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1

AST\\/ALT ratio predicts cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A liver biopsy is necessary to grade and stage chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In a previous study of patients with nonalcoholic liver disease, an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio >1 suggested cirrhosis. We sought to examine the value of the AST\\/ALT ratio in distinguishing cirrhotic patients with chronic HCV infection from noncirrhotic patients and

Sunil G. Sheth; Steven L. Flamm; Fredric D. Gordon; Sanjiv Chopra

1998-01-01

2

The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.  

PubMed

High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age. PMID:23580007

van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

2013-04-12

3

ALTS  

Cancer.gov

ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. Organized and funded by the National Cancer Institute, ALTS included more than 5,000 women. It began in November 1996 and concluded at the end of 2000.

4

Enzimas salivales y enfermedad periodontal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. There are important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death like: aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine cinase (CK), alkaline and acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), gama glutamil transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect

Tatjana Todorovic; Ivan Dozic; Mario Vicente Barrero; Besir Ljuskovic; Janko Pejovic; Marjan Marjanovic

5

Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT)  

NSF Publications Database

... Technologies (ALT) Synopsis of Program: Through the Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT) program ... technologies, and (2) advances research in computer science, information technology, learning, and ...

6

AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... as blood clotting factors, and breaks down potentially toxic substances into harmless ones that the body can ... in detecting liver damage due to hepatitis , drugs toxic to the liver, cirrhosis , and alcoholism . AST, however, ...

7

Know Your ALT  

MedlinePLUS

... underlying liver disease? Although there can be a relationship between the magnitude of elevation in the serum ALT and the severity of the abnormalities in liver structure and function, this relationship is not absolute. Patients with advanced scarring of ...

8

ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... as blood clotting factors, and breaks down potentially toxic substances into harmless ones that the body can ... due to hepatitis and drugs or other substances toxic to the liver. ALT, however, is not entirely ...

9

Asteroids Dynamic Site-AstDyS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AstDyS online information service (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys/) contains data on numbered and multi - opposition asteroids, including orbital elements, their uncertainty, proper elements, ephemerides with uncertainty, and more. AstDyS also provides additional scientific output computed from the raw observational data. This value added currently includes: more accurate orbits computed with advanced dynamical and observational error model s; their uncertainty, as expressed by the covariance matrix formalism; ephemerides computed on request for each observer, with uncertainty; mean and proper orbital elements (for this output, AstDyS is the primary source worldwide); statistical quality control, providing a rigorous observational error model. All this is available with a sophisticated web interface, providing multiple search functions and online computations as well as complete orbital and residual files. There are several ways in which the A stDyS service could be expanded and improved in the next future, like the explicit classification of asteroids into asteroid families, the classification of resonant asteroids, and an updated self - consistent population model (to be used, e.g., for survey simulations). The IAU Division I endorsed the proposal for AstDyS to become an IAU (permanent) service, which would include the IAU supervision of the AstDyS system, keeping under control the quality of the work and the continuous update under conditions of scientific competition.

Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

2012-08-01

10

PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

Thulin, Petra [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Tomkiewicz, Celine [Universite Paris Descartes, UMR-S-747 INSERM, Paris F-75006 (France); Norjavaara, Ensio [AstraZeneca, Clinical Pharmacology, 431 83 Moelndal (Sweden); Aggerbeck, Martine [Universite Paris Descartes, UMR-S-747 INSERM, Paris F-75006 (France); Hellmold, Heike [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Ehrenborg, Ewa [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Glinghammar, Bjoern [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden)], E-mail: Bjorn.Glinghammar@astrazeneca.com

2008-08-15

11

An innovative alt-alt telescope for small observatories and amateur astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper want to show an innovative amateur oriented telescope with an unconventional alt-alt conguration. The goal is to make a telescope with good optical quality reducing production costs by adopting a gimbal based mounting to develop an alt-alt conguration suitable for a telescope. Reduce costs while preserving the optical quality is a necessary condition to allow small groups of amateur astronomers, schools and cultural clubs, with reduced economic resources, to acquire an astronomical instrument that encourages learning and advancing astrophysical knowledge. This unconventional mechanism for the realization of a telescope alt-alt provides signicant advantages. The traditional rotary motors coupled with expensive precision bearings are replaced with two simple linear actuators coupled to a properly preloaded gimbal joint and the cell becomes the primary structure of the telescope. A second advantage would be secured by mechanical simplicity evident in the easy portability of the instrument. The frame alt-alt has some limitations on the horizon pointing but does not show the zenith blind spot of the alt-az mount. A dedicated alt-alt pointing and tracking model is under development to be compatible with commercial telescope softwares and with the proposed new mounting.

Riva, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghigo, M.; Landoni, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spanó, P.; Tomelleri, R.; Zerbi, F. M.

2012-09-01

12

Taraxacum apenninum — ein altes Element mediterraner Gebirge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Taraxacum apenninum (Ten.)Ten., das auf Grund seiner Merkmale schon lange Zeit als alte Art angesehen wurde, ist diploid. Die Chromosomenzahl beträgt 2n=16, Die Art bewohnt heute ein kleines Restareal in den Abruzzen (zentraler Apennin): ein zweites Verbreitungsgebiet in Griechenland ist fraglich geworden. Im Vergleich mit anderen mediterran verbreiteten Relikten ergeben sich interessante Übereinstimmungen in den Arealformen. Ein direkter Zusammenhang

Dietrich Fürnkranz

1964-01-01

13

ALT-3 target design and simulations  

SciTech Connect

ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

Peterson, Jeffrey H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-12

14

PhAst: A Flexible IDL Astronomical Image Viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present near-Earth asteroid data analyzed with PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer based on the existing application ATV. PhAst opens, displays, and analyzes an arbitrary number of FITS images. Analysis packages include image calibration, photometry, and astrometry (provided through an interface with SExtractor, SCAMP, and missFITS). PhAst has been designed to generate reports for Minor Planet Center reporting. PhAst is cross platform (Linux/Mac OSX/Windows for image viewing and Linux/Mac OSX for image analysis) and can be downloaded from the following website at NOAO: http://www.noao.edu/staff/mighell/phast/. Rehnberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, R.; Trueblood, M.; Mighell, K.

2012-01-01

15

Paralogous ALT1 and ALT2 Retention and Diversification Have Generated Catalytically Active and Inactive Aminotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence of paralogous pairs play a central role in the evolution of novel gene functions. S. cerevisiae possesses two paralogous genes (ALT1/ALT2) which presumably encode alanine aminotransferases. It has been previously shown that Alt1 encodes an alanine aminotransferase, involved in alanine metabolism; however the physiological role of Alt2 is not known. Here we investigate whether ALT2 encodes an active alanine aminotransferase. Principal Findings Our results show that although ALT1 and ALT2 encode 65% identical proteins, only Alt1 displays alanine aminotransferase activity; in contrast ALT2 encodes a catalytically inert protein. ALT1 and ALT2 expression is modulated by Nrg1 and by the intracellular alanine pool. ALT1 is alanine-induced showing a regulatory profile of a gene encoding an enzyme involved in amino acid catabolism, in agreement with the fact that Alt1 is the sole pathway for alanine catabolism present in S. cerevisiae. Conversely, ALT2 expression is alanine-repressed, indicating a role in alanine biosynthesis, although the encoded-protein has no alanine aminotransferase enzymatic activity. In the ancestral-like yeast L. kluyveri, the alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the presence of alanine than in the presence of ammonium, suggesting that as for ALT1, LkALT1 expression could be alanine-induced. ALT2 retention poses the questions of whether the encoded protein plays a particular function, and if this function was present in the ancestral gene. It could be hypotesized that ALT2 diverged after duplication, through neo-functionalization or that ALT2 function was present in the ancestral gene, with a yet undiscovered function. Conclusions ALT1 and ALT2 divergence has resulted in delegation of alanine aminotransferase activity to Alt1. These genes display opposed regulatory profiles: ALT1 is alanine-induced, while ALT2 is alanine repressed. Both genes are negatively regulated by the Nrg1 repressor. Presented results indicate that alanine could act as ALT2 Nrg1-co-repressor.

Penalosa-Ruiz, Georgina; Aranda, Cristina; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Colon, Maritrini; Quezada, Hector; Gonzalez, Alicia

2012-01-01

16

Workload and Stress. A Report of ASTE Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey sought to determine workload and stress levels of college teaching staff represented by the Association of Staff in Tertiary Education (ASTE) of New Zealand. The survey examined issues related to workload and stress including: perceptions of workload, sources of stress, work responsibilities/roles, quality of work areas, student…

Hardie-Boys, Ned

17

TD-AltBOC: A new COMPASS B2 modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AltBOC(15,10) is the baseline of COMPASS B2 signal modulation. It is a BOC-like signal having different PN codes in the lower and the upper main split lobes, which allow one signal service per lobe. The two lobes can be received and processed separately like two BPSK(10) signals, or coherently processed to achieve better performance. Interoperability among COMPASS B2, Galileo E5 and GPS L5 is also achievable using AltBOC modulation. However, Galileo's 4-code AltBOC has drawbacks such as low efficiency and great receiver complexity. This paper presents a new modulation type named TD-AltBOC (Time Division AltBOC). The signal generation scheme and receiving method are presented, and are compared with AltBOC in the areas of power spectrum, ranging accuracy, anti-multipath performance, anti-interference performance, processing flexibility and complexity. Analysis results show TD-AltBOC has similar spectrum characteristics, interoperability, flexibility and anti-interference performance with AltBOC. When the frontend bandwidth is more than 50 MHz, TD-AltBOC can achieve better ranging accuracy and anti-multipath performance. It also has such advantages as high efficiency and low receiver complexity. TD-AltBOC could be a good solution to COMPASS B2 navigation signal.

Tang, Zuping; Zhou, Hongwei; Wei, Jiaolong; Yan, Tao; Liu, Yuqi; Ran, Yihang; Zhou, Yanling

2011-06-01

18

Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.4 and 0.4{<=}x{<=}0.6). Fractional concentrations of Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds in the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses calculated using experimental Raman data. The solid lines represent predictions of the dissociation model assuming that the main chemically ordered structural units are related to AsTe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The partial bond fractions were derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An empirical quantitative approach to the Raman data was proposed for the reaction modeling.

Tverjanovich, A., E-mail: andr.tver@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rodionov, K. [Department of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bychkov, E. [Universite du Littoral Cote d'Opale, 59140 Dunkerque (France)

2012-06-15

19

Submillimeter Astronomy from the South Pole (AST/RO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO), a 1.7 m diameter offset Gregorian telescope for astronomy and aeronomy studies at wavelengths between 200 and 2000 ?m, saw first light in 1995 and operated until 2005. It was the first radio telescope to operate continuously throughout the winter on the Antarctic Plateau. It served as a site testing instrument and prototype for later instruments, as well as executing a wide variety of scientific programs that resulted in six doctoral theses and more than one hundred scientific publications. The South Pole environment is unique among observatory sites for unusually low wind speeds, low absolute humidity, and the consistent clarity of the submillimeter sky. Especially significant are the exceptionally low values of sky noise found at this site, a result of the small water vapor content of the atmosphere. Multiple submillimeter-wave and Terahertz detector systems were in operation on AST/RO, including heterodyne and bolometric arrays. AST/RO's legacy includes comprehensive submillimeter-wave site testing of the South Pole, spectroscopic studies of 492 GHz and 809 GHz neutral atomic carbon and 460 GHz and 806 GHz carbon monoxide in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds, and the first detection of the 1.46 THz [N II] line from a ground-based observatory.

Stark, Antony A.

2013-01-01

20

Identification of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus casei AST18.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei AST18 was screened as an antifungal lactic acid bacteria which we have reported before. In this research, the antifungal properties of cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from L. casei AST18 were detected, and the antifungal compounds of CCF were prepared by ultrafiltration, and semi-preparative HPLC, and then determined by GC-MS. CCF was sensitive to pH and heat treatment but it was not affected by the treatment of trypsin and pepsin. Through the treatment of ultrafiltration and semi-preparative HPLC there were two parts of CCF which showed antifungal activities: part 1 and part 4. Lactic acid was identified as the main antifungal compound in part 1. In part 4, three small molecular substances were detected with GC-MS. The three potential antifungal substances were cyclo-(Leu-Pro), 2,6-diphenyl-piperidine, and 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a;1',2'-d]pyrazine. The antifungal activity of L. casei AST18 was a synergistic effect of lactic acid and cyclopeptides. PMID:22580887

Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Wenming; Lv, Jiaping

2012-05-13

21

Spectroscopic study of 2-indanone: The T1 3(n,?&ast;) and S1 1(n,?&ast;) states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorescence excitation and emission spectra of 2-indanone single crystal have been observed at 1.5 K. The lowest triplet state T1 is of ?&ast;?n character which is localized in the carbonyl moiety. The very weak 0–0 band is located at 28 853 cm?1. The molecule is pyramidally distorted like formaldehyde and has an active out-of-plane C=O wagging mode. The barrier height

Masaaki Baba

1985-01-01

22

PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers  

SciTech Connect

This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

1988-08-01

23

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fue...

A. B. Baker R. Klotz R. Williams T. E. Drennen

2007-01-01

24

AltMove Manager 2.1.4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AltMove Manager doesn't reinvent the mouse, but it certainly enhances its general functionality. With AltMove Manager, users can quickly and easily minimize and restore windows, grab screenshots, and even magnify a window under the mouse. Visitors can also consult the Actions menu to add a few more functions, if they wish to do so. This version is compatible with computers running Windows NT and newer.

2008-10-24

25

Fetal ADH2&ast;3, Maternal Alcohol Consumption, and Fetal Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some evidence suggesting the allele for alcohol dehydrogenase 2&ast;3 (ADH2&ast;3) is associated with a protective effect against alcohol-related intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). This study was conducted to explore the affect of the ADH2&ast;3 allele on fetal growth. Bloodspots (w = 1016) belonging to individual infants of a subgroup of the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (BWIS) were assayed for the

Darryl P. Arfsten; Ellen K. Silbergeld; Christopher A. Loffredo

2004-01-01

26

ASTE Surveys of Galactic Star-Forming Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report some recent highlights on the observational studies of Galactic star formation based on surveys using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), a new 10 m telescope in the Atacama desert in northern Chile (Kohno et al., 2008, ApSS, 313, 279). The highlights will include (1) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Galactic Center, unveiling the presence of numerous compact high velocity clouds with high CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios as a "fossil” of the recent burst of star formation in the Galactic Center region (Oka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 15; Nagai et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 25; Tanaka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 323), (2) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Sgr arm and inter-am regions, revealing the distinct difference on the morphology and physical property of molecular gas between the arm and inter-arm regions for the first time (Sawada, Koda, et al., in prep.), and (3) a wide area 1.1 mm imaging survey of Southern low mass star-forming regions such as Chamaeleon and Lupus molecular clouds using the bolometer camera AzTEC (Wilson et al., 2008, MNRAS, in press) mounted on ASTE, yielding detections of starless cores with a very low mass detection limist down to 0.1 solar masses (Hiramatsu, Tsukagoshi, Kawabe et al., in prep.). Related topics on the massive star-forming regions in very nearby galaxies such as LMC (Minamidani et al., 2008, ApJS, in press) and M 33 (Tosaki et al., 2007, ApJ, 664, L27; Onodera et al., in prep.; Komugi et al., in prep.) will also be reviewed.

Kohno, Kotaro

2008-05-01

27

Development of the alt Mutant of Pisum sativum L. 1  

PubMed Central

The alt (albina-terminalis) mutant of Pisum sativum L. germinates normally, produces several nodes, and then above a sharp transition produces 2 to 3 bleached nodes, ceases growth, and eventually dies. Green nodes have normal chlorophyll content, absorption spectra, photosynthetic rates, and ultrastructure. In bleaching tissues, the chloroplasts degenerate rapidly, followed by extensive disruption and loss of the remaining cytoplasm and organelles. Application of tissue extracts of normal genotypes of pea, corn, and bean stimulates apical development of alt. The resulting tissues have essentially normal structure and function. Application of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate, and thiamine pyrophosphate also stimulate normal apical development at concentrations of 1 micromolar and above. Partial characterization of the stimulus from pea seed extracts is consistent with thiamine as the active factor. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 8

Guo, Wei Wen; Proebsting, William M.; Potter, Sandra W.; Daley, Larry S.; Potter, John R.

1987-01-01

28

ASTE Submillimeter observations of a YSO condensation in Cederblad 110  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outflow-cloud interaction is an important issue in discussions about star formation in clusters because it could generate turbulence and restrain star formation activities, as well as it causes outflow-triggered star formation. We present the results of ASTE submillimeter observations of a low-mass YSO condensation Cederblad 110 in the Chamaeleon I dark cloud. Our HCO^+ (J=4-3) map reveals a dense molecular clump with an extent of about 0.1 pc, which is a complex of three envelopes associated with class I sources Ced110 IRS4 and IRS11, and a millimeter-continuum source Cha-MMS1. The other two class I sources in this region, IRS6 and NIR89, are located outside the clump and have no conspicuous HCO^+ emission. Bipolar outflows from IRS4 and IRS6 are detected in our CO (J=3-2) observations. The outflow from IRS4 seems to collide with Cha-MMS1. The outflow has enough momentum to affect gas motion in the Cha-MMS1. MMS1 is a very young protostar which has no signs of outflow activity yet, but its envelope could be blown off by the outflow from IRS4. This collision has a potent impact on the mass assembling process of the protostar.

Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Onishi, Toshikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

29

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01

30

Double-spin asymmetry ALT in open charm production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the collinear twist-three approach, we calculate for the first time the gluon contribution to double- (longitudinal-transverse) spin asymmetry ALT for open charm production in proton-proton collisions measurable at RHIC. Utilizing the Ward-Takahashi identity for the nonpole part of the hard scattering amplitude, we derive a factorized, gauge invariant formula for the asymmetry. The result may be combined with the previous studies of single-spin asymmetry in the same channel and allows for a systematic analysis of three-gluon correlations inside a transversely polarized nucleon.

Hatta, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Koichi; Yoshida, Shinsuke

2013-07-01

31

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01

32

AFLP MARKERS TIGHTLY LINKED TO THE ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE ALT3 IN RYE (SECALE CEREALE L)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rye (Secale cereale L.) is considered to be the most aluminum (Al) tolerant species among the Triticeae. It has been suggested that aluminum tolerance in rye is controlled by three major genes (Alt genes) located on rye chromosome arms 6RS (Alt1), 3RL (Alt2), and 4RL (Alt3). Screening of an F6 rye...

33

21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test...

2013-04-01

34

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

1995-10-10

35

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1995-10-10

36

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

1993-08-31

37

An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

2008-05-01

38

Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

1983-10-01

39

The neural and peptidergic control of gut contraction in Locusta migratoria: the effect of an FGLa/AST.  

PubMed

The regulation of insect gut physiology is complex and involves the interactions of a number of mechanisms, including the neural regulation of gut contraction by altering neural input and the modulation of gut contractions by neuropeptides directly affecting the muscle. The FGLa-type allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) are known brain/gut peptides with numerous physiological roles, including modulation of gut contraction and neural input. To further investigate the pleiotropic roles of FGLa/AST peptides in Locusta migratoria, we have examined the role of a locust FGLa/AST (Scg-AST-6) in the gut. Proctolin and Scg-AST-6 have opposing effects on gut contraction, where proctolin dose-dependently increases gut muscle tension, while Scg-AST-6 inhibits both muscle tension and spontaneous and neurogenic contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Results from neurophysiological recordings indicate that there may be a central pattern generator (CPG) within the ventricular ganglia regulated by descending inhibition, and the addition of Scg-AST-6 dose-dependently modulates this ventricular ganglion CPG. This work provides a comprehensive picture of how FGLa/ASTs may modulate and coordinate each region of the locust gut, and shows that FGLa/ASTs have both central effects, on the ventricular ganglion CPG, and peripheral effects on the gut muscle. Overall, this study shows how FGLa/ASTs contribute to the complex regulation and fine tuning of gut contraction. PMID:22693021

Robertson, Lisa; Rodriguez, E Patricia; Lange, Angela B

2012-06-12

40

Assembly of Functional ALT-associated Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies Requires Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immortalized cells maintain telomere length through either a telomer- ase-dependent process or a telomerase-independent pathway termed al- ternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Homologous recombination is implicated in the ALT pathway in both yeast and human ALT cells. In ALT cells, two types of DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination factors, the Rad50\\/Mre11\\/NBS1 complex and Rad51\\/ Rad52 along with replication

Guikai Wu; Xianzhi Jiang; Wen-Hwa Lee; Phang-Lang Chen

2003-01-01

41

Reduction of indoxyl sulfate by AST-120 attenuates monocyte inflammation related to chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Accelerated cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication of CKD. Monocyte-mediated inflammation and adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium are key events in atherogenesis. An oral adsorbent, AST-120, retards renal function deterioration by lowering IS, which is known to accumulate in CKD patients. However, the effect of AST-120 on CKD-related monocyte activation is unknown. We aimed to determine whether AST-120 improves monocyte-mediated inflammation through IS reduction. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Mac-1 expression and ROS production were significantly higher in peripheral blood monocytes of subtotal Nx CKD mice than in sham-operated mice. AST-120 treatment significantly decreased Mac-1 expression and ROS production in CKD model mice. Furthermore, administration of IS induced monocyte-mediated inflammation and ROS generation. In vitro studies indicated that IS dose-dependently increased THP-1 monocytic cell adhesion to IL-1?-activated HUVECs under physiological flow conditions. IS also induced monocyte-mediated inflammation and ROS production in THP-1 cells. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and membrane translocation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox in THP-1 cells were induced by IS. Both SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and apocynin [NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor] reduced THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. Apocynin also inhibited IS-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells. IS induced monocyte-driven inflammation through NAD(P)H oxidase- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways in monocytes. The main finding of this study was that AST-120 inhibited monocyte activation by reducing IS in vivo. This provides new insights on how AST-120 attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in CKD. PMID:23362306

Ito, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Yagi, Yoko; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ishii, Hideto; Osaka, Mizuko; Yoshida, Masayuki

2013-01-29

42

Report of the second joint meeting of ESOT and AST: current pipelines in biotech and pharma.  

