I, isotope of iodine; CP, ceruloplasmin; Alb, albumin; TF, transferrin; 67Cu-CP, ceruloplasmin-containing radiocopper; AUC, area under the curve; GGT, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; RIT, radioimmunotherapy; EDTA, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; CAE, cellulose acetate electrophoresis; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; HAMA, human anti-mouse antibody; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; 67Cu-SCN-TETA-1A3, 67Cu-radiolabeled 1A3 antibody via a isothiocyanate linker and TETA; SOD, superox  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lym-1 monoclonal antibody was conjugated with the bifunctional chelating agent 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N?,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAT), using 2IT as a linker, and radiolabeled with 67Cu to make the radiopharmaceutical, 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1. Ten patients received a total of 18 doses of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 as targeted, systemic radiotherapy. The beta phase of blood clearance, when corrected for 67Cu decay, was positive or flat, a phenomenon not

Gary R Mirick; Robert T O’Donnell; Sally J DeNardo; Sui Shen; Claude F Meares; Gerald L DeNardo

1999-01-01

179

AST 443/PHY 517 Due Monday 9 September 2013  

E-print Network

name RA (2000) DEC Sirius 6h 45m 8.9s -16o 42' 58" Canopus 6h 23m 57.2s -52o 41' 44" Centauri 14h 39m. How long after Canopus transits does Sirius transit? 10. At the start of astronomical twilight, what

Walter, Frederick M.

180

Chinese Practice in Public International Law: 2008&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Survey covers materials reflecting Chinese practice in 2008 relating to: I. Fundamental Principles of International Law (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence; Respect of State Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity; Non-Intervention of Internal Affairs; Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes); II. International Peace and Security (Fight against Terrorism; Women, Peace and Security; The Zimbabwe Situation; The Darfur Situation in Sudan; The Kosovo

Lijiang ZHU

2009-01-01

181

Incentives and Workers’ Motivation in the Public Sector &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil servants have a reputation for being lazy. However, people's personal experiences with civil servants frequently run counter to this stereotype. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive contracts for public sector workers under different informational assumptions. When civil servants’ effort is unverifiable, lazy workers

Josse Delfgaauw; Robert Dur

2008-01-01

182

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

183

Marginal Employment Subsidization: A New Concept and a Reappraisal &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYIn this paper, we attempt to renew the interest in marginal employment subsidies. Such subsidies are paid only for a firm's additional employment exceeding some reference level and create larger employment stimuli at lower fiscal costs than general wage subsidies for all workers. If the hiring of a new employee also entails subsidizing an incumbent worker (double marginal subsidization), the

Andreas Knabe; Ronnie Schöb; Joachim Weimann

2006-01-01

184

The Regulation of Entry and Aggregate Productivity &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euro area economies have lower total factor and labour productivity than the US. I argue that differences in entry cost contribute to this by affecting firms’ technology choice. Introducing technology choice into a standard heterogeneous-firm model, small differences in administrative entry cost can explain around one third of TFP differences. The productivity difference arises because entry costs reduce competition and

Markus Poschke

2010-01-01

185

Educational Standards in Private and Public Schools &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

When school quality increases with the educational standard set by schools, education before college need not be a hierarchy with private schools offering better quality than public schools. In our model, private schools can offer a lower educational standard at a positive price because they attract students with a relatively high cost of effort, who would find the high standards

Giorgio Brunello; Lorenzo Rocco

2008-01-01

186

Informal Risk Sharing in an Infinite-Horizon Experiment &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory study of risk sharing without commitment captures the main features of a simple model of voluntary insurance. Participants are paired in matches with stochastic endings. Each period they receive fixed endowments and one of the pair (randomly-drawn) also receives an additional amount; they can then make voluntary transfers to each other. While smoothing consumption is attractive, only self-enforcing

Gary Charness; Garance Genicot

2009-01-01

187

ASYMMETRIC DYNAMIC PRICING IN A LOCAL GASOLINE RETAIL MARKET &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric-price adjustment is a common phenomenon in many markets around the world, particularly in retail gasoline markets. This paper studies the existence of this phenomenon in the retail gasoline market in the city of Santiago, Chile, using a data set of weekly gas station prices that covers a period of almost four years. We found that prices adjust asymmetrically, and

FELIPE BALMACEDA; PAULA SORUCO

2008-01-01

188

The Impact of Chinese Exports on Global Import Prices &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper evaluates the evidence bearing on the question of whether China's buoyant export growth has led to significant changes in the import prices, and thus inflation performance, of its trading partners. This evidence suggests that the impact of Chinese exports on global import prices has been, while non- negligible, fairly modest. We identify a statistically significant effect of US

Steven B. Kamin; Mario Marazzi; John W. Schindler

2006-01-01

189

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets ROCKY PLANETS  

E-print Network

greenhouse effect, H2O oxidised hot surface rocks O now in rocks, H2 escaped. On Earth: liquid water, life ­ a few % ­ Ar, SO2, CO in traces Much CO2 greenhouse effect, hot surface. Covered by an opaque layer of cluds. Height 50 km, consists of droplets of sulphuric acid and sulphur crystals. At this height

Petrovay, Kristóf

190

Solving fractional packing problems in O ast (1\\/?) iterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapt a method proposed by Nesterov [16] to design an algorithm that computes ?-optimal solutions to fractional packing problems by solving O*(?-1 ?Kn) separable convex quadratic programs, where K is the maximum number of non-zeros per row and n is the number of variables. We also show that the quadratic program can be approximated to any degree of accuracy

Daniel Bienstock; Garud Iyengar

2004-01-01

191

Globalfocusing: From Domestic Conglomerates to Global Specialists &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Globalization is changing the competitive terrain on which companies develop their corporate strategy. On the global stage, key competitive advantages are gained through internationally fungible resources. Consequently, diversified conglomerates are converting to global specialists in narrower niche markets and competing with a small number of multinational enterprises operating worldwide. Their internationalization and their reduction of product diversification are opposite

Klaus E. Meyer

2006-01-01

192

PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND SOCIAL OPTIMUM WITH NETWORK EXTERNALITY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the options open to monopoly firms that sell Internet services. We consider two groups of customers that are different in their reservation prices. The monopoly uses price discrimination between customers by producing two versions of the product at positive price for high-quality product and a free version at zero price for lower-quality product. The monopoly can sell

URIEL SPIEGEL; URI BEN-ZION; TCHAI TAVOR

2006-01-01

193

Study of serum alanine-aminotransferase levels in blood donors in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective. Serum alanine-amino- transferase (ALT) is being used as a surrogate test for preventing post-transfusion viral hepatitis. How- ever, ALT elevation is influenced by many factors. We have studied ALT levels in 1,036 consecutive blood donors to determine their association with gender, obesity, and hepatitis virus infection markers. Design and Methods. In each donation aspartate- aminotransferase (AST), lactate

MIGUEL LOZANO; JOAN CID; JOSÉ LUIS BEDINI; ROBERTO MAZZARA; NÚRIA GIMENEZ; ERNEST MAS; ANTONIO BALLESTA; ANTONIO ORDINAS

194

Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

Younis, Elsayed M.

2015-01-01

195

Protective effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

The protective effect of tumeric extract (TE) in diet on CCl4-treated rats was studied. Rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) untreated, (2) CCl4 treated, (3) pre-TE for 2 weeks followed by CCl4, (4) TE + CCl4 given concurrently and (5) 5% TE as positive control. The serum levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, (AST), alanine amino transferase (AST), (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase were estimated after 1, 2 and 3 months. CCl4 caused a maximum increase (2-3-fold in all the above parameters. As compared to CCl4 group, a short pre-treatment of TE showed reduction in cholesterol, bilirubin, AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase activity whereas concurrent treatment of TE + CCl4 reduced to a greater extent the levels of all parameters except ALT. To conclude, concurrent treatment of TE gave significant protection against CCl4 though the values did not reach the normal levels. PMID:9731471

Deshpande, U R; Gadre, S G; Raste, A S; Pillai, D; Bhide, S V; Samuel, A M

1998-06-01

196

Sonographic assessment of fatty liver: intraobserver and interobserver variability  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide and ultrasonography is widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up we purposed to assess intraobserver and interobserver variability in the sonographic evaluation of the existence and steatosis grades of NAFLD. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and AST to ALT (AST/ALT) ratio were compared between the grades of hepatosteatosis. Hepatic ultrasonography (US) examinations consisted of 5-10 static images of 113 successive adult patients, whose records were in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of our hospital were retrospectively evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Hepatic images were graded into 4 groups; as normal, mild, moderate or severe hepatic steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis of the same set of images was repeated after one month under the same conditions. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed by using kappa (?) statistics. In each group, the percentage of individuals with high ALT and/or AST, or AST/ALT ratio over 1 was calculated. The intraobserver agreement was 51%, fair kappa (?=0.356) for observer 1; and 68%, moderate (?=0.591) for observer 2. The interobserver agreements in the initial and second readings were 39% and 40%, fair (?=0.208) and (?=0.225), respectively. Elevations of ALT and/or AST levels were similar between groups depending on the degree of hepatosteatosis among the patients. Visual assessment of NAFLD by ultrasonography has substantial interobserver variability, and reproducibility of results is limited. More objective imaging modalities are needed to evaluate the degree of hepatosteatosis. PMID:25664055

Cengiz, Mustafa; Sentürk, Senem; Cetin, Bulent; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendio?lu; Bilek, Senem Uysal

2014-01-01

197

Multibiomarker responses upon exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant. It has been released into aquatic environments, where it is toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, five enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) in serum and liver of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were selected for screening. These enzymes may be suitable for use as early warning indicators of chronic TBBPA exposure. UDPGT, AST, ALT, and GR activities in serum were found to be as more sensitive to TBBPA as those of the liver. When the concentration of TBBPA exceeded 0.50-0.71 mg/L for an exposure period of 32 days, GST, AST, ALT, and UDPGT activities cannot be restored to normal levels, suggesting that fish exposed to TBBPA above this threshold may incur irreversible damage. The activities of AST, ALT, and GR increased more significantly than GST and UDPGT at the lowest concentration of 0.35 mg/L. AST showed the strongest activity with respect to toxic kinetics, followed by ALT and GR. This remained true from day 4 of exposure to TBBPA to day 32. However, GR showed the clearest and most significant dose-effect relationship. This shows that each of these three enzymes can be used as a biomarker for early warning applications focusing on TBBPA pollution. AST and ALT are suitable for use in conventional monitoring of water quality in areas at risk for TBBPA pollution, and GR is more suitable for use in burst TBBPA pollution accidents where GR activity in fish would change with the TBBPA concentration of the flowing water. PMID:24055989

Yang, Suwen; Xu, Fanfan; Zheng, Binghui; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Shengrui

2013-10-15

198

Predictive value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes  

PubMed Central

Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and 30-40% of preterm labors are related to this problem. Early diagnosis of PPROM is very important due to its impact on pregnancy outcomes. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes as a non-invasive and available test. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 pregnant women between the 26th-36th gestational weeks were enrolled in the study. 74 patients were in PROM group and 74 in control group. AST and ALT levels in vaginal fluid were measured in each group. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare AST and ALT levels in each group. Results: The mean of AST level in vaginal fluid was 12.77±10.06 in PROM group vs. 6.91±10.92 in control group (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference between ALT levels in PROM group 1.51±3.17 and control group 0.89±1.15 (p=0.49). Optimal cut point of AST for the diagnosis of PROM was 4.5 IU/L in this study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 82.4%, 63.5%, 69.32% and 78.33% respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, measurement of AST level in vaginal fluid can be used as a reliable test for diagnosis of PROM, but there is no good cut point for ALT level that can be practically used. PMID:24976822

Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Salamat, Fatemeh; Ashrafkhani, Babak; Dirbaz, Zahra

2014-01-01

199

Preliminary observations on the plasma composition of liza klunzingeri from the strait of Hormuz (Persian gulf).  

PubMed

Serum biochemistry can be used for monitoring changes in the physiological condition of fish and water quality. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of plasma T3 (Thyroid hormone), thyroxin, TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone), ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase), AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) and cholesterol of Liza klunzingeri caught on the northern side of the strait of Hormuz (Persian Gulf). Biochemical values were: T3 0.96?±?0.58 ng/ml, Thyroxin 76.58?±?28.26 ng/ml TSH 0.03?±?0.01 nmol/L, ALT 1.71?±?0.68 U/L, AST 49.81?±?5.25 U/L and cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di. A significant positive correlation (P?AST and Cholesterol. ALT had a significant and positive correlation with cholesterol and AST (P?AST (P?

Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Afkhami, Majid; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Esmailpoor, Reza

2013-12-01

200

Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200?mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50?mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

2013-01-01

201

Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model  

EPA Science Inventory

A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

202

Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.  

PubMed

Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed. PMID:21056949

Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

2011-09-01

203

Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per.) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 body weight over a 60 day study period revealed that continuous exposure of the plant extract had no damaging effects on the organs of xenobiotic metabolism (liver and kidney). results of levels of serum ast, alt, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, bilirubin and triglycerides of the two groups were not significantly different (p ? ? ? ? 0.05) at the end

G. M. Saibu

204

Cytoplasmic Enzyme Activities in Human Hypernephroma Compared with Normal Renal Cortical Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymatic activities were measured in normal renal cortical tissue and in hypernephroma. Significantly lower activities were always found in tumoral tissue than in normal renal tissue. Their respective values (mean ± SD) were: LDH, 4,333 ± 747 (normal tissue) vs. 997 ± 748 U\\/l (tumor); HBDH,

González Buitrago; I. Pastor; J. J. Corrales

1988-01-01

205

Antidiabetic and antiacetylcholinesterase effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was intended to examine the effects of the supplementation of active ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory ethyl acetate (CSE) fraction from the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne on blood glucose (BG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant levels. The diabetic rats were

Sandesh Sancheti; Shruti Sancheti; Sung-Yum Seo

206

Case report: Alanine aminotransferase deficiency detected in a patient with chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed

We report a case of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) deficiency in a 68-year-old Japanese female with chronic hepatitis C. The serum was positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV-RNA. Liver biopsy showed histological evidence of chronic active hepatitis. The level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) was elevated, but sALT was extremely low. The patient was followed up for her serum aminotransferase levels for 1.5 years under the treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. The low sALT level persisted during all the follow-up period. The ALT activity in liver tissue was also decreased. Based on these findings, ALT deficiency was suspected. sALT activity was also found to be low in her two sons. This latter finding suggests the hereditary character of this abnormality. PMID:9641644

Uno, S; Kaito, M; Kobayashi, Y; Ishida, S; Kato, H; Gabazza, E; Tamaki, S; Ikoma, J; Imoto, I; Watanabe, S; Adachi, Y

1998-05-01

207

Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

Brown, Kevin

2007-01-01

208

Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

209

Florian Alt Alireza Sahami Shirazi Albrecht Schmidt Monitoring Heartbeat per Day to Motivate Increasing  

E-print Network

Increasing Physical Activity Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract Physical activity is one of the most. In this paper we suggest that instead of this, heartbeat can be monitored to aware physical activity. Keywords physical activity, pedometer, step, heartbeat rate, health, ECG 1 Introduction Physical activity is one

210

STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

1977-01-01

211

The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

2011-08-01

212

A Package to SubnumberALTE X Counters Patrick W. Daly  

E-print Network

{eqnarray} x & = & a \\label{eq:x}\\\\%--> 1 \\sublabon{equation} y & = & b \\label{eq:y}\\\\%--> 2a z & = & c \\label{eq:z}\\\\%--> 2b \\sublaboff{equation} w & = & d \\label{eq:w} %--> 3 \\end{eqnarray} If two groups appear

Mintmire, John W.

213

A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt  

E-print Network

of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

Darken, Christian J.

214

All ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Publications  

Cancer.gov

Gage K. Schiffman M, Solomon D, Wheeler CM, Castle PE. Comparison of measurements of human papillomavirus persistence for postcolposcopic surveillance for cervical precancerous lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.

215

Analysis of the creep behavior of silicon carbide whisker reinforced 2124 Al(T4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of stress and temperature on the steady state creep rate of SiCw\\/2124 Al (T4) has been determined. The stress exponent for steady state creep of the composite is shown to increase from a value of 8.4 at 177 °C to a value of 21 at 288 °C. The activation energy for creep was determined to be 277 kJ\\/mol

V. C. Nardone; J. R. Strife

1987-01-01

216

Analysis of the creep behavior of silicon carbide whisker reinforced 2124 Al(T4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of stress and temperature on the steady state creep rate of SiCw\\/2124 Al (T4) has been determined. The stress exponent for steady state creep of the composite is shown to increase from a\\u000a value of 8.4 at 177 °C to a value of 21 at 288 °C. The activation energy for creep was determined to be 277 kJ\\/mol

V. C. Nardone; J. R. Strife

1987-01-01

217

HealtHPolicyFactSHeet UCLA Center For HeALtH  

E-print Network

immigrant women ages 18-64 were about twice as likely as U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites not to have had a pap smear test in the previous three years (the recom- mended standard2 ) (Figure 2). U.S.-born Mexican

Leistikow, Bruce N.

218

An advanced pump limiter experiment of large toroidal extent — ALT II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts for an advanced pump limiter experiment able to exhaust 5-10% of the plasma particle flux and remove 200 W/cm 2 of heat flux on the limiter face are developed and analyzed. An axisymmetric toroidal belt limiter has a compound curvature blade with edges that extend one particle e-folding distance into the scrape-off layer plasma. Approximately 30% of the plasma efflux flows in a gap between the bottom of the limiter blade and the top of either a structural floor, a plenum box or a liner. Neutralizer/deflector plates are located in discrete pairs at each pumping duct and are designed to optimally scatter neutralized particles into the pump ducts. An alternative design consists of a central toroidal spine beneath the blade which scatters plasma as neutral gas into a plenum box. For application to the TEXTOR tokamak with 1.5 MW of ICRF heating and 2.6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection, detailed analysis shows that an average heat flux is approximately 200 W/cm 2 and that the localized collector plate design is about five times more efficient than the spinal design for particle removal.

Conn, R. W.; Goebel, D. M.; Grotz, S. P.; Prinja, A. K.; Schafer, R. F.; Heifetz, D. B.; Gauster, W. B.; Koski, J. A.

1984-05-01

219

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, A Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils represents a major constraint for crop production as ~ 50% of the potentially arable soils worldwide are acidic. Therefore, understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying plant Al tolerance has been a major focus for a number of laboratories aroun...

220

Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying of Poly(methyl methacrylate) with Polyisoprene and Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)  

E-print Network

) into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as an example of high-energy solid-state blending. Morphological-energy solid-state blending. In this case, polymer chain mobility is drasti- cally reduced, and the possibility of phase separation during blending is virtually eliminated. High-energy solid-state blending generally

221

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2014-04-01

222

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2013-04-01

223

Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt  

E-print Network

and often highly visible surfaces that can be used as advertising space. Until now, advertising, given their size and shape, offer potential space for placing highly-visible advertising. Vehicles and glancing at each of them. Until now, very few privately-owned cars have become advertising spaces

224

Demo: Mobile Interaction with Ads on Public Display Networks Stefan Schneega, Florian Alt, Albrecht Schmidt  

E-print Network

different research questions and to showcase the potential of interactive advertising in public space networked. These displays mainly show advertising in a similar way to television´s commercial break on challenges that are specific to public displays used for advertising. In particular we focus on how new

225

Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes  

PubMed Central

Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

2014-01-01

226

Modelling Different Types of Bundled Automobile Insurance Choice Behaviour: The Case of Taiwan&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobile insurance policies (AIPs) are typically offered by the insurers in different bundled formats and some of which may be highly similar. This study proposes a two-component modelling system, which consists of choice of physical damage coverage and choice of non-physical damage coverage. Both multinomial logit (MNL) and paired combinatorial logit (PCL) models are attempted to explain the choice behaviours

Ming-Jyh Wang; Chieh-Hua Wen; Lawrence W Lan

2010-01-01

227

Political Interests and the Emergence of Commercial Banking in Transition Economies &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This paper examines how interactions between government agencies and banking organizations led to the emergence of commercial banking in the Czech Republic and Hungary during the 1990s. We rely on interviews with bank managers at six large banks, government officers, and experts at other organizations to learn how actions based on different political ideologies shaped the banking field. We

Laszlo Tihanyi; W. Harvey Hegarty

2007-01-01

228

Testing for Convergence Clubs in Income Per Capita: A Predictive Density Approach &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article proposes a technique, based on the predictive density of the data, conditional on the parameters of the model, to jointly tests for groups of unknown size in a panel and to estimate the parameters of each group. The procedure is applied to the problem of identifying convergence clubs in scaled income per capita data. The steady-state distribution of

Fabio Canova

2004-01-01

229

A new bedside test of gestures in stroke: the apraxia screen of TULIA (AST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApraxia in patients with stroke may be overlooked, as clumsiness and deficient gestural communication are often attributed to frequently coexisting sensorimotor deficits and aphasia. Early and reliable detection of apraxia by a bedside test is relevant for functional outcome in patients with stroke. The present study was aimed at constructing a new bedside screening test for apraxia, called the Apraxia

T Vanbellingen; B Kersten; A Van de Winckel; M Bellion; F Baronti; R Müri; S Bohlhalter

2010-01-01

230

A Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Telescope Project: ALMA-SPICA Synergy Telescope (``ASTE-II'')  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on the new medium-scale plan in Japan to construct a 30 - 50 m class millimeter (mm) and sub-mm single dish telescope. The main observing frequency of the telescope is 70 to 420 GHz, which just covers main atmospheric windows at mm and sub-mm wavelengths in good observing sites such as the ALMA site. We are also aiming at observations at higher frequency up to 1 THz with the limited use of the antenna surface, e.g., under-illumination of the telescope. One of important science goals in this new telescope project is unveiling the large scale structure (LSS) of the high-z universe and cosmic star formation history by spectroscopic surveys of high-z galaxies in CO and [CII] lines. With exploiting synergy with ALMA and possibly SPICA, this telescope can contribute to the breadth of astronomy and astrophysics, e.g., astrochemistry, star formation in the Galaxy and galaxies, cosmology, and sub-mm VLBI.

Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, Y.; Totani, T.; Kitayama, T.; Komatsu, E.; Onishi, T.; Oshima, T.; Honma, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Nakanishi, H.; Iono, D.; Kuno, N.; Momose, M.; New Telescope Working Group

2013-10-01

231

Understanding Top Management and Organizational Change Through Demographic and Processual Analysis &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Top management theory has been strongly influenced by demographic studies of top management teams (TMTs), but not by research into organizational adaptation to conditions of extreme institutional turbulence. This article analyses the transformation of a post-socialist enterprise through a combination of demographic and processual methods to develop an enriched account of the micro-processes through which top management constructed organizational

Ed Clark; Anna Soulsby

2007-01-01

232

Nurse Education and the Retention of Registered Nurses in New South Wales &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of registered nurses (RNs) in the nursing profession has become a key issue for governments. This article examines the impact of a change in the nature of nurse education, from hospital-based to university-based training, on the labour market behaviour of RNs. The analysis indicates that RNs trained in universities are approximately 6 per cent more likely to exit

MICHELLE CUNICH; STEPHEN WHELAN

2010-01-01

233

DIALOGUES WITH DEATH: THE L AST D AYS OF S OCRATES A ND THE B UDDHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tiger, having taken the young bikkhu (Buddhist monk) up to a rocky place, a broken edge over a hollow spot inaccessible to the bikkhus, began to devour its prey from the feet upwards. The pursuing bikkhus said: ''Good man, there is nothing that can be done by us. The extraordinary spiritual attainment of bikkhus is to be seen in

Matthew Dillon

2000-01-01

234

ARGOS seminar on intersections of modular correspondences, Ast'erisque 312 (2007) ### (5)  

E-print Network

=Qp # #####, ## ss = ssK , ### Fq L=K # ####, ###### e = e(L=K) Os := OK + sssOL # OL ###, conductor=s # order-aigebra ##### ~ : L ! D # fix ##. OK -linear map r~ : OL_~__//OD = Endk(G)Lie//_k #### OL~|| fflffl|~ fflffl| OL _____//OD

Hattori, Shin

235

We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0307830.  

E-print Network

, P. H. & Baron, E. 1999 JCAM, 109, 41 Lithium Depletion in the Pictoris Moving Group Jennifer Yee-R diagram than from its observed lithium depletion. ABSTRACT The Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG) is young (~12

Jensen, Eric L. N.

236

Equilibrium Exchange Rates in Transition Economies: Taking Stock of the Issues &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In this paper, we present an overview of a number of issues relating to the equilibrium exchange rates of transition economies of the former soviet bloc. In particular, we present a critical overview of the various methods available for calculating equilibrium exchange rates and discuss how useful they are likely to be for the transition economies. Amongst our findings is

Balázs Égert; László Halpern; Ronald MacDonald

2006-01-01

237

Energy Prices and the Adoption of Energy-Saving Technology &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the link between factor prices, technology and factor demands. Using plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures, I compare the energy intensity of entrants and incumbents from 1967–97. A 10% increase in the price of energy reduces the relative energy intensity of entrants by 1%. The estimate implies that technology adoption by incumbents explains a statistically significant

Joshua Linn

2008-01-01

238

The Balassa–Samuelson Hypothesis in the Asia-Pacific Region Revisited &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn a study of nine Asia-Pacific countries' real exchange rates, Chinn (2000) finds some evidence in support of the Balassa (1964) and Samuelson (1964) hypothesis. His findings, however, are based on the application of a model containing several potentially restrictive simplifying assumptions to a dataset of limited span. Consequently, we look to assess the effect on Chinn's findings of considerably

Alastair Thomas; Alan King

2008-01-01

239

ANARCHY AND AUTARKY: ENDOGENOUS PREDATION AS A BARRIER TO TRADE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a general equilibrium two-country Ricardian trade model with endogenous transactions costs that arise from individual utility-maximizing allocation of labor to production and piracy. In the absence of institutions for risk sharing and coordination of defense, autarky obtains over most of the parameter space. When both trade and predation are supported in equilibrium, terms of trade effects can

James E. Anderson; Douglas Marcouiller

2005-01-01

240

A Note on Return on Foreign Assets and Foreign Presence for UK Multinationals &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the international business literature on multinationality and performance we develop new data on the foreign presence and performance of large UK multinational enterprises (MNEs). There are 32 UK MNEs for which we can obtain data on both their degree of multinationality (measured by the ratio of foreign to total (F/T) sales) and their performance. Here, in

Alan Rugman; George Yipw; Saliya Jayaratnez

2008-01-01

241

Language proficiency and labour market performance of immigrants in the UK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses two recent UK surveys to investigate the determinants of language proficiency and the effect of language on earnings and employment probabilities of non-white immigrants. We address the problem of endogenous choice of language acquisition and measurement error in language variables. Our results show that language acquisition, employment probabilities, as well as earnings differ widely across non-white immigrants,

Christian Dustmann; Francesca Fabbri

2003-01-01

242

Legitimacy under Pressure: The European Web of CounterTerrorism Networks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWithin European law enforcement circles, counter-terrorism networks and privileged partnerships tend to be preferred to formal bureaucratic structures because of their flexibility and directness. The professional preference for informal, bilateral and privileged relationships may, however, undermine the potential of formally established agencies such as Europol and Eurojust, which work through national and centrally co-ordinated channels of information and intelligence. This

MONICA DEN BOER; CLAUDIA HILLEBRAND; ANDREAS NÖLKE

2008-01-01

243

Modelling hydroclimatic uncertainty and short-run irrigator decision making: the Goulburn system &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has an incredibly variable and unpredictable hydroclimate, and while irrigation is designed to reduce risk, significant uncertainty remains in both seasonal water availability (‘allocations’) and irrigation crop water requirements. This paper explores the nature and impacts of seasonal hydroclimatic uncertainty on irrigator decision making and temporary water markets in the Goulburn system in northern Victoria. Irrigation and water trading

Marnie Griffith; Gary Codner; Erwin Weinmann; Sergei Schreider

2009-01-01

244

Stewardship vs. Stagnation: An Empirical Comparison of Small Family and Non-Family Businesses &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Two major perspectives can be construed in the literature concerning the nature of family owned businesses (FOBs). The first implies that these enterprises have unique characteristics of stewardship. FOB owners are said to care deeply about the long-term prospects of the business, in large part because their family's fortune, reputation and future are at stake. Their stewardship is said

Danny Miller; Isabelle Le Breton-Miller; Barry Scholnick

2008-01-01

245

What Have we Learnt about Monetary Integration since the Maastricht Treaty? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe present governance of the euro area has been devised assuming that the world fits the monetarist-real-business-cycle theory. But that theory is not a correct representation of the world. The European monetary union is a remarkable achievement, but remains fragile because of the absence of a sufficient degree of political union.

PAUL DE GRAUWE

2006-01-01

246

THE IMPACT OF OIL PRICE SHOCKS ON THE U.S. STOCK MARKET &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the reaction of U.S. real stock returns to an oil price shock differs greatly depending on whether the change in the price of oil is driven by demand or supply shocks in the oil market. The demand and supply shocks driving the global crude oil market jointly account for 22% of the long-run variation in U.S.

Lutz Kilian

2009-01-01

247

75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...US Helicopter, Inc. (previously Williams Helicopter Tech., Southern Aero Corp., Oregon Helicopters and Lenair Corp...Us Helicopter, Inc. (Previously Williams Helicopter Tech., Southern Aero Corp., Oregon Helicopters and Lenair...

2010-07-08

248

AST F301, Introduction to Astronomy Course Description --Summer 2012, First Term (Unique number 89515)  

E-print Network

, comets. Stars and stellar evolution ­ star birth and the formation of planets, and star death, including neutron stars, black holes, supernovae. Galaxies ­ normal and not-so-normal galaxies, quasars

Jefferys, William

249

Managerial Incentives and Corporate Fraud: The Sources of Incentives Matter&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating performance and stock return results imply that managers who commit fraud anticipate large stock price declines if they were to report truthfully, which would cause greater losses for managerial stockholdings than for options because of differences in convexity. Fraud firms have significantly greater incentives from unrestricted stockholdings than control firms do, and unrestricted stockholdings are their largest incentive source.

Shane A. Johnson; Harley E. Ryan; Yisong S. Tian

2009-01-01

250

Regional Foreign Direct Investment and Wage Spillovers: Plant Level Evidence from the UK Electronics Industry &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the extent to which foreign investment in the UK generates wage spillovers in the domestic sector of the economy using a simultaneous dynamic panel data model and focusing on the electronics sector, possibly the most ‘globalized’ sector of UK manufacturing. It finds evidence that the higher wages paid by foreign firms cause wages in the domestic

Nigel Driffield; Sourafel Girma

2003-01-01

251

DETECTION OF LOCAL INTERACTIONS FROM THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF NAMES IN FRANCE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Using data on the geographic distribution of names in France, we investigate the social transmission of parental preferences. Drawing on recent work on nonmarket interactions, we develop a linear discrete choice model that relates choices made in one location to those made in nearby areas. We explain the shares of parents that give their children Saint, Arabic, and American-type names.

Keith Head; Thierry Mayer

2008-01-01

252

Obfuscation through Integration: Legitimating ‘New’ Social Democracy in the European Union &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractSocial democratic parties are increasingly supportive of European integration. Existing explanations view this as either a reassertion of social democracy at the supranational level, an adaptation to contemporary political institutions, or part of a general ideological moderation. This article argues that support for the EU enables social democratic parties to proclaim the possibility of social democracy at the supranational level,

DAVID J. BAILEY

2005-01-01

253

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES...

2010-04-01

254

Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

1999-01-01

255

Internal and External R&D: A Sample Selection Approach &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis study underlines that the decision to enter into an external R&D relationship is related to an antecedent decision to carry out R&D. This calls for an empirical approach that permits the joint analysis of the determinants of the two decisions, correcting for sample selectivity. Based on a sample of Italian manufacturing firms, the results confirm the need to adopt

Claudio A. Piga; Marco Vivarelli

2004-01-01

256

Labor Market Dynamics and the Business Cycle: Structural Evidence for the United States &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe use a 12-dimensional VAR to examine the aggregate effects of two structural technology shocks and two policy shocks. For each shock, we examine the dynamic effects on the labor market, the importance of the shock for labor market volatility, and the comovement between labor market variables and other key aggregate variables in response to the shock. We document that

Morten O. Ravn; Saverio Simonelli

2007-01-01

257

Relationship between hepatitis B virus DNA levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative patients. METHODS: A total of 213 patients with CHB were studied, and serum HBV DNA levels were measured by the COBAS Amplicor HBV Monitor test. All patients were divided into two groups according to the HBeAg status. The correlation between serum HBV DNA levels and liver damage (liver histology and biochemistry) was explored. RESULTS: Of the 213 patients with serum HBV DNA levels higher than 105 copies/mL, 178 (83.6%) were HBeAg positive, 35 (16.4%) were HBeAg negative. The serum HBV DNA levels were not correlated to the age, history of CHB, histological grade and stage of liver disease in either HBeAg negative or HBeAg positive patients. There was no correlation between serum levels of HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferanse (ALT), aspartate aminotrans-ferase (AST) in HBeAg positive patients. In HBeAg negative patients, there was no correlation between serum levels of HBV DNA and AST, while serum DNA levels correlated with ALT (r = 0.351, P = 0.042). The grade (G) of liver disease correlated with ALT and AST (P < 0.05, r = 0.205, 0.327 respectively) in HBeAg positive patients. In HBeAg negative patients, correlations were shown between ALT, AST and the G (P < 0.01, and r = 0.862, 0.802 respectively). HBeAg negative patients were older (35 ± 9 years vs 30 ± 9 years, P < 0.05 ) and had a longer history of HBV infection (8 ± 4 years vs 6 ± 4 years, P < 0.05) and a lower HBV DNA level than HBeAg positive patients (8.4± 1.7 Log HBV DNA vs 9.8 ± 1.3 Log HBV DNA, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in sex ratio, ALT and AST levels and liver histology between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Serum HBV DNA level is not correlated to histological grade or stage of liver disease in CHB patients with HBV DNA more than 105 copies/mL. Compared to HBeAg positive patients, HBeAg negative patients are older and have a lower HBV DNA level and a longer HBV infection history. There is no significant difference in sex ratio, ALT and AST levels and liver histology between the two groups. PMID:17465456

Shao, Jie; Wei, Lai; Wang, Hao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Lan-Fang; Li, Jing; Dong, Jian-Qiang

2007-01-01

258

Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy  

PubMed Central

By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

259

Associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-6 and related cytokine genes and serum liver damage markers: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study.  

PubMed

Cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), play an important role in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between common polymorphisms in potential functional promoters of cytokine genes and liver damage markers among enrollees of a large Japanese cohort study. Subjects included 3257 Japanese individuals (1608 men and 1649 women, aged 35-69years). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of five cytokine genes, IL1B (T-31C), IL6 (C-634G), IL8 (T-251A), IL10 (T-819C), tumor necrosis factor-A (TNFA) (T-1031C), and TNFA (C-857T), were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. Information regarding alcohol intake, smoking habits, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured during a routine health check-up. Of the six SNPs genotyped, an IL6 polymorphism (rs1800796, C-634G) was most strongly associated with a liver damage marker, AST. Mean serum AST was significantly different among the three genotypes (mean±SD, 22.7±7.3IU/L for CC, 22.8±7.7IU/L for CG, and 24.3±8.6IU/L for GG, p=0.011 by analysis of variance). The differences remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders by general linear models. The variations in mean serum AST and ALT levels were marked especially among men. Thus, the functional polymorphism IL6 C-634G may affect serum AST and ALT levels, possibly through different IL-6 production. PMID:25523094

Sugimoto, Yuka; Wakai, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Suma, Shino; Sasakabe, Tae; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Ogawa, Shin; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kuriyama, Nagato; Arisawa, Kokichi; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Hosono, Satoyo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo

2015-02-25

260

[The hypolipidemic and liver protective effect of (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide on hyperlipidemic golden hamsters].  

PubMed

This study is to observe preventive effect of (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide on hyperlipidemia and fatty liver of golden hamsters. Hyperlipidemic golden hamsters fed with high-fat diet was administered orally with (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide (10, 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1)) for 5 weeks. Levels of serum and hepatic lipid content, liver histology, hepatic MDA and SOD levels, serum ALT and AST levels were evaluated in golden hamsters. (Z)-N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide has a hypolipidemic effect, and could reduce hepatic lipid content, serum ALT and AST levels, hepatic MDA level, increase hepatic SOD activity. (Z)-N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide plays an important role in reducing serum lipid, restraining hepatic fatty deposition and protecting liver to get rid of peroxidation injury of hyperlipidemic golden hamsters. The exact lipid-lowering mechanism of (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide needs further investigation. PMID:23227559

Shen, Yan-Hui; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Yun; Altunbak, Gulmira; Lin, Li-Min; Shu, Ping; Wei, Xiao

2012-09-01

261

Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

2001-01-01

262

Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats  

PubMed Central

The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation. PMID:22736883

Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

2011-01-01

263

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

2009-08-01

264

Hepatoprotective Effect of Superfine Particles of Herbal Medicine against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the superfine particles of Radix Tetrastigma (SPRT) against CCl4-induced acute liver damage in rats. Animals were treated with SPRT (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2?g/kg) and showed remarkable hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. CCl4 altered various biochemical parameters in rat liver, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), histopathological changes, and Bax and caspase-3 expressions. SPRT significantly prevented increases in ALT and AST levels, reduced MDA level, decreased Bax and caspase-3 protein expression, enhanced SOD activity, and provided significant amelioration in the histopathological lesions. These findings suggested that SPRT has significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats. PMID:25003132

Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaocheng; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong

2014-01-01

265

A case of isoniazid-induced liver injury diagnosed by use of the DLST, and successful reintroduction of isoniazid for pleural tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old woman was admitted for pleural tuberculosis diagnosed by right chest pain and cough. She received combination antituberculosis therapy consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. However, liver damage was observed 15 days after initiation of therapy (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 248 IU/l, alanine transaminase (ALT), 132 IU/l). The patient was given glycyrrhizinate intravenously, but liver damage gradually increased (AST 628 IU/l, ALT 467 IU/l) and all tuberculosis drugs were ceased. We diagnosed drug-induced liver damage due to isoniazid according to results of the drug lymphocyte stimulation test. We successfully reintroduced rifampicin and streptomycin, and carried out desensitization therapy for isoniazid without liver injury recurrence. Reintroduction of a drug suspected to cause drug-induced liver injury is generally not recommended; however, our experience suggests that isoniazid, a first-line antituberculosis drug, may be reintroduced after desensitization. PMID:21188445

Ikegame, Satoshi; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Fujita, Masaki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiki, Akira

2011-08-01

266

Biochemical effects of various pesticides on sprayers of grape gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 85 healthy male pesticide sprayers in grape garden exposed to different class of pesticides for 3 to 10 years were\\u000a compared with 75 controls matched for age with respect to serum cholinesterase, serum total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, hematological\\u000a parameters such as Hb, Hct, RBC and serum lipid peroxidation. Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated in the form

Jyotsna A. Patil; Arun J. Patil; Sanjay P. Govindwar

2003-01-01

267

Carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme in the liver of male rats: role of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases and glutathione play an important role in the detoxification of most toxic agents. In the present study, the protective effects of some antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid (AA), vitamin E (VE) or garlic) on carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the level of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric

S. A Sheweita; M Abd El-Gabar; M Bastawy

2001-01-01

268

Salivary enzymes as diagnostic markers for detection of gingival/periodontal disease and their correlation with the severity of the disease  

PubMed Central

Context: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. Important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death are aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), and gama glutamyl transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in the gingiva and periodontium, in the inflammation. Aims: In this article we examined the activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, before and after periodontal treatment (experimental group — 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontitis patients), and in the saliva from healthy subjects (control group — 20 samples). Settings and Design: Periodontal disease was determined based on the clinical parameters (gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)). Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods: The stimulated saliva of the patient was collected in a sterile test tube and analyzed using the Automatic Analyzer. Results: The obtained results showed statistically significant increased activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, in relation to the control group. A significant reduction in the enzyme levels was seen after conventional periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Based on these results, it can be assumed that the salivary enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP) can be considered as biochemical markers for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of the functional condition of periodontal tissues in disease and health, and in the evaluation of the therapy effects in periodontal disease. PMID:23162329

Dabra, Sarita; China, Kamalpreet; Kaushik, Alka

2012-01-01

269

Seasonal and physiological variations in serum chemistry and mineral concentrations in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the seasonal and physiological variations of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron sodium chlorine, potassium,\\u000a calcium, phosphorus, urea, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine (CR), aspartate aminotransfrase (AST), alanine aminotransferase\\u000a (ALT), cholesterol, albumin, globulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein concentrations in cattle. Two groups\\u000a of mated (n=14) and nonmated (n=10), healthy cows were selected for the study. Serum samples

Beran Yokus; Ulker Dileki Cakir

2006-01-01

270

Protective effects of seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the protective effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., SBT) seed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in male ICR mice. Our results showed that oral administration of SBT seed oil at doses of 0.26, 1.30, and 2.60mg\\/kg for 8weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride

Yu-Wen Hsu; Chia-Fang Tsai; Wen-Kang Chen; Fung-Jou Lu

2009-01-01

271

Effect of fucoidan on aspirin-induced stomach ulceration in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of fucoidan on aspirin-induced ulcers in rats were evaluated: both biochemical and immunological parameters were taken into consideration. The status of stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined. Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p<0.01) alterations in aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer-induced rats. Also, moderate alterations (p<0.05) were

Jong-il Choi; Hanumatha Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Nak-Yun Sung; Jae-Hun Kim; Byeong Soo Chun; Dong Hyun Ahn; Hong-Seok Choi; Keon-Wook Kang; Ju-Woon Lee

2010-01-01

272

Studio e progetto di un contatore multicanale configurabile ad alte prestazioni basato su piattaforma FPGA/DSP.  

E-print Network

??Nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca COFIN-PRIN "Development of Monolithic Photon-Counter Arrays for Transient High-Energy Phenomena and Adaptive Optics in Astrophysics" avviato nel 2003, il Dipartimento… (more)

Lazzeri, Andrea

2007-01-01

273

Preliminary temperature accelerated life test (ALT) on lattice mismatched triple-junction concentrator solar cells-on-carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature accelerated life test on concentrator lattice mismatched Ga0.37In0.63P/Ga0.83In0.17As/Ge triple-junction solar cells-on-carrier is being carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 125, 145 and 165°C and the nominal photo-current condition (500X) is emulated by injecting current in darkness. The final objective of these tests is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of these solar cells in a moderate period of time. Up to now only the test at 165°C has finished. Therefore, we cannot provide complete reliability information, but we have carried out preliminary data and failure analysis with the current results.

Orlando, Vincenzo; Espinet, Pilar; Nuñez, Neftalí; Eltermann, Fabian; Contreras, Yedileth; Bautista, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel; Bett, Andreas W.; Algora, Carlos

2014-09-01

274

STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

1977-01-01

275

Reply to ``Comment on `Effect of ?-nucleus potential on the 27Al(?,t)28Si reaction' ''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The point stressed by Michel and Reidemeister is that the Michel potential in our work is not final and an adjustment of the parameter ? gives an elastic distribution and a potential similar to that obtained for the molecular one. This is usual in the absence of the elastic data at large angles as commented on by Tariq et al. [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2558 (1999)]. However, the inadequacy of the Michel potential with the parameter ?=7.4 in the description of the (?,t) reaction data leads to a finding of a better value for the parameter by Michel and Reidemeister. This justifies the use of the molecular and Michel potentials in the analysis of the reaction and conforms to the suggestion by Satchler (Ref. [40] in Tariq et al.) that the performance of a potential in nonelastic processes is a stronger criterion in its selection.

Das, S. K.; Tariq, A. S. B.; Rahman, A. F. M. M.; Roy, P. K.; Huda, M. N.; Mondal, A. S.; Basak, A. K.; Gupta, H. M. Sen; Malik, F. B.

2000-10-01

276

Quantitation of the major fungal allergens, Alt a 1 and Asp f 1, in commercial allergenic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Alternaria is one of the most important fungi associated with allergic disease, whereas Aspergillus fumigatus is involved in a broad spectrum of pulmonary diseases. Currently, fungal extracts used for diagnosis in the United States are unstandardized, and their allergenic content cannot be compared directly. Objective: The goal of this study was to compare the variability of major allergen levels among

Lisa Vailes; Susheela Sridhara; Oliver Cromwell; Bernhard Weber; Michael Breitenbach; Martin Chapman

2001-01-01

277

High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)  

E-print Network

and subsequently narrows with increasing milling time. Solid-state mechanical milling promotes comparable decreases avoiding the problem of phase separation, relies on solid-state mixing, which generally involves radicals. For this reason, high-dispersion solid-state blend- ing is only now being realized as a viable

278

Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension  

E-print Network

using ethanol rather than methanol, the resulting molecules are"fatty acid ethyl esters"(FAEE). introduction Biodiesel is a liquid fuel that is created by chemically process- ing vegetable oil and altering in chemical structure. Bio- diesel molecules consist almost entirely of chemicals called fatty acid methyl

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

279

Silver nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress-dependent toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their health risk assessment is of great importance. For acute toxicity evaluation of orally administered Ag-NPs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activity of liver function enzymes [(alanine (ALT/GPT), aspartate (AST/GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), comet assay, and histopathology of liver in the rat model were performed. Four groups of five male rats were orally administered Ag-NPs, once a day for five days with doses of 5, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg, body weight. A control group was also made of five rats. Blood and liver were collected 24 h after the last treatment following standard protocols. Ag-NPs exposure increased the induction of ROS, activities of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), tail migration, and morphological alterations of the liver tissue in exposed groups compared to control. The highest two doses, 50 and 100 mg/kg showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in ROS induction, ALT, AST, ALP activity, LHP concentration, DNA damage, and morphological alterations of liver compared to control. Based on these results, it is suggested that short-term administration of high doses of Ag-NP may cause organ toxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:25355157

Patlolla, Anita K; Hackett, Diahanna; Tchounwou, Paul B

2015-01-01

280

Comparison of Laboratory Data of Acute Cholangitis Patients Treated with or without Immunosuppressive Drugs  

PubMed Central

Objective. Symptoms and laboratory data between acute cholangitis (AC) patients treated with and AC patients treated without immunosuppressive drugs (corticosteroids or methotrexate) were compared to identify factors that can be meaningful to the diagnosis of AC. Methods. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparison of baseline variables between the patients with AC treated with immunosuppressive drugs and those without it. The chi-squared test was used in the analysis of the symptoms. Results. In total, 69 patients with AC were enrolled. Fifteen patients were treated with immunosuppressants due to rheumatoid arthritis or other collagen diseases. Jaundice was less frequent in the patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.0351). T-Bil level was marginally lower in the patients treated with immunosuppressants (P = 0.086). AST and ALT levels were lower in the patients treated with immunosuppressants (P = 0.0417 and 0.022, respectively). Conclusions. The frequency of jaundice and AST and ALT levels were lower in the patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. It is recommended that care be taken to evaluate jaundice, AST level, and ALT level in the diagnosis of AC. PMID:24734189

Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Ichiki, Noboru; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Sueishi, Makoto

2014-01-01

281

The Clinical Significance of Serum Ferritin in Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children has become an important public health issue because of its high prevalence and severity. Several noninvasive methods for estimating NAFLD are under investigation. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of serum ferritin as a biomarker of severity of pediatric NAFLD patients. Methods A total of 64 NAFLD patient were enrolled from Severance Children's Hospital from March 2010 to February 2013. Serum ferritin levels, liver related laboratory tests, liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (2-dimensional [2D] proton density-fat fraction) and NAFLD severity markers were compared between obese group and overweight group. Correlation analyses were performed between serum ferritin and laboratory values including NAFLD severity markers. Results In obese group, serum ferritin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, international normalized ratio (INR), MRI 2D proton density-fat fraction, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) (an index score calculated from platelet count, ALT, AST and age) were significantly higher than those of overweight group. NAFLD severity markers, APRI and FIB-4, and liver specific important laboratory values, AST, ALT, INR, cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein show significant correlation with serum ferritin in NAFLD patients. Conclusion Serum ferritin concentrations could be a candidate of useful severity marker in the pediatric NAFLD patients. PMID:25587525

Na, Ji Hoon; Park, So Won; Kang, Yunkoo; Koh, Hong

2014-01-01

282

Study on protecting effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: The SAP rat models were prepared and randomly assigned to the model control group, Baicalin treated group, and Octreotide treated group while other healthy rats were assigned to the sham-operated group. Rat mortality, levels of ALT, AST, liver and pancreas pathological changes in all groups were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Tissue microarray (TMA) sections of hepatic tissue were prepared to observe expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 protein and Caspase-3, and changes of apoptotic indexes. RESULTS: Rat survival at 12 h, expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 protein and apoptotic indexes of liver were all significantly higher in treated groups than in model control group. While the liver and pancreas pathological scores, contents of ALT, AST, and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein were all lower in treated groups than in the model control group. CONCLUSION: Both Baicalin and Octreotide can protect rats with SAP by decreasing the contents of ALT, AST and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein, and improving the expression levels of Bax protein, Caspase-3 protein, and inducing apoptosis. PMID:19030211

Zhang, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Zheng; Feng, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Yang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Ju, Tong-Fa; Xie, Qi; Yuan, Wen-Qin

2008-01-01

283

Detection and distribution of putative virulence associated genes in Aeromonas species from freshwater and wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

The detection of genes responsible for Aeromonas virulence is a vital tool in establishing the potential pathogenicity of the bacteria, as these virulence genes may act alone or in synergy in the establishment of infections. Freshwater and wastewater mixed liquor samples were collected from Kat river and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Polymerase chain reaction was utilized for the amplification of the different genes coding for virulence. All virulence associated genes screened (alt, lip, fla, aer, ast, hlyA) were detected in at least one Aeromonas isolates. In fresh water sample, virulence genes were distributed as follows: lip (67%), aer (43%), alt (33%), fla (62%), ast (10%), and hlyA (86%), while in wastewater samples the occurrence were as follows: lip (92%), aer (21%), alt (54%), fla (83%), ast (29%), and hlyA (88%). The presence of these virulence genes in environmental Aeromonas isolates is of concern to public health as these organisms are potential pathogens in the environment and the virulence determinants could be transferred to aquatic organisms and humans by one mechanism or the other. PMID:23322604

Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

2013-11-01

284

Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with optical coherence tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938546

Kova?evi?, Igor; Radosavljevi?, Aleksandra; Kalezi?, Bojan; Poti?, Jelena; Damjanovi?, Goran; Stefanovi?, Ivan

2012-08-01

285

Improvement of liver function in humans using a mixture of schisandra fruit extract and sesamin.  

PubMed

This was a randomized, parallel, and placebo-controlled study. Forty subjects were divided into a test group and a placebo group. The study was focused on the potential effects of a mixture of Schisandra fruit extract and sesamin (hereinafter called 'SCH') in the subjects with borderline high levels (40-60 U/L) of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Twenty subjects taking SCH (four tablets per day) and 20 subjects taking a placebo (four tablets per day) were studied. The effects of SCH on ALT, AST, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, free radical levels, total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation were determined. The total test period was 5?months. Intervention of SCH clearly reduced the levels of ALT and AST, but it made no change in the total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. Intake of SCH also greatly increased the antioxidant capacity and decreased the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total free radicals, and superoxide anion radicals in the plasma. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and reductase in the erythrocytes were significantly increased. In addition, the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation, an inflammatory marker, was evidently increased. Fatty liver was found to have been significantly improved in this study. SCH proved to have the effects of antioxidation and improving liver function. PMID:22610748

Chiu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Tzeng, Yu-Te; Wang, Chin-Kun

2013-03-01

286

Role of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular injury: effect of CrPic treatment.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium picolinate (CrPic, Fig. 1) hepatoprotective activity from alloxan-induced hepatic injury. Diabetes is induced by alloxan-treatment concurrently with the hepatic injury in mice. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of CrPic treatment in hepatic injury and the signal role of liver fatty acid binding protein in early hepatocellular injury diagnostics. In this study, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) levels in the alloxan group were higher 71% and 50%, respectively, than those of the control group (ALT: 14.51±0.74; AST: 22.60±0.69). The AST and ALT levels in CrPic group were of minimal difference compared to the control groups. Here, CrPic exhibited amelioration alloxan induced oxidative stress in mouse livers. A significant increase in liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was observed, which indicates increased fatty acid utilization in liver tissue [1]. In this study, the mRNA levels of L-FABP increased in both the control (1.1 fold) and CrPic (0.78 fold) groups compared the alloxan group. These findings suggest that hepatic injury may be prevented by CrPic, and is a potential target for use in the treatment of early hepatic injury. PMID:23603011

Fan, Weijiang; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenhang; Teng, Anguo; Liu, Anjun; Ming, Dongfeng; Yan, Peng

2013-07-01

287

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM April 2005/Vol. 48, No. 4 21 ast month's "President's Letter" called for a  

E-print Network

on government-funded acade- mic researchers to perform long-term research in the 21st century. What is its current state of that funding? DARPA and DoD Support For the last few decades of the 20th century;tion (NSF) and the Depart- ment of Defense (DoD) Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The fund

California at Berkeley, University of

288

THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERT REVIEWS ON CONSUMER DEMAND FOR EXPERIENCE GOODS: A CASE STUDY OF MOVIE CRITICS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inherent problem in measuring the influence of expert reviews on the demand for experience goods is that a correlation between good reviews and high demand may be spurious, induced by an underlying correlation with unobservable quality signals. Using the timing of the reviews by two popular movie critics, Siskel and Ebert, relative to opening weekend box office revenue, we

David A. Reinstein; Christopher M. Snyder

2005-01-01

289

Surviving extremes ast0838 | Adaptations 4: Surviving extremes (fact sheet) developed for the Department of Education WA  

E-print Network

. In Australia, samphires are the dominant vegetation around inland saline lakes. Conditions around these lakes ions into central vacuoles of cells for safe storage. How samphires cope with salt 1. Vacuoles store salt Vacuoles are spaces inside plant cells usually used for storage. Locking away excess salt

Tobar, Michael

290

Behind the Veil of Budgetary Discipline: The Political Logic of the Budgetary Rules in EMU and the SGP &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe outcome of the 2003 compliance crisis showed once and for all that the nature of the stability and growth pact (SGP) is highly political. While the existing literature often presents the content of EMU and SGP as an unqualified triumph for the German financial elite, the available primary sources point in quite another direction.

MATHIEU SEGERS; FEMKE VAN ESCH

2007-01-01

291

Effects of Executive Characteristics and Venture Capital Involvement on Board Composition and Share Ownership in IPO Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the agency perspective, resource-based view and upper echelon research, this paper examines factors affecting board selection and share ownership in initial public offerings (IPOs). In line with socio-cognitive and behavioural research, it shows that board independence, cognitive capacity and the incentives of non-executive directors are negatively associated with the experience and power of executive directors, and that large-block share

Igor Filatotchev

2006-01-01

292

INDIRECT NETWORK EFFECTS AND THE PRODUCT CYCLE: VIDEO GAMES IN THE U.S., 1994–2002 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective

MATTHEW T. CLEMENTS; HIROSHI OHASHI

2005-01-01

293

New Developments in Monetary Economics: Two ghosts, Two Eccentricities, a Fallacy, a Mirage and a Mythos &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monetary theory and policy are part of intertemporal public finance. The two ghosts are the liquidity trap and the real balance effect. The eccentricities are negative nominal interest rates and the helicopter drop of money. The fallacy is the Fiscal Theory of the Price Level, a logically inconsistent theory of the link between the government's intertemporal budget constraint and the

Willem H. Buiter

2005-01-01

294

Dragon Children: Identifying the Causal Effect of the First Child on Female Labour Supply with the Chinese Lunar Calendar &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractInstrumental variables (IV) estimates of the effect of fertility on female labour supply have only been able to identify the causal effect of second and higher parity children. This study uses exogenous variation in fertility caused by the Chinese lunar calendar to identify the effect of the first child. Additionally, weighting formulas are presented to interpret IV estimates as weighted

J ames P. V ere

2008-01-01

295

ASTE observations in the 345 GHz window towards the HII region N113 of the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The HII region N113 is located in the central part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with an associated molecular cloud that is very rich in molecular species. Most of the previously observed molecular lines cover the frequency range 85-270 GHz. Thus, a survey and study of lines at the 345 GHz window is required for a more complete understanding of the chemistry and excitation conditions of this region. Methods: We mapped a region of 2.´5 × 2.´5 centred at N113 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 13CO J = 3-2 line with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. In addition, we observed 16 molecular lines as single pointings towards its centre. Results: From the 13CO J = 3-2 map we estimate the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and virial masses in about 1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104M? for the molecular cloud associated with N113. From the dust continuum emission at 500 ?m we additionally obtain a mass of gas of 7 × 103M?. Towards the cloud centre we detected emission from 12CO, 13CO, C18O (3-2), HCN, HNC, HCO+, C2H (4-3), and CS (7-6); these are the first reported detections of the HCN, HNC, and C2H (4-3) lines from this region. We confirm the detection of CS (7-6), which was previously tentatively detected. From analysing the HCN, HNC, and C2H lines we suggest that they might be emitted from a photodissociation region (PDR). Moreover, we suggest that the chemistry involving the C2H lines in N113 is probably similar to that in Galactic PDRs. We analysed the HCN J = 4-3, J = 3-2, and J = 1-0 lines with the code RADEX and we conclude that we observe very high density gas, between some 105 and 107 cm-3.

Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P. A.; Rubio, M.; Fariña, C.; Komugi, S.

2014-12-01

296

Impacts of Prime-age Adult Mortality on Labour Supply: Evidence from Adolescents and Women in South Africa &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper examines the impact of prime-age adult mortality on the transition made by adolescents from school to the labour market and on female adult labour force participation decisions in South Africa. We find, first, that deaths of prime-age adults significantly increase both male and female adolescents’ labour force participation as they stop their schooling. Secondly, the death of prime-age

F utoshi Y amauchi; T habani B uthelezi; M yriam V elia

2008-01-01

297

The Influence of Local Urban Containment Policies and Statewide Growth Management on the Size of United States Urban Areas &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In an attempt to slow the consumption of urban land for a given population, and the negative outcomes thought by some to be generated by such sprawl, regulations in the form of (i) the local imposition of urban containment policies that restrict or prohibit the amount and/or the type of urban settlement beyond a certain line and (ii) the statewide

Robert W. Wassmer

2006-01-01

298

Natural Hazards as the Cause of Toxic Spills in the United States, with some Notes on Liability&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters that create technological emergencies by causing the release of dangerous materials such as oil, chemicals, or radiological\\/infectious agents are called “na-tech” events (Showalter and Myers 1992). Although there has yet to be a catastrophic na-tech event in the United States, low impact events are fairly common. An example of this occurred a few weeks ago when, during flooding

Pamela S Showalter

1995-01-01

299

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST\\/VCE application: Single stream nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of

R. K. Majjigi; J. F. Brausch; B. A. Janardan; T. F. Balsa; P. R. Knott; N. Pickup

1984-01-01

300

Interest Rate Restrictions in a Natural Experiment: Loan Allocation and the Change in the Usury Laws in 1714 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effects of interest rate restrictions on loan allocation. In 1714, the British government tightened the usury laws, reducing the maximum permissible interest rate from 6 to 5 percent. A sample of individual loan transactions from a goldsmith bank allows us to examine how interest rate restrictions affected loan allocation. Average loan size and minimum loan size

Peter Temin; Hans-Joachim Voth

2008-01-01

301

Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

2012-12-01

302

Effect of intra-arterial infusion with triolein emulsion on rabbit liver  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether intra-arterial infusion of triolein emulsion has biochemical and histopathologic effect on rabbit liver. METHODS: An emulsion of 0.2 mL triolein in 20 mL of saline was infused into either the hepatic arteries of nine rabbits (group 1) or the superior mesenteric arteries of 12 rabbits (group 2). Five rabbits infused with 20 mL of normal saline were used as a control group (group 3). The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured to evaluate liver function in each group just before the infusion, at 2 h, day 1, day 4, and day 7 following infusion. Each rabbit in all of the groups was infused with Evans blue on day 7 to evaluate changes in vascular permeability, and obtain the stained area of the hepatic surface. If the stained area was not available, the anteroinferior portion of the right hepatic lobe was selected. The obtained tissues were examined by light, electron and confocal microscopy. The changes in AST and ALT levels at each time point were calculated and statistically analyzed using a mixed linear model. A P value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: In group 1 (hepatic artery group), both the AST and ALT serum levels increased significantly on day 1 (P = 0.0016 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with the control group, followed by a decrease thereafter. In group 2 (portal vein group), the AST level increased on day 4 (P = 0.0095), while the ALT level increased significantly on day 1 (P < 0.0001), and decreased thereafter, as compared with the control. For the remainder of the examination days, there were no significant changes in the AST and ALT levels (P > 0.05). Only three rabbits in each group showed hepatic surface staining with the Evans blue dye. Light and electron microscopic findings showed no specific changes in the selected hepatic tissues. Confocal microscopic examination with transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling stain revealed lack of hepatocyte apoptosis in any of the groups. There were no differences in the results between group 1 and group 2. CONCLUSION: Infusion of triolein emulsion into rabbit livers revealed a minimal transient decrease of liver function, and no specific histopathologic changes. PMID:25339830

Kim, Yong-Woo; Park, Young Mi; Yoon, Sik; Kim, Hak Jin; Park, Do Yoon; Cho, Byung Mann; Choi, Seon Hee

2014-01-01

303

Limited Utility of Plasma M30 in Discriminating Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis from Steatosis – A Comparison with Routine Biochemical Markers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The utility of Cytokeratin-18 fragment, namely CK18Asp396 (M30), for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently uncertain. We aimed to provide further data in this area among multi-ethnic Asian subjects with NAFLD. Materials and Methods The accuracy of M30 for detecting NASH was compared with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels in consecutive adult subjects with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Results Data for 93 NAFLD subjects (mean age 51.0±11.1 years old and 51.6% males) and 20 healthy controls (mean age 50.2±16.4 years old and 33.3% males) were analyzed. There were 39 NASH subjects (41.9%) and 54 non-NASH subjects (58.1%) among the NAFLD subjects. Plasma M30 (349 U/L vs. 162 U/L), and serum ALT (70 IU/L vs. 26 IU/L), AST (41 IU/L vs. 20 IU/L) and GGT (75 IU/L vs. 33 IU/L) were significantly higher in NAFLD subjects than in healthy controls. Serum ALT (86 IU/L vs. 61 IU/L), AST (58 IU/L vs. 34 IU/L) and GGT (97 IU/L vs. 56 IU/L) were significantly higher in NASH subjects compared to non-NASH subjects, but no significant difference was observed with plasma M30 (435 U/L vs. 331 U/L). The accuracy of plasma M30, and serum ALT, AST and GGT was good for predicting NAFLD (AUROC 0.91, 0.95, 0.87 and 0.85, respectively) but less so for NASH (AUROC 0.59, 0.64, 0.75 and 0.68, respectively). Serum ALT and AST, but not plasma M30 showed a significant trend with increasing grades of ballooning and lobular inflammation. Conclusion The utility of M30 in the detection of NASH in clinical practice appears limited, in comparison to routine biochemical markers. PMID:25184298

Chan, Wah-Kheong; Sthaneshwar, Pavai; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

2014-01-01

304

Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial ?-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

2013-11-01

305

Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).  