PubMed

Following the first joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and American (AST) Societies of Transplantation in 2010, a second joint meeting was held in Nice, France, on October 12-14, 2012 at the Palais de la Mediterannee. Co-chairs of the scientific advisory committee were Dr. Flavio Vincenti (AST) and Dr. Teun Van Gelder (ESOT). The goal was to discuss the key unmet needs in solid organ transplantation with the opportunity to interrelate current basic research efforts with clinical translation. Thus, the topic of this second meeting "Transformational therapies and diagnostics in transplantation" was devised and a summary of this meeting follows. PMID:23822608

van Gelder, Teun; Baan, Carla; Vincenti, Flavio; Mannon, Roslyn B

2013-07-04

43

Evaluation of the Alfred 60/AST Device as a Screening Test for Urinary Tract Infections.  

PubMed

The performance of the Alfred 60/AST device, an automated bacterial culture device which uses laser nephelometry to detect and quantify bacterial growth, was evaluated. The instrument is effective at screening negative samples and is more reliable at detecting bacteria than yeasts. Microscopy can be used to reduce the false-negative numbers. PMID:23885005

Lahanas, Sophie; Stathopoulos, George; Chan, Raymond C; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

2013-07-24

44

PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

2012-12-01

45

Effects of AST120 on Left Ventricular Mass in Predialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. One of the proposed mechanisms assumes that accumulated uremic toxins play an important role in the progression of CVD in CKD. Recently, it has been reported that AST-120 may attenuate progression of CVD through absorption of uremic toxins. In this study, we examined the

Kentaro Nakai; Hideki Fujii; Keiji Kono; Shunsuke Goto; Masafumi Fukagawa; Shinichi Nishi

2011-01-01

46

76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas. The Draft EA was...Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, TX. The Grasshopper...landing vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city...the Draft EA on the FAA/AST Web site at...

2011-09-27

47

Elevated Serum ALT Levels during Pegylated Interferon Monotherapy May Be Caused by Hepatic Iron Overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Persistently elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been observed in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy. We investigated whether elevated serum ALT levels during PEG-IFN therapy are associated with iron overload. Methods: Sixty-three CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN?-2a monotherapy were evaluated. The associations between elevated serum ALT levels (?70 IU\\/l) were investigated before and

Miki Nagashima; Masatoshi Kudo; Hobyung Chung; Emi Ishikawa; Tatsuo Inoue; Tatsuya Nakatani; Kensaku Dote

2008-01-01

48

IMPACT OF WEIGHT LOSS SURGERY AND DIABETES STATUS ON SERUM ALT LEVELS  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE ALT is used to detect NAFLD and has been associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome and T2DM. Bariatric procedures result in significant weight-loss and a rapid resolution of T2DM. We aimed to study the impact of bariatric interventions on ALT levels in patients with or without T2DM, and compare this effect between different types of weight-loss procedures. METHODS We reviewed 756 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Demographics, co-morbidities, baseline and postoperative ALT and HbA1C levels, weight-loss data and diabetes status were recorded. ALT levels were compared between different procedures and between diabetics and non-diabetic patients. Chi-square test, ANOVA and t-test were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS Males and diabetics had significantly higher ALT at baseline. Both RYGB and LAGB resulted in significant reduction in ALT levels beginning at the 3rd postoperative month (20% and 17% respectively compared to baseline, p<0.001). ALT remained at the new low level up to year-3 after surgery. The degree of reduction was similar for both procedures and independent of the degree of weight-loss. In diabetics, ALT reduction was associated with improvement in disease but in T2DM patients who remained on insulin, ALT remained elevated. CONCLUSIONS RYGB and LAGB decrease ALT levels to the same degree and independent of weight loss. Our data confirm higher ALT in diabetics and demonstrate a rapid normalization after bariatric surgery with a simultaneous decrease in HbA1C. These results suggest that ALT may be used as a marker of metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery.

Xourafas, Dimitrios; Ardestani, Ali; Ashley, Stanley W.; Tavakkoli, Ali

2013-01-01

49

Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed to (1) characterize the clinical and histologic features of those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, (2) compare the spectrum of NAFLD associated with normal versus elevated ALT levels, and (3) determine whether there were differences in the clinical or histologic spectrum of NAFLD between those with a low

Pouneh Mofrad; Melissa J. Contos; Mahmadul Haque; Carol Sargeant; Robert A. Fisher; Velimir A. Luketic; Richard K. Sterling; Mitchell L. Shiffman; Richard T. Stravitz; Arun J. Sanyal

2003-01-01

50

The S1(n,?&ast;) states of cyclopentanone and cyclobutanone in a supersonic nozzle beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence excitation spectra of cyclopentanone and cyclobutanone have been observed for their (n,?&ast;) transition in a pulsed supersonic nozzle beam using a high power tunable laser. A drastic reduction of hot bands has been attained, making it possible to discuss the vibronic assignments in more detail than the previous works. The C=O out-of-plane wagging mode was found to be active

Masaaki Baba; Ichiro Hanazaki

1984-01-01

51

Experimental demonstration of AST500 safety with large-scale model of reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

following questions, which are important for proper description of the emergency regimes of the AST-500: the dynamics of the built-in steam-gas compensator, circulation and heat transfer in the first loop under conditions of coolant loss, and the thermal and hydraulic behavior of the reactor-containment-vessel system. The research program included experiments with coolant escape into the containment-vessel model with various scales

A. S. Babykin; B. F. Balunov; T. S. Zhivitskaya; V. N. Nosatov; A. A. Fal'kov

1992-01-01

52

Variant repeats are interspersed throughout the telomeres and recruit nuclear receptors in ALT cells  

PubMed Central

Telomeres in cells that use the recombination-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway elicit a DNA damage response that is partly independent of telomere length. We therefore investigated whether ALT telomeres contain structural abnormalities that contribute to ALT activity. Here we used next generation sequencing to analyze the DNA content of ALT telomeres. We discovered that variant repeats were interspersed throughout the telomeres of ALT cells. We found that the C-type (TCAGGG) variant repeat predominated and created a high-affinity binding site for the nuclear receptors COUP-TF2 and TR4. Nuclear receptors were directly recruited to telomeres and ALT-associated characteristics were induced after incorporation of the C-type variant repeat by a mutant telomerase. We propose that the presence of variant repeats throughout ALT telomeres results from recombination-mediated telomere replication and spreading of variant repeats from the proximal regions of the telomeres and that the consequent binding of nuclear receptors alters the architecture of telomeres to facilitate further recombination.

Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D.; Hills, Mark; Neumann, Axel A.; Bryan, Tracy M.

2012-01-01

53

Synthesis and Electro-Optical Properties of Blue Emitting POLY(BP-alt-BCV) Conjugated Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new blue electroluminescent conjugated polymer, poly(BP-alt-BCV), was prepared by Hornor-Emmons polycondensation of [5-carbazol-9-yl-3-(diethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)-2-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-benzyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester (PHBP) and 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde (BPCA) in the presence of tert-BuOK in THF. UV-visible absorption maximum (lambdamax,UV, pi-pi* transition) of poly(BP-alt-BCV) was measured at 340 nm. PL maximum (lambdamax,PL) values of poly(BP-alt-BCV) were obtained at 406 and 430 nm, when excited at its own lambdamax,UV.

Jeong Ju Baek; Young Chul Jeong; Lee Soon Park; Jung Kyung Lee; Yoon Soo Han; Younghwan Kwon

2005-01-01

54

Ast120 ameliorates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and interstitial fibrosis in the kidneys of ckd rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, is a risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). AST-120 reduces serum IS, and delays the progression of CKD. This study aimed to examine if AST-120 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the kidneys of CKD rats. CKD rats were produced by 5\\/6-nephrectomy, and divided into 2 groups: (1) CKD rats and (2)

Dilinaer Bolati; Hidehisa Shimizu; Toshimitsu Niwa

55

Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals.

2012-01-01

56

Surveillance study of apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

SIDS and ALTE are different entities that somehow show some similarities. Both constitute heterogeneous conditions. The Netherlands is a low-incidence country for SIDS. To study whether the same would hold for ALTE, we studied the incidence, etiology, and current treatment of ALTE in The Netherlands. Using the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance Unit, pediatricians working in second- and third-level hospitals in the Netherlands were asked to report any case of ALTE presented in their hospital from January 2002 to January 2003. A questionnaire was subsequently sent to collect personal data, data on pregnancy and birth, condition preceding the incident, the incident itself, condition after the incident, investigations performed, monitoring or treatment initiated during admission, any diagnosis made at discharge, and treatment or parental support offered after discharge. A total of 115 cases of ALTE were reported, of which 110 questionnaires were filled in and returned (response rate 97%). Based on the national birth rate of 200,000, the incidence of ALTE amounted 0.58/1,000 live born infants. No deaths occurred. Clinical diagnoses could be assessed in 58.2%. Most frequent diagnoses were (percentages of the total of 110 cases) gastro-esophageal reflux and respiratory tract infection (37.3% and 8.2%, respectively); main symptoms were change of color and muscle tone, choking, and gagging. The differences in diagnoses are heterogeneous. In 34%, parents shook their infants, which is alarmingly high. Pre- and postmature infants were overrepresented in this survey (29.5% and 8.2%, respectively). Ten percent had recurrent ALTE. In total, 15.5% of the infants were discharged with a home monitor. In conclusion, ALTE has a low incidence in second- and third-level hospitals in the Netherlands. Parents should be systematically informed about the possible devastating effects of shaking an infant. Careful history taking and targeted additional investigations are of utmost importance. PMID:19544071

Semmekrot, Ben A; van Sleuwen, Bregje E; Engelberts, Adele C; Joosten, Koen F M; Mulder, Jaap C; Liem, K Djien; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob; Bijlmer, Rob P G M; L'Hoir, Monique P

2009-06-21

57

Report of a joint ESOT and AST meeting: highlights in biologic agents and transplantation.  

PubMed

A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and American (AST) Societies of Transplantation occurred in Nice, France, October 1-3, 2010. Focused on emerging use of biologic agents in solid organ transplantation, it served as a venue for state-of-the-art updates in basic immunology and clinical science, with an emphasis on the interrelatedness of the two. This meeting summary is designed to highlight important insights communicated in Nice, offer an overview of novel therapeutics in development, and entice members of all societies to consider attending a second joint symposium, under consideration for 2012. PMID:21446972

Baan, C C; Gaston, R S

2011-04-01

58

A metabolomic approach to clarifying the effect of AST-120 on 5/6 nephrectomized rats by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CE-MS).  

PubMed

The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations) in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4 anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, ?-guanidinobutyrate, N-?-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:23202318

Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Koichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Chitose; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

2012-11-14

59

AltText: A Showcase of User Centred Design in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the information processing chain many documents are produced that are inaccessible to the reading impaired. The altText project aims to increase the accessibility of this content by: a) raising awareness among content providers about content adaption; b) allowing content providers to deliver content in a way that suits the needs of the information receiver; c) developing an online service that converts written text into several accessible formats (Braille, synthetic speech, large print or DaisyXML). The name of this service is the altText conversion portal. The paper argues that user centred innovation will be crucial to the success of this project.

Asjes, Kathleen

60

The test of the 10k x 10k CCD for Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10k x 10k single-chip CCD camera was installed on the first Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1) at Dome A, Antarctica in January 2012. The pixel size is 9 ?m, corresponding to 1 arcsec on the focal plane. The CCD runs without shutter but in frame transfer mode, and is cooled by thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to take advantage of the low air temperature at Dome A. We tested the performance of the camera in detail, including the gain, linearity, readout noise, dark current, charge transfer efficiency, etc. As this camera is designed to work at Dome A, where the lowest air temperature could go down to -80°C in winter, we tested to cool not only the CCD chip but also the controller which usually is operated at normal temperatures for ground-based telescopes. We found that the performance of the camera changes a little when the controller is cooled.

Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Wang, Lifan; Boggs, Kasey; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Song, Qian; Xue, Suijian

2012-09-01

61

Characterization of (As.Te)1-xSex thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical absorption at room temperature and electrical resistivity at temperatures between 200 and 320 K for (As.Te)1-xSex thin films (where x=0.20, 0.23, 0.27, 0.32 and 0.44) have been studied. Increasing the Se content was found to increase the optical energy gap and the activation energy for conduction of the investigated films. The optical energy gap of the As0.40Te0.40Se0.20 films was increased up to 1.21 eV by increasing the film thickness to 120 nm, while thermal annealing at 480 K reduced it down to 0.83 eV. The decrease of the optical gap is discussed on the basis of amorphous-crystalline transformations.

Hafiz, M. M.; Moharram, A. H.; Abu-Sehly, A. A.

62

ASTE observations of the massive-star forming region Sgr B2: a giant impact scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report mapping observations of a 35 pc × 35 pc region covering the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex in the 13CO (3-2) and the CS (7-6) lines using the ASTE 10 m telescope with high angular resolution. The central region was mapped also in the C18O (3-2) line. The images not only reproduce the characteristic structures noted in the preceding millimeter observations, but also highlight the interface of the molecular clouds with a large velocity jump of a few tens of km s-1. These new results further support the scenario that a cloud cloud collision has triggered the formation of massive cloud cores, which form massive stars of Sgr B2. Prospects of exciting science enabled by ALMA are discussed in relation to these observations.

Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Arai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Fumio

2008-01-01

63

Use of the AST to platelet ratio index in HCV/HIV co-infected patients  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background The AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis, has not been well studied in HCV/HIV (hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus) co-infected patients with advanced HIV. Aim To compare the accuracy of APRI in HCV/HIV co-infected patients to that in HCV mono-infected patients and to determine the impact of CD4+ T-cell counts on its performance. Methods We identified 106 consecutive HCV/HIV co-infected patients and 105 matched HCV mono-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy at Harborview Medical Center over a 5-year period. Performance characteristics were calculated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis conducted. Results The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis was similar when comparing those with and without HIV co-infection (0.77 vs. 0.86, P = 0.18), but was lower in HIV co-infected patients with CD4 counts <250 cells/mm3 (0.64 vs. 0.86, P = 0.05). In HIV co-infected patients with CD4 counts ?250, APRI had higher negative predictive value (93% vs. 88%, P = 0.57), positive predictive value (63% vs. 40%, P = 0.43) and specificity (95% vs. 88%, P = 0.05) than in those with lower CD4 counts. Conclusions The AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) performance characteristics appear to be suboptimal in HCV/HIV co-infected patients with CD4 counts <250 and they require further study in this population at increased risk for advanced liver disease.

Singal, A. G.; Thomassen, L. V.; Gretch, D. R.; Shuhart, M. C.

2013-01-01

64

Case Studies in Science Education: Booklet III. Science Education in the ALTE Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alte is one of the oldest suburbs of a large midwestern city, but has developed an impressive commercial trade center in recent decades and has a very substantial tax base. Containing some of the most beautiful residential sections in the midwest, it is a...

L. M. Smith

1978-01-01

65

Beneficial effects of 'lamivudine pulse' therapy in HBeAg-positive patients with normal ALT*.  

PubMed

Currently no therapy is given to patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are HBeAg positive with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Steroid priming has been shown to enhance T-helper-1 (Th-1) cell response. Lamivudine may restore immunologic competence against HBV by causing a sudden decline in the level of the virus. We examined the efficacy of lamivudine pulse therapy on the seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe. This was a prospective single-blinded trial including 27 patients with chronic hepatitis B, HBeAg positive with ALT < or =1.5 times upper limit of normal (ULN). Lamivudine was administered initially for 4 weeks, then stopped for 2 weeks and later restarted and continued till 3 months after seroconversion or completion of 2 years of therapy. Twenty-six patients completed the study. Lamivudine withdrawal led to a rise in ALT levels above the ULN in 11 (42.3%) patients at 6 weeks; seven of them (63.6%) lost HBeAg compared with only two of the 15 patients (13.3%), in whom ALT levels did not rise (P = 0.011). As one patient showed a relapse, a total of eight (31%) patients responded to lamivudine pulse therapy over a mean period of 17.3 +/- 4.5 months. Responders had a higher serum albumin (P < 0.05), a lower fibrosis score (P < 0.05), and a relatively high baseline serum ALT levels (P = 0.024) than the nonresponders. YMDD mutations developed in three patients and none responded. No patient developed hepatic decompensation. Hence lamivudine pulse therapy has potential in converting HBeAg-positive, 'not-treat-worthy' (ALT < 1.5 ULN) patients to treat-worthy (ALT > 1.5 ULN) in 42%, with sustained HBeAg and HBV DNA loss in 31% patients. The effects are possibly because of a combination of antiviral and immunomodulating activities of lamivudine. PMID:15500556

Sarin, S K; Sandhu, B S; Sharma, B C; Jain, M; Singh, J; Malhotra, V

2004-11-01

66

Determination of the Structure of the Catabolic N-Succinylornithine Transaminase (AstC) from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli possesses two acyl ornithine aminotransferases, one catabolic (AstC) and the other anabolic (ArgD), that participate in L-arginine metabolism. Although only 58% identical, the enzymes have been shown to be functionally interchangeable. Here we have purified AstC and have obtained X-ray crystal structures of apo and holo-AstC and of the enzyme complexed with its physiological substrate, succinylornithine. We compare the structures obtained in this study with those of ArgD from Salmonella typhimurium obtained elsewhere, finding several notable differences. Docking studies were used to explore the docking modes of several substrates (ornithine, succinylornithine and acetylornithine) and the co-substrate glutamate/?-ketogluterate. The docking studies support our observations that AstC has a strong preference for acylated ornithine species over ornithine itself, and suggest that the increase in specificity associated with acylation is caused by steric and desolvation effects rather than specific interactions between the substrate and enzyme.

Newman, Janet; Seabrook, Shane; Surjadi, Regina; Williams, Charlotte C.; Lucent, Del; Wilding, Matthew; Scott, Colin; Peat, Thomas S.

2013-01-01

67

Brugia malayi: Comparison of protective immune responses induced by Bm-alt-2 DNA, recombinant Bm-ALT-2 protein and prime-boost vaccine regimens in a jird model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunization of jirds with Bm-alt-2 elicited partial protection against challenge infection with the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. In this study, we initially compared the protective immune responses elicited following immunization with recombinant Bm-ALT-2 protein regimen and Bm-alt-2 DNA regimen. These studies showed that protein vaccination conferred approximately 75% protection compared to DNA vaccination that conferred only 57% protection. Analysis of

Sivasakthivel Thirugnanam; Pandurangan Pandiaraja; Kalyanasundaram Ramaswamy; Vadivel Murugan; Munirathinam Gnanasekar; Krithika Nandakumar; Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy; Perumal Kaliraj

2007-01-01

68

Flow reversal in the throat of the pump limiter ALT-II during high density conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been performed to measure the conductance for backstreaming particles in the throat of the pump limiter ALT-II on TEXTOR under different discharge conditions. The flow inside the throat is analysed by injecting a steady helium flux towards the neutralizer plate and by measuring the helium partial pressure. The amount of helium escaping into the plasma volume has been found to be strongly dependent on the local electron density and electron temperature. At low densities the backstreaming conductance corresponds to the classical value, at medium densities its value is reduced, whereas at the highest densities (>5*1018 m-3) an increasing flow of escaping helium is found. It is shown that a reversal of the plasma flow in the throat of ALT-II can be established by exposing one blade (the other 7 retracted) to high density discharges with additional heating

Mank, G.; Tokar, M. Z.; Finken, K. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Euringer, H.; Gray, D. S.; Grewe, T.; Reiter, D.

1994-12-01

69

Application of the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations to the three-alpha model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-alpha model of the12C nucleus is calculated by solving the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas (AGS) equations with effective cluster-cluster potentials directly derived from the resonating-group method and modified by the orthogonality-condition model or the fish-bone optical model techniques. Instead of using Kukulin's pseudo-potential projection method for the Pauliforbidden state, which is approximative but the only method used up to now, we introduce

S. Oryu; K. Samata; T. Suzuki; S. Nakamura; H. Kamada

1994-01-01

70

Poly(styrene- alt-maleic anhydride)-4-aminophenol conjugate: synthesis and antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) may be conveniently used as an intermediate in preparing functional polymers since active agents containing amino or hydroxy groups can be linked to it via ring-opening reaction. In this study, SMA was reacted with 4-aminophenol (AP) to obtain SMA–AP conjugate. The glass transition temperature (218°C) of the polymer was higher than that of SMA (202°C) due to

Jae-Hoon Jeong; Youn-Seop Byoun; Youn-Sik Lee

2002-01-01

71

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

72

ALT-II progress report and proposal, December 1989--December 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-11) is a joint international program among the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan to investigate the performance of a toroidal belt pump limiter in a tokamak, to investigate the behavior of the plasma edge, and to relate edge behavior to overall core energy and particle confinement. The experiments are carried out in the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany. The ALT-II experiment was installed in TEXTOR in 1987 with the objectives of optimizing plasma performance in a limiter tokamak, and of studying the physics of particle removal, density and impurity control, and confinement enhancement by a toroidal belt pump limiter. The ALT-II program addresses large area limiter tokamak operation issues by providing a program specifically directed toward plasma optimization and particle and impurity control by a toroidal belt limiter in a machine dedicated to the investigation of plasma-wall interactions. TEXTOR features the most advanced set of edge plasma diagnostics of any tokamak for the task of diagnosing and understanding the impact of the limiter on the plasma confinement and performance. With the addition of 3.4 MW of neutral beam injection heating (NBI) to the existing 4 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), TEXTOR also provides power densities equivalent to larger tokamaks.