PubMed

Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement, indicating that separate reference intervals should be established for serum and plasma. Finally, storage of these enzymes at -70 degrees C for 1 mo resulted in up to a 25% decrease in enzymatic activity in manatee plasma. PMID:18634208

Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

2008-06-01

306

The predictive value of transaminases at admission in patients hospitalized for heart failure: findings from the RO-AHFS registry  

PubMed Central

Background: Transaminases are commonly elevated in both the inpatient and ambulatory settings in heart failure (HF). Aims: To determine the prevalence and degree of elevated transaminase levels at admission and to evaluate the association between transaminase levels and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Methods: Over a 12-month period, the Romanian Acute Heart Failure Syndromes (RO-AHFS) registry enrolled consecutive patients hospitalized for HF at 13 medical centres. A post-hoc analysis of the 489 patients (15.2%) with alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (upper limits of normal 31 IU/l and 32 IU/l, respectively) measured at baseline was performed. In-hospital mortality was compared across quartiles using multivariable Cox regression models. Results: The prevalences of elevated ALT and AST were 28% and 24% and the medians (interquartile range) were 22 (16–47) and 23 (16–37 IU/L). Patients with elevated transaminases more commonly had right HF, cardiogenic shock, or an ejection fraction <45%. Patients with an ALT in the highest quartile were more likely to present with hypotension and a low pulse pressure, to have electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dyssynchrony and echocardiographic findings including increased left ventricular dimensions, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and valvular heart disease, to require inotropic or vasopressor support during hospitalization, and to report lower ?-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor utilization. After adjusting for potential confounders, ALT was directly associated with BUN increases ?10 mg/dl, necessity for intensive care unit admission, and longer length of stay. Patients in the highest quartile of ALT experienced significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality. Conclusions: In patients hospitalized for HF, there is a graded relationship between admission transaminase levels and surrogates for in-hospital morbidity, while more pronounced elevations of ALT predict in-hospital mortality independent of known prognostic indicators. PMID:24222818

Ambrosy, Andrew P; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Bubenek, Serban; Vinereanu, Dragos; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Macarie, Cezar

2013-01-01

307

Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

2014-01-01

308

Cryoprotective therapy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma: a study of 14 patients with a single lesion.  

PubMed

Percutaneous cryoablation is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study reviewed retrospectively clinical data from 14 patients who underwent cryoablation of huge HCC (long diameter >7 cm). The side effects of cryosurgeries and liver function reverse were recorded and compared everyday. All the patients survived cryosurgery and none died before leaving hospital 2 weeks later. Despite liver-protective treatment before cryosurgery, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were increased significantly, but returned to preoperative levels 2 weeks post-cryosurgery. Before cryosurgery, mean total bilirubin (T.BIL) and direct bilirubin (D.BIL) levels were normal; 8-10 days after cryosurgery, they increased more than two-fold, but returned to the preoperative level 2 weeks post-cryosurgery. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels were compared between hepatitis B positive and negative patients. The hepatitis B negative group's AST level increased significantly 1 day post-cryosurgery (mean, 186 U/L) and decreased to the preoperative level at day 14. In the hepatitis B positive group, means transaminase and bilirubin reached peak values at different days post-cryosurgery. Overall, ALT and AST are valuable indicators of liver function impairment following cryosurgery. In patients with hepatitis B virus, close attention to the serum bilirubin level should be paid 8-10 days after cryosurgery. Liver-protective treatment may alleviate liver function impairment caused by cryosurgery of huge HCC. PMID:25445461

Alnaggar, Mohammed; Niu, Lizhi; Li, Jialiang; Yao, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Jianying; Ye, Jin; Chen, Jibing; Mu, Feng; Xu, Kecheng

2014-12-01

309

Disproportional exaggerated aspartate transaminase is a useful prognostic parameter in late leptospirosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the hepatic dysfunction in leptospirosis is usually mild and resolved eventually. However, sequential follow-up of liver biochemical data remained lacking.. METHODS: The biochemistry data and clinical symptoms of 11 sporadic patients were collected and analyzed, focusing on the impacts of leptospirosis upon liver biochemistry tests. RESULTS: The results disclosed that of the 11 cases, 5 or 45% died. The liver biochemistry data in the beginning of the disease course were only mildly elevated. Nevertheless, late exaggerated aspartate transaminase (AST) elevations were noted in three cases who finally died when compared with the typical course. Besides, significant higher AST/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratios (AARs) of the peak levels for transaminase were also noted in the cases who eventually succumbed. The mean±SD of AARs for the survival group and dead group were 5.652.27 (n = 5) and 1.860.64 (n = 6) respectively (P = 0.006). The ratios of the cases who finally died were all more than 3.0. Conversely, the survival group’s ratios were less than 3.0. CONCLUSION: Serial follow-up of transaminase might provide evidence to predict some rare evolutions in leptospirosis. If AST elevated progressively without a concomitant change of ALT, it might indicate an acute disease course with ensuing death. Additionally, AAR is another prognostic parameter for leptospirosis. Once the value was higher than 3.0, a grave prognosis is inevitable. PMID:16222754

Chang, Ming-Ling; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Ho, Yu-Pin; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Lin, Deng-Yn

2005-01-01

310

Bas.J.Vet.Res.Vol.12,No.1,2013. THE EFFECT OF BISMUTH CHLORIDE ON SOME BLOOD AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MALE LABORATORY RATS (RATTUS-RATTUS)  

E-print Network

The present study amid to characterized the potential toxic effects of bismuth chloride through oral administration on blood and biochiemical parameters of laboratory rats.Solutions of bismuth chloride were chronically feed by stomach tube to rats in(2.5mg/kg and 5 mg/kg).Animals were anesthetized after two months and blood samples were obtained,blood and biochemical parameters were appreciated between control and experimental Groups.The investigation of blood parameters included red blood cells count (RBC) hemoglobin concentration,packed cell volume PCV and total white blood cell count(WBC)biochemical parameters included total serum cholesterol(TSCH),alanin aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST).The results showed significant decrease (p?0.05) of R.B.C count,Hb concentrations PCV value and total W.B.C count in contrast,there was significant increase(p?0.05) of the total serum cholesterol(,ALTand AST) activities.

Zainab A. Shehab; Assad Hassan; Essa Adel; Mousa Hassan

311

Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpenia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatotoxicity is one of the inevitable side effects of long term use of medicines in many different disorders, chronic use of alcohol and in certain infectious disorders. Even though there are few effective drugs to treat such hepatotoxicity, mortality due to hepatotoxicity is increasing day by day. Therefore, in search of alternative and more effective medicine we found that Caesalpenia bonduc (CB), a shrub grows in hotter places of south Asia has been effectively used to treat such hepatotoxicity in folk medicine. Aim: Aim of the study is to scientifically evaluate the hepatoprotective nature of aqueous extract of CB using Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxic rat model. Materials and Methods and Result: Elevated levels of blood ALT, AST and ALT enzymes were found in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rat models. Treating these animals with CB either prior or after the induction of hepatotoxicity, shows significant decrease in the levels of ALP, AST, and ALT in their blood in comparison with the untreated hepatotoxic group. Additionally, histologically, hepatotoxic rats show necrotic changes & vacuolation in their hepatocytes, altered hepatic architecture and congested hepatic sinusoids. However, such histopathological adverse changes were minimized when these animals treated with CB. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that CB acts as both preventive and curative hepatoprotector PMID:25584245

Sumalatha, Suhani; Pai, K Shridhar R; Kumar, Nitesh

2014-01-01

312

Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald’s formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease. PMID:25120819

Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

2014-01-01

313

Effect of glycyrrhizic acid on titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Many recent studies demonstrate that most nanoparticles (NPs) have an adverse or toxic action on liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against hepatic injury induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. NTiO2-intoxicated rats received 300mg/kg of NTiO2 for 14days by gavage method. Protection group pretreated with GA for 7days before NTiO2 administration. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected as biomarkers in the blood to indicate hepatic injury. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated for oxidative stress in hepatic injury. Light microscopy for histopathological studies and TUNEL assay was also done. Administration of NTiO2 induced a significant elevation in plasma AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NTiO2 increased oxidative stress through the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in SOD and GPx enzymes. Histopathological studies showed that treatment with NTiO2 caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis, which was accompanied by congestion and accumulation of inflammatory cells. Apoptotic index was also significantly increased in this group. Pretreatment of GA significantly decreased ALT, AST and ALP, attenuated the histopathology of hepatic injury, decreased apoptotic index, ameliorated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue, and increased the activities of SOD and GPx. These findings indicate that GA effectively protects against NTiO2-induced hepatotoxicity. GA has a potent protective effect against the NPs induced hepatotoxicity and might be clinically useful. PMID:25016076

Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Fakhredini, Fereshtesadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat

2014-09-01

314

The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on liver enzymes in patients referring with unexplained hypertransaminasemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence has shown an association of Helicobacter pylori infection with liver dysfunction and damage. We investigated if H. pylori eradication affects liver enzymes in patients referring with unexplained hypertransaminasemia. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild unexplained hypertransaminasemia accompanied with dyspepsia and confirmed H. pylori infection were studied. Viral, metabolic, autoimmune, and drug/toxin induced hepatitis as well as fatty liver were all ruled-out by appropriate tests. Patients received bismuth-containing quadruple-therapy for 2 weeks. Serum levels of liver enzymes (alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)) and successful eradication (with stool antigen test) were evaluated 4 weeks after the medication. Results: A total number of 107 patients (55 males, mean age = 35.0 ± 8.4 years) were studied. Eradication was successful in 93 patients (86.9%). Serum levels of AST (6.3 ± 19.6 IU/L, P = 0.002) and ALT (7.8 ± 24.9 IU/L, P = 0.001) were significantly decreased after eradication. Levels of AST and ALT decreased to normal range respectively in 46.6% and 45.7% of the cases who had baseline levels above the normal range. Conclusion: This study showed a decrease in liver enzymes after receiving eradication regimen of H. pylori, suggesting a role for H. pylori infection in at least some of patients with mild unexplained hypertransaminasemia. Further studies are warranted to find the underlying mechanisms by which H. pylori infection affects the liver and clinical importance of such effects. PMID:24949302

Salehi, Hassan; Minakari, Mohammad; Yaghoutkar, Arezoo; Tabesh, Elham; Salehi, Marziyeh; Mirbagher, Leila

2014-01-01

315

A comparative study of serum aminotransferases in chronic kidney disease with and without end-stage renal disease: Need for new reference ranges  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatic diseases are common among chronic kidney disease patients and liver function tests particularly serum liver enzymes play an important role in diagnosing and monitoring these patients. Serum aminotransferase levels commonly fall near the lower end of the range of the normal values in patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD). High-levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can occur in these patients due to renal osteodystrophy. Thus, the recognition of liver damage in these patients is challenging. Aim: To compare the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ALP among three groups - CKD patients without end stage renal disease (ESRD), patients with ESRD and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, hospital-based study was carried out from 100 patients’ records from each group and serum AST, ALT and ALP values were noted. Results: Our study showed that serum AST and ALT levels were significantly lower in CKD patients both without and with ESRD compared to controls. Further, these two enzyme levels were also significantly lower in CKD patients with ESRD compared to CKD patients without the condition. Serum ALP levels were significantly higher in patients with and without ESRD as compared to the controls. However, the values did not differ significantly between patients with and without ESRD. Conclusion: Levels of serum aminotransferases were low in CKD with and without ESRD and the levels become lower as the severity of CKD increases. Thus, the study established the need for separate reference ranges of serum aminotransferase in different stages of CKD. PMID:25664265

Ray, Lopamudra; Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Chatterjee, Anirban; Sarangi, Rajlaxmi; Ganguly, Satyaki

2015-01-01

316

[Data analysis of electronic medical recored clinical changes in indexs of liver and kidney function when salvianolate injection is parenterally administered over extended period].  

PubMed

To understand the impact of salvianolate injection treatment of liver and kidney function using different from the hospital information system nationwide 18 large three hospitals (hospital information system, HIS) to extract using salvianolate age 18-80 years-old patient, a total of 10 470 cases, depending on the treatment used to have two times before and after treatment 7 d aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase patients (ALT), serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement indicators grouped according salvianolate continuous use different treatment patients were divided into two groups, continuous medication time > 14 d were defined as the observation group, ? 14 d were defined as the control group, continuous medication longer than 31 d were not included in the analysis. Each index number of the observation group and the control group were: ALT (268/1 465), AST (270/1 585), Cr (278/1 582), BUN (278/1 611). After using propensity score methods to balance two groups of covariates, based on unweighted logistic regression logistic regression propensity score weighting combined with propensity score weighting to adjust for covariates logistic regression of liver and kidney function in the two groups were analyzed. The results showed: three logistic regression analysis showed no likelihood of ALT, AST, Cr targets two groups of patients with abnormal statistically significant difference, continuous medication time > 14 d may increase the risk of abnormal BUN indicators, comprehensive analysis still can not explain use different treatment of patients salvianolate cause liver and kidney toxicity damage, still large prospective randomized controlled trials further study. PMID:25532402

Li, Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Huo, Jian; Zhang, Hui

2014-09-01

317

Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

318

Treatment with Telbivudine Positively Regulates Antiviral Immune Profiles in Chinese Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with impairment of T and NK cell immunity. This study was aimed at investigating the impact of treatment with telbivudine (LDT) on T and NK cell immunity in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 54 CHB patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Individual patients were treated orally with 600 mg LDT daily for 13 months. The serum HBV DNA loads, the levels of the HBV-related biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), and the numbers of different subsets of peripheral T and NK cells in subjects were measured before and longitudinally after LDT treatment. Following treatment with LDT, the serum HBV DNA loads and the percentages of HBsAg- or HBeAg-seropositive cases were gradually reduced, accompanied by decreased levels of serum ALT and AST. In comparison with the HC, fewer CD3? CD56+ and CD244+ NK cells and CD3+ CD8+ T cells, lower frequencies of cytokine+ CD4+ T cells, and more CD3+ CD4+, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+, CD4+ CD25+ CD127low, and CD8+ PD-1+ T cells were detected in CHB patients. Treatment with LDT increased the numbers of NK and CD8+ cells and the frequencies of cytokine+ CD4+ T cells but reduced the numbers of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+, CD4+ CD25+ CD127low, and CD8+ PD-1+ T cells in CHB patients. The frequencies of cytokine+ CD4+ T cells were negatively associated with the levels of serum HBV DNA, ALT, and AST. Thus, treatment with LDT inhibits HBV replication, modulates T and NK cell immunity, and improves liver function in Chinese patients with CHB. PMID:23274669

Ma, Liang; Cai, Yan-Jun; Yu, Lei; Feng, Jun-Yan; Wang, Juan; Li, Cong

2013-01-01

319

Cryoprotective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: study of 51 patients with a single lesion.  

PubMed

Percutaneous cryoablation is a potentially curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After liver cryosurgery, rapid elevations of transaminases and bilirubin are common, but are usually transient and normalize within a few days. This study retrospectively reviewed clinical data from 51 patients who underwent liver cryoablation in our hospital during the past 4.5 years. Sixty-six percutaneous cryoablations were performed in these patients and transaminase and bilirubin levels before and after the procedure were observed. Although most patients received liver-protective treatment before cryosurgery, transaminase levels were double (mean alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were 71 U/L and 85 U/L, respectively) the normal ranges in our hospital. One day after cryosurgery, ALT and AST had increased 3.3-fold (peak mean was 241 U/L) and 5-fold (peak mean was 427 U/L), respectively, but were close to the preoperative level 5 days post-cryosurgery. No significant increase of serum bilirubin was observed. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels were compared between hepatitis B positive and hepatitis B negative patients. Only in the hepatitis B positive group were total bilirubin (74 ?mol/L/23 ?mol/L=3.2) and direct bilirubin (45 ?mol/L/12 ?mol/L=3.8) more than 3 times the preoperative level 7-9 days after treatment. Overall, ALT and AST are valuable as indicators of liver function impairment following cryosurgery. In patients with hepatitis B virus, serum bilirubin was 3 times the preoperative level 7-9 days after cryosurgery. Liver-protective treatment may alleviate liver function impairment due to cryosurgery. PMID:24859156

Ali, Alnaggar Mohammed Abdulatef; Lizhi, Niu; Jialiang, Li; Fei, Yao; Yuan, Wang; Jianying, Zeng; Jin, Ye; Jibing, Chen; Feng, Mu; Kecheng, Xu

2014-08-01

320

Combinatorial Effects of Thymoquinone on the Anticancer Activity and Hepatotoxicity of the Prodrug CB 1954  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. PMID:23833717

Talib, Wamidh H.; AbuKhader, Majed M.

2013-01-01

321

Melatonin protects liver from intestine ischemia reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of melatonin on liver after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: One hundred and fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 190-210 g, aged 7 wk, were randomly divided into melatonin exposure group, alcohol solvent control group and normal saline control group. Rats in the melatonin exposure group received intraperitoneal (IP) melatonin (20 mg/kg) 30 min before intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR), rats in the alcohol solvent control group received the same concentration and volume of alcohol, and rats in the normal saline control group received the same volume of normal saline. Serum samples were collected from each group 0.5, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after intestinal IR. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with an auto-biochemical analyzer. Serum TNF-? was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was detected by colorimetric assay. Pathological changes in liver and immunohistochemical straining of ICAM-1 were observed under an optical microscope. RESULTS: The levels of ALT measured at various time points after intestinal IR in the melatonin exposure group were significantly lower than those in the other two control groups (P < 0.05). The serum AST levels 12 and 24 h after intestinal IR and the ICAM-1 levels (%) 6, 12 and 24 h after intestinal IR in the melatonin exposure group were also significantly lower than those in the other two control groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exotic melatonin can inhibit the activity of ALT, AST and TNF-?, decrease the accumulation of MDA, and depress the expression of ICAM-1 in liver after intestinal IR injury, thus improving the liver function. PMID:19109875

Li, Jian-Yi; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Gu, Xi; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Hai; Qin, Yi-Min

2008-01-01

322

A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.  

PubMed

Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

2014-01-01

323

Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides in controlling ROS-meditated hypoxic injury in cells and can be useful in many hepatic complications. PMID:23833369

Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

2013-01-01

324

Effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzyme activity in rats exposed to organophosphate pesticide diazinon.  