Not Available

1989-12-31

73

[Combined split ALT/TFL flap for soft tissue coverage in large thoracical defects.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Large, ulcerating tumors of the chestwall require soft tissue coverage after resection. Depending on size and location usually a latissimus dorsi flap, VRAM or TRAM flap is performed. In very large defects a combined split ALT/TFL flap is a new technique for coverage. PATIENT AND METHODS: In 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) a soft tissue reconstruction after tumor resection was necessary. The mean age was 54 years. The mean size of the defect was 656 cm(2). RESULTS: In 3 cases the coverage was achieved by a unilateral, and in 1 case a bilateral combined split ALT/TFL flap. All flaps healed without flap loss. The donor site closure was achieved primarily in 2 cases. In 3 cases a small split skin graft was needed. CONCLUSION: The indications for combined split ALT/TFL flaps are large defects which cannot be covered by one single flap. The combination of these two long-known flaps on one pedicle is a new development. PMID:23784535

Pelzer, M; Germann, G; Czermak, C; Reichenberger, M

2013-06-21

74

ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision  

SciTech Connect

The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

1986-05-01

75

The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric DNA synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomerase-negative immortalized human cells maintain telomeres by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway(s), which may involve homologous recombination. We find that endogenous BLM protein co-localizes with telomeric foci in ALT human cells but not telomerase positive immortal cell lines or primary cells. BLM interacts in vivo with the telomeric protein TRF2 in ALT cells, as detected by FRET and co-immunoprecipitation.

Dimitrios J. Stavropoulos; Paul S. Bradshaw; Xiaobin Li; Ivan Pasic; Kevin Truong; Mitsuhiko Ikura; Mark Ungrin; M. Stephen Meyn

2002-01-01

76

The theory of superselection rules. I. A class of inequivalent, irreducible &ast;-representations of the canonical commutation relations of the free electromagnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We begin here the rigorous construction of new superselection sectors for the free quantum electromagnetic field by exhibiting a wide class of inequivalent irreducible &ast;-representations of the canonical commutation relations of the electromagnetic field. The &ast;-representations constructed here satisfy all the axioms of Haag and Kastler, except possibly Poincare´ covariance. In a forthcoming paper, the construction of the new superselection

G. O. S. Ekhaguere

1978-01-01

77

The 0.8 mm Spectral Line Survey toward Low-Mass Protostellar Cores with ASTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted spectral line surveys in the 345 GHz band with Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m dish toward two low mass class 0 protostars R CrA IRS7B and Serpens SMM4. For R CrA IRS7B, 16 molecular species and 16 isotopologues are identified. Strong emission of CN and CCH is observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. This result indicates that the hot corino activity as well as the WCCC activity is weak in R CrA IRS7B. Lindberg & Jørgensen (2012) suggested that UV radiation from the Herbig Be star R CrA significantly affects the chemical composition in R CrA IRS7B. Our results also support their conclusion. For Serpens SMM4, we identified 12 normal molecular species and 8 isotopologues. The chemical composition in Serpens SMM4 is similar to that found in hot corinos, although sulfur bearing species seem slightly deficient. These results illustrates the further chemical diversity in low-mass protostars.

Watanabe, Y.; Sakai, N.; Lindberg, J.; Jørgensen, J.; Bisschop, S.; Yamamoto, S.

2013-10-01

78

ASTE CO J = 3-2 SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

We present high-resolution CO J = 3-2 maps of the Galactic center region, taken with the ASTE 10 m telescope. We have collected approximately 30,000 spectra with a 34'' grid spacing. The mapping area is roughly -1.{sup 0}8 < l < +3.{sup 0}5 and -0.{sup 0}8 < b < +0.{sup 0}9, which includes the central molecular zone and Bania's Clump 2, covering almost the full extent of the molecular gas concentration in the Galactic center. These CO J = 3-2 images show a behavior similar to the CO J = 1-0 images with the same resolution. Molecular gas in the Galactic center shows a higher J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratio ({approx}0.7) than the gas in the spiral arms in the Galactic disk ({approx}0.4). The CO J = 3-2/CO J = 1-0 luminosity ratio is 0.71. We see several regions with very high J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratios exceeding 1.5, including the Sgr A, l = +1.{sup 0}3, l = -0.{sup 0}4, and l = -1.{sup 0}2 regions. A number of small spots of high ratio gas are also found. Many of them have large velocity widths, indicating that they are spots of hot molecular gas shocked by unidentified supernovae and/or winds from massive stars.

Oka, Tomoharu; Onodera, Yui; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Makoto [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kamegai, Kazuhisa, E-mail: tomo@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Industrial Administration, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

2012-08-01

79

Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

2013-01-01

80

The ASTE Galactic Center Survey in the 350 and 500 GHz Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic central molecular zone (CMZ) provides us with a unique opportunity to study the properties of the molecular clouds in the extreme environment of the central region of a galaxy. We present the HCN J=4-3 and [CI] 3P1-3P0 data taken with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The HCN J = 4-3 line is a tracer of very high density (˜ 106 cm-3) region. Bright HCN emission is detected toward several compact clumps with very large velocity width (80-100 km s-1) without apparent energy sources. We have also found two large molecular shells near the Sgr C complex in the HCN map. The [CI] forbidden line from atomic carbon (Cn) traces molecular gas in different conditions than that traced by CO lines. We have discovered a large molecular cloud structure unseen in CO maps, at a distance of 5 pc from the Galactic nucleus. This [CI] cloud may be a site of accumulation of infalling material from outer region, or a cloud exposed to high cosmic-ray or X-ray flux.

Tanaka, K.; Oka, T.; Matsumura, S.; Kamegai, K.; Nagai, M.

2013-10-01

81

Factors Associated with Elevated ALT in an International HIV/HBV Co-Infected Cohort on Long-Term HAART  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group. Methods/Principal findings To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (?2.5×ULN) at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4–13.3) years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%), with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p<0.05) included history of AIDS, HBV DNA ?2,000 IU/ml, HBeAg positive, study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml and nadir CD4 <200 cells/ml. In the multivariate analysis, only study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.04–4.11, p?=?0.04) and HBeAg positive status (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.03–4.79, p?=?0.04) were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusions In this HIV-HBV co-infected cohort, elevated ALT after >1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations.

Audsley, Jennifer; Seaberg, Eric C.; Sasadeusz, Joe; Matthews, Gail V.; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Fairley, Kit; Finlayson, Robert; Hwang, Hyon S.; Littlejohn, Margaret; Locarnini, Stephen; Dore, Gregory J.; Thio, Chloe L.; Lewin, Sharon R.

2011-01-01

82

Effects of reconstitution of telomerase activity on telomere maintenance by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomere length maintenance is essential for cellular immortalization, and thus tumorigenesis. Most human tumors and immortal cell lines maintain their telomeric DNA via the activity of a specialized reverse tran- scriptase, telomerase. Stabilization of telomeric repeat tracts may also be achieved through a telomerase-inde- pendent mechanism, referred to as alternative length- ening of telomeres (ALT). ALT cells are telomerase negative

Jennifer V. Grobelny; Michelle Kulp-McEliece; Dominique Broccoli

2001-01-01

83

Abinitio evaluation of the fine structure and radiative lifetime of the 3A2(n??&ast;) state of formaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spin–orbit contribution to the zero-field splitting (ZFS) in the CH2O 3A2(n??&ast;) state is evaluated using the full Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian. All calculations are carried out at the planar ground state geometry using a double-zeta plus polarization basis of contracted Gaussian-lobe functions augmented with diffuse s and p functions. Configuration–interaction wavefunctions, constructed using the 3A2 canonical orbitals, are used to describe

Stephen R. Langhoff

1976-01-01

84

AST1306, A Novel Irreversible Inhibitor of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 1 and 2, Exhibits Antitumor Activity Both In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Despite the initial response to the reversible, ATP-competitive quinazoline inhibitors that target ErbB-family, such a subset of cancer patients almost invariably develop resistance. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that irreversible ErbB inhibitors have the potential to override this resistance. Here, we found that AST1306, a novel anilino-quinazoline compound, inhibited the enzymatic activities of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 as well as EGFR resistant mutant in both cell-free and cell-based systems. Importantly, AST1306 functions as an irreversible inhibitor, most likely through covalent interaction with Cys797 and Cys805 in the catalytic domains of EGFR and ErbB2, respectively. Further studies showed that AST1306 inactivated pathways downstream of these receptors and thereby inhibited the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Although the activities of EGFR and ErbB2 were similarly sensitive to AST1306, ErbB2-overexpressing cell lines consistently exhibited more sensitivity to AST1306 antiproliferative effects. Consistent with this, knockdown of ErbB2, but not EGFR, decreased the sensitivity of SK-OV-3 cells to AST1306. In vivo, AST1306 potently suppressed tumor growth in ErbB2-overexpressing adenocarcinoma xenograft and FVB-2/Nneu transgenic breast cancer mouse models, but weakly inhibited the growth of EGFR-overexpressing tumor xenografts. Tumor growth inhibition induced by a single dose of AST1306 in the SK-OV-3 xenograft model was accompanied by a rapid (within 2 h) and sustained (?24 h) inhibition of both EGFR and ErbB2, consistent with an irreversible inhibition mechanism. Taken together, these results establish AST1306 as a selective, irreversible ErbB2 and EGFR inhibitor whose growth-inhibitory effects are more potent in ErbB2-overexpressing cells.

Tong, Linjiang; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Zhuo; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ren, Xiaowei; Qu, Wenchao; Yang, Yang; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yi; Zuo, Jianping; Jiang, Hualiang; Geng, Meiyu; Ding, Jian

2011-01-01

85

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

1994-05-17

86

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1994-05-17

87

Annealing improves tribological property of poly(octadecene- alt -maleic anhydride) self-assembled film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A poly(octadecene- alt-maleic anhydride) (POMA) film was covalently immobilized on N-[3-(trimethoxylsilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine self-assembled monolayer modified silicon surface. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the chemical bonding. Water contact angles and ellipsometric thicknesses were measured before and after annealing treatment. Atomic force microscopy was applied for top morphology, surface adhesion force and friction force. Anti-wear properties of the films were also evaluated on a ball-on-plate tribometer. It was found that annealing treatment which would evoke a conformation transform thermodynamically, was a critical step in the preparation of anti-wear films, especially for polymer ones. The correlation between structure and tribological property was revealed, which has profound meaning in designing excellent anti-wear nano-coatings used in microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS).

Song, Shiyong; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Junyan

2011-09-01

88

A Large Population Histology Study Showing the Lack of Association between ALT Elevation and Significant Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Objective We determined the association between various clinical parameters and significant liver injury in both hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. Methods From 1994 to 2008, liver biopsy was performed on 319 treatment-naïve CHB patients. Histologic assessment was based on the Knodell histologic activity index for necroinflammation and the Ishak fibrosis staging for fibrosis. Results 211 HBeAg-positive and 108 HBeAg-negative patients were recruited, with a median age of 31 and 46 years respectively. 9 out of 40 (22.5%) HBeAg-positive patients with normal ALT had significant histologic abnormalities (necroinflammation grading ?7 or fibrosis score ?3). There was a significant difference in fibrosis scores among HBeAg-positive patients with an ALT level within the Prati criteria (30 U/L for men, 19 U/L for women) and patients with a normal ALT but exceeding the Prati criteria (p?=?0.024). Age, aspartate aminotransferase and platelet count were independent predictors of significant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients with an elevated ALT by multivariate analysis (p?=?0.007, 0.047 and 0.045 respectively). HBV DNA and platelet count were predictors of significant fibrosis in HBeAg-negative disease (p?=?0.020 and 0.015 respectively). An elevated ALT was not predictive of significant fibrosis for HBeAg-positive (p?=?0.345) and -negative (p?=?0.544) disease. There was no significant difference in fibrosis staging among ALT 1–2×upper limit of normal (ULN) and >×2 ULN for both HBeAg-positive (p?=?0.098) and -negative (p?=?0.838) disease. Conclusion An elevated ALT does not accurately predict significant liver injury. Decisions on commencing antiviral therapy should not be heavily based on a particular ALT threshold.

Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Ip, Philip P. C.; Fung, James; Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Yuen, John Chi-Hang; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngai; Yuen, Man-Fung

2012-01-01

89

AltAnalyze and DomainGraph: analyzing and visualizing exon expression data  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for increasing protein diversity. However, its functional effects are largely unknown. Here, we present our new software workflow composed of the open-source application AltAnalyze and the Cytoscape plugin DomainGraph. Both programs provide an intuitive and comprehensive end-to-end solution for the analysis and visualization of alternative splicing data from Affymetrix Exon and Gene Arrays at the level of proteins, domains, microRNA binding sites, molecular interactions and pathways. Our software tools include easy-to-use graphical user interfaces, rigorous statistical methods (FIRMA, MiDAS and DABG filtering) and do not require prior knowledge of exon array analysis or programming. They provide new methods for automatic interpretation and visualization of the effects of alternative exon inclusion on protein domain composition and microRNA binding sites. These data can be visualized together with affected pathways and gene or protein interaction networks, allowing a straightforward identification of potential biological effects due to alternative splicing at different levels of granularity. Our programs are available at http://www.altanalyze.org and http://www.domaingraph.de. These websites also include extensive documentation, tutorials and sample data.

Emig, Dorothea; Salomonis, Nathan; Lengauer, Thomas; Conklin, Bruce R.; Albrecht, Mario

2010-01-01

90

The mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases Alt and ModB of bacteriophage T4: target proteins identified.  

PubMed

Infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T4 leads to the expression of three phage mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases (namely, Alt, ModA, and ModB), each of which modifies a distinct group of host proteins. To improve understanding of these interactions and their consequences for the T4 replication cycle, we used high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass-spectrometry to identify some of the putative target proteins ADP-ribosylated in vitro by Alt (total approximately 27) and ModB (total approximately 8). E. coli trigger factor and the elongation factor EF-Tu were 2 targets of ModB action, and these proteins were among the 10 identified as targets of Alt, hinting that these factors are involved in phage replication. PMID:16112649

Depping, Reinhard; Lohaus, Christiane; Meyer, Helmut E; Rüger, Wolfgang

2005-10-01

91

The 0.9 and 1.3 THz Superconducting HEB Mixer Receiver for the ASTE 10 m Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed low-noise waveguide-type superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers for astronomical observations in the 0.8-1.0 and 1.3-1.5 THz bands, by using a relatively thick NbTiN superconducting film (10.8 nm). The receiver noise temperature of 350 K (DSB) at 0.81 THz and 490 K at 1.475 THz has been achieved. We have built the 0.8-1.0/1.3-1.5 THz dual band heterodyne receiver using these low noise HEB mixers, and have installed it on the ASTE (Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment) 10 m telescope in Chile in 2011. The 13CO emission (J = 8–7 : 0.8813 THz) has successfully been detected toward the Orion A molecular cloud with our HEB mixer receiver.

Shiino, T.; Furuya, R.; Soma, T.; Sakai, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Sakai, N.; Jiang, L.; Ohguchi, O.; Maezawa, H.; Yamakura, T.; Yamamoto, S.

2013-10-01

92

Detection of an ultrabright submillimetre galaxy in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC/ASTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the detection of an extremely bright (˜37 mJy at 1100 ?m and ˜91 mJy at 880 ?m) submillimetre galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001 or Orochi), discovered in the 1100 ?m observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300-?m and SMA 880-?m observations successfully pinpoint the location of Orochi and suggest that it has two components, one extended [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ˜4 arcsec] and one compact (unresolved). Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide-band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines were found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1-0.3 (2?) across the Z-Spec band. Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that Orochi is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at z ˜ 3.4 behind a foreground, optically visible (but red) galaxy at z ˜ 1.4. The deduced apparent (i.e., no correction for magnification) infrared luminosity (LIR) and star formation rate (SFR) are 6 × 1013 L? and 11 000 M? yr-1, respectively, assuming that the LIR is dominated by star formation. These values suggest that Orochi will consume its gas reservoir within a short time-scale (3 × 107 yr), which is indeed comparable to those in extreme starbursts like the centres of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs).

Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Austermann, J. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Earle, L.; Ezawa, H.; Furusawa, H.; Furusawa, J.; Glenn, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Iono, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Johnson, S.; Kamenetzky, J.; Kawabe, R.; Lupu, R.; Maloney, P.; Matsuhara, H.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Motohara, K.; Murphy, E. J.; Nakajima, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Naylor, B. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; Perera, T. A.; Scott, K. S.; Shimasaku, K.; Takagi, T.; Takata, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tsukagoshi, T.; Wilner, D. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2011-08-01

93

Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE  

SciTech Connect

We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Masaaki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan (China); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [Institute of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); Saito, Masao [ALMA Project Office, NAOJ (Japan)

2009-08-05

94

Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: A system with starlike morphology and interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an experimental study of single particle properties and interactions of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) starlike micelles. The starlike regime is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20) and the number of arms (functionality) is changed by varying the composition of the solvent (the interfacial tension). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data in the dilute regime can be

M. Laurati; J. Stellbrink; R. Lund; L. Willner; D. Richter; E. Zaccarelli

2007-01-01

95

Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the regions of L’Alt Empordà and Les Guilleries (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in two regions (L’Alt Empordà and Les Guilleries), situated in North East Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), with an approximate area of 800 km2 and a population of 68?000. Through interviews with 73 people, data was obtained on the medicinal uses of 220 species. The most important findings are presented here concerning the ethnopharmacology of those

M. Àngels Bonet; Montserrat Parada; Anna Selga; Joan Vallès

1999-01-01

96

Isolation and Expression of a cDNA Clone Encoding an Alternaria alternata Alt a 1 Subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important source of fungal aeroallergens. Alt a 1, the major allergen of this mold, is a dimer of disulfide-linked sub-units that migrate in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions at apparent Ms of 14,500 and 16,000. IgE antibodies to this protein are present in the sera of > 90% of A. alternata-sensitive individuals. Previous studies from

Michael W. De Vouge; Ajay J. Thaker; Ivan H. A. Curran; Lei Zhang; Gauri Muradia; Harold Rode; Hari M. Vijay

1996-01-01

97

Evolució recent del paisatge agrari de l'Alt Empordà a través de la teledetecció i d'índexs paisatgístics  

Microsoft Academic Search

En l'article es presenta el mètode emprat i els resultats obtinguts en l'evolució de les cobertes i usos del sòl extretes d'imatges satèl·lit de vint-i-un municipis de l'Alt Empordà. En concret s'ha quantificat com han evolucionat des del 1977 al 1997 pel que fa a la fragmentació o compactació a través de diversos índexs emprats en l'Ecologia del Paisatge. Els

Xavier Pons i Fernández; Pere Serra; David Saurí i Pujol

2005-01-01

98

Production and single-step purification of Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) using hydrophobic interaction chromatography.  

PubMed

Abundant larval transcript (ALT), a novel filarial protein, has been shown to have great potential as a vaccine in the prevention of human lymphatic filariasis. In this study, we report a method for the production of recombinant ALT-2 protein, expressed in the cytoplasm of bacterium Escherichia coli in soluble form and purification in a single step using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). Fermentation was done by continuous fed-batch methodology with dissolved oxygen (DO)-controlled feed addition. The culture was induced with 1 mM isopropyl-?-D: -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Up to 9 g/l dry cell weight (DCW) of biomass was obtained from 1.6 l of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth in a bench-scale reactor. Around 200 mg/l of purified ALT-2 with a yield of about 60% was obtained. This is almost a 2.5-fold increase in final protein yield compared to purification using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). PMID:20593300

Bhuvanesh, Surianarayanan; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthi; Kaliraj, Perumal; Ramalingam, Subramanian

2010-07-01

99

Cooperative Enzyme Experiment - AST.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Center for Disease Control (CDC), the New York State Department of Health, the College of American Pathologists, and 23 manufacturers of diagnostic products participated in an interlaboratory study to examine aspartate aminotransferase methodologies. ...

C. A. Burtis E. J. Sampson D. D. Bayse S. S. McKneally V. S. Whitner

1978-01-01

100

Assessing Racial Profiling &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I consider the evaluation of racial profiling in traffic stops from a combination of welfarist and non-welfarist considerations. I argue that benefits from profiling in terms of crime reduction have not been identified and that further, the harm to those who are innocent and stopped is potentially high. I then argue that profiling creates a clear injustice

Steven N. Durlauf

2006-01-01

101

Underground Gun Markets &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

2007-01-01

102

Trade and Empire &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a new database of over 21,000 bilateral trade observations from 1870–1913 to assess the contemporaneous effects of empire on trade. Our analysis shows that belonging to an empire roughly doubled trade relative to those countries that were not part of an empire. The use of a common language, the establishment of currency unions, the monetisation of recently acquired

Kris James Mitchener; Marc Weidenmier

2008-01-01

103

Rotational energy transfer in Na&ast;2 (A ?) colliding with Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, H2, CH4, and N2: Experiment and fitting laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the method of laser-induced fluorescence, we have measured level to level rate constants for rotational energy transfer (RET) in Na&ast;2 colliding with Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, H2, N2, and CH4. For each target gas we varied the initial rotational quantum number ji over a wide range, typically 4–100, and measured approximately 60 rate constants with an average error

Timothy A. Brunner; Neil Smith; Allan W. Karp; David E. Pritchard

1981-01-01

104

Proteomic Analysis of Rat Plasma by SELDI-TOF-MS under the Condition of Prevention of Progressive Adriamycin Nephropathy Using Oral Adsorbent AST120  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine changes in relative peak intensities of mass-to-charge ratio (m\\/z) between 2,000 and 15,000, which are difficult to evaluate by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, SELDI-TOF-MS (surface-enhanced laser desorption\\/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry) proteomic changes in rat models of adriamycin nephropathy with or without AST-120 were investigated. Methods: A normal group (n = 5), an adriamycin nephropathy group (n =

Isao Ishikawa; Tomoyuki Hayama; Sachiko Yoshida; Mitsuhiro Asaka; Naohisa Tomosugi; Masataka Watanabe; Hideyuki Yamato; Mikio Sugano

2006-01-01

105

Nonadiabaticity and the competition between alpha and beta bond fission upon 1[n,?&ast;(C=O)] excitation in acetyl- and bromoacetyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates how molecular dissociation induced by local 1[n(O),?&ast;(C=O)] electronic excitation at a carbonyl functional group can result in preferential fission of an alpha bond over a weaker bond beta to the functional group and how nonadiabaticity in the dynamics drives the selectivity. The experiment measures the photofragment velocity and angular distributions from the photodissociation of acetyl chloride and

M. D. Person; P. W. Kash; L. J. Butler

1992-01-01

106

A useful ELISA system for human liver-type arginase, and its utility in diagnosis of liver diseases 1 1 Abbreviations used: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS-PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To develop a new ELISA system for liver-type arginase using monoclonal antibodies against the enzyme, and to verify the utility of the arginase in diagnosis of hepatic disorders.Design and Methods: We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using two kinds of monoclonal antibodies (Mo6G3 and Mo9C5) for human liver-type arginase as the first and second antibodies respectively. We

Masaki Ikemoto; Shoji Tsunekawa; Masaaki Awane; Yoshihiro Fukuda; Hiroshi Murayama; Makoto Igarashi; Atsuo Nagata; Yasunari Kasai; Masayuki Totani

2001-01-01

107

Crystal Structure of N-succinylarginine Dihydrolase AstB, Bound to Substrate and Product, an Enzyme from the Arginine Catabolic Pathway of Escherichia Coli  

SciTech Connect

The ammonia-producing arginine succinyltransferase pathway is the major pathway in Escherichia coli and related bacteria for arginine catabolism as a sole nitrogen source. This pathway consists of five steps, each catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, the second enzyme of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway, providing the first structural insight into enzymes from this pathway. The enzyme exhibits a pseudo 5-fold symmetric {alpha}/{beta} propeller fold of circularly arranged {beta}{beta}{alpha}{beta} modules enclosing the active site. The crystal structure indicates clearly that this enzyme belongs to the amidinotransferase (AT) superfamily and that the active site contains a Cys-His-Glu triad characteristic of the AT superfamily. Structures of the complexes of AstB with the reaction product and a C365S mutant with bound the N-succinylarginine substrate suggest a catalytic mechanism that consists of two cycles of hydrolysis and ammonia release, with each cycle utilizing a mechanism similar to that proposed for arginine deiminases. Like other members of the AT superfamily of enzymes, AstB possesses a flexible loop that is disordered in the absence of substrate and assumes an ordered conformation upon substrate binding, shielding the ligand from the bulk solvent, thereby controlling substrate access and product release.

Tocilj,A.; Schrag, J.; Li, Y.; Schneider, B.; Reitzer, L.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.

2005-01-01

108

Alt n Aral k  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exams with a set pass mark borderline grades are considered failures. Statistically, however, it cannot be said that those grades on or around either slightly above or slightly below the pass mark belong to different populations. Classifying people according to such grades alone may, therefore, result in unfair treatment. This becomes more significant where unfair treatment is already prevalent.

Kaan YARALIO LU

2003-01-01

109

Electrospun microfibrous poly(styrene- alt-maleic anhydride)\\/poly(styrene- co-maleic anhydride) mats tailored for enzymatic remediation of waters polluted by endocrine disruptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel bicomponent microfibrous mats containing targeted amount of reactive maleic anhydride groups were prepared by electrospinning of mixed solutions of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) and poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride). Then, amino-functionalized P(St-alt-MA)\\/P(St-co-MA) mats were obtained by reaction with p-phenylenediamine. ATR-FTIR and XPS spectroscopy were used to characterize pristine and modified P(St-alt-MA)\\/P(St-co-MA) mats. On the next step, laccase from Trametes versicolor was covalently attached onto

M. Ignatova; O. Stoilova; N. Manolova; D. G. Mita; N. Diano; C. Nicolucci; I. Rashkov

2009-01-01

110

The exogenous opioid peptides and DPPIV serum activity in infants with apnoea expressed as apparent life threatening events (ALTE).  

PubMed

Casein-derived peptides have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, we have determined the content of bovine ?-casomorphin-7 (bBCM-7) and the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) in sera of infants with apparent life threatening events (ALTE syndromes, 'near miss SIDS'). We have found that the sera of some infants after an apnoea event contained more ?-casomorphin-7 than that of the healthy infants in the same age. In all the children after an apnoea event, however, a lowered DPPIV was detected. We suspect that the low activity of that peptidase may be responsible for opioid-induced respiratory depression, induced by bBCM-7 in the general circulation. PMID:21334743

Wasilewska, Jolanta; Sienkiewicz-Sz?apka, Edyta; Ku?bida, Ewa; Jarmo?owska, Beata; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kostyra, El?bieta

2011-02-21

111

Diluted Blood Reperfusion as a Model for Transplantation of Ischemic Rat Livers: ALT is a Direct Indicator of Viability  

PubMed Central

Donors after Cardiac Death present a significant pool of untapped organs for transplantation, and use of machine perfusion strategies has been an active focus area in experimental transplantation. However, despite two decades of research, a gold standard is yet to emerge for machine perfusion systems and protocols. Whole blood reperfusion has been used as a surrogate for organ transplantation, especially as a model for the short-term response post transplantation, for optimization of perfusion systems. While it is known that there is a strong correlation between liver function in whole-blood reperfusion and survival, the exact nature of these correlations, and to what extent they can be considered as an indicator of viability for transplantation/recipient survival, remain unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that diluted whole-blood reperfusion can be used as a direct model for transplantation of ischemic rat liver grafts. Moreover, it was shown that recipient survival can be predicted based simply on the value of ALT during perfusion, and quantitative criteria of viability was developed for use in this animal model. These results indicate that in the rat model graft survival is highly correlated to hepatocellular damage.

Uygun, Korkut; Tolboom, Herman; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Basak; Sharma, Nripen; Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Hertl, Martin; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L.

2010-01-01

112

Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

1983-07-01

113

The AGE-Breaker ALT-711 Restores High Blood Flow-Dependent Remodeling in Mesenteric Resistance Arteries in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide–dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711–treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711–treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes.

Freidja, Mohamed L.; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Celine; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

2012-01-01

114

Nonterminating alternating copolymerization of ethene with carbon monoxide and the synthesis of graft polymers with alt-ethene-carbon monoxide blocks  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a well-defined palladium(II) system that operates in aprotic solvents at ambient temperature to generate E-CO copolymers without chain termination. Furthermore, for the first time, it becomes possible to synthesize graft polymers with alt-E-CO blocks. It has been demonstrated for the first time (a) the nonterminating alternating copolymerization of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} with CO and (b) a procedure for the synthesis of graft polymers with alt-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-CO blocks. Results show that alt-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-CO blocks can be grafted on to any carboxy-terminated polymer. 16 refs., 1 fig.

Kacker, S.; Sen, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-10-25

115

Lack of clinical and histological progression of chronic hepatitis C in individuals with true persistently normal ALT: the result of a 17-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Thirty to 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C have persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT). Even though traditionally considered as healthy people, most PNALT carriers actually have some degree of clinical progression and histological liver damage. We evaluated the clinical and histological outcome of a 17-year follow-up on a cohort of patients with chronic HCV infection and PNALT. Between 1994 and 2011, 70 PNALTs and 55 Hyper-alanine aminotransferase (ALT) subjects underwent a clinical, biochemical, virological and histological follow-up. At the end of the follow-up, all patients were alive. In the PNALT group, none of the patients developed hepatic decompensation, while 14.5% of Hyper-ALTs were diagnosed as affected by decompensated cirrhosis. No significant variation of the Metavir grading and staging scores was observed among PNALTs by comparing pre- and post-follow-up liver specimens. On the contrary, a significant increase in both Metavir grading and staging scores was noticed within the Hyper-ALT group. Finally, the analysis of IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 revealed no difference between Hyper-ALTs and PNALTs in terms of frequency of C/C genotype. In conclusion, progression of chronic hepatitis C among PNALTs is slow or even absent, because at the end of the 17-year follow-up histological and clinical parameters had not worsened significantly. PMID:23490382

Nunnari, G; Pinzone, M R; Cacopardo, B

2012-12-05

116

Laser induced fluorescence spectra and carbonyl wagging potential energy functions for the S1(n,?&ast;) excited states of tetrahydrofuran-3-one and tetrahydrothiophen-3-one: Correlation between inversion barrier and angle strain for cyclic ketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jet-cooled fluorescence excitation spectra of the S1(n,?&ast;) states of tetrahydrofuran-3-one, CH2OCH2CH2C&dblbnd;O, and tetrahydrothiophen-3-one, CH2SCH2CH2C=O, have been recorded and analyzed. The carbonyl inversion bands, which arise from double-minimum potential energy functions in the excited states, were fit with functions of the form V=ax4?bx2 or V=cx2+d exp(?fx2). The furanone was found to have an inversion barrier in the S1(n,?&ast;) state of

Paul A. Sagear; S. N. Lee; Jaan Laane

1997-01-01

117

Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIdentification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening.DesignWe prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care

Helmi MKada; Hugo Perazzo; Mona Munteanu; Yen Ngo; Nittia Ramanujam; Bruno Fautrel; Françoise Imbert-Bismut; Vlad Ratziu; Ina Schuppe-Koistinen; Véronique Leblond; Jean Yves Delattre; Yves Samson; Olivier Lyon Caen; François Bricaire; David Khayat; Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny; Serge Herson; Zahir Amoura; Patrick Tilleul; Olivier Deckmyn; Pierre Coriat; Vincent Nicolas Delpech; Philippe Boulogne; Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot; Thierry Poynard

2012-01-01

118

Photoinduced electron transfer and nonlinear absorption in poly(carbazole-alt-2,7-fluorene)s bearing perylene diimides as pendant acceptors.  

PubMed

This paper reports the synthesis, photophysical behavior, and use in nanosecond optical-pulse suppression of a poly(2,7-carbazole-alt-2,7-fluorene) and a poly(3,6-carbazole-alt-2,7-fluorene) in which the carbazole N-positions are linked by an alkyl chain to one of the nitrogen atoms of a perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) acceptor. It was found that the PDI pendants on the polymer side chain aggregated even in dilute solution, which extended the onset of PDI absorption into the near-infrared (NIR). Transient-absorption spectra of these polymers provide evidence for efficient electron transfer following either donor or acceptor photoexcitation to form long-lived charge-separated species, which exhibit strong absorption in the NIR. The spectral overlap between the transient species and the long-wavelength absorption edge of the aggregated PDI leads to reverse saturable absorption at 680 nm that can be used for optical-pulse suppression. Additionally, at high input energies, two-photon absorption mechanisms may also contribute to the suppression. PDI-grafted polymers exhibit enhanced optical-pulse suppression compared with blends of model materials composed of unfunctionalized poly(carbazole-alt-2,7-fluorene)s and PDI small molecules. PMID:22533861

Huang, Chun; Sartin, Matthew M; Cozzuol, Matteo; Siegel, Nisan; Barlow, Stephen; Perry, Joseph W; Marder, Seth R

2012-04-25

119

Distribution of the HLA class I allele in chronic hepatitis C and its association with serum ALT level in chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed

An essential process for resolution of viral infections is the efficient recognition and elimination of intracellular virus. Recognition of viral antigens in the form of short peptides associated with HLA class I molecule is a major task of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency of the HLA class I alleles in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HLA-B51, -B52, -B55, -B56, -B61, B70, -Cw1, -Cw3, and -Cw4 are less frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in Japanese individuals. The frequency of HLA-A2 is slightly lower in the patients but tends to be higher in patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level than in those with elevated ALT level (p = 0.07). Other HLA alleles are not significantly different between two groups. Comparison of HLA homozygosity at HLA-A and -B or -C or at two or three loci did not show a significant association with levels of serum ALT or with the clinical outcome of interferon therapy in patients with hepatitis C. These results suggest a possibility that the alterations of host response, which depends on genetic background, influence disease activities of HCV infection. PMID:14626512

Kondo, Yasuteru; Kobayashi, Koju; Kobayashi, Tomoo; Shiina, Masaaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Satoh, Takaomi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2003-10-01

120

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories.

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

121

Cross sections and ALT="beta" /> values for ligand-field-split Br 3d orbitals in HBr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ligand field in HBr results in the splitting of the Br 3d orbitals into the 3dicons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (dx2-y2, dxy), 3dicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (dxz, dyz), and 3dicons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (dz2) orbitals. In core ionized HBr, the stronger spin-orbit splitting removes the remaining degeneracies and results in five different Br 3d eigenstates from linear combinations of the 3dicons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>, 3dicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>, and 3dicons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> orbitals. In high-resolution Br 3d photoelectron spectra, as presented in this work, these five peaks are resolved. The photoelectron cross sections and icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> values for the different d orbitals have been studied from 5 to 25 eV above threshold. The relative intensities for the different 3d orbitals are quite different at different analysis angles, showing that the icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> values are different. Multiple-scattering-Xicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> calculations give results in semiquantitative agreement with experiment.

Hu, Y. F.; Liu, Z. F.; Püttner, R.; Bancroft, G. M.; Aksela, S.

1999-08-01

122

Close linkage of a blast resistance gene, Pias(t), with a bacterial leaf blight resistance gene, Xa1-as(t), in a rice cultivar 'Asominori'  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that a bacterial leaf blight-resistant line in rice obtained from a crossing using ‘Asominori’ as a resistant parent also has resistance to blast, but a blast resistance gene in ‘Asominori’ has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, a blast resistance gene in ‘Asominori’, tentatively named Pias(t), was revealed to be located within 162-kb region between DNA markers YX4-3 and NX4-1 on chromosome 4 and to be linked with an ‘Asominori’ allele of the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa1, tentatively named Xa1-as(t). An ‘Asominori’ allele of Pias(t) was found to be dominant and difference of disease severity between lines having the ‘Asominori’ allele of Pias(t) and those without it was 1.2 in disease index from 0 to 10. Pias(t) was also closely linked with the Ph gene controlling phenol reaction, suggesting the possibility of successful selection of blast resistance using the phenol reaction. Since blast-resistant commercial cultivars have been developed using ‘Asominori’ as a parent, Pias(t) is considered to be a useful gene in rice breeding for blast resistance.

Endo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kaji, Ryota; Nakagomi, Koji; Kataoka, Tomomori; Yokogami, Narifumi; Nakamura, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Goro; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Nishio, Takeshi

2012-01-01

123

Interface formation between the Al electrode and poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)- co-alt-2,5-(decylthiophene)] (PFT) investigated in situ by XPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of thermally evaporated aluminium with spin-casted film of poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-2,5-(decylthiophene)] (PFT), a novel blue light-emitting copolymer, were studied in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes in the C 1s, S 2p, O 1s and Al 2p core-level spectra, with the progressive deposition of aluminium, were carefully monitored. Aluminium was found to interact extensively with the bulk-adsorbed oxygen

Q. D Ling; S Li; E. T Kang; K. G Neoh; B Liu; Wei Huang

2002-01-01

124

Technology Shocks and Employment &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical work has suggested that in response to a positive technology shock employment shows a persistent decline. We show that the standard, open economy, flexible price model can generate a negative response of employment to a positive technology shock and can also match the negative conditional correlation between productivity and employment quite well if trade elasticities are low. While

Fabrice Collard; Harris Dellas

2007-01-01

125

Equilibrium in the Jungle &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the jungle, power and coercion govern the exchange of resources. We study a simple, stylised model of the jungle that mirrors an exchange economy. We define the notion of jungle equilibrium and demonstrate that a number of standard results of competitive markets hold in the jungle.

Michele Piccione; Ariel Rubinstein

2007-01-01

126

Trade restrictiveness and efficiency &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a trade restrictiveness quantity index (TRQI) to measure the welfare impact of trade restrictions based on a distance functions approach. The TRQI embodies two Farrell measures of efficiency—respectively for producers and consumers—that can be computed using standard efficiency measurement techniques. The TRQI can also be decomposed into a trade distortion and domestic distortion component. In the context

Nancy H. Chau; Rolf Färe; Shawna Grosskopf

2003-01-01

127

Has Globalization Increased Inequality? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThere is no shortage of theories that purport to explain why globalization may have adverse, insignificant, or even beneficial effects on income and earnings inequality. Surprisingly, the empirical realities remain an almost complete mystery. In this paper, we use data on industrial wage inequality, household income inequality as well as measures of the economic, social and political dimensions of globalization

Axel Dreher; Noel Gaston

2008-01-01

128

CUSTOMER POACHING AND ADVERTISING &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a first look at the dynamic effects of customer poaching in homogeneous product markets, where firms need to invest in advertising to generate awareness. When a firm is able to recognize customers with different purchasing histories, it may send them targeted advertisements with different prices. It is shown that only the firm which advertises the highest price

ROSA BRANCA ESTEVES

2009-01-01

129

One Measure of Segregation &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the problem of deriving a numerical measure of segregation, i.e., a measure of inequality in the distribution of people across groups. It proposes a list of eight desirable properties for a good numerical measure of segregation. These properties yield a class of segregation indexes that are related to generalized entropy indexes of income inequality. Moreover, one and

Robert Hutchens

2004-01-01

130

Brominated VSLSs in and over the East Pacific During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific Cruise (HalocAST-P)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2), and dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) can potentially supply a significant amount of inorganic bromine (Bry) to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Bromine radicals are 50 - 100 times more efficient in depleting ozone (O3) than chlorine radicals; therefore, these compounds are important to the ozone chemistry in the atmosphere. CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2 and CHBrCl2 are thought to be produced mainly by phytoplankton in the open ocean. During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific (HalocAST - P) cruise we examined the distributions of halocarbons in the East Pacific Ocean and in the overlying atmosphere. The cruise started from Punta Arenas, Chile on March 29, and finished at Seattle, WA, United States on April 29 2010. Continuous underway measurements of the atmospheric and surface seawater concentrations along with depth profiles of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and a suite of other halogenated compounds were measured over a large cross latitudinal transect. The brominated VSLS measured during this cruise generally exhibit a correlation with chlorophyll a, supporting biogenic production as the predominate source for these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we will be discussing air and seawater concentrations, saturation anomalies, fluxes, and depth profiles for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2. Cyanobacteria counts, pigment compositions, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the water column were also measured and serve as useful tools for understanding the biological production of these brominated VSLSs.

Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Smith, R. W.; Shen, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.

2010-12-01

131

The F-box protein ?-TrCP promotes ubiquitination of TRF1 and regulates the ALT-associated PML bodies formation in U2OS cells.  

PubMed

The telomeric repeat binding protein 1 (TRF1) is a major factor of the mammalian telosome/shelterin and negatively regulates telomere length by inhibiting access of telomerase at telomere termini in telomerase-positive cells. In telomerase-negative cancer cells, TRF1 also plays a critical role in the mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) and is essential for formation of the ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs). It was reported that TRF1 can be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, involving in two regulation factors, Fbx4 and RLIM. Here, we reported that ?-TrCP1, a member of the F-box family protein with ubiquitin ligase activity, is a novel TRF1-associating protein. ?-TrCP1 interacts with TRF1 in vivo and in vitro and promotes its ubiquitination. Overexpression of ?-TrCP1 reduces endogenous TRF1 protein levels, while inhibition of ?-TrCP1 by siRNA stabilizes TRF1. Moreover, we found that ?-TrCP1 is essential for regulation of promyelocytic leukemia body recruitment of TRF1 in U2OS cells. These results reveal that ?-TrCP1 is involved in the negative regulation of TRF1 and represents a new pathway for APB formation in telomerase-negative cells. PMID:23583392

Wang, Chong; Xiao, Haowen; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jian; Sun, Ling; Sun, Hui; Liu, Yanfang; Jin, Changjiang; Huang, He

2013-04-10

132

ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

Thuan Nguyen

2008-09-25

133

ALTS Publications 2009-2000  

Cancer.gov

Castle PE, Rodriguez AC, Burk RD, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Solomon D, Sherman ME, Jeronimo J, Alfaro M, Morales J, Gullen D, Htuchinson ML, Wacholoder S, Schiffman M. Neither one-time negative screening tests nor negative colposcopy provides absolute reassurance against cervical cancer. Int J Cancer.

134

Selective extraction of semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes by poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-pyridine) for 1.5 ?m emission.  