PubMed

Diazinon, a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, has been widely used throughout the world in agriculture and horticulture to control insects that feed on crops, ornamentals, lawns, fruits, vegetables and other food products. The toxicity of the DZN causes adverse effects on many organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in rats exposed to diazinon. In this study, male wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 different groups. The groups were administered normal saline, soybean oil (as the solvent for diazinon and fat-soluble vitamins), diazinon, (30 mg kg(-1), vitamins E, C and A (100, 500 mg kg(-1) and 400 IU kg(-1), respectively) and a combination of diazinon with the same dose of each vitamin intraperitoneally i.p.daily for 14 days. Seven days after the final injection, the animals were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. The photometric method was used to measure the activity of the enzymes. The activities of ALT and AST in the diazinon group were significantly higher than that observed in the control group; however, the diazinon/vitamin E, A, C group displayed significant reduction in ALT and AST activities compared to the diazinon group. The lowest level of LDH enzyme activity was observed in the dazinon/vitamin C group and this was statistically lower than the diazinon group. The results of this study revealed that vitamin E, A and C have a potent protective effect against diazinon-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which may be due to the scavenging of free radicals and increased antioxidant status. PMID:24159690

Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shobi, Sepideh; Attar, Hossein; Shayegan, Sahel; Payam, Sakineh Sadat Hosseini; Ghorbani, Faezeh

2012-10-01

325

Liver steatosis (LS) evaluated through chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging liver enzymes in morbid obesity; effect of weight loss obtained with intragastric balloon gastric banding.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate in morbid obesity clinical and metabolic effects related to weight loss on liver steatosis (LS), measured through chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and liver enzymes. Forty obese subjects (8 M/32 W; BMI 42.8 ± 7.12 kg/m(2), mean ± SD) were evaluated for LS through ultrasound (US-LS), chemical-shift MRI (MRI-LS), liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], anthropometric parameters [weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC)], lipids, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at bio-impedance analysis (BIA)]. Anthropometric measures, MRI-LS, BIA, and biochemical parameters were reevaluated 6 months later in 18 subjects undergoing restrictive bariatric approach, i.e., intragastric balloon (BIB, n = 13) or gastric banding (LAGB, n = 5), and in 13 subjects receiving hypocaloric diet. At baseline, US-LS correlates only with MRI-LS, and the latter correlates with ALT, AST, and GGT. After 6 months, subjects undergoing BIB or LAGB had significant changes of BMI, weight, WC, ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, FM, FFM, and MRI-LS. Diet-treated obese subjects had no significant change of any parameter under study; change of BMI, fat mass, and fat-free mass was significantly greater in LAGB/BIB subjects than in diet-treated subjects. Change of MRI-LS showed a significant correlation with changes in weight, BMI, WC, GGT, ALP, and basal MRI-LS. Significant weight loss after BIB or LAGB is associated with decrease in chemical-shift MRI-LS and with reduction in liver enzymes; chemical-shift MRI and liver enzymes allow monitoring of LS in follow-up studies. PMID:24085682

Folini, Laura; Veronelli, Annamaria; Benetti, Alberto; Pozzato, Carlo; Cappelletti, Marco; Masci, Enzo; Micheletto, Giancarlo; Pontiroli, Antonio E

2014-01-01

326

Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats  

PubMed Central

The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

2014-01-01

327

Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Methods Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (?GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10–12 days postexercise. Results Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.01) and remained increased for at least 7 days postexercise. Bilirubin, ?GT and ALP remained within the normal range. Conclusion The liver function parameters, AST and ALT, were significantly increased for at least 7 days after the exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice. What is already known about this subject The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals.Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests.There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. What this study adds Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting.Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting.It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. PMID:17764474

Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

2008-01-01

328

Silymarin in treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: No pharmacologic agents have been approved for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that is common in our region. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin, a known herbal drug, in the treatment of NASH. Methods: This clinical-trial study was conducted on 64 patients with NASH who were randomly divided as case group (33) and control group (31). Abdominal sonography and persistent elevation in levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) more than 1.2 times of the upper normal limit within the last six months were selected as inclusion criteria. They were advised to take low-fat, low carbohydrate diet, do regular sport activity to lose weight up to 4 Kg. Patients in the case group received 210 mg/day silymarin orally for 8 weeks and those in the control group received placebo. After 8 weeks, the patients were reevaluated and their AST and ALT levels were measured. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (www.irct.ir) with registration number ID: IRCT201202159018N1. Results: The mean age of patients in case and control groups was 43.6±8.3 and 39.4±10.5 years, respectively. Their BMI were 27.4±1.7 and 27.5±1.9, respectively. Their weights were also 79±9.2 and 76.9±9.5 kg, respectively. Serum concentrations of ALT were 91.3±21.3 and 38.4±11.8 in case group before and after the study respectively, whiles the figures were 84.6±23.3 and 52.3±29 in the control group (P=0.026). The same trend was seen for AST (P=0.038). Conclusion: The patients who had taken silymarin experienced more notable fall in hepatic enzymes. PMID:24490006

Solhi, Hassan; Ghahremani, Ramin; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad; Hoseini Yazdi, Zahra

2014-01-01

329

Anesthetic management of HELLP syndrome complicating primary antiphospholipid syndrome -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined as an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent thrombosis or obstetrical morbidity. A 29-year-old woman who was diagnosed with APS underwent emergency cesarean delivery at 23 weeks' gestation. She had a seizure attack and her laboratory findings were: AST/ALT 1459/1108 IU/L, LDH 1424 IU/L, 30% hematocrit, a platelet count of 43 × 103/ml and urine protein (4+). We describe the anesthetic experience of catastrophic HELLP syndrome with antiphospholipid syndrome and we review the relevant literature. PMID:22778897

Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kim, Hong Soon; Bae, Hyun Kyung

2012-01-01

330

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fraction of Stellaria media L.  

PubMed

Therapy of rats with CCl4 hepatitis with Stellaria media L. water-soluble polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduces serum activities of transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and the thymol test values. In the liver, the density of inflammatory infiltration of the organ parenchyma, total count of necrotic hepatocytes, fatty and protein degeneration are reducing. Hence, water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, isolated from the terrestrial part of Stellaria media L., is characterized by hepatoprotective activity. PMID:23658890

Gorina, Ya V; Saprykina, E V; Gereng, E A; Perevozchikova, T V; Krasnov, E A; Ivanova, E V; Fait, E A; Baranova, O V

2013-03-01

331

Preliminary toxicity study on the individual and combined effects of Citrullus colocynthis and Nerium oleander in rats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of diet containing 10% of Citrullus colocynthis fruits or 10% of Nerium oleander leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5%+5%) for rats treated for 6 weeks was determined. Dullness, ruffled hair, decreased body weight gains and feed efficiency, and enterohepatonephropathy characterised treatment with C. colocynthis and N. oleander given alone. Diarrhoea was a prominent sign of C. colocynthis poisoning. Organ lesions were accompanied by leucopenia, anaemia and alterations in serum AST, ALT and ALP activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, bilirubin and other serum constituents. Feeding the mixture of C. colocynthis and N. oleander caused more marked effects and death of rats. PMID:10925008

Al-Yahya, M A; AL-Farhan, A H; Adam, S E

2000-08-01

332

Combined toxicity of Cassia senna and Citrullus colocynthis in rats.  

PubMed

Body weight loss, inefficiency of feed utilization, diarrhea, ruffled hair and enterohepatonephrotoxicity were effects on male Wistar rats fed diet containing 10% Cassia senna or 10% Citrullus colocynthis ripe fruits for 6w. Rats fed a 1:1 mixture (5% + 5%) of fruits from these plants were more adversely affected and had deaths than rats fed the individual plants. The changes associated with the macrocytic hypochromic anemia and leukopenia were increased serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, increased urea, and decreased total protein, albumin and calcium. Serum bilirubin concentration did not change. PMID:11308122

Adam, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

2001-04-01

333

Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides  

SciTech Connect

Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

1993-01-01

334

The gold nanoparticle size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: In vivo  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles (NPs) offer a great possibility for biomedical application, not only to deliver pharmaceutics, but also to be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, there are no data available regarding to what extent the degree of the toxicity and the accumulation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are present in in vivo administration. This study aimed to address the GNP size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: in vivo. Methods A total of 30 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats of the same age (12 weeks old) and weighing 220–240 g of King Saud University colony were used. Animals were randomly divided into groups, two GNP-treated rat groups and one control group (CG). The 50 ?l of 10 and 50 nm GNPs was intraperitoneally administered in rats for exposure duration of 3 days. Then, several biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) were evaluated. Results In this study, the AST values increased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The AST values significantly increased with 10 nm GNPs compared with 50 nm GNPs and control. The GGT and ALT values decreased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The GGT and ALT values significantly decreased with 50 nm GNPs compared with 10 nm GNPs and control. The ALP values significantly decreased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The decrease in ALP values with 10 nm GNPs was higher than those compared with 50 nm GNPs. In this study, the levels of UREA and CREA values increased in a non significant manner after the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the increase in the enzymes AST and the decrease in ALP are smaller GNPs (10 nm) size-dependent for exposure duration of 3 days; while the decrease in the enzymes GGT and ALT are bigger GNPs (50 nm) size-dependent. The levels of UREA and CREA values indicated no significant changes with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs for exposure duration of 3 days compared with the control. The administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs for short exposure duration of 3 days induced only significant variations with some liver enzymes while kidney showed no significant variations. This study suggests that synthesis and metabolism of GNPs as well as the protection of the liver will be more important issues for medical applications of gold-based nanomaterials in future. PMID:23961234

Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A.

2013-01-01

335

The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

2014-01-01

336

Posizione Matricola Corso di Laurea Magistrale Sede isc. Sede alt. Voto laurea Data nascita 1 760273 I-INGEGNERIA CHIMICA MI 110 03/10/1988  

E-print Network

-INGEGNERIA ELETTRICA MI BV 106 26/12/1989 6 782198 I-MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND NANOTECHNOLOGY MI 105 13/03/1989 7/09/1988 11 787194 I-MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND NANOTECHNOLOGY MI LC 97 09/05/1988 12 782664 I AND NANOTECHNOLOGY MI 90 12/02/1987 20 786915 I-MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND NANOTECHNOLOGY MI 89 28/07/1989 21 787361 I

337

Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance,

A. della Corte; V. Corato; A. Di Zenobio; C. Fiamozzi Zignani; L. Muzzi; G. M. Polli; L. Reccia; S. Turtù; P. Bruzzone; E. Salpietro; A. Vostner

2010-01-01

338

Real and fantastic Bucharest limits in Mircea Cartarescu's writings In Bucuresti ma simt, intr-adevar, mai legitim decat in alte parti. Desi e un oras  

E-print Network

imaginary one, a mixture of true dreams and fake memories. For over ten years I've patiently reconstructed card) and all the teenagers waited impatiently to finish high school, have their diploma and go

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

LAS FLECHAS EN EL ARTE LEVANTINO: APORTACIONES DESDE EL ANÁLISIS DE LOS PROYECTILES DEL REGISTRO ARQUEOLÓGICO DEL RIU DE LES COVES (ALT MAESTRAT, CASTELLÓ )  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: En el presente trabajo se aborda el estudio de las flechas en el Arte Levantino a partir de su contrastación con los proyectiles en piedra tallada recuperados en los yacimientos meso- líticos y neolíticos más próximos a los abrigos pintados del núcleo de la Valltorta-Gasulla. El aná- lisis de las diferentes modalidades de representación y las distintas propuestas de

Javier FERNÁNDEZ LÓPEZ DE PABLO

340

Success in Accrual and Retention in a Large, Multi-Institutional Cancer Screening Trial: The NCI ALTS Experience | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This abstract describes efforts to enhance recruitment and retention of minority women to a large, multi-institutional cervical cancer screening trial. Additional funding was made available to select sites to support targeted efforts to recruit and retain minority women. Resulting retention rates were higher than in any previously reported study for this patient population. The authors conclude that planning, adequate funding, and central and site-specific efforts can enhance recruitment and retention for other similar large-scale cancer screening and prevention trials.

341

Correlation of TLR-4, IL-18, Transaminases and Uric Acid in the Patients With Chronic Periodontitis and Healthy Adults.  

PubMed

Background: Because of the potential association between periodontal disease and inflammation, the purpose of the present study was to examine the level of toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), Interleukin-18 (IL-18) and uric acid as a marker of the inflammatory host response along with routine biochemical parameters such as fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, High density lipoprotein (HDL), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, Fasting glucose, Alanine transaminase (AST), Aspartate transaminase (ALT) in the plasma and saliva of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients. We also wanted to check whether the patients with chronic periodontitis exhibit different modulations in salivary and/or plasma concentrations of these parameters compared with clinically healthy individuals. Materials and methods: Both salivary and plasma samples were collected from 40 chronic periodontitis patients and 20 healthy control individuals. TLR-4 and IL-18 measurements were done using commercially available ELISA kits. Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, Fasting glucose, AST and ALT levels were analyzed on Roche p-800 modular system using the specific kits provided by the manufacturer. Non-parametric tests was used in case of certain parameters for the statistical analyses, because our data did not follow the Gaussian distribution. Results: Significant difference was observed in the plasma and salivary TLR-4 and IL-18 levels along with clinical measurements such as plaque index (PI) and pocket depth (PD) in chronic periodontitis patients (P<0.001). The plasma level of TLR-4 was found to be enhanced from 0.99 to 3.28 in chronic periodontitis patients. Salivary TLR-4 levels also showed slightly higher increase in diseased state (12.44 to 29.97). A significant increase of approx 46% was recorded in the plasma IL-18 level. However, salivary IL-18 level rose upto more than 5 fold in the chronic periodontitis patients compared with the control individuals. The level of plasma uric acid was found to be highly significant compared to control individuals. HDL and triglyceride also showed significant difference (P<0.017 and P<0.025 respectively). Moreover, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and insulin levels did not show any significant difference. There was only slight increase in the plasma AST and ALT levels between diseased and healthy state (22.55 vs 25.50 and 12.35 vs 15.95 respectively). However, salivary AST and ALT level showed approx 6 fold rise in the chronic periodontitis patients compared with the control individuals. The cross correlation analysis in periodontitis disease group showed significant association of plasma AST, salivary AST and salivary ALT with uric acid level. Conclusion: Based on our study, we believe that TLR-4, IL-18 and uric acid could have a role in the inflammatory pathology of periodontitis. These parameters are suggested to be useful in the prognosis and diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. However, mechanistic association of these parameters with inflammatory pathology of periodontitis patients needs to be further elucidated on a higher number of samples. PMID:25345339

Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Vinod Kumar, Kopparam Rajendra; Mohan, Rekha; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Tabrez, Shams

2014-10-27

342

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice  

E-print Network

Abstract: The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13 9015 Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT,

Anca Hermenean; Cristina Popescu; Aurel Ardelean; Miruna Stan; Nicoleta Hadaruga; Ciprian-valentin Mihali; Marieta Costache; Anca Dinischiotu

2012-01-01

343

Red Mold Rice against Hepatic Inflammatory Damage in Zn-deficient Rats  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of red mold rice (RMR) against liver injury in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks was investigated in this study. Rats were orally administered RMR (151 mg/kg body weight or 755 mg/kg body weight; 1 × dose or 5 × dose, respectively) with or without Zn once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The severity of liver damage was evaluated by measuring the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Zn-deficient rats. RMR significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT levels by Zn-deficient induction. Hepatic antioxidase activity was also significantly increased in the RMR + Zn group (RZ), thereby suppressing the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines in the liver of Zn-deficient rats. These findings suggested that RMR exerted hepatoprotective effects against Zn deficiency-induced liver inflammation. PMID:24716115

Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

2012-01-01

344

Meat quality, some hematological and biochemical parameters in the blood of finishing pigs assigned to different carcass conformation classes in the SEUROP system.  

PubMed

The results of laboratory analyses, including the proximate composition, physicochemical and sensory properties of meat from the studied pigs, point to its high processing suitability and eating quality. Hematological indicators in the blood of the analyzed animal groups were within the reference ranges, excluding MCHC levels which were somewhat elevated. Significant differences were observed in Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC and WBC values, subject to the meat content of the carcass. Biochemical parameters such as glucose concentrations, ALT and AST activity levels varied considerably between groups, and average ALT values somewhat exceeded the norm for the species. These results, including significant variations in selected parameters, can probably be attributed to homeostatic changes in pigs during intensive growth. PMID:24195297

Smieci?ska, K; Sobotka, W; Daszkiewicz, T; Hnatyk, N; Fiedorowicz, E

2013-01-01

345

A randomized trial of iron depletion in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperferritinemia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare iron depletion to lifestyle changes alone in patients with severe nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperferritinemia, a frequent feature associated with more severe liver damage, despite at least 6 mo of lifestyle changes. METHODS: Eligible subjects had to be 18-75 years old who underwent liver biopsy for ultrasonographically detected liver steatosis and hyperferritinemia, ferritin levels ? 250 ng/mL, and NAFLD activity score > 1. Iron depletion had to be achieved by removing 350 cc of blood every 10-15 d according to baseline hemoglobin values and venesection tolerance, until ferritin < 30 ng/mL and/or transferrin saturation (TS) < 25%. Thirty-eight patients were randomized 1:1 to phlebotomy (n = 21) or lifestyle changes alone (n = 17). The main outcome of the study was improvement in liver damage according to the NAFLD activity score at 2 years, secondary outcomes were improvements in liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl-transferases (GGT)]. RESULTS: Phlebotomy was associated with normalization of iron parameters without adverse events. In the 21 patients compliant to the study protocol, the rate of histological improvement was higher in iron depleted vs control subjects (8/12, 67% vs 2/9, 22%, P = 0.039). There was a better improvement in steatosis grade in iron depleted vs control patients (P = 0.02). In patients followed-up at two years (n = 35), ALT, AST, and GGT levels were lower in iron-depleted than in control patients (P < 0.05). The prevalence of subjects with improvement in histological damage or, in the absence of liver biopsy, ALT decrease ? 20% (associated with histological improvement in biopsied patients) was higher in the phlebotomy than in the control arm (P = 0.022). The effect of iron depletion on liver damage improvement as assessed by histology or ALT decrease ? 20% was independent of baseline AST/ALT ratio and insulin resistance (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Iron depletion by phlebotomy is likely associated with a higher rate of improvement of histological liver damage than lifestyle changes alone in patients with NAFLD and hyperferritinemia, and with amelioration of liver enzymes. PMID:24659891

Valenti, Luca; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Dongiovanni, Paola; Rovida, Serena; Rametta, Raffaela; Fatta, Erika; Pulixi, Edoardo Alessandro; Maggioni, Marco; Fargion, Silvia

2014-01-01

346

Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases: systematic review with individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic and manual searches were combined. Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. Participants Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. Main outcome measures Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Data synthesis The results of included trials were combined in meta-analyses. Sequential, subgroup and regression analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias. Results We included 12 RCTs on lixisenatide versus placebo and 3 RCTs with the active comparators liraglutide, exenatide or sitagliptin. The mean treatment duration was 29?weeks. Lixisenatide increased the proportion of patients with normalisation of ALT (risk difference: 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14; number needed to treat: 14 patients, p=0.042). The effect was not confirmed in sequential analysis. No effects of lixisenatide were identified on AST, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. No evidence of bias was identified. Mixed effect multilevel meta-regression analyses suggest that the benefit of lixisenatide on ALT was limited to patients who were overweight or obese. Conclusions This review suggests that lixisenatide increases the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. Trial registration number PROSPERO; CRD42013005779. PMID:25526792

Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

2014-01-01

347

AST/R?BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

348

AST/R BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire ...

349

The International Bargaining Power of the European Union in ‘Mixed’ Competence Negotiations: The Case of the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies of the European Union's role in international policy negotiations typically focus either on trade agreements, where the Community often enjoys exclusive competence in negotiations, or on military and security accords, where Member States take the diplomatic lead in international talks. Between these extremes are a number of issue negotiations in which Community officials and Member State representatives speak jointly

MARK RHINARD; MICHAEL KAEDING

2006-01-01

350

ECONomics updateA NEWSLETTER FOR ALUMNI AND FRIENDS OF UBC ECONOMICS Issue 2 Summer 2012 ast fall, when Occupy Vancouver  

E-print Network

, there was a lot of discussion and occasional con- fusion about what the movement was all about. At its core their level of wealth and income is still beyond the reach of most. In December, about a month after Occupy, called "Putting Numbers on Inequality," was written by UBC Economics professors IN THIS ISSUE fEaTUrE

Handy, Todd C.

351

AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

352

Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using cation-exchange prior to hydridegeneration permits accurate arsenic(III) determinations in acid mine waters containing high concentrations of interfering metals. Stabilization of the arsenic redox species for as many as 15 months is demonstrated for samples that have been properly filtered and acidified with HCl in the field. The detection limits for the method described in this report are 0.1 micrograms per liter for total arsenic and 0.8 micrograms per liter for arsenic(III).

McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

2003-01-01

353

The iron (Fe) and atherosclerosis study (FeAST): A pilot study of reduction of body iron stores in atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Levels of body iron stores, represented by the serum ferritin concentration, rise with age after adolescence in men and menopause in women. This rise has been implicated mechanistically and epidemiologically in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through iron-induced oxygen free radical—mediated lipid oxidation. However, the precise contribution of iron stores to atherosclerosis and its complications are unknown because prospective randomized

Leo R Zacharski; Bruce Chow; Philip W Lavori; Paula S Howes; Marilyn R Bell; Michele A DiTommaso; Nina M Carnegie; Fritz Bech; Morteza Amidi; Satish Muluk

2000-01-01

354

Historical Wetlands of the Southern California Coast An AtlAS of US CoASt SUrvey t-SHeetS, 1851-1889  

E-print Network

be accessed through the T-sheet Atlas, a GIS database, and an interactive website (www.caltsheets.org). Images to the Atlas. Special thanks go to Dr. John Cloud of the NOAA Central Library for making high- resolution scans of the Atlas. Peter Baye, Bryant Chesney, John Cloud, Josh Collins, David Jacobs, Carolyn Lieberman, Larry

355

‘Every Catholic Child in a Catholic School’: Historical Resistance to State Schooling, Contemporary Private Competition and Student Achievement across Countries &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteenth-century Catholic doctrine strongly opposed state schooling. We show that countries with larger shares of Catholics in 1900 (but without a Catholic state religion) tend to have larger shares of privately operated schools even today. We use this historical pattern as a natural experiment to estimate the causal effect of contemporary private competition on student achievement in cross-country student-level analyses.

Martin R. West; Ludger Woessmann

2010-01-01

356

The Impact of Length of the School Year on Student Performance and Earnings: Evidence From the German Short School Years &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates how changing the length of the school year, leaving the basic curriculum unchanged, affects learning and subsequent earnings. I use variation introduced by the West German short school years in 1966–7, which exposed some students to a total of about two thirds of a year less of schooling while enrolled. I find that the short school years

Jörn-Steffen Pischke

2007-01-01

357

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST\\/VCE application-dual flow. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic and diagnostic data that were obtained to determine the influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of coannular nozzles with thermal acoustic shields are summarized in this comprehensive data report. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale-model nozzles The tested nozzles included baseline (unshielded), 180 deg shielded, and 360

B. A. Janardan; J. F. Brausch; A. O. Price

1984-01-01

358

Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample  

PubMed Central

Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 18–65?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35?±?6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

2014-01-01

359

Insulin Resistance and ? Cell Function in Patients with ?-Thalassemia Major.  

PubMed

Abstract Iron overload is a common finding in chronically transfused ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients with possible effect on ? cell function and insulin resistance. In this study we aimed to evaluate glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and ? cell function in ?-TM patients. A total of 78 transfusion-dependant ?-TM patients and 40 age and sex matched normal children were included. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in all subjects. Fasting plasma insulin level, insulin resistance index (IRI) and ? cell function index (BFI) were also estimated. ?-Thalassemia major patients had significantly more abnormal OGTT than the control group. ?-Thalassemia major patients had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fasting blood sugar and IRI than the control group. Findings between ?-thalassemia (?-thal) patients, with and without abnormal OGTT results, were also compared; ?-thal patients with abnormal OGTT had significantly higher duration of chelation therapy, serum ferritin levels, AST, ALT and increased IRI and decreased BFI in comparison to patients with normal OGTT. Abnormal glucose metabolism is common in ?-TM patients with chelation therapy and multiple transfusions which are attributable to impaired ? cells' function and increased insulin resistance. PMID:25572183

Ghergherehchi, Robabeh; Habibzadeh, Afshin

2015-01-01

360

Effect of aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of Dicranopteris linearis L. (family Gleicheniaceae) leaf aqueous extract (DLAE) using two models of liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into ten groups (n=6) and received dH2O (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control) or DLAE (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 consecutive days and on the 8th day subjected to the hepatotoxic induction either using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or paracetamol (PCM). The bloods and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. From the data obtained, only the highest dose of DLAE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the ALP, ALT and AST levels in CCl4-and PCM-induced hepatotoxic rats while the other doses caused significant (P<0.05) reduction only in the levels of ALT and AST. The histological results obtained were in line with the biochemical analysis wherein reduction in the CCl4- and PCM-induced tissue formation of necrosis, steatosis and inflammation occurred in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the DLAE possesses hepatoprotective activity, which could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activities, and high flavonoids content. Thus, in-depth studies regarding the hepatoprotective activity of DLAE are warranted. PMID:25015448

Ismail, Noor Aisyah; Shamsahal-Din, Nor Syafawati; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Zabidi, Zalina; Wan Zainulddin, Wan-Noraziemah; Kamisan, Farah Hidayah; Yahya, Farhana; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Mohd-Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

2014-07-01

361

Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Satureja Khuzestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined the antioxidative activities of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (SKE) and possible protective effect of SKE on lipid profile, atherogenic index and liver enzyme markers in Alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group one as control, group two diabetic untreatment, and group three treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), atherogenic index and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed through non-parametric Man Whitney test (using SPSS 13 software) and p < 0.05 was considered significant. SKE inhibited significantly the activities of ALT and ALP and decrease FBG, TG, C, LDL and VLDL. HDL level was significantly increased when treated with the extract. The activities of AST stayed unaltered. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity of SKE was 3.20 ± 0.40 nmol of ascorbic acid equivalents/g SKE. This study showed that SKE is a source of potent antioxidants. The findings of the present study also suggest that SKE exert beneficial effects on the lipid profile, atherogenic index and liver enzymes activity in Alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:24250556

Ahmadvand, Hassan; Tavafi, Majid; Khalatbary, Ali Reza

2012-01-01

362

Protective effects of aqueous extract of Hammada scoparia against hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol in the rat.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract (AE) of Hammada scoparia leaves was chemically characterized and its hepatoprotective activities were investigated in vivo in rat model. Wistar rats were treated daily with 35% ethanol solution (3 g/kg/day) during 4 weeks and fed with basal diet or basal diet containing AE (200 mg/kg/day). Control rats were treated with saline solution and fed with basal diet. The bioactivity of AE against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver was studied in order to explore its hepatoprotective effects. H. scoparia extract used at 200 mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the effects of ethanol, which induced a hepatic pathological damage and increased the levels of the serum markers of the enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Concomitantly, with these changes, this extract also prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver as evidenced by the decreased lipid peroxidation level, a considerable decrease in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP and restoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the AE of H. scoparia. PMID:22778112

Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Nciri, Riadh; Damak, Mohamed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

2014-03-01

363

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Licorice Extract against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Licorice has been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Licorice has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antiinfection. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of licorice aqueous extract (LE) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in a rat model. Hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the increased activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and decreased levels of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and globulin (G) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl4 at 3 mL/kg b.w. (1:1 in groundnut oil). Licorice extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST, ALP and ALT activities and the decreased TP, Alb and G levels caused by CCl4 intoxication. It also enhanced liver super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione (GSH) level, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Licorice extract still markedly reverses the increased liver hydroxyproline and serum TNF-? levels induced by CCl4 intoxication. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of licorice extract against liver oxidative injury. PMID:22072903

Huo, Hai Zhong; Wang, Bing; Liang, Yong Kang; Bao, Yong Yang; Gu, Yan

2011-01-01

364

Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl(4) on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl(4) administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl(4) was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl(4) and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

2012-01-01

365

Sublethal toxicity of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and permethrin on selected biochemical constituents and enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of Anabas testudineus.  

PubMed

The freshwater fish Anabas testudineus was exposed for 21 days to two commercial formulations of synthetic pyrethroids deltamethrin and permethrin at sublethal concentrations of 0.007 and 0.0007 mg L(-1), and 0.093 and 0.0093 mg L(-1), that represented 10% and 1%, respectively, of the 96 h LC50 of these two pesticides for this fish. The glycogen, protein and lactic acid contents, along with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of control and pesticide-exposed fish were estimated. When compared with those of control fish, significant depletion of glycogen content was observed in liver, and that of protein in muscle tissue of fish treated with both the pesticides at their higher as well as lower concentrations. Lactic acid reduction was significant only in fish muscle treated with deltamethrin. SDH level was reduced significantly in both liver and muscle tissues except in fish exposed to 0.0093 mg L(-1) permethrin. AST level was reduced significantly in liver and muscle tissues and ALT in muscle tissue of deltamethrin treated fish only. It is concluded that deltamethrin, a type-II pyrethroid, is more toxic to fish than the type-I pyrethroid permethrin and is capable of rendering toxicity at a dose as low as 1% of its LC50 value. PMID:25307465

Sapana Devi, Maisnam; Gupta, Abhik

2014-10-01

366

Hepatoprotective Effects of a Chinese Herbal Formula, Longyin Decoction, on Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Chickens  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to establish poultry liver injury model induced by (CCl4) and seek effective hepatoprotective herbals for clinical application. Different doses of CCl4 dissolved in vegetable oil (1?:?1, V/V) were injected via pectoral muscle to induce acute liver injury model in chickens. An herbal formula, Longyin decoction, was prepared for hepatoprotection test on chicken acute liver injury models. The pathologic changes of the liver were observed, and the activities of ALT and AST were, respectively, detected to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Longyin decoction on chickens. The chicken acute liver injury model was successfully established by injecting CCl4 via pectoral muscle. The best dose of CCl4 inducing chicken liver injury was 4.0?mL/kg·BW (body weight). The results of qualitative determination by HPTLC showed that the components of Longyin decoction contained Gentian, Capillaries, Gardenia, and Bupleurum root. In the high-dose Longyin group and the middle-dose Longyin group, the pathological changes of the damaged liver were mitigated and the activities of ALT and AST in serum were reduced significantly. Longyin decoction has obvious hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injury induced by CCl4. PMID:23533478

Wang, Chunguang; Zhang, Tie; Cui, Xuemei; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Xinghua; Zhong, Xiuhui

2013-01-01

367

Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.  

PubMed

The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. PMID:25261609

Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

2014-12-01

368

Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.  

PubMed

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

2014-04-01

369

Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

2015-01-01

370

Polysaccharides from Angelica and Astragalus exert hepatoprotective effects against carbon-tetrachloride-induced intoxication in mice.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of polysaccharide from Angelica and Astragalus (AAP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in mice. A total of 120 Kunming mice were randomly distributed among 6 groups comprising (i) the normal control mice, (ii) the CCl4 treatment group, (iii) the bifendate treatment group, (iv) the AAP treatment group, (v) the Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) treatment group, and (vi) the Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AMP) treatment group. AAP, ASP and AMP were administered to mice treated with CCl4. The activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissues were quantified, as well as the liver index. Hepatic histological changes were observed by staining liver sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results show that bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP significantly decreased the activities of MDA, AST, and ALT, and enhanced the activity of SOD in CCl4-treated mice. Bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP consistently ameliorated the liver injuries induced with CCl4. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of AAP was stronger than that of bifendate, ASP, or AMP. In addition, AAP alleviated liver inflammation and decreased the liver indexes of mice induced with CCl4. These effects were at least partly due to the antioxidant properties of AAP in scavenging free radicals to ameliorate oxidative stress and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:25415237

Pu, Xiuying; Fan, Wenbo; Yu, Shuang; Li, Yan; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Weijie

2015-01-01

371

The efficacy of licorice root extract in decreasing transaminase activities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the effects of licorice on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 66 patients were divided into case and control groups. All patients had elevated liver enzymes and had increased liver echogenicity (lipid accumulation) on sonography. The case group was treated with one capsule containing 2?g aqueous licorice root extract per day for 2?months while the control group was treated in the same manner with a placebo. Weight, body mass index (BMI) and liver transaminase levels were measured for each patient before and after the study. In the case group, the mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level decreased from 64.09 to 51.27?IU/mL and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level decreased from 58.18 to 49.45?IU/mL, which were statistically significant (p?ALT and AST levels was not statistically significant. The BMI difference before and after the study was not statistically significant in both groups. Despite the significant drop in liver enzymes following administration of licorice root extract, it is recommended that further studies that include histological examination are necessary. PMID:22308054

Hajiaghamohammadi, Ali Akbar; Ziaee, Amir; Samimi, Rasoul

2012-09-01

372

Effect of curcumin supplementation on physiological fatigue and physical performance in mice.  

PubMed

Curcumin (CCM) is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 ?g/mL) by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK). CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue. PMID:25647661

Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Tang, Deh-Wei; Lee, Zon-Min; Wei, Li; Chen, Fu-An; Huang, Chi-Chang

2015-01-01

373

Effects of taurine on male reproduction in rats of different ages  

PubMed Central

Background It has been demonstrated that taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the male reproductive system, and can be biosynthesized by male reproductive organs. But the effect of taurine on male reproduction is poorly understood. Methods Taurine and ?-alanine (taurine transport inhibitor) were offered in water to male rats of different ages. The effects of taurine on reproductive hormones, testis marker enzymes, antioxidative ability and sperm quality were investigated. Results The levels of T and LH were obviously increased by taurine supplementation in rats of different ages, and the level of E was also significantly elevated in baby rats. The levels of SOD, ACP, SDH and NOS were obviously increased by taurine administration in adult rats, but the levels of AKP, AST, ALT and NO were significantly decreased. The levels of SOD, ACP, LDH, SDH, NOS, NO and GSH were significantly elevated by taurine administration in aged rats, but the levels of AST and ALT were significantly decreased. The motility of spermatozoa was obviously increased by taurine supplement in adult rats. The numbers and motility of spermatozoa, the rate of live spermatozoa were significantly increased by taurine supplement in aged rats. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that a taurine supplement could stimulate the secretion of LH and T, increase the levels of testicular marker enzymes, elevate testicular antioxidation and improve sperm quality. The results imply that taurine plays important roles in male reproduction especially in aged animals. PMID:20804629

2010-01-01

374

Pretreatment of Albino Rats with Methanolic Fruit Extract of Randia Dumetorum (L.) Protects against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage  

PubMed Central

Alcohol abuse and its medical and social consequences are a major health problem in many areas of the world. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of methanolic fruit extract of Randia dumetorum (L.) on alcohol-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n=6), group I served as a control, group II received ethanol (3 ml/100 g/day p.o.), group III served as standard group and received silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o.), group IV and V served as extract treatment groups and received 50 & 100 mg/kg methanolic extract of R. dumetorum. All the treatment protocols followed 30 days and after rats were sacrificed blood and liver were used for biochemical and histological studies, respectively. The activities serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB) and lipid peroxidation were statistically increased in rats exposed to alcohol while total protein and glutathione decreased compared to control rats. Treatment with R. dumetorum significantly decreased the elevated levels of ALT, AST, TG, DB, TB and lipid peroxidation compared to the group exposed to alcohol only. R. dumetorum significantly resulted in increased levels of total protein and reduced glutathione compared to the group that received alcohol only. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with R. dumetorum improved the hepatotoxicity caused by alcohol. Hence the study concluded that R. dumetorum has potential hepatoprotective activity. PMID:22563258

Noorani, Arshad Ali

2012-01-01

375

LPS pretreatment ameliorates D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure in rat  

PubMed Central

Acute liver failure (ALF) remains an extremely poor prognosis and high mortality; with no effective treatments. The endotoxin tolerance (ET) phenotype has been reported to exhibit protective activities in several sepsis models. We now investigated the effects and underlying intraperitoneal injection of the same volume of pyrogen-free 0.9% sodium chloride instead of LPS for five consecutive days before D-GalN/LPS injection in rats. The serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL from ET + ALF group and ALF group were measured at different time points. Our results showed that ET + ALF group markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL and histological features in the ET + ALF group were improved significantly. Furthermore, LPS pre-treatment inhibited D-GalN/LPS-induced NF-?B activation, Bax activation, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activities. LPS pre-treatment also significantly enhance the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Our experimental data indicated that ET might alleviate D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inhibiting the inflammatory response, inactivation of STAT1 and STAT3 and up-regulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3.

Dong, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Sai-Nan; Shi, Ke-Qing; Chen, Shao-Long; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Ming-Qin

2014-01-01

376

Protective effects of sugar cane extract on endotoxic shock in mice.  

PubMed

Sugar cane extract (SCE) has been shown to have an immunostimulating effect in chickens. This study evaluated the effect of SCE on Salmonella Abortusequi lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal shock in d-galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice. Mice were administered intraperitoneally SCE (500 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline before or after injection of LPS and GalN. All the mice injected with LPS and GalN (control group) died of histopathologically congestive and hemorrhagic hepatic insufficiency within 24 h, showing significantly increased activities of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 380 IU/mL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 130 IU/mL). Pretreatment of mice with SCE at 3 h before challenge with LPS and GalN (SCE treated group) resulted in significantly improved survival rates (92.3%) and a decrease in liver injury. These surviving mice in the SCE treated group showed no changes in the mean levels of plasma AST (60 IU/mL) and ALT (18 IU/mL). However, the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the SCE treated group was not significantly different when compared with that in the control group challenged with LPS and GalN. These results suggest that SCE has protective effects on LPS-induced mortality in this mouse model. PMID:16619363

Motobu, Maki; Amer, Said; Koyama, Yukari; Hikosaka, Kenji; Sameshima, Toshiya; Yamada, Manabu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Koge, Kenji; Kang, Chung-Boo; Hayasidani, Hideki; Hirota, Yoshikazu

2006-05-01

377

Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma orientale, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Pueraria lobata. METHODS: The rats were separated randomly into five groups. One (the CD group) was fed a control diet for 10 wk, another (the ED group) fed an ethanol-containing isocaloric liquid diet for 10 wk, and the last three (the TCM group) were fed an ethanol-containing isocaloric liquid diet for 10 wk and dosed orally with TCM (222 mg/kg•d, TCM222; 667 mg/kg•d, TCM667; and 2 000 mg/kg•d, TCM2000, respectively) weekly during the last 4 wk. RESULTS: ED group developed fatty liver according to lipid profile and liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotran-sferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group. Whereas, in the rats administered with TCM, liver/body weight, serum TG and TC, liver TG and TC, serum ALT and AST were significantly decreased, and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group. CONCLUSION: TCM treatment causes significant reduction in alcohol-induced lipid hepatic accumulation, reversing fatty liver and liver damage, and can be used as a remedy for alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:16222745

Kwon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Young; Choung, Se-Young

2005-01-01

378

Protective effect of volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Origanum majorana on lead acetate toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae, is a potent antioxidant. The effect of administration of O. majorana (volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts) on oral administration of lead acetate in the diet of mice at concentration 0.5% (W/W) for one month were studied by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine, histopathological changes of the liver and kidney and genotoxicity including, rate of micronucleus and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. Mice were treated with the 3 different forms of O. majorana, one month before and maintained with lead acetate administration. The 3 forms of O. majorana induced a significant decrease in serum activities of transaminases (AST & ALT), ALP, urea and creatinine and improved the liver and kidney histology in comparison with lead acetate treated group. Alcoholic extracts of O. majorana significantly reduced the rate of micronucleus, number of aberrant cells and different kinds of chromosomal aberrations. Volatile oil extract significantly reduced the rate of micronucleus and chromosomal fragments. Aqueous extract and volatile oil also of O. majorana significantly reduced number of gaps, ring chromosome and stickiness. It could be concluded that O. majorana plays an important role in ameliorating liver and kidney functions and genotoxicity induced by lead toxicity. PMID:16176560

el-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; el-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

2005-10-01

379

Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury  

PubMed Central

Acute liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose is a significant clinical problem and could benefit from new therapeutic strategies. Objective. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO), which is used popularly for various beneficial effects, such as its antiseptic, carminative, and antimicrobial effects. The hepatoprotective activity of TEO was determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in mice. Their livers were then used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity and subjected to histological analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•)-scavenging effects of TEO and TEO-induced lipid peroxidation. TEO reduced the levels of the serum marker enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP and MPO activity. The histopathological analysis indicated that TEO prevented acetaminophen-induced necrosis. The essential oil also exhibited antioxidant activity, reflected by its DPPH radical-scavenging effects and in the lipid peroxidation assay. These results suggest that TEO has hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. PMID:24639884

Grespan, Renata; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Giubilei, Frederico Nunes; Fuso, Rafael Rocco; Damião, Marcio José; Silva, Expedito Leite; Mikcha, Jane Graton; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Bersani Amado, Ciomar; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2014-01-01

380

Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

2001-01-01

381

Sodium aescinate ameliorates liver injury induced by methyl parathion in rats  

PubMed Central

Methyl parathion, a highly cytotoxic insecticide, has been used in agricultural pest control for several years. The present study investigated the protective effect of sodium aescinate (SA, the sodium salt of aescin) against liver injury induced by methyl parathion. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8 animals: the control group; the methyl parathion (15 mg/kg) poisoning (MP) group; and the MP plus SA at doses of 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 mg/kg groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the plasma were assayed. Nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidative parameters were measured. Histopathological examination of the liver was also performed. The results revealed that SA had no effect on AChE. Treatment with SA decreased the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of malondialdehyde and NO. Treatment with SA also increased the level of glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. SA administration also ameliorated liver injury induced by methyl parathion poisoning. The findings indicate that SA protects against liver injury induced by methyl parathion and that the mechanism of action is related to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of SA. PMID:22969975

DU, YUAN; WANG, TIAN; JIANG, NA; REN, RU-TONG; LI, CHONG; LI, CHANG-KUN; FU, FENG-HUA

2012-01-01

382

Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

2014-09-01

383

Effects of caloric restriction on oxidative stress parameters.  

PubMed

Moderate caloric restriction prolongs lifespan. Changes in oxidative stress and hormesis may be involved in this process. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of different levels of chronic caloric restriction (CR) and acute fasting on stress response and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver and plasma. Forty-two rats were divided into groups: control group, calorie-restricted groups with intake of 80-90%, 60-70%, 40-50%, 20-30% of daily caloric needs and acute fasting group. To determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, concentration of corticosterone, nitrites and nitrates (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), liver samples and blood were collected. Increase in plasma corticosterone concentration and AST and ALT activity was found in severe CR. Ingestion 40-50% daily caloric needs or less increased liver MDA and NOx concentration and decreased SOD activity. Ingestion 60-70% daily caloric needs increased Mn-SOD activity, GSH and NOx. In acute fasting group and group taking 20-30% daily caloric needs, GSH was significantly lower than in control group. Severe CR and acute fasting increase oxidative damage and decrease antioxidative capacity of hepatocytes. Moderate CR increases antioxidative capacity of hepatocytes due to increase in Mn-SOD activity and GSH concentration, which might have a role in anti-aging and hormetic mechanism of CR. PMID:23682026

Stankovic, Marija; Mladenovic, Dusan; Ninkovic, Milica; Vucevic, Danijela; Tomasevic, Tina; Radosavljevic, Tatjana

2013-06-01

384

Attenuation of Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Oral Administration of Extracts and Fractions of Cephalotaxus sinensis  

PubMed Central

Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control received vehicle merely. The degree of fortification was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea and urine sugar. Meanwhile, the histopathological studies were conducted out to support the above parameters. Administration of C. sinensis aq.EE/BtF (p<0.05) and EaF (p<0.01) patently prevented STZ-induced elevation levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, urine sugar and increase body weight respectively, which were comparable with the standard drug tolbutamide, while WtE did not show any significant effect (p>0.05). Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, terpenes, sterols and flavonoids in C. sinensis which could be responsible for the possible hepato-renal protective action. The results sustain the fact that the extract/fractions of C. sinensis have an immense potential to be developed further into a phytomedicine. PMID:18231626

Saeed, Muhammad K.; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

2008-01-01

385

Optimization of recovery patterns in common carp exposed to roundup using response surface methodology: evaluation of neurotoxicity and genotoxicity effects and biochemical parameters.  