PubMed

For applications in standard optical devices, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibiting emissions near 1500 nm are potentially feasible because silicon semiconductors efficiently transmit the light in this region. However, techniques to extract such semiconducting SWCNTs have not been reported thus far. In this study, using poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-pyridine) (PFOPy) as a dispersant in organic solvent, we succeeded in selectively dispersing SWCNTs which show near-infrared fluorescence around 1500 nm. On the basis of optical absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we revealed that the outstanding tube-structure preference of PFOPy can be interpreted by a characteristic "wavy" conformation of PFOPy on the tube wall. PMID:23231776

Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Iijima, Sumio

2012-12-11

135

Aquatic macroinvertebrates in the altes land, an intensely used orchard region in Germany: Correlation between community structure and potential for pesticide exposure.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of pesticides on aquatic organisms under realistic worst-case conditions, a macroinvertebrate community of small ditches was sampled at 40 sites of the orchard region Altes Land near Hamburg, Germany. To differentiate between pesticide impact and other variables, the ditches selected for sampling were located at different distances along grassland, unused apple orchards, and orchards managed with integrated and/or organic crop protection methods. Samples of macroinvertebrates were taken on five dates over two years. In addition to biological data, water chemistry and structural parameters were measured. For each sampling site, a potential for exposure was calculated on the basis of the distance of the ditch to the nearest row of trees and the depth and width of the ditch. The neighborhood to either grassland or orchards turned out to have a larger impact on the macroinvertebrate community than the potential for exposure. Therefore, grassland sites were omitted from further evaluation. Remaining sites were grouped into low exposure (sites at unused orchards), medium exposure (distance of 3-5 m [track] between trees and ditch), and high exposure (trees close to the ditch, mean distance < or = 1.5 m). Principal response curves showed differences in community structure between the three exposure groups over time. Whereas for sites from the high exposure group significant differences from low exposure was observed in all seasons, significant differences between low and medium were observed only occasionally. Effects were less pronounced in samples taken at springtime before the starting pesticide applications, suggesting some community recovery. Species richness was negatively correlated to exposure potential. Isopoda, Eulamellibranchiata, and insects, especially Ephemeroptera, showed a high negative correlation with the potential for pesticide exposure, suggesting that these taxa are sensitive to the pesticide use in the orchards. PMID:17220099

Schäfers, Christoph; Hommen, Udo; Dembinski, Michael; Gonzalez-Valero, Juan E

2006-12-01

136

Scaling of thermally activated dissipation in epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the resistive transition of an epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> thin film in the case of applied field parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis up to 8 T, respectively. When the peak temperature Tp where dR/dT has a peak is defined as the critical temperature, we find that the dissipative resistivity can be well fitted by thermally activated flux motion below Tp in the presence of a magnetic field. Meanwhile, the field dependence of the peak temperature Tp follows the clean limit Ginzburg-Landau formula. The temperature T and field H dependences of the activation energy U can be described as the formula U = U0(1 - T/Tp)nH-icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>, where n = 1.5 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.57 for H || ab and n = 1.4 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.62 for H || c, showing a 3D behaviour.

Wang, Z. H.

1999-07-01

137

Links and Architecture in Village Networks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we test the implications of a model of network formation on data from rural Ethiopia. In contrast to the current literature, we demonstrate the critical role of both number of links and architecture in determining the impact of social networks on outcomes. Social capital matters, but its impact differs by the architecture of the network to which

Pramila Krishnan; Emanuela Sciubba

2009-01-01

138

Normative Power Europe: A Credible Utopia? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies on the international identity of the EU have stressed the normative feature of European foreign policy. At the same time, scholars have pointed out that the inconsistency between the EU's rhetoric and behaviour and the lack of reflexivity undermines its credibility. How does reflexivity affect collective identity? To what extent does the EU's utopian rhetoric affect its credibility as

SIBYLLE SCHEIPERS; DANIELA SICURELLI

2007-01-01

139

Technology, Productivity and Public Policy &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe poor productivity performance of the UK and the EU when compared with the US has been a major driver of policy reforms over the past decade. This paper considers what the evidence suggests about why we have lagged behind the US, considering among other factors the importance of globalisation and outsourcing, the role for public policy intervention and what

R achel G riffith

2007-01-01

140

Insurance Regulation: Some Issues&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to 1956 the insurance business in India was owned and managed by private companies. The management of life insurance business was taken over and nationalized by the Government of India in September 1956 by an act of parliament. Later, the General Insurance Corporation (GIC) was set up in 1972 to deal in non-life insurance services like property and casualty

Somesh K. Mathur

2001-01-01

141

Redistributive Taxation under Ethical Behaviour &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe consider the implications of ethical behaviour on the effect of a redistributive tax-transfer system. In choosing their labour supplies, individuals take into account whether their tax liabilities correspond to what they view as ethically acceptable. If tax liabilities are viewed as ethically acceptable, a taxpayer behaves ethically, does not distort her behaviour, and chooses to work as if she

Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Steeve Mongrain

2007-01-01

142

THE ECONOMIC RETURNS TO AN MBA &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because MBA programs require work experience before admittance, prior wages can be exploited to disentangle the return to the degree from unobserved productivity. We find that controlling for individual fixed effects generally reduces the estimated returns to an MBA, particularly for those in top programs. However, for full-time MBA students attending schools outside of the top-25 the estimated returns are

Peter Arcidiacono; Jane Cooley; Andrew Hussey

2008-01-01

143

MODELLING ASYMMETRIC EXCHANGE RATE DEPENDENCE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test for asymmetry in a model of the dependence between the Deutsche mark and the yen, in the sense that a different degree of correlation is exhibited during joint appreciations against the U.S. dollar versus during joint depreciations. We consider an extension of the theory of copulas to allow for conditioning variables, and employ it to construct flexible models

Andrew J. Patton

2006-01-01

144

ASSET PRICE BUBBLES IN INCOMPLETE MARKETS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies asset price bubbles in a continuous time model using the local martingale framework. Providing careful definitions of the asset's market and fundamental price, we characterize all possible price bubbles in an incomplete market satisfying the “no free lunch with vanishing risk (NFLVR)” and “no dominance” assumptions. We show that the two leading models for bubbles as either

Robert A. Jarrow; Philip Protter; Kazuhiro Shimbo

2010-01-01

145

INFORMATION GATHERING BY A PRINCIPAL &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the standard principal–agent model, the information structure is fixed. In this article the principal can choose to acquire additional information about the state of the world before he contracts with an agent. In the event that the principal acquires this information, the agent never learns what the principal knows about the state of the world. I examine cases where

Ed Nosal

2006-01-01

146

Profiling in Bargaining Over College Tuition &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiling in college admissions arises when applicant attributes are given weight because they are correlated with unobservable student characteristics that the college values. The article models the admission process of a single college as a bargaining game between the college and a potential student with sequential moves and asymmetric information. We test the empirical implications of this model using a

Dennis Epple; Richard Romano; Sinan Sarpaca; Holger Sieg

2006-01-01

147

DOES COPYRIGHT ENFORCEMENT ENCOURAGE PIRACY? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

When copyright enforcement is targeted at high-value buyers such as corporate and government users, the copyright holder charges super-monopoly prices, thereby encouraging low-value buyers to switch to inferior pirated copies. We show that enlarging the copyright holder's captive market through more extensive copyright enforcement reduces prices toward the monopoly level, increases sales of legitimate copies and can increase consumer surplus.

RICK HARBAUGH; RAHUL KHEMKA

2010-01-01

148

The Costs of Urban Property Crime &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the impact of recorded domestic property crime on property prices in the London area. Crimes in the Criminal Damage category have a significant negative impact on prices. A one-tenth standard deviation decrease in the local density of criminal damage adds 1% to the price of an average Inner London property. Burglaries have no measurable impact on prices,

Steve Gibbons

2004-01-01

149

PIRACY ON THE SILVER SCREEN &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey data on movie consumption by about 500 University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students, we ask whether unpaid consumption of movies displaces paid consumption. A variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal empirical approaches show large and statistically significant evidence of displacement. In the most appropriate empirical specification, we find that unpaid first consumption reduces paid consumption by about 1 unit. Unpaid

Rafael Robw; JOEL WALDFOGEL

2007-01-01

150

University Radio Observatories Program (AST-URO)  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that deviates from the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=gpm. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be ...

151

AzTEC/ASTE Deep and Wide Submillimeter Galaxy Survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field: Identification of VLA, Spitzer and Herschel Counterparts to 1100-?m-Selected Galaxies and Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our AzTEC/ASTE submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and VLA (21 cm), Spitzer (3.6-8 ?m and 24 ?m) and Herschel (100 and 160 ?m) counterpart identifications for 1100-?m-selected SMGs. We obtained a 1100-?m map of ˜ 1200 arcmin2 with the rms noise level of ˜ 0.5 mJy (1 ?). Our AzTEC map achieved new detections of 281 sources (S/N ? 3.5 ?). For 221 of 281 AzTEC sources, we searched counterparts in order to obtain multi-wavelength data. Deep Herschel PACS 100-?m and 160-?m images cover the whole of the AzTEC map, and 34 of 221 (= 15 %) and 54 of 221 (= 24 %)AzTEC sources have PACS 100-?m and 160-?m counterparts, respectively. We found VLA radio and/or MIPS 24-?m robust (with a significance of ? 95 %) counterparts to 102 of 221 the AzTEC SMGs. In addition to this, we have developed an improved identification method using IRAC data (3.6-8 ?m) and their colors, in order to cover the AzTEC SMGs located at higher redshift such as z > 3, which is inaccessible with the existing VLA, MIPS and Herschel data alone. With this method, we have achieved another robust detections of 20 IRAC counterparts to AzTEC sources. 131 of 221 AzTEC sources have at least one robust counterparts, and 23 of 221 have more than two robust counterparts. Including tentative identifications (with a significance of ? 90 %), 171 of 221 (= 78 %) 1100-?m-selected SMGs have counterparts. We estimated photometric redshifts of the counterparts using deep near-, and med-infrared and optical data, providing zmedian of 2.2. Among them, we found that there were some 1100-?m sources faint in multi-bands data suggesting the extremely high redshift.

Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Caputi, K.; Dunlop, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D.; Iono, D.; Ivison, R.; Kawabe, R.; Motohara, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Ohta, K.; Suzuki, K.; Tamura, Y.; Umehata, H.; Wilson, G.; Yabe, K.; Yun, M.

2013-10-01

152

ASA (ALT) Design, Develop, Deliver, Dominate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our mission is to effectively and efficiently develop, acquire, field, and sustain materiel by leveraging domestic and international, organic, and commercial technologies and capabilities to meet the Army's current and future mission requirements. Our vis...

2010-01-01

153

Alt.support: modeling social support online  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is mounting evidence that people use the Internet to expand their social net- works and receive social support, little is known about how they do so and with what effect the Internet has on overall levels of social support. Based on a survey of 213 online support seekers, this study explored social cognitive mechanism such as self-efficacy and

Matthew S. Eastin; Robert LaRose

2005-01-01

154

Treatment Effects of Cervical Headgear and Lower Utility Arch Mechanics in Angle Class II Division 1 Low-Angle Patients Angle Sinif II Bölüm 1 Malokluzyona Sahip Low-angle Hastalarda Servikal Headgear ve Alt Utility Ark Mekani?inin Tedavi Üzerine Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaç: Sinif II bölüm 1 malokluzyona sahip low- angle hastalarda servikal headgear ve alt utility ark (CHG+LUA) uygulamasinin etkilerini incele- mek ve üst birinci molar distalizasyonu sirasinda mandibulada \\

Müge AKSU DDS; Filiz YUKAY DDS

155

A new epitaxial BaSnO3 buffer layer for YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films on MgO substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

45° grain boundaries, which drastically increase surface resistance (RS) in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films for microwave devices on MgO substrates, are eliminated using a new buffer layer of BaSnO3.BaSnO3 buffer layers and YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are grown by ArF pulsed laser deposition. Epitaxial relationships among BaSnO3, YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and MgO are confirmed by x-ray icons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>-scanning. The RS values of the YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films are measured using a dielectric resonator with 22 GHz TE011 mode. The epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films grown on BaSnO3 buffered MgO substrates show lower RS than YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films directly grown on MgO substrates. The BaSnO3 buffer layer which enables YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films to grow without 45° grain boundaries at a optimum film growth condition is attractive for microwave applications.

Mukaida, M.; Takano, Y.; Chiba, K.; Moriya, T.; Kusunoki, M.; Ohshima, S.

1999-11-01

156

Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of Three Aeromonas Enterotoxin Genes ?  

PubMed Central

A novel multiplex PCR method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. This assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. A total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. The alt gene was detected with 34 reference strains (97%) and occurred singly in 14% of these strains. The frequency of occurrence of the act/alt, act/alt/ast, and alt/ast gene patterns in reference strains was 14 (40%), 2 (6%), and 2 (6%), respectively. An unpredicted amplicon was detected in 11 reference strains (31%). Characterization of this amplicon showed that its size was 148 bp, as generated by the AHLF and AHLR primers, and that it uniquely aligned with the Aeromonas salmonicida A449 genome sequence (GenBank accession number CP000644). This amplicon was named Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida hypothetical protein amplicon (AssHPA). In the 537 food-borne isolates, the act and alt genes were most dominant and were detected in 349 (65%) and 452 (84%) isolates, respectively, either alone or in combinations. The act and alt genes occurred singly in 30 (6%) and 128 (24%) of these strains, respectively. The act/alt gene pattern occurred in 315 isolates (59%), whereas the ast gene was always linked to strains exhibiting the act/alt/ast and alt/ast gene combinations in 4 (0.7%) and 5 (0.9%) isolates, respectively. The uniplex amplification of three enterotoxin genes separately confirms the specificity of the unique selected primers. This multiplex PCR is rapid and simple and can detect the presence of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes in a single assay.

Bin Kingombe, Cesar I.; D'Aoust, Jean-Yves; Huys, Geert; Hofmann, Lisa; Rao, Mary; Kwan, Judy

2010-01-01

157

TOPICAL REVIEW: High-pressure synthesis, crystal growth, phase diagrams, structural and magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x, HgBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+ALT="delta" /> and quasi-one-dimensional cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a review of high-gas-pressure single crystal growth studies of YBa2Cu4O8 and Y2Ba4Cu7O15-x performed in oxygen pressure up to 3000 bar and Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-7) compounds in argon pressure up 11 000 bar at temperature up to 1200 °C. Chain compounds A1-xCuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) have been synthesized at high oxygen pressure up to 2000 bar. High-pressure phase diagram studies of the investigated systems are also discussed. Structure analyses of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x (n = 6-8), Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-8), Sr0.73CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)4Cu6O10 single crystals have been performed. The effects of substitutions and trends in bondlengths are discussed. The vortex state properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu4O8 single crystals are compared. For Hg-based compounds, the influence of oxygen content, chemical substitutions and radiation defects on vortex pinning were determined. The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates Ca0.83CuO2 and Sr0.73CuO2 show an antiferromagnetically ordered state of long-range 3D character at T < 10 K. The spin dynamics of Sr0.73CuO2, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, indicate that this ordered state coexists with a dimerized singlet ground state.

Karpinski, J.; Meijer, G. I.; Schwer, H.; Molinski, R.; Kopnin, E.; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Jun, J.; Kazakov, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Hofer, J.; Alyoshin, V.; Sin, A.

1999-09-01

158

Identifying and Interpreting Regional Convergence Clusters across Europe &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we test for regional convergence clusters across the EU. We utilise a methodology that allows for the endogenous selection of regional clusters using a multivariate test for stationarity, where the number and composition of clusters are determined by the application of pairwise tests of regional differences in per capita output over time. To interpret the composition of

Luisa Corrado; Ron Martin

2005-01-01

159

AGING NATIONS AND THE FUTURE OF CITIES &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?We investigate whether an aging population may challenge the supremacy of large working cities. To this end, we develop an economic geography model with two types of individuals (workers and retirees) and two sectors (local services and manufacturing). Workers produce and consume; the elderly consume only. As a result, the mobility decision of workers is driven by both the wage

Carl Gaigné; Jacques-François Thisse

2009-01-01

160

PAYING FOR LOYALTY: PRODUCT BUNDLING IN OLIGOPOLY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, pairs of retailers such as supermarket and retail gasoline chains have offered bundled discounts to customers who buy their respective product brands. These discounts are a fixed amount off the headline prices that allied brands continue to set independently. We show that a pair of firms can profit from offering a bundled discount to the detriment of

JOSHUA S. GANS; STEPHEN P. KING

2006-01-01

161

Auctioning greenhouse gas emissions permits in Australia &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allocation of permits is an important design aspect of an emissions trading scheme. Traditionally, governments have favoured the free allocation of greenhouse gas permits based on individual historical emissions (‘grandfathering’) or industry benchmark data. Particularly in the European Union (EU), the free allocation of permits has proven complex and inefficient and the distributional implications are politically difficult to justify;

Regina Betz; Stefan Seifert; Peter Cramton; Suzi Kerr

2010-01-01

162

A Model for the Detection of Insurance Fraud&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to develop a model to aid insurance companies in their decision-making and to ensure that they are better equipped to fight fraud. This tool is based on the systematic use of fraud indicators. We first propose a procedure to isolate the indicators which are most significant in predicting the probability that a claim may

El Bachir Belhadji; George Dionne; Faouzi Tarkhani

2000-01-01

163

Is the New Immigration Really so Bad? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the recent evidence on US immigration, focusing on two key questions: (1) Does immigration reduce the labour market opportunities of less skilled natives? (2) Have immigrants who arrived after the 1965 Immigration Reform Act been successfully assimilated? Overall, evidence that immigrants have harmed the opportunities of less educated natives is scant. On the question of assimilation, the

David Card

2005-01-01

164

Endogenous Business Cycles With Frictional Labour Markets &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a neoclassical model of capital accumulation with frictional labour markets. Under standard parameter values the equilibrium of the model is indeterminate and consequently displays expectations-driven business cycles – so-called endogenous business cycles. We study the properties of such cycles, and find that the model predicts the high autocorrelation in output growth and the hump-shaped impulse response of output

Nigar Hashimzade; Salvador Ortigueira

2005-01-01

165

The Concept of Appeal in International Dispute Settlement&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WTO Appellate Body represents an innovation in international law in that an international adjudication authority now operates as a final instance to hear appeals arising from international arbitral (panel) procedures. It is thereby strongly emulating domestic appellate courts without, however, possessing the characteristics that make appellate courts the institutions of justice that they are. Following this trend in a

Noemi Gal-Or

2008-01-01

166

On The Empirics of Foreign Aid and Growth &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper re-examines the effectiveness of foreign aid theoretically and empirically. Using a standard OLG model we show that aid inflows will in general affect long-run productivity. The size and direction of the impact may depend on policies, ‘deep’ structural characteristics and the size of the inflow. The empirical analysis investigates these possibilities. Overall we find that aid has

Carl-Johan Dalgaard; Henrik Hansen; Finn Tarp

2004-01-01

167

The Effects Of Impact Fees On Multifamily Housing Construction &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Development impact fees may create more housing opportunities for lower-income households within suburban areas if there is a fiscal incentive behind the adoption of exclusionary land-use regulations. Using panel data estimation techniques that allow us to control for unobservable heterogeneity and potential endogeneities, we estimate the effects of different types of impact fees on multifamily housing construction using data from

Gregory Burge; Keith Ihlanfeldt

2006-01-01

168

The Economic Impact Of The Coal Boom And Bust &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the impact of the coal boom in the 1970s and the subsequent coal bust in the 1980s on local labour markets in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. We address two main questions in our analysis. How were non-mining sectors affected by the shocks to the mining sector? How did these effects differ between sectors

Dan Black; Terra McKinnish; Seth Sanders

2005-01-01

169

PLATFORM COMPETITION WITH ‘MUST-HAVE’ COMPONENTS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In platform-component systems with indirect network effects, some ‘must-have’ components are so popular with consumers that they create large, discrete indirect network effects when they become available on a platform. For example, ESPN is a must-have component of cable TV platforms. This paper examines how platform market structures determine exclusive versus non-exclusive contracts between platforms and components. It shows that

CHRISTIAAN HOGENDORN; STEPHEN KA YAT YUEN

2009-01-01

170

Firm Size and the Use of Intellectual Property Rights &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation markets are often characterised by market failure because inventions typically incur high fixed costs relative to marginal costs and their intellectual capital is non-excludable. Intellectual property (IP) rights may attenuate this problem by providing legal recourse for firms to stop imitation by rivals. As IP rights are costly to acquire and enforce, it is often argued that SMEs are

PAUL H. JENSEN; ELIZABETH WEBSTER

2006-01-01

171

The Impact of Chinese Exports on Global Import Prices &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper evaluates the evidence bearing on the question of whether China's buoyant export growth has led to significant changes in the import prices, and thus inflation performance, of its trading partners. This evidence suggests that the impact of Chinese exports on global import prices has been, while non- negligible, fairly modest. We identify a statistically significant effect of US

Steven B. Kamin; Mario Marazzi; John W. Schindler

2006-01-01

172

Corporate Insurance and Debt: The Case of China &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finance theorists have long argued that corporate purchases of property insurance can reduce the probability and hence the expected costs of financial distress. And by so doing, the corporate use of insurance can reduce borrowing costs and/ or increase debt capacity, reduce the overall cost of capital, and increase firm value. This article attempts to apply this argument to the

Hong Zou; Mike B. Adams

2009-01-01

173

EMPLOYMENT, DETERRENCE, AND CRIME IN A DYNAMIC MODEL &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using maximum likelihood techniques and monthly panel data we solve and estimate an explicitly dynamic model of criminal behavior where current criminal activity impacts future labor market outcomes. We show that the threat of future adverse effects in the labor market when arrested acts as a strong deterrent to crime. Moreover, such forward-looking behavior is estimated to be important. Hence,

Susumu Imai; Kala Krishna

2004-01-01

174

The Tax Consequences of Long-Run Pension Policy &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firm's pension fund is legally separate from the firm. But because pension benefits are normally independent of fund performance, pension assets impact the firm very much as if they were firm assets.Because they are worth more when times are good and less when times are bad, common stocks in the pension fund add to the sponsoring firm's leverage. They

Fischer Black

2006-01-01

175

Does Education Raise Productivity, or Just Reflect it? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education has an important effect on wages but it not clear whether this is because education raises productivity or because education is simply a signal of ability. We implement a number of existing tests for discriminating between these two explanations and find that they do not support the signalling hypothesis. However, we have severe reservations about these results and we

Arnaud Chevalier; Colm Harmon; Ian Walker; Yu Zhu

2004-01-01

176

Private Information and Altruism in Bidding Roscas &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies how altruism improves allocations in a private information environment where strategic behaviour reduces economic welfare. A theoretical analysis establishes that, in an environment characterised by uncertainty and private information, outcomes of auctions in Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (Roscas) are more efficient when bidders’ preferences are altruistic rather than selfish. A semi-parametric structural estimation technique for Rosca