PubMed

The present study is the first report on optimization of recovery conditions of fishes exposed to pesticides using response surface methodology-central composite rotatable design (RSM-CCRD). The sub-lethal toxicity bioassay of Roundup® (2 ppm ~10 percent LC??, 96 h) in common carp (1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 35 and 40 day) was investigated. After exposure for 16 days to Roundup®, some the fishes were introduced to herbicide-free water. The effects of four recovery parameters including time (5-25 d), temperature (18-26 °C), water exchange rate (WER, 10-30), and salinity (0-8 ppt) on the levels of biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE)), and the serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase in plasma were studied. The polynomial equations were significantly fitted for all response variables with high R² values (>0.95), which revealed no indication of lack of fit. The optimum conditions for the maximum AChE activity (37.14 nmol/min/mg protein) and the minimum levels of DNA damage (8.00 percent tail DNA), ALT (27.0 IU/L) and AST (91.0 IU/L) were time of 20 d, temperature of 20 °C, WER of 25 and water salinity of 6 ppt. Thus, a promising improvement for the recovery trend of fishes exposed to Roundup® stress was obtained under the optimized conditions using RSM-CCRD. PMID:24094415

Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalil; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Kosari, Ali Asghar; Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalal; Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jamal

2013-12-01

386

Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

2011-01-01

387

Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

2012-01-01

388

Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

2014-01-01

389

Association between Duration of Carbon Dioxide Pneumoperitoneum during Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery and Hepatic Injury: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to accurately assess whether the duration of intraoperative carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum (CDP) is associated with the induction of hepatic injury. Methods We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases (through February 2014) to identify case-match studies that compared high-pressure CDP with low-pressure CDP or varied the duration of CDP in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. The outcome of interest was postoperative liver function (ALT, AST, TB). Results Eleven comparative studies involving 2,235 participants were included. Overall, levels of ALT, AST, and TB (on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7) were significantly elevated in the study groups. However, the results of the subanalyses of those who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection (LCR) versus open colorectal cancer resection (OCR) and those who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGBP) versus open gastric bypass (OGBP) were inconsistent. Conclusions The current evidence suggests that the duration of CDP during laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with hepatic injury. Additional large-scale, randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to further confirm this. PMID:25110982

Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

2014-01-01

390

Serum soluble CD40 is associated with liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Soluble cluster of differentiation 40 (sCD40) is proteolytically cleaved from membrane-bound CD40 and binds to CD154, thereby inhibiting CD40-CD154-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of sCD40 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The sCD40 levels in sera from 132 patients with CHB and 33 healthy individuals were retrospectively measured. sCD40 concentrations in patients with CHB were higher than those in healthy controls, and sCD40 levels correlated positively with serum levels of the liver dysfunction biomarkers alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). sCD40 concentrations increased with a rise in the severity of liver necroinflammation and fibrosis. Patients with >75% liver tissue staining positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen expression showed significantly lower sCD40 levels than those who stained negative for the HBV antigen. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of sCD40 was greater than that of ALT and AST; thus, sCD40 levels have a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting severe liver inflammation in patients with CHB, and could serve as an immunological marker of hepatic tissue injury. PMID:25667667

SHEN, HONG-HUI; BAI, BING-KE; WANG, YA-QING; ZHOU, GUANG-DE; HOU, JUN; HU, YAN; ZHAO, JING-MIN; LI, BAO-SEN; HUANG, HAI-LI; MAO, PAN-YONG

2015-01-01

391

Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

1993-12-31

392

Hypoglycemic effect of Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol aqueous extracts on type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Cecropia obtusifolia is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine due to its reputed hypoglycemic effect. During a period of 32 weeks, aqueous extracts of the leaves of this plant were administrated daily to 12 recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, controlled only with diet and exercise. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin levels were determined every 15 days; HbA1c, ALT, AST and ALKP were measured every month. A significant reduction of glucose was detected after 4 weeks of administration but the reduction was significant and sustained after 18 weeks of administration. The HbA1c was also significantly reduced after 6 weeks of treatment. No significant changes on cholesterol, triglycerides ALT, AST, ALKP or insulin could be detected. No collateral effects were observed. After suspending the administration of the extract, and a follow-up of 34 weeks, the glucose and HbA1c levels increased reaching levels higher than the basal ones. It can be concluded that the aqueous extracts of Cecropia obtusifolia have a significant hypoglycemic effect with no adverse effects and that the mechanism of action is not brought about by stimulating the insulin secretion. The results support the fact that the extracts of Cecropia obtusifolia have a great potential to be further developed into a phytomedicine. PMID:17291702

Revilla-Monsalve, Ma Cristina; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Palomino-Garibay, Miguel Angel; Wiedenfeld, Helmut; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

2007-05-22

393

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats. PMID:22082829

Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

2012-11-01

394

Diagnostic and predictive performance and standardized threshold of traditional biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Traditional biomarkers such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) have been widely used for detecting drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed standardized thresholds for human as Hy's law, those for animals have not been determined, and predictability of these biomarkers for future onset of hepatic lesions remains unclear. In this study, we investigated these diagnostic and predictive performance of 10 traditional biomarkers for liver injury by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, using a free-access database where 142 hepatotoxic or non-hepatotoxic compounds were administrated to male rats (n?=?5253). Standardization of each biomarker value was achieved by calculating the ratio to control mean value, and the thresholds were determined under the condition of permitting 5% false positive. Of these 10 biomarkers, AST showed the best diagnostic performance. Furthermore, ALT and TBIL also showed high performance under the situation of hepatocellular necrosis and bile duct injury, respectively. Additionally, the availability of the diagnostic thresholds in difference testing facility was confirmed by the application of these thresholds to in-house prepared dataset. Meanwhile, incorrect diagnosis by the thresholds was also observed. Regarding prediction, all 10 biomarkers showed insufficient performance for future onset of hepatic lesions. In conclusion, the standardized diagnostic thresholds enable consistent evaluation of traditional biomarkers among different facilities, whereas it was suggested that novel biomarker is required for more accurate diagnosis and prediction of DILI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25186495

Tonomura, Yutaka; Kato, Yuki; Hanafusa, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Yuji; Matsuyama, Keigo; Uehara, Takeki; Ueno, Motonobu; Torii, Mikinori

2015-02-01

395

Effect of Methylsulfonylmethane Pretreatment on Aceta-minophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound found in a wide range of human foods including fruits, vegetables, grains and beverages. In this study the effect of MSM pretreatment on acetaminophen induced liver damage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 100 mg/kg MSM for one week. On day seven rats were received acetaminophen (850 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were taken to determine serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Tissue samples of liver were also taken for the determination of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity together with histopathological observations. Results: High dose of acetaminophen administration caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the liver tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in SOD activity and increases in tissue MDA level and MPO activity. Serum ALT, AST levels were also found elevated in the acetaminophen-treated group. Pretreatment with MSM for one week was significantly attenuated all of these biochemical indices. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MSM pretreatment could alleviate hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen intoxication, may be through its sulfur donating and antioxidant effects. PMID:24106592

Bohlooli, Shahab; Mohammadi, Sadollah; Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Mirzanejad-asl, Hafez; Yosefi, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Nei, Amir; Chinifroush, Mir Mehdi

2013-01-01

396

Hepatoprotective effect of methylsulfonylmethane against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl?)-induced acute liver injury in rats. A single injection of CCl? (2 ml/kg, i.p.) increased serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST) activities. In addition, CCl? treatment led to elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) content was suppressed while proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased in liver tissue after CCl4 administration. We showed that acute CCl?-induced damage was accompanied by a rise in Bax/Bcl? ratio indicating apoptosis. Pre-treatment with MSM (400 mg/kg) inhibited the increases of serum ALT and AST activities, decreased hepatic MDA, TNF-?, IL-6 and Bax/Bcl? ratio compared to CCl? treated group. On the other hand, MSM raised SOD and CAT activities as well as CYP2E1 level in liver tissues. The present study shows that MSM possesses a hepatoprotective effect against CCl?-induced liver injury in rats. This protective effect might be through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. PMID:23591777

Kamel, Rehab; El Morsy, Engy M

2013-09-01

397

Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

2014-12-01

398

Transient liver function abnormality following treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin for nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.  

PubMed

Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is increasingly used in nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Elevated liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported for antithymocyte globulin in the treatment of aplastic anemia, but not when used in a conditioning regimen for HSCT. We describe two cases of patients receiving a conditioning regimen for HSCT containing rATG who developed a transient, severe transaminase elevation. In the first case, a 66-year-old woman with a history of acute myeloid leukemia received the first dose of rATG and the patient's transaminases were found to be extremely elevated within a few hours. The aspartate transaminase (AST) peaked at 1286?U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) peaked at 991?U/L and both resolved within a week. In the second case, a 72-year-old woman with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma received the first dose of rATG and the AST and ALT were found to be 1212?U/L and 689?U/L, respectively, 1?h after finishing the infusion. Like the previous case, the transaminase elevation resolved within a week. LFT abnormalities induced by rATG during conditioning therapy for HSCT may be transient and have a rapid onset after the first dose, but quickly subside without any complications or sequelae. It is important to follow the LFTs closely, as well as monitor for any signs and symptoms of acute liver failure. PMID:24395543

Chang, Abraham; Lee-Lam, Fu-Ying; Wang, Joanna; Cheng, Ya-Hwei

2015-02-01

399

Effects of oral isotretinoin on lipids and liver enzymes in acne patients.  

PubMed

Isotretinoin has been used to treat severe inflammatory acne that is resistant to antibiotics or topical agents; however, it also may cause alterations in lipids and liver enzymes. In this retrospective study, we evaluated changes in lipids and liver enzymes in 322 acne patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin at our institution over a 3-year period. Each patient's medical records were evaluated to determine baseline triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to levels recorded at 3 and 6 months following initiation of treatment with oral isotretinoin. Overall, statistically significant increases in TG and LDL levels were noted following treatment with isotretinoin (P<.001, respectively), while HDL levels were shown to decrease (P=.016). Although ALT levels also increased, the changes were not statistically significant increases in AST levels also were noted (P=.72). In our study, isotretinoin appeared to have a greater effect on lipids than liver enzymes. Dermatologists should not avoid isotretinoin use for appropriate indications, but close follow-up is important. PMID:25474452

K?z?lyel, Okan; Metin, Mahmut S; Elmas, Omer F; Cay?r, Yasemin; Akta?, Ak?n

2014-11-01

400

Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-?1 and ?-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

2012-01-01

401

Gemfibrozil attenuates the inflammatory response and protects rats from abdominal sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a serious condition characterized by an infectious process that induces a severe systemic inflammatory response. In this study, the effects of gemfibrozil (GFZ) on the inflammatory response associated with abdominal sepsis were investigated using a rat model of cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operated group (sham), where laparotomy was performed, the intestines were manipulated, and the cecum was ligated but not punctured; control group, subjected to CLP; and GFZ group, which received GFZ prior to undergoing CLP. The groups were then subdivided into three different time-points: 2, 4 and 24 h, indicating the time at which blood samples were obtained for analysis. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1 (IL-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. The LDH, AST and ALT values were significantly elevated following CLP compared with those in the sham group, and GFZ treatment was able to reduce these elevations. GFZ also reduced the sepsis-induced elevations of TNF-? and IL-1. In conclusion, GFZ treatment was able to attenuate the inflammatory response associated with CLP-induced sepsis, by diminishing the release of inflammatory cytokines, thereby reducing tissue injury and oxidative stress.

CÁMARA-LEMARROY, CARLOS R.; GUZMAN-DE LA GARZA, FRANCISCO J.; CORDERO-PEREZ, PAULA; IBARRA-HERNANDEZ, JUAN M.; MUÑOZ-ESPINOSA, LINDA E.; FERNANDEZ-GARZA, NANCY E.

2015-01-01

402

Large Dosage of Chishao in Formulae for Cholestatic Hepatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of large dosage of Chishao in formulae for treatment of cholestatic hepatitis. Methods. The major databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database Wanfang, VIP medicine information system, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched until January 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of large dosage of Chishao in formulae that reported on publications in treatment of cholestatic hepatitis with total efficacy rate, together with the biochemical indices including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL), were extracted by two reviewers. The Cochrane tool was used for the assessment of risk of bias included trials. Data were analyzed with RevMan 5.2.7 software. Results. 11 RCTs involving 1275 subjects with cholestatic hepatitis were included. Compared with essential therapy, large dosage of Chishao in formulae demonstrated more efficiently with down regulation of serum ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL. Meanwhile, there were no obvious adverse events. Conclusion. As a promising novel treatment approach, widely using large dosage of Chishao in formulae may enhance the curative efficacy for cholestatic hepatitis. Considering being accepted by more and more practitioners, further rigorously designed clinical studies are required. PMID:24987427

Ma, Xiao; Wang, Ji; He, Xuan; Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Yun; Zhong, Lin; Zheng, Quanfu; Xiao, Xiaohe

2014-01-01

403

Synthetic Pyrethroid effect on blood plasma biomarker enzymes and histological changes in Catla catla  

PubMed Central

Alpha-cypermethrin is an isoform of cypermethrin; it is an active pyrethroid used extensively to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and animal breeding. In this study four groups of six fish were examined. The first group served as a control in fresh water alone, with no pyrethroid. The second, third and fourth groups were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin for 4, 8 and 96 h respectively. At the end of the each exposure period, the fish were sacrificed, and the required muscle tissues were collected for histological examination. The blood was drawn with heparinized needles and processed for serum enzymatic studies. Serum enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), amylase, acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at 4, 8 and 96 h. AST enzyme activity was significantly increased at 4 h, whereas ALT and amylase enzyme activities were significantly reduced at all the time points. ACP enzyme activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 h, whereas GGT enzyme activity was significantly increased at all the time points. Hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degeneration, rupture of blood vessels, and necrosis was found at all time points. Congestion of blood vessels, bulging, distortion of filaments, erosion and disintegration of blood corpuscles and hyperplasia of epithelium were found in treated gills at 4, 8 and 96 h. Breakdown of muscle fibres, vacuolation and accumulation of lipids and melanin in white muscle were observed in treated fish muscle at 4, 8 and 96 h. PMID:23438254

Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Hwang, Inho; Anita, Vanattayen; Malarani, Pattabiraman S; Selvam, Chandrasekar; Hemalatha, Moorthy; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

2013-01-01

404

Effect of HCV status on liver enzymes in opioid-dependent pregnant women maintained on opioid-agonist medication  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine hepatic enzyme test results throughout the course of pregnancy in women maintained on methadone or buprenorphine. Design Participants were randomized to either methadone or buprenorphine maintenance. Blood chemistry tests, including liver transaminases and HCV status, were determined every four weeks and once postpartum. As part of a planned secondary analysis, generalized mixed linear models were conducted with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) as the dependent variables. Setting Six United States sites and one European site that provided comprehensive treatment to pregnant opioid-dependent women. Participants n = 175 opioid-dependent pregnant women enrolled in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. Findings ALT, AST, and GGT levels decreased for all subjects across pregnancy trimesters, rising slightly postpartum. Hepatitis C (HCV)-positive subjects exhibited higher transaminases at all time points compared to HCV-negative subjects, regardless of medication condition. Both HCV-positive and negative buprenorphine-maintained participants exhibited lower GGT levels than those who were methadone-maintained. Conclusions Neither methadone nor buprenorphine appear to have adverse hepatic effects in the treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women. PMID:23106931

McNicholas, Laura F.; Holbrook, Amber M.; O’Grady, Kevin; Jones, Hendrée E.; Coyle, Mara G.; Martin, Peter R.; Heil, Sarah H.; Stine, Susan M.; Kaltenbach, Karol

2014-01-01

405

Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250?mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model. PMID:23864853

Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

2013-01-01

406

Liver enzymes, metabolomics and genome-wide association studies: From systems biology to the personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

For several decades, serum levels of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases have been regarded as markers of liver injury, including a wide range of etiologies from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. The increasing worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease revealed that transaminases are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherothrombotic risk profile, and overall risk of metabolic disease. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that aminotransferases are surrogate biomarkers of “liver metabolic functioning” beyond the classical concept of liver cellular damage, as their enzymatic activity might actually reflect key aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver function. In this study, we summarize the background information and recent findings on the biological role of ALT and AST, and review the knowledge gained from the application of genome-wide approaches and “omics” technologies that uncovered new concepts on the role of aminotransferases in human diseases and systemic regulation of metabolic functions. Prediction of biomolecular interactions between the candidate genes recently discovered to be associated with plasma concentrations of liver enzymes showed interesting interconnectivity nodes, which suggest that regulation of aminotransferase activity is a complex and highly regulated trait. Finally, links between aminotransferase genes and metabolites are explored to understand the genetic contributions to the metabolic diversity. PMID:25624707

Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

2015-01-01

407

Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on acute hepatic failure in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in the treatment of acute hepatic failure (AHF) in rats. BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow, cultured and analyzed by flow cytometry. Following BMSC transplantation into rats with AHF, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), direct bilirubin (DBIL) and indirect bilirubin (IBIL) in the serum were measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to analyze the pathological changes and apoptosis rate. Levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)163 and interleukin (IL)-10 in the serum and liver tissue were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay and western blot analysis. Compared with the levels in the control group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, DBIL, IBIL, CD163 and IL-10 in the BMSC transplantation groups were significantly lower at 120 and 168 h, while the serum levels of ALB were significantly higher at 168 h after BMSC transplantation. The pathological features of liver failure were alleviated by BMSC transplantation. The expression levels of CD163 and IL-10 in the liver tissue were also significantly decreased following transplantation. The results indicate that BMSCs have a therapeutic effect on AHF in rats, and CD163 and IL-10 may be used as sensitive serum prognosis indicators in the early assessment of patients following liver transplantation. PMID:25187814

Yuan, Shufang; Jiang, Tao; Zheng, Rongjiong; Sun, Lihua; Cao, Guiqiu; Zhang, Yuexin

2014-10-01

408

Silymarin in non alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: This study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatic effects of silybum marianum on non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In 72 patients affected by NAFLD, main metabolic, hepatic and anti-inflammatory parameters were assayed after 3 mo of a restricted diet and before silymarin treatment (twice a day orally). The brightness of liver echography texture (hepatorenal ratio brightness) was also defined at same time. These evaluations were repeated after 6 mo of treatment. RESULTS: Serum levels of some metabolic and anti-inflammatory data nonsignificantly lowered after 6 mo of silymarin. On the contrary, Steato test, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced. Instead, the AST/ALT ratio unchanged. Finally, the hepatorenal brightness ratio, as an index of hepatic steatosis, significantly (P < 0.05) dropped. CONCLUSION: The obtained results indicate that silymarin appears to be effective to reduce the biochemical, inflammatory and ultrasonic indices of hepatic steatosis. Some parameters indicative of early stage of atherosclerosis were also lowered. PMID:23556042

Cacciapuoti, Fulvio; Scognamiglio, Anna; Palumbo, Rossella; Forte, Raffaele; Cacciapuoti, Federico

2013-01-01

409

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

2013-01-01

410

Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

2014-01-01

411

Modulation of DMBA-induced biochemical changes by organoselenium compounds in blood of rats.  