Stefan Klonner

2008-01-01

177

Transferring Organizational Learning Systems to Japanese Subsidiaries in China &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted to study the cross-border transfer of organizational learning systems to the subsidiaries of five Japanese manufacturing companies operating in South China. This paper develops a holistic model of the overall process, by integrating knowledge-oriented, routine-oriented, and social/contextual perspectives, each of which plays a necessary role in explaining essential aspects. One feature of the

Jacky F. L. Hong; Mark Easterby-Smith; Robin Stanley Snell

2006-01-01

178

Plurilateral Governance in the Enlarged European Union &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article examines the impact of the recent EU enlargement on European governance. Enlargement is treated as a kind of external shock to the existing governance system, broadening and diversifying the European public space. The prevalent hierarchical mode of governance is increasingly inadequate under these new circumstances and the Union will have to embrace more flexible, decentralized and soft modes

JAN ZIELONKA

2007-01-01

179

Analyzing RBAC Security Policy of Implementation Using AST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security policy is a critical property in software applications which require high levels of safety and security. It has to be clearly specified in requirement documents and its implementation must be conformed to the specification. In this paper, we propose an approach to check if the implementation is in accordance with its security policy specification. We use the abstract syntax

Tuan-Hung Pham; Ninh-Thuan Truong; Viet-Ha Nguyen

2009-01-01

180

International Labor Union Policy and Growth with Creative Destruction &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractA multi-economy Schumpeterian growth model is constructed. Economies are interdependent through technology transfer. Households can stay as workers or become researchers at some cost. Workers are employed in production and researchers in R&D. Workers are unionized and union power depends on the government's protection. The main findings are as follows. If international technological dependence increases, then workers’ wages, the growth

Tapio Palokangas

2005-01-01

181

HOW DOES INCOMPATIBILITY AFFECT PRICES?: EVIDENCE FROM ATM'S &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

If consumers value ‘mix and match’ combinations of network complements, incompatibility between different sellers' components should affect prices. In ATM markets, a 1996 governance change exogenously generated such incompatibility, by allowing banks to impose surcharges when other banks' deposit customers use their ATM's. In our data, incompatibility makes the relationship between deposit account pricing and own ATM's more positive, and

CHRISTOPHER R. KNITTEL; VICTOR STANGO

2009-01-01

182

Secret Law and the Value of Publicity &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Revelations in the United States of secret legal opinions by the Department of Justice, dramatically altering the conventional interpretations of laws governing torture, interrogation, and surveillance, have made the issue of “secret law” newly prominent. The dangers of secret law from the perspective of democratic accountability are clear, and need no elaboration. But distaste for secret law goes beyond questions

CHRISTOPHER KUTZ

2009-01-01

183

Do Consumers Really Refuse To Buy Genetically Modified Food? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to purchase them if they

Charles Noussair; Stéphane Robin; Bernard Ruffieux

2004-01-01

184

Participation in Higher Education: Equity and Access? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional wisdom in Australia is that policy aimed at reducing imbalances in the representation of different socioeconomic classes in the tertiary sector should be aimed at encouraging completion of high school. The analyses in this paper suggest, however, that most of the differences in the socioeconomic mix of tertiary students are due to different propensities of high school graduates

ANH T. LE; PAUL W. MILLER

2005-01-01

185

Participation in Higher Education in Australia: Equity and Access &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the relationship between university participation and socioeconomic status (SES) in Australia, focusing on eligibility to attend university. Participation among those with similar eligibility to attend university does not vary by SES. Conditional on their Equivalent National Tertiary Entrance Rank (ENTER) scores, low SES students are as likely to attend university as high SES students. We find that possession

BULY A. CARDAK; CHRIS RYAN

2009-01-01

186

WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE DECLINE IN CRIME? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we analyze recent trends in aggregate property crime rates in the United States. We propose a dynamic equilibrium model that guides our quantitative investigation of the major determinants of observed patterns of crime. Our main findings can be summarized as follows: First, the model is capable of reproducing the drop in crime between 1980 and 1996. Second,

Antonio Merlo; Peter Rupert

2004-01-01

187

Social Networks and Technology Adoption in Northern Mozambique &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence on how farmers’ decisions to adopt a new crop relate to the adoption choices of their network of family and friends. We find the relationship to be inverse-U shaped, suggesting social effects are positive when there are few adopters in the network, and negative when there are many. We also find the adoption decisions of farmers who

Oriana Bandiera; Imran Rasul

2006-01-01

188

THE VALUE OF PRIVATE INFORMATION IN MONOPOLY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a basic question about a monopoly with incomplete information: when does the seller have an incentive to allow potential buyers to acquire more private information about their tastes for the seller's product? Under plausible conditions such as log-concave density of willingness-to-pay and convex marginal cost, the seller prefers that the paying customers be well informed as a group

ALEXANDER E. SAAK

2008-01-01

189

Priors from General Equilibrium Models for VARS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a simple New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model as a prior for a vector autoregression, and shows that the resulting model is competitive with standard benchmarks in terms of forecasting, and can be used for policy analysis.

Marco Del Negro; Frank Schorfheide

2004-01-01

190

New Technology in Schools: Is There a Payoff? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its high relevance to current policy debates, estimating the causal effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) investment on educational standards remains fraught with difficulties. We exploit a change in the rules governing ICT funding across different school districts of England to devise an Instrumental Variable strategy to identify the causal impact of ICT expenditure on pupil outcomes. The

Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally; Olmo Silva

2007-01-01

191

TECHNOLOGICAL CATCH-UP AND GEOGRAPHIC PROXIMITY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?This paper examines productivity catch-up as a source of establishment productivity growth. We present evidence that, other things equal, establishments further behind the industry frontier experience faster rates of productivity growth. Geographic proximity to frontier firms makes catch-up faster. Our econometric specification implies a long-run relationship between productivity levels, where nonfrontier establishments lie a steady-state distance behind the frontier such

Rachel Griffith; Stephen Redding; Helen Simpsonz

2009-01-01

192

Insurance as a Product of National Values&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insurance is an immaterial product that is valued subjectively by its recipients. The way this is done depends on the values that dominate in a certain society, values that have come into being through the years. In this article the dominant values of the Netherlands and of a number of other relevant countries are being compared and are being

Geert Hofstede

1995-01-01

193

DO ABATEMENT QUOTAS LEAD TO MORE SUCCESSFUL CLIMATE COALITIONS? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the effect of different treaty designs on the success of international environmental agreements (IEAs). We analyze the standard assumption of an efficient abatement scheme and three uniform abatement quota schemes. Apart from analytical results, the analysis is supported by simulations based on the STACO (stability of coalitions) model. It turns out that quota agreements where

JUAN-CARLOS ALTAMIRANO-CABRERA; MICHAEL FINUS; ROB DELLINK

2008-01-01

194

Human Capital Inequality, Life Expectancy And Economic Growth &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a model in which inequality affects per capita income when individuals decide to invest in education taking into account their life expectancy, which depends to a large extent on the human capital of their parents. Our results show the existence of multiple steady states depending on the initial distribution of education. The low steady state is a

Amparo Castelló-Climent; Rafael Doménech

2008-01-01

195

Interpartner Legitimacy in the Alliance Development Process &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? We propose a framework to understand interpartner legitimacy in strategic alliances. Interpartner legitimacy is the mutual acknowledgment by the alliance partners that their actions are proper in the developmental processes of the alliance. We argue that interpartner legitimacy is needed for cooperation to achieve alliance objectives. We propose three types of interpartner legitimacy – pragmatic, moral, and cognitive legitimacy

Rajesh Kumar; T. K. Das

2007-01-01

196

INCENTIVES FOR CORRUPTIBLE AUDITORS IN THE ABSENCE OF COMMITMENT &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of commitment to auditing, we study the optimal auditing contract when collusion between an agent and an auditor is possible. We show that the auditor can be totally useless if the auditor's independence can be compromised with relative ease. Even very stiff sanctions on fraud will be unable to make auditing optimal. We then derive a demand

Fahad Khalilw; Jacques Lawarreez

2006-01-01

197

Exchange Rates and Monetary Policy in Emerging Market Economies &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare alternative monetary policies for an emerging market economy that experiences external shocks to interest rates and the terms of trade. Financial frictions magnify volatility but do not affect the ranking of alternative policy rules. In contrast, the degree of exchange rate pass-through is critical for the assessment of monetary rules. With high pass-through, stabilising the exchange rate involves

Michael B. Devereux; Juanyi Xu

2006-01-01

198

Does the World Economy Swing National Elections? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractDo voters reward national leaders who are more competent economic managers, or merely those who happen to be in power when the world economy booms? Using data from 268 democratic elections held between 1978 and 1999, I compare the effect of world growth (luck) and national growth relative to world growth (competence). Both matter, but the effect of luck is

A ndrew L eigh

2009-01-01

199

Transfer of copper from a chelated 67Cu-antibody conjugate to ceruloplasmin in lymphoma patients 1 1 Abbreviations: TETA (macrocyclic chelater), 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane- N,N?,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid; BAT (bifunctional macrocyclic chelater), 6-[ p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane- N,N?,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid; 2IT (linker), 2-iminothiolane; 67Cu and 64Cu, isotopes of copper; 131I, isotope of iodine; CP, ceruloplasmin; Alb, albumin; TF, transferrin; 67Cu-CP, ceruloplasmin-containing radiocopper; AUC, area under the curve; GGT, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; RIT, radioimmunotherapy; EDTA, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; CAE, cellulose acetate electrophoresis; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; HAMA, human anti-mouse antibody; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; 67Cu-SCN-TETA-1A3, 67Cu-radiolabeled 1A3 antibody via a isothiocyanate linker and TETA; SOD, superox  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lym-1 monoclonal antibody was conjugated with the bifunctional chelating agent 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N?,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAT), using 2IT as a linker, and radiolabeled with 67Cu to make the radiopharmaceutical, 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1. Ten patients received a total of 18 doses of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 as targeted, systemic radiotherapy. The beta phase of blood clearance, when corrected for 67Cu decay, was positive or flat, a phenomenon not

Gary R Mirick; Robert T O’Donnell; Sally J DeNardo; Sui Shen; Claude F Meares; Gerald L DeNardo

1999-01-01

200

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

201

Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

1993-08-31

202

Contributo sulla diagnosi esofagogastroscopica nelle emorragie digestive alte in atto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  Le nostre considerazioni conclusive possono così riassumersi:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1o \\u000a Nelle emorragie esofago-gastriche l'esame endoscopico rappresenta il mezzo più appropriato e più rapido per formulare una\\u000a diagnosi di natura e di sede, mettendo talora in evidenza lesioni sanguinanti che, per la loro superficialità e per la loro\\u000a posizione, non sarebbero visibili con nessun'altro mezzo diagnostico.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2o \\u000a Rispetto ad altri procedimenti diagnostici l'endoscopia

E. Fiorini; A. Fratton; F. Polettini

1971-01-01

203

Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

2010-01-01

204

Building Bridges Between Agriculture And HeAltH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yet agriculture is associated with many of the world's major health problems, including undernutrition, malaria, AIDS, foodborne diseases, diet-related chronic diseases, and a range of occupational health hazards. Agriculture can contribute to both the spread and alleviation of these health conditions. In the other direction, the occurrence of these health conditions has tremendous implications for agriculture. In the general population,

Stuart Gillespie; Marie Ruel

205

Draft Recommendations from the Regulatory Affairs ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... ALT, AST • Cholestasis indicators: bilirubin, ALP, GGT • Function indicators: albumin, urea nitrogen • Metabolism indicators: electrolytes, total CO2 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/scienceresearch

206

Can We Predict Hepatotoxicity Based on Submitted Data?  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Unclear Documentation; Common Themes ? AST and/or ALT listed as “increased” – no ... Unclear Documentation; Common Themes - 2 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/scienceresearch

207

Influence of various diet regimens on deterioration of hepatic function and hematological parameters following carbon tetrachloride: a potential protective role of natural honey.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the effects of commercial regular diet as control, total food restriction with honey, commercial regular diet with dextrose, or total food restriction with dextrose, on blood variables after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four groups, 10 rats each; Group 1 rats were on commercial regular diet, Group 2 rats were on commercial regular diet with 50% dextrose, Group 3 rats were on total food restriction with 50% dextrose, and Group 4 rats were on total food restriction with 50% honey. Rats in all the groups were i.m. administered CCL4 (2.4 mL kg b. wt.-1). Blood tests including ALT, AST, serum albumin, serum protein, BUN, blood glucose (BG), hemoglobin (Hb), and white blood cell (WBC) were performed before CCl4 administration and repeated after 48 and 96 h of post-injection. In Group 1, CCl4 caused significant elevation in AST and ALT, and decrease in BS, WBC, and BUN; lower elevation in AST and ALT at 48 h and decreased AST and ALT at 96 h were obtained when dextrose was added to commercial regular diet (Group 2). Using dextrose alone (Group 3), though there was significant elevation of AST and ALT and decrease in BUN and WBC as compared to baseline values, significant decrease in ALT, AST, and BUN as compared to control was obtained. During absolute honey feeding (Group 4), elevation in AST and ALT obtained, following CCl4 administration was significantly less than the values obtained in all other groups; with lower elevation in AST and ALT as compared to baseline values. Honey increased serum albumin, serum protein, BG, and caused lower reduction in Hb. Conclusively, exclusive honey feeding (50% concentration) significantly modifies and ameliorates biochemical and hematological changes obtained after CCl4 injection. PMID:17127519

Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Akmal, Mohammad; Al-Waili, Faiza S; Al-Waili, Hamza N

2006-11-01

208

Association of liver enzymes with incident type 2 diabetes: A nested case control study in an Iranian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanin aminotranferase (ALT) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) with incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, AST, ALT, GGT as well as classic diabetes risk factors, insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 133 non-diabetic subjects at baseline of which 68 were cases and 65 were controls.

Maryam Tohidi; Hadi Harati; Farzad Hadaegh; Yadolladh Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

209

Serum enzymes in heat stroke: prognostic implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehy- drogenase (LD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 26 heat stroke (HS) victims and 10 control (non-heat-exhausted) sub- jects during annual Hajj in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. On admission to the HS treatment unit, serum CK, AST, ALT, and LD were higher in HS victims than controls (P <0.05), and

Abdulaziz H. Alzeer; Mohsen A. F. El-Hazmi; Arjumand S. Warsy; Ziauddin A. Ansari; Mohammed S. Yrkendi

210

Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.  

PubMed

To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

2004-01-01

211

ON OPTIMAL LEGAL STANDARDS FOR COMPETITION POLICY: A GENERAL WELFARE-BASED ANALYSIS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new welfare-based framework for optimally choosing legal standards (decision rules). We formalise the decision-theoretic considerations widely discussed in the existing literature by capturing the quality of the underlying analysis and information available to a regulatory authority, and we obtain a precise necessary and sufficient set of conditions for determining when an Economics or Effects-Based approach would be

YANNIS KATSOULACOS; DAVID ULPH

2009-01-01

212

The d-deap ast: a fast and simple cache-aligned d-ary deap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized and cache-aligned implicit version of the deap, called d-deap* that utilizes cache memory efficiently. The d-deap* is based on a tree structure that may be mapped into a cache-aligned array without padding. This results in a match between node indexes and array indexes as well as good cache utilization. Experimental results show that the d-deap*

Haejae Jung

2005-01-01

213

Food policy and poverty in Indonesia: a general equilibrium analysis &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is Indonesia's staple food and accounts for large shares of both consumers' budgets and total employment. Until recently, Indonesia was the world's largest importer, but rice import policy is now highly protectionist. Since early 2004, rice imports have been officially banned. Advocates of this policy say it reduces poverty by assisting poor farmers. Opponents say it increases poverty, stressing

Peter G. Warr

2005-01-01

214

TECHNOLOGY SHOCKS AND ROBUST SIGN RESTRICTIONS IN A EURO AREA SVAR &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a model-based identification strategy to estimate the impact of technology shocks on hours worked and employment in the euro area. The sign restrictions applied in the vector autoregression (VAR) analysis are consistent with a large class of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models and are robust to parameter uncertainty. The results are in line with the conventional Real

Gert Peersman; Roland Straub

2009-01-01

215

Political Communication in a European Public Space: Language, the Internet and Understanding as Soft Power &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article demonstrates that the European Union's linguistic diversity policy is a barrier to greater popular participation in a European public space. It sets out three political communication models: elite discourse, aggregative democracy and deliberation in a European public space; each has different linguistic requirements. It presents survey evidence showing that Europeans are ‘voting with their mouths’ for a single

RICHARD ROSE

2008-01-01

216

Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility: a comparative analysis of the UK and the US &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that key differences between the UK and the US in the importance ascribed to a company's social responsibilities (CSR) reflect differences in the corporate governance arrangements in these two countries. Specifically, we analyse the role of a salient type of owner in the UK and the US, institutional investors, in emphasising firm-level CSR actions. We explore differences

Ruth V. Aguilera; Cynthia A. Williams; John M. Conley; Deborah E. Rupp

2006-01-01

217

Legitimacy under Pressure: The European Web of CounterTerrorism Networks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWithin European law enforcement circles, counter-terrorism networks and privileged partnerships tend to be preferred to formal bureaucratic structures because of their flexibility and directness. The professional preference for informal, bilateral and privileged relationships may, however, undermine the potential of formally established agencies such as Europol and Eurojust, which work through national and centrally co-ordinated channels of information and intelligence. This

MONICA DEN BOER; CLAUDIA HILLEBRAND; ANDREAS NÖLKE

2008-01-01

218

Range-Based Covariance Estimation Using High-Frequency Data: The Realized Co-Range&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the realized co-range, a novel estimator of the daily covariance between asset returns based on intraday high–low price ranges. In an ideal world, the co-range is five times more efficient than the realized covariance, which uses cross-products of intraday returns, when sampling at the same frequency. In Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for plausible levels of bid–ask

Karim Bannouh; Dick van Dijk; Martin Martens

2009-01-01

219

Job Search Methods and Their Success: A Comparison of Immigrants and Natives in the UK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue in the immigration debate concerns whether immigrants take jobs away from natives. In this article, we present new evidence on the job search methods used by immigrants, and their relative success in gaining employment, in the UK. We find that: (1) immigrant job search is less successful than that of natives; (2) immigrants are as likely to

Paul Frijters; Michael A. Shields; Stephen Wheatley Price

2005-01-01

220

RESISTENZA STATICA TORSIONALE DI CONNESSIONI ACCIAIO - ALLUMINIO DI ASTE INNOVATIVE PER PERFORAZIONI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, two techniques for assembling aluminum drill pipe to steel tool joint were investigated: 'hot' assembling and 'cold' assembling. During hot assembling a difference of temperature between the two parts is exploited to impose contact interferences and then friction bond generates torsional strength. Hot assembling is ordinarily used. Cold assembling technique is here presented as an alternative.

L. Bertinia; M. Beghini; C. Santus; A. Merlob; A. Baryshnikov

221

CARATTERIZZAZIONE A FATICA DI UNA LEGA DI ALLUMINIO PER ASTE DI PERFORAZIONE PETROLIFERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper a 7xxx aluminum alloy is investigated. This alloy is used in Drill Pipe production for Oil drilling exploration due to its excellent trade-off between high strength and low density. After static and cyclic behaviour characterization, fatigue strength is experimentally investigated, through a wide test sequence on small scale specimens. In particular, Mean Stress Effect and Notch

M. Beghini; L. Bertini; M. Lucifora; C. Santus

222

HOME COMPUTERS AND EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NLSY97 and CPS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although computers are universal in the classroom, nearly 20 million children in the United States do not have computers in their homes. Surprisingly, only a few previous studies explore the role of home computers in the educational process. Home computers might be very useful for completing school assignments, but they might also represent a distraction for teenagers. We use several

ROBERT W. FAIRLIE; DANIEL O. BELTRAN; KUNTAL K. DAS

2010-01-01

223

Financial performance and outreach: a global analysis of leading microbanks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfinance promises to reduce poverty by employing profit-making banking practices in low-income communities. Many microfinance institutions have secured high loan repayment rates but, so far, relatively few earn profits. We examine why this promise remains unmet. We explore patterns of profitability, loan repayment, and cost reduction with unusually high-quality data on 124 institutions in 49 countries. The evidence shows the

Robert Cull; Jonathan Morduch

2007-01-01

224

DETECTION OF LOCAL INTERACTIONS FROM THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF NAMES IN FRANCE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Using data on the geographic distribution of names in France, we investigate the social transmission of parental preferences. Drawing on recent work on nonmarket interactions, we develop a linear discrete choice model that relates choices made in one location to those made in nearby areas. We explain the shares of parents that give their children Saint, Arabic, and American-type names.