PubMed

The protective role of two synthetic organoselenium compounds 1-isopropyl-3-methylbenzimidazole-2-selenone (SeI) and 1, 3-di-p-methoxybenzylpyrimidine-2-selenone (Sell) was examined against the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced changes in biochemical parameters in blood of rats. Albino Winstar rats (150-200 g body wt) were treated with single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg body wt) and organoselenium compounds (25 micromol/kg) for 4 weeks at two days internal. Blood was taken from the anaesthetized rats ventricle from their hearts for biochemical analysis. Administration of DMBA resulted in elevation of urea, uric acid and creatinine levels as well as AST, ALT and LDH activities and decrease in levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin. SeI and SeII caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in urea, uric acid and creatinine levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase; (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and significantly increased the levels of total protein and albumin (p<0.05). These organoselenium compounds are likely to be beneficial in human health. PMID:17970285

Ozdemir, I; Selamoglu, Z; Ates, B; Gok, Y; Yilmaz, I

2007-08-01

412

Protective Effects of Garlic and Silymarin on NDEA-Induced Rats Hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background ­— The present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garlic extract and silymarin on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Methods and Results — Animals were pretreated with garlic, silymarin or both for one week prior to the injection of NDEA. Then animals received a single injection of NDEA followed by weekly subcutaneous injections of CCl4 for 6 weeks. Oral administration was then continued along with the injection of CCl4 for the duration of the experiment. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were measured. Injection of NDEA induced a significant elevation in serum AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NDEA increased oxidative stress through the increase in LPO and decrease in SOD, and GSH-dependent enzymes. Although administration of garlic or silymarin significantly reduced the liver toxicity, combined administration was more effective in preventing the development of hepatotoxicity. Conclusion — These novel findings suggest that silymarin and garlic have a synergistic effect, and could be used as hepatoprotective agents against hepatotoxicity. PMID:19742242

Shaarawy, Sabry M; Tohamy, Amany A; Elgendy, Saad M.; Elmageed, Zakaria Y Abd; Bahnasy, Abeer; Mohamed, Maha S; Kandil, Emad; Matrougui, Khalid

2009-01-01

413

Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

2015-02-01

414

Protective Properties of Laggera alata Extract and its Principle Components Against d-Galactosamine-Injured Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Laggera alata extract (LAE) was quantitatively analyzed, and its principle components isochlorogenic acids were isolated and authenticated. Protective properties of LAE were studied using a d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced injury model in neonatal rat hepatocytes and a d-GalN-induced acute liver damage model in mice. Meanwhile, the effect of isochlorogenic acids derived from LAE on d-GalN-induced hepatocyte injury were also measured in vitro. LAE at concentrations of 10–100 ?g/ml significantly reduced cellular leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and improved cell viability. The isochlorogenic acids (4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid) at concentrations of 1–100 ?g/ml also remarkably improved viability of hepatocytes. The oral treatment of LAE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg markedly reduced the serum AST and ALT activity of mice and resulted in significant recovery of hepatocytes in liver sections. PMID:22896829

Wu, Yi-Hang; Hao, Bing-Jie; Shen, E; Meng, Qing-Li; Hu, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

2012-01-01

415

Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

2014-03-01

416

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl(4)-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by histopathological examinations of liver tissues. Antioxidant activity was measured in terms of superoxide dismutase, GSH, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase and peroxidase levels in liver homogenate. The pentamethoxy flavonoid artemetin was isolated and characterised from EEVG. Artemetin and EEVG pre-treatment significantly (p?AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin to normal; it also brought back the normal architecture of liver tissues. Antioxidant activity of EEVG was found to be comparable with silymarin (p?

Sridevi, V K; Chouhan, Hemendra S; Singh, Narendra K; Singh, Sushil K

2012-01-01

417

Hepatotoxicity evaluation of aqueous extract from Scutia buxifolia.  

PubMed

Nowadays there is an increase in the number of people taking herbals worldwide. Scutia buxifolia is used for the treatment of hypertension, but little is known about its action on liver. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control and groups treated during 30 days with 100, 200 and 400 mg of lyophilized aqueous extract of S. buxifolia (SBSB)/kg of body weight. This study was planned to explore hepatotoxic effect of SBSB, which was assessed by serum transaminases (ALT and AST). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined in liver, along with thiols content (NPSH), catalase (CAT) activity and, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Histopathological studies of liver tissue were performed. Flavonoids and phenolics were quantified in SBSB by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). We did not observe alterations on redox status (TBARS, NPSH, CAT and, SOD) in the control and experimental groups. An increase on AST activity was only observed at 200 mg of SBSB, whereas ALT score was not affected by SBSB. Moreover, no morphological alterations were observed on the hepatocytes, matching the analysed biochemical parameters. This way, we conclude that SBSB was not toxic. PMID:23812249

de Freitas, Robson Borba; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Piana, Mariana; da Silva Jesus, Roberta; Veloso, Carolina Fantinel; Kober, Helena; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Athayde, Margareth Linde

2013-01-01

418

Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

2014-01-01

419

Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 ?g/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

2013-01-01

420

The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism. PMID:22626798

Das, Shyamal K.; Roy, Chandan

2012-01-01

421

Interleukin 6 increases dysfunction of organs in sepsis rats through sirtuin 1  

PubMed Central

Sepsis-induced organ failure is the major cause of death, and is characterized by a massive dysregulated inflammatory response. The present study was to determine whether interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression was increased in sepsis rats and the roles of IL-6 in the damage of cardiac, liver and renal function in the sepsis rats. Sepsis rat models were elicited by intravenous injection of LPS. The mRNA and protein of IL-6 levels were increased in the sepsis rats. The Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and average ±dP/dt were significantly reduced in sepsis rats compare with sham group. ALT and AST activities and creatinine level were increased in the sepsis rats. IL-6 significantly reduced LVDP and average ±dP/dt, increased the activities of ALT and AST, and increased the concentration of creatinine in the sepsis rats. EX527, a sirtuin 1 (SIRT 1) inhibitor, blocked the effects of IL-6 in the sepsis rats. These results indicate that IL-6 plays important roles in the damage of cardiac, liver and renal function in the sepsis rats through SIRT 1. PMID:25356114

Ding, Ying; Lin, Yongjun; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Man; Xu, Qiuping

2014-01-01

422

TOP1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, attenuate CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage through the modulation of NF-kappaB and its regulatory mediators.  

PubMed

In this work, we estimate the inhibitory effect of two polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP) on CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. TOP1 and 2 (304, 92 mg/kg bw) were administered for 7 days via a stomach sonde, and hepatitis was induced by a single dose of CCl(4) (50% CCl(4)/olive oil; 0.5 mL/kg bw) administration. CCl(4) significantly elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. Histopathological observation further revealed that CCl(4)-induced moderate levels of inflammatory cell infiltration, centrilobular fatty change, apoptosis, and necrosis. However, TOPs pretreatment markedly decreased AST and ALT activities as well as hepatic lesions. TOPs also increased free radical scavenging activity, as exhibited by a lowered TBARS concentration. TOPs pretreatment also reversed other hepatitis-associated symptoms, including GSH depletion, inhibited anti-oxidative enzyme activities, up-regulation of NF-kappaB and increased expression of its regulatory inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta. These results suggest that TOPs have a hepatoprotective effect by modulating inflammatory responses and ameliorating oxidative stress. PMID:20170702

Park, Chung Mu; Youn, Hyun Joo; Chang, Hee Kyung; Song, Young Sun

2010-05-01

423

Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method. PMID:20519172

Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

2010-06-01

424

Influence of gender on cocaine hepatotoxicity in CF-1 mice.  

PubMed

Gender is known to play a role in the bioavailability, metabolism, and lethality of many toxic substances. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gender on cocaine hepatotoxicity (CH) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potentiation of CH. Male and female CF-1 mice were orally administered 20 mg/kg body weight cocaine hydrochloride once daily for 7 days. Four hours after the last cocaine administration, the mice were administered 12 x 10(6) EU LPS (or equal volume of sterile saline) intraperitoneally. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were evaluated as indices of liver injury. Blood and liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GRx), and catalase (CAT) activities were also determined to investigate the extent of oxidative stress induced by the treatments. Serum ALT and AST concentrations were elevated in all males receiving cocaine alone or cocaine + LPS. Furthermore, blood GSH and CAT were decreased and GRx activity was elevated in these same animals. Histological analysis revealed a high degree of hepatic focal necrosis in the male cocaine group, and severe hemorrhagic necrosis in the male cocaine + LPS group. Unlike males, females showed no damage resulting from cocaine or cocaine + LPS exposure, whereas testosterone-supplemented ovariectomized females displayed histological and biochemical profiles statistically similar to males. The results demonstrate that the extent of CH or LPS-potentiated CH is influenced by gender and sex hormones, particularly testosterone. PMID:15981739

Visalli, Thomas; Turkall, Rita; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S

2005-01-01

425

Cocaine hepatotoxicity and its potentiation by lipopolysaccharide: treatment and gender effects.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a 7-day treatment as well as the influence of gender on cocaine hepatotoxicity (CH). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potentiation of CH was also investigated. Male and female CF-1 mice were orally administered 20 mg/kg body weight cocaine hydrochloride once daily for 7 days. Four hours after the last cocaine administration, the mice were administered 12 x 10(6) EU LPS (or equal volume of sterile saline) intraperitoneally. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were evaluated as indices of liver injury. Blood and liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GRx), and catalase (CAT) activities were also determined to investigate the oxidation stress induced by the treatment. Plasma ALT and AST concentrations were elevated in all males receiving cocaine alone or cocaine + LPS. Furthermore, blood GSH and CAT were decreased and GRx activity was elevated in the same males. Histological analysis revealed a high degree of focal necrosis in the male cocaine group, and severe necrosis in the male cocaine + LPS group. Unlike males, females showed no effect of either cocaine alone or cocaine + LPS treatments. These results indicate that gender plays a significant role in CH and its potentiation by LPS and lengthening the administration by two treatments increased the severity of cocaine + LPS hepatotoxicity dramatically in male mice. PMID:15204719

Visalli, Thomas; Turkall, Rita; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S

2004-01-01

426

Sorghum-based alcoholic beverage, Burukutu, perturbs the redox status of the liver of male rats.  

PubMed

The redox status of male rat liver following 28 days consumption of Burukutu was investigated. Twenty rats were randomized into four groups with five rats each. Burukutu consumption at 0.78 g/kg alcohol produced no significant change in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). However, 3.71 and 7.43 g/kg dosages resulted in significant decrease in the activities of ALP, ALT and AST with corresponding increase in serum. The activity of cytochrome P450(CYP 2E1) increased significantly in the liver of rats following consumption of Burukutu at all doses investigated. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in rats treat with 0.78 g/kg, 3.41 and 7.43 g/kg Burukutu. There was a significant increase in the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) with reduction in the levels of glutathione reduced (GSH) and GSH:GSSG. The levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and percentage DNA fragmentation, increased significantly (P < 0.05). It is evident from the alterations in the activities of the hepatocellular enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers that Burukutu mediated its toxicity through the depletion of the antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25473518

Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Abdulazeez, Azeemat T; Muhammed, Aisha O; Kolawole, Fausat L

2014-09-01

427

Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH?:?GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

2013-01-01

428

Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24554039

Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

2014-01-01

429

Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24554039

Zong, L; Yu, Q H; Du, Y X; Deng, X M

2014-02-01

430

Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

2011-01-01

431

CO(2)-driven seawater acidification differentially affects development and molecular plasticity along life history of fish (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

Fish early life stages have been shown to react sensitive to simulated ocean acidification. In particular, acid-base disturbances elicited by altered seawater carbonate chemistry have been shown to induce pathologies in larval fish. However, the mechanisms underlying these disturbances are largely unknown. We used gene expression profiling of genes involved in acid-base regulation and metabolism to investigate the effects of seawater hypercapnia on developing Japanese ricefish (medaka; Oryzias latipes). Our results demonstrate that embryos respond with delayed development during the time window of 2-5 dpf when exposed to a seawater pCO(2) of 0.12 and 0.42 kPa. This developmental delay is associated with strong down-regulation of genes from major metabolic pathways including glycolysis (G6PDH), Krebs cycle (CS) and the electron transport chain (CytC). In a second step we identified acid-base relevant genes in different ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings and adults) and tissues (gill and intestine) that are up regulated in response to hypercapnia, including NHE3, NBCa, NBCb, AE1a, AE1b, ATP1a1a.1, ATP1a1b, ATP1b1a, Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg. Interestingly, NHE3 and Rhcg expressions were increased in response to environmental hypercapnia in all ontogenetic stages and tissues tested, indicating the central role of these proteins in acid-base regulation. Furthermore, the increased expression of genes from amino acid metabolism pathways (ALT1, ALT2, AST1a, AST1b, AST2 and GLUD) suggests that energetic demands of hatchlings are fueled by the breakdown of amino acids. The present study provides a first detailed gene expression analysis throughout the ontogeny of a euryhaline teleost in response to seawater hypercapnia, indicating highest sensitivity in early embryonic stages, when functional ion regulatory epithelia are not yet developed. PMID:23416137

Tseng, Yung-Che; Hu, Marian Y; Stumpp, Meike; Lin, Li-Yih; Melzner, Frank; Hwang, Pung-Pung

2013-06-01

432

Pituitary-adrenocortical axis, serum serotonin and biochemical response after halothane or isoflurane anaesthesia in rabbits.  

PubMed

To document the changes in serum serotonin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone levels and select biochemical parameters in response to inhalant anaesthesia, 20 New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups: halothane and isoflurane. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved using a face mask (3.5% halothane and 4.5% isoflurane in oxygen) followed by endotracheal intubation and maintenance of anaesthesia for 30 min (1.5% halothane and 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen). Blood samples were obtained before anaesthetic induction, and at 1, 10, 30, 60, 120 min and 24, 48 and 72 h after endotracheal intubation. Serum serotonin and corticosterone levels were measured by competitive enzyme immunoassay, ACTH by radioimmunoassay. Serum glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were measured using an automated analyser. Significant increases in serum ACTH and corticosterone levels occurred after halothane administration while serum serotonin levels did not change. An increase in serum corticosterone and serotonin levels occurred in the isoflurane group but no changes in ACTH concentrations were detected. Administration of halothane significantly increased serum glucose, ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine levels. After isoflurane administration, there was a significant increase in serum glucose, AST, BUN and creatinine levels. Based on these results, halothane stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to a greater extent than isoflurane, but isoflurane increases serum serotonin levels. Both anaesthetic agents alter select biochemical parameters. These results should be taken into account when blood samples are evaluated in treated isoflurane or halothane anaesthetized rabbits. PMID:17988436

Gil, Alfredo González; Silván, Gema; Illera, Juan C

2007-10-01

433

Effect of Ribavirin Alone or Combined with Silymarin on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of the antiviral agent ribavirin given alone or in combination with silymarin on the development of liver injury induced in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2.8 ml/kg followed by 1.4 ml/kg after one week) was studied. Ribavirin at three dose levels (30, 60 or 90 mg/kg), silymarin (25 mg/kg) or combination of ribavirin (60 mg/kg) and silymarin (25 mg/kg) was administered once daily orally for 14 days, starting at time of administration of CCl4. The administration of ribavirin decreased the elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 78.5, 82.1, 75.1%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 47.5, 37.4, 38.8%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 23.4, 16, 21.6%, respectively and also pre-vented the development of hepatic necrosis caused by CCl4. In comparison, the elevated serum ALT, AST and ALP levels decreased to 43.3%, 46%, and 37.5% of controls, respectively by silymarin. When silymarin was combined with ribavirin, the serum activities of AST and ALP were further decreased, indicating a beneficial additive effect. Morphometric analysis indicated significant reduction in the area of necrosis and fibrosis on ribavirin treatment and this was further reduced after the addition of silymarin. Metabolic pertuberations caused by CCl4 as reflected in a decrease in intracellular protein content in hepatocytes were improved by ribavirin monotherapy and to higher extent by combined silymarin and ribavirin therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was reduced in nuclei of hepatocytes by ribavirin montherapy or the combination of ribavirin and silymarin compared with CCl4-control group. The study demonstrates that ribavirin treatment in the model of CCl4-induced liver injury results in less liver damage. Results also indicate that the combined application of ribavirin and sily-marin is likely to be a useful additive in reducing liver injury. PMID:21901059

Salam, Omar M.E. Abdel; Sleem, Amany A.; Omara, Enayat A.; Hassan, Nabila S.

2007-01-01

434

Does laboratory automation for the preanalytical phase improve data quality?  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate whether automation for the preanalytical phase improves data quality. Blood from 100 volunteers was collected into two vacuum tubes. One sample from each volunteer was respectively assigned to (G1) traditional processing, starting with centrifugation at 1200 g for 10 min, and (G2) the MODULAR PRE-ANALYTICALS EVO-MPA system. The routine clinical chemistry tests were performed in duplicate on the same instrument Cobas 6000 module. G1 samples were uncapped manually and immediately placed into the instrument. G2 samples were directly fed from the MPA system to the instrument without further staff intervention. At the end, (1) the G1 samples were stored for 6 h at 4 °C as prescribed in our accredited laboratory and (2) the G2 samples were stored for 6 h in the MPA output buffer. Results from G1 and G2, before and after storage, were compared. Significant increases were observed in G1 compared with G2 samples as follows: (1) before storage for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate (P), magnesium (MG), iron (FE), and hemolysis index and (2) after storage for total cholesterol (COL), triglycerides (TG), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), uric acid (UA), ALP, pancreatic amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), g-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, creatine kinase (CK), calcium (CA), FE, sodium (NA), potassium (K), and hemolysis index. Moreover, significant increases were observed in (3) G1-after versus G1-before storage samples for COL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG, TP, ALB, BUN, CRE, UA, AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, P, CA, MG, FE, NA, K, and hemolysis index and (4) G2-after versus G2-before storage only for BUN, AST, LDH, P, and CA. In conclusion, our results show that the MPA system improves the quality of laboratory testing. PMID:23686657

Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Brocco, Giorgio; Voi, Monica; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

2013-10-01

435

Evaluation of exertion and capture stress in serum of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon).  

PubMed

Seven hundred fifty-one dugongs (Dugong dugon) were pursued, captured, and handled for up to 20 min for population sampling. Fifty of these dugongs were then removed from the water for up to 55 min for comprehensive medical examination. Fifty whole blood and separated serum samples were analyzed for potassium, sodium, chloride, creatinine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, glucose, anion gap, and total blood CO2. Serum biochemical variables of the dugong were compared with those obtained in previous studies of the related West Indian manatee, a mammal that does not appear to experience capture myopathy based on available data. Differences between these species included higher blood sodium and chloride in dugongs, which may reflect differences in salt balance and renal function, and higher blood lactate and CO2. Some biochemical analytes such as CK and AST, which may be indicative of rhabdomyolysis associated with capture stress myopathy (a potentially fatal condition for which dugongs have been thought to be highly susceptible) were high compared with levels previously measured in wild West Indian manatees (Trichechus latirostris). One of the 50 dugongs had marked elevations of CK and AST but showed no other clinical indications of rhabdomyolysis associated with capture myopathy such as hyperthermia. Rather, generally high levels of lactate, CK, and AST most probably reflect metabolic acidosis resulting from the exertion involved in the pursuit prior to capture. Earlier observations suggesting that dugongs were probably susceptible to capture stress myopathy (based on high serum potassium levels) were not supported by this study. Capture and handling methods currently used on dugongs in this research program do not appear to result in acute capture stress. PMID:22448507

Lanyon, Janet M; Sneath, Helen L; Long, Trevor

2012-03-01

436

Aldolase predicts subsequent myopathy occurrence in systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Myopathy related to systemic sclerosis (Myo-SSc) is a disabling and unpredictable complication of SSc. We assessed the predictive value of serum aldolase, creatine kinase (CK), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to estimate the risk of developing Myo-SSc. Methods We enrolled 137 SSc patients without proximal muscle weakness in a prospective monocentric study to follow them longitudinally over a four-year period. The risk of occurrence of Myo-SSc was ascertained according to the European NeuroMuscular Centre criteria and was analyzed according to levels of plasma aldolase, CK, transaminase enzymes and CRP at inclusion. Performance of each parameter to predict Myo-SSc occurrence was assessed and compared with the others. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) of plasma aldolase for Myo-SSc occurrence prediction was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.67 to 0.94, P < 0.001), which was higher than that of plasma CK (0.75, P = 0.01), and that of ALT (0.63, P = 0.04). AST and CRP had no predictive value for Myo-SSc occurrence. The best cut-off of aldolase for prediction of Myo-SSc occurrence within three years after inclusion was 9 U/L and higher than the upper normality limit (7 U/L), unlike that of CK and ALT. Myo-SSc occurred more frequently in patients whose plasma aldolase was higher than 9 U/L. Adjusted Hazard Ratio for patients with aldolase > 9 U/L was 10.3 (95% CI: 2.3 to 45.5), P < 0.001. Conclusions Increased plasma aldolase level accurately identified SSc patients with high risk to develop subsequent Myo-SSc. This could help initiate appropriate treatment when the disabling muscle damage is still in a reversible stage. PMID:22726824

2012-01-01

437

Protective effects of tiopronin against high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the protective effects of tiopronin against high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. The rats were administered tiopronin (20 mg/kg) or a positive control drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 15 mg/kg) via gavage daily from week 5 to week 10. After the rats were sacrificed, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and liver homogenate FFA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using commercial analysis kits. The expression levels of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein were determined using RT-PCR and immunoblot assays, respectively. Results: Tiopronin significantly lowered both the serum ALT and AST levels, while only the serum ALT level was lowered by UDCA. Tiopronin significantly decreased the serum and liver levels of TG, TC and FFA as well as the serum LDL-C level, and increased the serum HDL-C level, while UDCA decreased the serum and liver TC levels as well as the serum LDL-C level, but did not change the serum levels of TG, FFA and HDL-C. Tiopronin apparently ameliorated the hepatocyte degeneration and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the livers, but UDCA did not affect the pathological features of the livers. Both tiopronin and UDCA ameliorated the mitochondrial abnormality in the livers. The benefits of tiopronin were associated with increased SOD and GSH-Px activities, and with decreased MDA activity and CYP2E1 expression in the livers. Conclusion: Tiopronin exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats, which may be associated with its antioxidant properties and regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:22543705

Wang, Jian-qing; Zou, Yu-hong; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Jin, Yong; Lü, Xiong-wen; Liu, Li-ping; Li, Jun

2012-01-01

438

The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p?=?0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Conclusion The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01634256 PMID:23497020

2013-01-01

439

Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n?=?22), naive (n?=?16) and HIV-1 negative (n?=?23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n?=?15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P?=?0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P?ALT values (P?=?0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P?=?0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P?=?0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P?ALT (? = ?0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ??=?0.529, P?=?0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in AR