Keith Head; Thierry Mayer

2008-01-01

225

Patent Quality and Research Productivity: Measuring Innovation with Multiple Indicators &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the determinants of the decline in research productivity using panel data on manufacturing firms in the US for the period 1980–93. We focus on three factors: the level of demand, the quality of patents and technological exhaustion. We develop an index of patent ‘quality’ using detailed patent information and show that using multiple indicators substantially reduces the measured

Jean O. Lanjouw; Mark Schankerman

2004-01-01

226

What do the Papers Sell? A Model of Advertising and Media Bias &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the market for news as a two-sided market where newspapers sell news to readers who value accuracy and sell space to advertisers who value advert-receptive readers. In this setting, monopolistic newspapers under-report or bias news that sufficiently reduces advertiser profits. Paradoxically, increasing the size of advertising eventually leads competing newspapers to reduce advertiser bias. Nonetheless, advertisers can counter

Matthew Ellman; Fabrizio Germano

2009-01-01

227

Framing the Field of Homeland Security: The Case of Norway &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This paper takes as a point of departure a notion of reorganization as a way of managing risk. It examines the reorganization process in the Norwegian central administration for homeland security. As a central theme the paper explores why the proposal to radically reorganize the administration by replacing a network model with a hierarchical model resulted in a much

Per Lægreid; Synnøve Serigstad

2006-01-01

228

Building Better Theory by Bridging the Quantitative–Qualitative Divide &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract Qualitative methods for data collection and analysis are not mystical, but they are powerful, particularly when used to build new or refine existing theories. This article provides an introduction to qualitative methods and an overview of tactics for ensuring rigor in qualitative research useful for the novice researcher, as well as more experienced researchers interested in expanding their methodological

Sonali K. Shah; Kevin G. Corley

2006-01-01

229

Japan's Policy Towards East and Southeast AsiaTrends in Re-Asianization&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years Japan's definition of Asia has been undergoing a significant change. So farfor Japan, Asia meant mainly China, the two Koreas and the Southeast Asian countriesAfter the events of 11 September, the US invasion of Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, the massivanti-Japan movement in China and South Korea and other developments Japan was impelleto strengthen its relations with

Lalima Varma

2006-01-01

230

Comparative Entrepreneurial Cognitions and Lagging Russian New Venture Formation: A Tale of Two Countries &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in Russian government and economic systems over the last 15 years led to expectations of increased entrepreneurial activity. Yet potential entrepreneurs are deciding to venture at a much lower rate than anticipated. New venture creation in Russia is occurring at a rate that is considerably lower than that of the United States and Western Europe.This research examines cognitive similarities

Kristie W. Seawright; Ronald K. Mitchell; J. Brock Smith

2008-01-01

231

The Decision Maker Matters: Individual Versus Group Behaviour in Experimental Beauty-Contest Games &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics has devoted little attention to whether the type of decision maker matters for economic decisions. However, many important decisions like those on monetary policy or a company's business strategy are made by (small) groups rather than an individual. We compare behaviour of individuals and small groups in an experimental beauty-contest game. Our findings suggest that groups are not smarter

Martin G. Kocher; Matthias Sutter

2005-01-01

232

Capitalizing on Franchisee Autonomy: Relational Forms of Governance as Controls in Idiosyncratic Franchise Dyads &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Franchisee autonomy not only fosters system-wide adaptability and outlet owners' satisfaction but also raises the costs from agency problems present in franchisee–franchisor dyads. Advancing upon the understanding of agency issues involved in franchising, we test the argument that chains counterbalance the loss in control inherent to autonomy with relational governance mechanisms. The empirical results provided strong support for this presumption.

Olivier Cochet; Julian Dormann; Thomas Ehrmann

2008-01-01

233

Consumer Choice and Competition Policy: a Study of UK Energy Markets &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer choice is increasingly recognised as a crucial factor in competition policy. To illustrate the implications of such choice we present an investment model of the switching choice in the UK residential natural gas market and examine responses to a specially commissioned survey of nearly seven hundred consumers, identifying search and switching costs. Through an assessment of the savings which

Monica Giulietti; Catherine Waddams Price; Michael Waterson

2005-01-01

234

Wealth bias in the first global capital market boom, 1870–1913 &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do rich countries receive the lion's share of international investment flows? Although this wealth bias is strong today, it was even stronger during the first global capital market boom before 1913. Very little of British capital exports went to poor countries, whether colonies or not. This paper constructs panel data for 34 countries that as a group received 92%

Michael A. Clemens; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2004-01-01

235

Insurance Regulation in the Public Interest: The Path Towards Solvent, Competitive Markets&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale underlying competition is that market forces are best at allocating resources and enhancing consumer choice and value. Further, the evolution and internationalization of financial services markets could significantly promote economic development throughout the world. Thus, moves to render national and international insurance markets more competitive should be encouraged, taking into account the level of development of each market

Harold D. Skipper Jr; Robert W. Klein

2000-01-01

236

Media Effects on Public Opinion about the Enlargement of the European Union &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies of public support for matters of European integration tend either to neglect or inadequately model the role of the mass media. This study investigates how news media content affects public support for the enlargement of the EU. Other influences on support for integration, such as economic evaluations, anti-immigration sentiment, domestic political considerations and cognitive mobilization are accounted for. The

CLAES H. dE VREESE; HAJO G. BOOMGAARDEN

2006-01-01

237

Job Satisfaction and Co-worker Wages: Status or Signal? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use matched employer–employee panel data to show that individual job satisfaction is higher when other workers in the same establishment are better-paid. This runs counter to substantial existing evidence of income comparisons in subjective well-being. We argue that the difference hinges on the nature of the reference group. Here we use co-workers. Their earnings not only induce jealousy but

Andrew E. Clark; Nicolai Kristensen; Niels Westergård-Nielsen

2009-01-01

238

The Theory of Human Capital Revisited: on the Interaction of General and Specific Investments &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human capital theory distinguishes between training in general-usage and firm-specific skills. Becker (1964) argues that employers will only invest in specific training, not general training, when labour markets are competitive. The article reconsiders Becker's theory. Using essentially his framework, we show that there exists an incentive complementarity between employer-sponsored general and specific training: the possibility to provide specific training leads

Anke S. Kesslery; Christoph Lülfesmann

2006-01-01

239

Within and Beyond Communities of Practice: Making Sense of Learning Through Participation, Identity and Practice &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Situated learning theory offers a radical critique of cognitivist theories of learning, emphasizing the relational aspects of learning within communities of practice in contrast to the individualist assumptions of conventional theories. However, although many researchers have embraced the theoretical strength of situated learning theory, conceptual issues remain undeveloped in the literature. Roberts, for example, argues in this issue that

Karen Handley; Andrew Sturdy; Robin Fincham; Timothy Clark

2006-01-01

240

FORMAL HOME HEALTH CARE, INFORMAL CARE, AND FAMILY DECISION MAKING &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the 1993 wave of the Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) data set to estimate a game-theoretic model of families' decisions concerning the provision of informal and formal care for elderly individuals. The outcome is the Nash equilibrium where each family member jointly determines her consumption, transfers for formal care, and allocation of time to

David Byrne; Michelle S. Goeree; Bridget Hiedemann; Steven Sterny

2009-01-01

241

What Have you Done for me Lately? Release of Information and Strategic Manipulation of Memories &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should a rational agent (politician\\/employee\\/advertiser) release information in order to manipulate the memory imperfections of his forgetful assessor (electorate\\/supervisor\\/consumer)? This article attempts to answer this question using a memory model based on the principles of recency, similarity and repetition. I show that the problem of a rational agent who releases information to a forgetful assessor can be modelled as

Yianis Sarafidis

2007-01-01

242

Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare Spending among U.S. Elderly&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of Medicare Part D has generated interest in the cost of providing drug coverage to the elderly. Of paramount importance—often unaccounted for in budget estimates—are the salutary effects that increased prescription drug use might have on other Medicare spending. This paper uses longitudinal data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to estimate how prescription drug benefits affect Medicare

Baoping Shang; Dana Goldman

2010-01-01

243

THE IMPACT OF POLICIES TO CONTROL MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS IN MUMBAI, INDIA &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?This paper examines the impacts of measures to reduce emissions from buses, cars, and two-wheelers in Mumbai, India. We have considered three possible policies: conversion of diesel buses to CNG, an increase in the price of gasoline and a tax on vehicle ownership.Our results suggest that the most effective policy to reduce emissions from passenger vehicles—in terms of the total

Akie Takeuchi; Maureen Cropper; Antonio Bento

2007-01-01

244

Consumer versus citizen preferences in contingent valuation: evidence on the role of question framing &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rather than individual consumer preferences, responses to referendum-style contingent valuation surveys on environmental goods may express citizen assessments that take into account benefits to others. We reconsider the consumer versus citizen hypothesis with a focus on the role of framing information. Survey data on conservation areas in Ilomantsi, Finland, are used. Different versions of the valuation question were used to

Ville Ovaskainen; Matleena Kniivilä

2005-01-01

245

Using Happiness Surveys to Value Intangibles: The Case of Airport Noise &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the monetary value of the noise damage, caused by aircraft noise nuisance around Amsterdam Airport, as the sum of hedonic house price differentials and a residual cost component. The residual costs are assessed from a survey, including an ordinal life satisfaction scale, on which individual respondents have scored. The derived compensation scheme depends on, among other things, the

Bernard M. S. van Praag; Barbara E. Baarsma

2005-01-01

246

ADA/Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) Maturation. Delivery Order 0004: Avionics Software Technology Support (ASTS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort matures and demonstrates Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) features for strike fighter avionics software. The maturation and demonstration focused on assessing the performance and security of selected POSIX interfaces. The Hughes Air...

M. J. Pitarys

1995-01-01

247

Belbin's Team Role Model: Development, Validity and Applications for Team Building &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This paper brings together research into and using the team role model developed by Belbin (1981, 1993a) in an attempt to provide an exhaustive assessment of construct validity in light of the conflicting evidence so far produced. Role theory is used to contextualize the origins of the model. The psychometric properties of the Team Role Self-Perception Inventory used to

Aitor Aritzeta; Stephen Swailes; Barbara Senior

2007-01-01

248

WORKINGS OF THE MELTING POT: SOCIAL NETWORKS AND THE EVOLUTION OF POPULATION ATTRIBUTES &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?This paper links the two nascent economic literatures on social networks and cultural assimilation by investigating the evolution of population attributes in a simple model where agents are influenced by their acquaintances. The main conclusion of the analysis is that attributes converge to a melting-pot equilibrium, where everyone is identical, provided the social network exhibits a sufficient degree of interconnectedness.

Jan K. Brueckner; Oleg Smirnov

2007-01-01

249

Gender Equality and New Aid Modalities: Is Love Really in the Air?&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the turn of the century, a shift has taken place from project to more programme-oriented development assistance to low-income, aid-dependent countries. A sweeping reform agenda, outlined most clearly in the 2005 Paris Declaration and the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, is today imposed upon donors and recipients alike. This article reviews ongoing changes through a gender lens. It provides

Nathalie Holvoet

2010-01-01

250

SPATIAL HEDONIC MODELS OF AIRPORT NOISE, PROXIMITY, AND HOUSING PRICES &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Despite the refrain that housing prices are determined by “location, location, and location,” few studies of airport noise and housing prices have incorporated spatial econometric techniques. We compare various spatial econometric models and estimation methods in a hedonic price framework to examine the impact of noise on 2003 housing prices near the Atlanta airport. Spatial effects are best captured by

Jeffrey P. Cohen; Cletus C. Coughlin

2008-01-01

251

Discrete Polarisation with an Application to the Determinants of Genocides &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequality and polarisation are two different measures of heterogeneity. As in the case of inequality, the measurement of polarisation was initially developed in the context of a continuous dimension (income). However, in many important dimensions, like ethnicity, there are no available measures of distance across ethnic groups and individuals are mostly separated by the dichotomous perception ‘we versus they’. In

Jose G. Montalvo; Marta Reynal-Querol

2008-01-01

252

Stochastic wealth dynamics and risk management among a poor population &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use herd history data collected among pastoralists in southern Ethiopia to study stochastic wealth dynamics among a poor population. Although covariate rainfall shocks plainly matter, household-specific factors, including own herd size, account for most observed variability in wealth dynamics. We find no support for the tragedy of the commons hypothesis. Past studies may have conflated costly self-insurance with stocking

Travis J. Lybbert; Christopher B. Barrett; Solomon Desta; D. Layne Coppock

2004-01-01

253

77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tehachapi Branch, 450 West F Street, Tehachapi, CA 93561. Kern County Library, Wofford Heights Branch, 6400-B Wofford Boulevard, Wofford Heights, CA 93285. Kern River Valley Library, 7054 Lake Isabella Boulevard, Lake Isabella,...

2012-05-08

254

The Role of Financial Institutions in the Corporate Governance of Listed Chinese Companies &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of Chinese financial institutions in the corporate governance of listed companies through interviews with both senior managers of financial institutions and board directors of listed companies. Our results show that, while most securities companies are passive investors, a good proportion of the active mutual funds help their portfolio companies prepare financial forecasts, standardize their operations,

Rongli Yuan; Jason Zezhong Xiao; Nikolaos Milonas; Joe Hong Zou

2009-01-01

255

QUANTIFYING THE LAFFER CURVE ON THE CONTINUED ACTIVITY TAX IN A DYNASTIC FRAMEWORK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the tax on continued activity should be removed by implementing actuarially fair schemes. However, these schemes cannot fund the expected Social Security (SS) deficit. This article proposes to give individuals a fraction of the actuarially fair incentives in the case of postponed retirement. SS faces a trade-off between giving enough incentives to make individuals delay retirement

Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot; Thepthida Sopraseuth

2008-01-01

256

Relaunching Adult Diapers in India—Has the Time Come?&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case is about the dilemma faced by Supriya, the product manager at Kimberly Clark Lever Private Ltd, India (KCLL). She has to prepare a business plan for the relaunch of adult diapers called ‘Depend’. The same product was introduced into the market in the late 1990s but was later revoked because of poor performance. The case discusses details of

Ajit Patil; Rahul Srinivasan

2006-01-01

257

Corporate Governance and Business Ethics: insights from the strategic planning experience &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop an integrated approach towards corporate governance and business ethics. Our central argument is that organisations can learn from the development of strategic planning in the 1970s and 1980s. We identify three weaknesses – a bureaucratic and formalised approach, lack of implementation and lack of integration throughout the organisation – which were prevalent in strategic planning

Ingrid Bonn; Josie Fisher

2005-01-01

258

Malpractice Payouts and Malpractice Insurance: Evidence from Texas Closed Claims, 1990–2003&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using medical malpractice claims with payments of $25,000 or more that closed in Texas from 1990 to 2003, this study quantifies physicians' insurance limits and examines the connection between policy size and payments on claims. It finds that most physicians had less than $1 million (nominal) in coverage, that real policy size declined, that settlements at the policy limits were

Charles Silver; Kathryn Zeiler; Bernard S. Black; David A. Hyman; William M. Sage

2008-01-01

259

Encouraging Best Practice in Quantitative Management Research: An Incomplete List of Opportunities &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract The paper identifies some common problems encountered in quantitative methodology and provides information on current best practice to resolve these problems. We first discuss issues pertaining to variable measurement and concerns regarding the underlying relationships among variables. We then highlight several advances in estimation methodology that may circumvent issues encountered in common practice. Finally, we discuss approaches that move

Raj Echambadi; Benjamin Campbell; Rajshree Agarwal

2006-01-01

260

Organizational Identification During a Merger: Determinants of Employees' Expected Identification With the New Organization&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the development of organizational identification during a merger, a quasi-experimental case study was conducted on a pending merger of police organizations. The research was conducted among employees who would be directly involved in the merger and among indirectly involved employees. In contrast to earlier studies, organizational identification was measured as the expected identification prior to the

Jos Bartels; Rynke Douwes; Jong de Menno; Ad Pruyn

2006-01-01

261

Does Immigration Affect the Long-Term Educational Outcomes of Natives? Quasi-Experimental Evidence &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses the mass migration wave to Israel in the 1990s to examine the impact of immigrant concentration during elementary school on the long-term academic outcomes of native students in high school. The results suggest that the overall presence of immigrants in a grade had an adverse effect on the chances of passing the high school matriculation exam, which

Eric D. Gould; Victor Lavy; M. Daniele Paserman

2009-01-01

262

Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? The emergent literature on dynamic capabilities and their role in value creation is riddled with inconsistencies, overlapping definitions, and outright contradictions. Yet, the theoretical and practical importance of developing and applying dynamic capabilities to sustain a firm's competitive advantage in complex and volatile external environments has catapulted this issue to the forefront of the research agendas of many scholars.

Shaker A. Zahra; Harry J. Sapienza; Per Davidsson

2006-01-01

263

The Interaction of Human and Physical Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn this paper, a simultaneous model of the evolution of human and physical capital in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated. It can be shown that the two types of capital are jointly endogenous, in that increases in human capital significantly raise the per-worker physical capital stock, and increases in the physical capital significantly raise primary education levels. Unlike the implications of

Robin Grier

2005-01-01

264

A Unique Informationally Efficient Allocation Mechanism In Economies With Consumption Externalities &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the informational requirements of resource allocation processes in pure exchange economies with consumption externalities. It is shown that the distributive Lindahl mechanism has a minimal informational size of the message space, and thus it is informationally the most efficient allocation process that is informationally decentralized and realizes Pareto-efficient allocations over the class of economies that include nonmalevolent

Guoqiang Tian

2004-01-01

265

A President for the European Union: A New Actor in Town? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn the post-Constitution EU, the rotating Presidency would be replaced by a hybrid system combining a rotating component with the establishment of a permanent President for the European Council. Using a principal-agent framework, we look at the supply and demand for formal leadership in the new system, accounting for the substantial institutional change in the format of the Presidency. We

SPYROS BLAVOUKOS; DIMITRIS BOURANTONIS; GEORGE PAGOULATOS

2007-01-01

266

The Overvaluation of Sterling Since 1996: How the Policy makers Responded and Why &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large and sustained nominal appreciation in 1996-8 led to a serious and continuing overvaluation of sterling which has been associated with severe pressure on the manufacturing sector. The policy makers had difficulty in understanding past and forecasting future movements of sterling. They considered, but rejected, suggestions for foreign exchange market intervention and suggestions that interest rates should be set

David Cobham

2006-01-01

267

The Development of Organizational Social Capital: Attributes of Family Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? We develop and extend social capital theory by exploring the creation of organizational social capital within a highly pervasive, yet often overlooked organizational form: family firms. We argue that family firms are unique in that, although they work as a single entity, at least two forms of social capital coexist: the family's and the firm's. We investigate mechanisms that

Jean-Luc Arregle; Michael A. Hitt; David G. Sirmon; Philippe Very

2007-01-01

268

A NOTE ON THE DAI–SINGLETON CANONICAL REPRESENTATION OF AFFINE TERM STRUCTURE MODELS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dai and Singleton (2000) study a class of term structure models for interest rates that specify the short rate as an affine combination of the components of an?N-dimensional affine diffusion process. Observable quantities in such models are invariant under regular affine transformations of the underlying diffusion process. In their canonical form, the models in Dai and Singleton (2000) are based

Patrick Cheridito; Robert L. Kimmel

2010-01-01

269

The Venturesome Economy: How Innovation Sustains Prosperity in a More Connected World &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many observers have warned that the next stage of globalization—the offshoring of research and development to China and India—threatens the foundations of Western prosperity. But in this article, the author explains why the doomsayers are likely to be wrong.Using extensive field studies on venture capital-backed businesses to examine how technology is really used to create value in modern economies, this

Amar Bhidé

2009-01-01

270

Stewardship vs. Stagnation: An Empirical Comparison of Small Family and Non-Family Businesses &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Two major perspectives can be construed in the literature concerning the nature of family owned businesses (FOBs). The first implies that these enterprises have unique characteristics of stewardship. FOB owners are said to care deeply about the long-term prospects of the business, in large part because their family's fortune, reputation and future are at stake. Their stewardship is said

Danny Miller; Isabelle Le Breton-Miller; Barry Scholnick

2008-01-01

271

Capitalising the Value of Free Schools: The Impact of Supply Characteristics and Uncertainty &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sources and impact of variations of a given school quality at either primary or secondary level as capitalised into the price of houses. The results provide new evidence on the complex and subtle ways in which housing markets capitalise the value of local public goods such as school quality and suggest that this is highly nonlinear.

Paul Cheshire; Stephen Charles Sheppard

2004-01-01

272

Competition and Corporate Tax Avoidance: Evidence from Chinese Industrial Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates whether market competition enhances the incentives of Chinese industrial firms to avoid corporate income tax. We estimate the effects of competition on the relationship between firms’ reported accounting profits and their imputed profits based on the national income account. To cope with measurement errors and potential endogeneity, we use instrumental variables, exogenous policy shocks and other robustness

Hongbin Cai; Qiao Liu

2009-01-01

273

The College Wage Premium and the Expansion of Higher Education in the UK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper reports estimates of the UK “college premium” for young graduates across successive cohorts from large cross-section datasets for the UK pooled from 1994 to 2006—a period when the higher education participation rate increased dramatically. The growth in relative labour demand suggests that graduate supply considerably outstripped demand which ought to imply a fall in the premium. We find

Ian Walker; Yu Zhu

2008-01-01

274

The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Sanctions on the Transition Rate from Unemployment to Employment &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanctions or punitive benefits reductions are increasingly used as a tool to enforce compliance of unemployment insurance claimants with search requirements. This article analyses sanctions using a unique administrative data set of individuals who started collecting unemployment insurance in the Netherlands in 1992. After correction for selectivity in the imposition of sanctions, we find that sanctions substantially raise individual re-employment

Jaap H. Abbring; Gerard J. Berg; J. C. van Ours

2005-01-01

275

A Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Telescope Project: ALMA-SPICA Synergy Telescope (``ASTE-II'')  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on the new medium-scale plan in Japan to construct a 30 - 50 m class millimeter (mm) and sub-mm single dish telescope. The main observing frequency of the telescope is 70 to 420 GHz, which just covers main atmospheric windows at mm and sub-mm wavelengths in good observing sites such as the ALMA site. We are also aiming at observations at higher frequency up to 1 THz with the limited use of the antenna surface, e.g., under-illumination of the telescope. One of important science goals in this new telescope project is unveiling the large scale structure (LSS) of the high-z universe and cosmic star formation history by spectroscopic surveys of high-z galaxies in CO and [CII] lines. With exploiting synergy with ALMA and possibly SPICA, this telescope can contribute to the breadth of astronomy and astrophysics, e.g., astrochemistry, star formation in the Galaxy and galaxies, cosmology, and sub-mm VLBI.

Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, Y.; Totani, T.; Kitayama, T.; Komatsu, E.; Onishi, T.; Oshima, T.; Honma, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Nakanishi, H.; Iono, D.; Kuno, N.; Momose, M.; New Telescope Working Group

2013-10-01

276

The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal survey from rural Guatemala, we examine the effect of an early childhood nutritional intervention on adult educational outcomes. An intent-to-treat model yields substantial effects of an experimental intervention that provided highly nutritious food supplements to children, a quarter century after it ended: increases of 1.2 grades completed for women and one quarter SD on standardised reading comprehension

John A. Maluccio; John Hoddinott; Jere R. Behrman; Reynaldo Martorell; Agnes R. Quisumbing; Aryeh D. Stein

2009-01-01

277

Comparing Sunspot Equilibrium And Lottery Equilibrium Allocations: The Finite Case &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunspot equilibrium and lottery equilibrium are two stochastic solution concepts for nonstochastic economies. We compare these concepts in a class of completely finite, (possibly) nonconvex exchange economies with perfect markets, which requires extending the lottery model to the finite case. Every equilibrium allocation of our lottery model is also a sunspot equilibrium allocation. The converse is almost always true. There

Rod Garratt; Todd Keister; Karl Shell

2004-01-01

278

A systematic review of data on biological variation for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are enzymes measured in serum or plasma to investigate liver disease. The aim of this work is to assess the validity of published biological variation (BV) data currently available for these enzymes. Methods: Publications containing BV data for ALT, AST and GGT were identified by searching PubMed using the following keywords: biological varia*, RCV, CVw, CVi, CVb, and CVg. The 95% confidence intervals for the within- and between-subject coefficients of variation were calculated using the analytical imprecision, the number of subjects, samples and replicates. Results: The searches identified 10 publications with ALT, 14 with AST and nine with GGT data. The protocols presented in those publications as used were varied. The ranges of within-subject variation reported were: ALT: 11.1%-58.1%, AST: 3.0%-32.3% and for GGT: 3.9%-14.5%. The median values (ALT: 18.0%, AST: 11.9% and GGT: 13.8%) were similar to those listed in a BV database commonly used as a reference source. Conclusions: Published BV data for ALT, AST and GGT demonstrate a wide range of values derived from inconsistent protocols. The quality of the presentations of the data is variable. These findings raise concerns around the utility of the data currently available and highlight the need for critical appraisal of such publications. The working group on BV of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine is undertaking work to develop a critical appraisal checklist for the production and publication of reliable BV data. PMID:24072574

Carobene, Anna; Braga, Federica; Roraas, Thomas; Sandberg, Sverre; Bartlett, William A

2013-10-01

279

Multibiomarker responses upon exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant. It has been released into aquatic environments, where it is toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, five enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) in serum and liver of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were selected for screening. These enzymes may be suitable for use as early warning indicators of chronic TBBPA exposure. UDPGT, AST, ALT, and GR activities in serum were found to be as more sensitive to TBBPA as those of the liver. When the concentration of TBBPA exceeded 0.50-0.71mg/L for an exposure period of 32 days, GST, AST, ALT, and UDPGT activities cannot be restored to normal levels, suggesting that fish exposed to TBBPA above this threshold may incur irreversible damage. The activities of AST, ALT, and GR increased more significantly than GST and UDPGT at the lowest concentration of 0.35mg/L. AST showed the strongest activity with respect to toxic kinetics, followed by ALT and GR. This remained true from day 4 of exposure to TBBPA to day 32. However, GR showed the clearest and most significant dose-effect relationship. This shows that each of these three enzymes can be used as a biomarker for early warning applications focusing on TBBPA pollution. AST and ALT are suitable for use in conventional monitoring of water quality in areas at risk for TBBPA pollution, and GR is more suitable for use in burst TBBPA pollution accidents where GR activity in fish would change with the TBBPA concentration of the flowing water. PMID:24055989

Yang, Suwen; Xu, Fanfan; Zheng, Binghui; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Shengrui

2013-09-05

280

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, A Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils represents a major constraint for crop production as ~ 50% of the potentially arable soils worldwide are acidic. Therefore, understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying plant Al tolerance has been a major focus for a number of laboratories aroun...

281

Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1  

SciTech Connect

A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

Anderson, B. G. (Brodie G.); Rodriguez, G. (George); Stokes, J. L. (John L.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.); Clark, D. A. (David A.)

2001-01-01

282

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2013-04-01

283

Helium exhaust and transport studies with the ALT-II pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak  

SciTech Connect

The first encouraging experiments demonstrating direct, explicit control of the He{sup 2+} density in a tokamak plasma have been performed in the TEXTOR tokamak with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. Helium is injected in a short gas puff from the outside of the plasma, is observed to reach the plasma core, and then is readily removed from the plasma. An exhaust efficiency of {approximately}8% is obtained. Active charge-exchange spectroscopy is used to study the exhaust and transport of He{sup 2+} within the plasma, and the density evolution is modeled with a diffusive-convective transport code.

Hillis, D.L.; Finken, K.H.; Hogan, J.T.; Dippel, K.H.; Moyer, R.A.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Rusbueldt, D.; Akaishi, K.; Conn, R.W.; Euringer, H.; Gray, D.S.; Horton, L.D.; Hulse, R.A.; Isler, R.C.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Miyahara, A.; Wolf, G.H. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-Kernforschungsanlage, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-5170 Juelich (Federal Republic of Germany) Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (USA) National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (USA))

1990-11-05

284

Conversational science and advanced learning technologies (ALT) : Tools for conversational pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper questions the validity of traditional scientific method for the study of human learning and proposes five postulates for the advancement of a conversational science. It considers how an evolving capacity for lifelong learning has been constrained by inappropriate research methods and educational practice leading to a learning deficit in the population. Over 25 years of action research offers

Laurie Thomas; Sheila Harri-Augstein

2001-01-01

285

Salvage surgery of recurrence after laryngectomy - when should the alt free flap be modified?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Reconstruction of the pharynx and cervical esophagus has significantly progressed in the last 2 decades. A revolution in microvascular surgery has provided numerous choices for primary restoration, or in secondary reconstructions necessary for recurrences or complications of primary surgery. The goals of reconstruction after laryngopharyngoesophagectomy are to provide continuity of the alimentary tract, to protect major blood vessels, to heal the primary wound, and to restore the swallowing and breathing functions with minimal donor site and neck morbidity and deformation. Case Report We present 3 cases with complex defects of the laryngopharynx, cervical esophagus and trachea and anterior neck skin following central neck exenteration safely reconstructed with a single anterolateral thigh flap. No postoperative complications occurred in any of the 3 cases of reconstructions, each using a single anterolateral thigh flap. Conclusions This approach significantly simplified the reconstruction, with quick recovery, short hospital stay and excellent functional and aesthetic results.

Maciejewski, Adam; Krakowczyk, Lukasz; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgon, Janusz; Grajek, Maciej; Dobrut, Miroslaw; Szumniak, Ryszard; Jedrzejewski, Piotr; Ulczok, Rafal; Poltorak, Stanislaw

2012-01-01

286

Alt Solunum Yolu Enfeksiyonu Tanisiyla Hastanemize Yatirilan Olgularda RSV Enfeksiyonu Sikli?i ve Klinik Özellikleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency and clinical features of RSV infection among babies hospitalized with the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection. Methods: The study is executed between January 2006 and April 2006. In 80 children between 0-24 months of age, who were hospitalized in our Pediatrics Clinic with the diagnosis of lower respiratory

Tolga ERKUM

287

Zirconium adsorption and incorporation on a reconstructed Al-T4 AlN(0001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the energetic stability and electronic structure of zirconium adsorption and incorporation on a 2×2 reconstructed AlN(0001) surface. We employ density-functional theory within the generalized-gradient approximation to study such effects. First-principles total energy calculations reveal that the most stable positions of a Zr adatom on the reconstructed 2×2-T4 AlN(0001) surface are at the S1 and Sp substitutional sites. In addition, calculating the relative surface energy of several configurations, we constructed a phase diagram showing the energetically most stable surfaces as a function of the aluminium chemical potential. Based on these results, we find that incorporation at Al-substitutional sites is energetically favorable compared to adsorption on the top layers. In particular, we find that Zr-S1 and Zr-Sp structures are stable over the entire chemical potential range. This effect can lead to the formation of a non-reactive interfacial ZrN(111) layer on the AlN(0001) surface, which can offer a good interfacial combination between AlN substrate and other metal contacts, i.e. zirconium.

López-Pérez, William; González-Hernández, Rafael; Rodríguez M, Jairo Arbey

2013-10-01

288

All ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Publications  

Cancer.gov

Gage K. Schiffman M, Solomon D, Wheeler CM, Castle PE. Comparison of measurements of human papillomavirus persistence for postcolposcopic surveillance for cervical precancerous lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.

289

Preliminary observations on the plasma composition of liza klunzingeri from the strait of Hormuz (Persian gulf).  

PubMed

Serum biochemistry can be used for monitoring changes in the physiological condition of fish and water quality. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of plasma T3 (Thyroid hormone), thyroxin, TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone), ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase), AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) and cholesterol of Liza klunzingeri caught on the northern side of the strait of Hormuz (Persian Gulf). Biochemical values were: T3 0.96?±?0.58 ng/ml, Thyroxin 76.58?±?28.26 ng/ml TSH 0.03?±?0.01 nmol/L, ALT 1.71?±?0.68 U/L, AST 49.81?±?5.25 U/L and cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di. A significant positive correlation (P?AST and Cholesterol. ALT had a significant and positive correlation with cholesterol and AST (P?AST (P?

Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Afkhami, Majid; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Esmailpoor, Reza

2013-02-21

290

Endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner rapidly improves plasma parameters of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Bariatric surgery reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), nonsurgical bariatric device, on plasma parameters of NAFLD. Seventeen obese subjects with type 2 diabetes received the DJBL for 24 weeks. Before, during, and after DJBL implantation, we determined plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (?-GT), albumin, caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). At baseline, subjects had increased levels of AST (35 ± 4 IU/L), ALT (54 ± 5 IU/L), and ?-GT (66 ± 14 IU/L), compared with healthy individuals; subjects' mean concentrations of caspase-cleaved CK-18 and L-FABP were 214.4 ± 35.6 U/L and 29.3 ± 2.6 ng/mL, respectively. Three months after implantation of DJBL, all NAFLD-related parameters had decreased from baseline (AST, 28 ± 3 IU/L; ALT, 32 ± 2 IU/L; ?-GT, 44 ±7 IU/L; caspase-cleaved CK-18, 140.6 ± 16.3U/L; and L-FABP, 18.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL; all P < .05). After 6 months, levels of ALT and ?-GT had further decreased (ALT, 28 ± 2 IU/L and ?-GT, 35 ± 5 IU/L), whereas levels of AST, caspase-cleaved CK-18, and L-FABP had stabilized (P = not significant). Six months after DJBLs were removed, levels of ALT (37 ± 3 IU/L), ?-GT (42 ± 5 IU/L), and caspase-cleaved CK-18 (124.5 ± 12.5U/L) were still reduced (P < .05), whereas AST and L-FABP had returned to near baseline levels (P = not significant). Therefore, in obese subjects, DJBL reduces plasma parameters of NAFLD. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00985114. PMID:23920034

de Jonge, Charlotte; Rensen, Sander S; Koek, Ger H; Joosten, Mandy F; Buurman, Wim A; Bouvy, Nicole D; Greve, Jan Willem M

2013-08-03

291

Influence of Cordia myxa on chemically induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate Cordia myxa L. (CM) extracts as hepatoprotective agents, through their antioxidant activities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Oxydative liver damage in rats was induced in Wister rats by two agents: carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TA). Oxydative damage was evaluated by a measurement of aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamate transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), in sera

M. Afzal; C. Obuekwe; A. R. Khan; H. Barakat

2009-01-01

292

A Bolt Out of the Blue: A Case of Unexpected Acute Liver Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We describe an unusual case of acute hepatitis leading rapidly to acute liver failure. Clinical Picture: Our patient had known chronic hepatitis B with a regenerating nodule confirmed on imaging and histology. He was admitted initially for abdominal discomfort after a trip to China, and investigations showed acute hepatitis with alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) at 678

Chun-Tao Wai

293

EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

294

Serum enzyme levels in alcoholism and drug dependency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD), ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT), alanine aminotransferase (AlT), aspartate aminotransferase (AsT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed in 67 alcoholics and 40 drug dependent patients. Bilirubin, total protein, albumin, and globulin were also measured. GGTP elevation was observed in 48% of alcoholics and in 50% of drug dependents. The incidences of elevated

S Patel; P OGorman

1975-01-01

295

Salivary enzymes and periodontal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. There are important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death like: aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine cinase (CK), alkaline and acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), gama glutamil transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect

Tatjana Todorovic; Ivan Dozic; Mario Vicente Barrero; Besir Ljuskovic; Janko Pejovic; Marjan Marjanovic

296

UV-? ? ? ? ?, Stress and Triademefon Induced Effect on Nitrogen Metabolism and Anti-oxidative Enzymes of Lablab purpureus Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of antioxidative enzymes in protection against UV-? (280-320 nm) stress was studied in L. purpureus seedlings at 5 days after germination. Treatment of triademefon alone and in combination with UV-? was given in L. purpureus seedlings grown in vitro for soluble protein, proline contents and alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), nitrate reductase (NR), superoxide dismutase

Jitendra Kumar Chouhan; Pancha Ram; Pooja Rathi; S. P. Bohra

297

Used of Some Plant Wastes for Fish Feeding with Reference on its Impact on Growth Performance and Body Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: This study monitored changes in growth rate, various blood constituents (Blood glucose, total protein, cholesterol, Triglycerides ALT, AST, ALP and Gper) and glycogen content of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing different remaining plant materials. A total number of 120 Nile tilapias with an average body weight of 14 g\\/fish were divided into 4 equal groups.

M. A. A. Metwally; A. M. El-Gellal

298

Effect of a Single Dose of Caffeine Supplementation and Intermittent-interval Exercise on Muscle Damage Markers in Soccer Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

and after exercise to measure hematological parameters, serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) activity. To compare differences among all variables, 2 (time) × 2 (group) repeated measures ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc tests) was conducted. Exercise caused leukocytosis (38.5% and 36.1% in EXP and CONT, respectively),

Marco Machado; Welton D. Antunes; André Luiz M. Tamy; Pedro G. Azevedo; Juliano G. Barreto; Anthony C. Hackney

2009-01-01

299

Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Hepatocellular Injury in Japanese Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAKEISHI, M., IWATA, T., ISHII, N. and MURATA, K. Effects of Alcohol Consump- tion on Hepatocellular Injury in Japanese Men. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2004, 202 (1), 31-39 ? ? To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and ?-glutamyl- transferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from

Miwako Dakeishi; Toyoto Iwata; Noriko Ishii; Katsuyuki Murata

2004-01-01

300

Protective effect of Lycium chinense fruit on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) fruit (LFE) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and the mechanism underlying these protective effects in rats. The pretreatment of LFE has shown to possess a significant protective effect by lowering the serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This hepatoprotective action was confirmed

Ki-Tae Ha; Sang-Ju Yoon; Dall-Yeong Choi; Dong-Wook Kim; June-Ki Kim; Cheorl-Ho Kim

2005-01-01

301

Temporal variations of lipid peroxidation products, antioxidants and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian variations of lipid peroxidation products: thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidants: reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and liver marker enzymes such as transaminases (aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in circulation were analysed in control and ammonium chloride (AC) induced (100 mg\\/kg bodyweight) hyperammonemic rats.

M. Mohamed Essa; P. Subramanian

2007-01-01

302

Selected enzymatic activities in fresh water snails, specific intermediate host for human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (EC.2.6.1.1.) I, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (EC.2.6.1.2) II and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) (EC.1.1.1.27) III have been measured in tissue homogenate and in haemolymph of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the specific intermediate host for the human parasitic disease schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:2499422

Nabih, I; el-Dardire, Z; el-Ansary, A

1989-01-01

303

Kinetic properties of two transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase together with lactate dehydrogenase (LD) from the tissue homogenate of the Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, were partially characterized by measuring the Michaelis constant (km) and the maximum velocity (Vmax). The isoenzymatic pattern of lactate dehydrogenase was investigated through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:2279260

Nabih, I; el Dardiri, Z; el Ansary, A; Ahmed, S A

1990-01-01

304

Measurement of some selected enzymatic activities in infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

The activities of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and that of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were measured in the homogenate of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the specific intermediate hosts for the parasite Schistosoma mansoni which is the cause of the disease schistosomiasis. The isoenzymatic pattern of LD was also studied in the infected snails tissue. PMID:2083418

Nabih, I; el Dardiri, Z; el-Ansary, A; Rizk, M

1990-01-01

305

Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and amelioration of lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by polyphenolic compounds in Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus leaf extract (ELE) is rich in hydrolyzable tannins. We examined the effects of ELE and its constituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Mice fed a diet supplemented with 1% ELE were intraperitoneally administered LPS. Six hours later, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were significantly lower in the ELE-supplemented mice than in the

Keiichiro Sugimoto; Sayaka Sakamoto; Kazuya Nakagawa; Shuichi Hayashi; Naoki Harada; Ryoichi Yamaji; Yoshihisa Nakano; Hiroshi Inui

2011-01-01

306

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by

V. K. Sridevi; Hemendra S. Chouhan; Narendra K. Singh; Sushil K. Singh

2011-01-01

307

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by

V. K. Sridevi; Hemendra S. Chouhan; Narendra K. Singh; Sushil K. Singh

2012-01-01

308

Liver slice culture for assessing hepatotoxicity of freshwater cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 A modified mouse liver slice culture technique was established and the viability of the system was assessed on the basis of leakage of cytosolic enzymes viz. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ala nine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and slice histology.2 This system was employed for toxicity screening of five algal species of Indian origin on the basis

R. Bhattacharya; PV Lakshmana Rao; Asb Bhaskar; SC Pant; SN Dube

1996-01-01

309

Hepatoprotection of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis against experimentally induced liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexane extract of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis (200 and 100 mg\\/kg) showed significant hepatoprotection on carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide induced liver damage in rats. The protective effect was evident from serum biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis. Rats treated with P. maderaspatensis remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT and LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4 and thioacetamide treated rats. Hepatic

V. V. Asha; M. S. Sheeba; V. Suresh; P. J. Wills

2007-01-01

310

Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague–Dawley rats. The elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, TP, HA, LN, TG, and CHO were restored towards normalization significantly by GBP in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections.

Lan Yang; Cheng-zhang Wang; Jian-zhong Ye; Hai-tao Li

2011-01-01

311

Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl4 administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that

H. Özbek; S. U?ra?; H. Dülger; ?. Bayram; ?. Tuncer; G. Öztürk; A. Öztürk

2003-01-01

312

Hepatoprotective effects of almond oil against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed at evaluating the protective effects of almond oil against acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. The study results showed that animals received almond oil prior to the administration of CCl4 significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and

Xiao-Yan Jia; Qing-An Zhang; Zhi-Qi Zhang; Yan Wang; Jiang-Feng Yuan; Hong-Yuan Wang; Di Zhao

2011-01-01

313

Study on hepatoprotective effect of peptide S-8300 from shark liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To explore the effects of peptide S-8300 from shark liver (S-8300) on liver function as well as in regulating immune functions in experimental injury models. METHODS: Mice were administered with different doses of S-8300 for four consecutive days, followed by mice injected with tetrachloromethane (CCl4) on d 3. The activity of ALT, AST, LDH, SOD

Feng-Jie Huang; Zheng-Bing Lv; Qian Li; Li-Jun Wei; Liang Zhang; Wu-Tong Wu

314

Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-? than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer.

2011-01-01

315

The way forward towards improved biomarkers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 0.5 1.0 1.5 -6 0 0 60 120 180 Days on Study Dr ug ALT AST ALP TBL star t stop 10 xULN 3.2 xULN ULN 32 xULN death jaundice enceph Days on ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/scienceresearch

316

Vitreous humor carbohydrate-deficient transferrin concentrations in the postmortem diagnosis of alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deaths from the effects of alcohol intoxication are encountered routinely in forensic practice. In an important number of cases difficulty may arise in interpreting the significance of results obtained in the autopsy. In clinical practice biochemical markers, particularly serum ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and erythocyte mean corpuscular volume are used to diagnose heavy

Eduardo Osuna; Mar??a D Pérez-Cárceles; Miguel Moreno; Andrés Bedate; Josefa Conejero; Jose M Abenza; Pedro Mart??nez; Aurelio Luna

2000-01-01

317

Risk factors for recurrence after curative resection of hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma in patients without postoperative interferon therapy.  

PubMed

AIM: Hepatitis C (HC)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; HC-HCC) is highly recurrent. METHODS: From 1995-2007, 183 curative hepatic resections for primary solitary HC-HCC without postoperative interferon therapy were included in this study. The patients were divided into three groups: (i) 2?cm or less (n?=?56); (ii) more than 2?cm to less than 5?cm (n?=?79); and (iii) 5?cm or more (n?=?48). Independent risk factors for HC-HCC recurrence for each group were determined. RESULTS: Independent risk factors for recurrence were aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) of 80?IU/L or more (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; P?=?0.02) in patients with HCC of 2?cm or less, des-?-carboxy prothrombin of 100?mAU/mL or more (HR, 2.5; P?=?0.02) and AST/ALT of 80?IU/L or more (HR, 2.1; P?=?0.04) in patients with HCC of more than 2?cm to less than 5?cm, and the presence of macroscopic portal vein tumor thrombus (HR, 2.8; P?=?0.02) and AST/ALT of 80?IU/L or more (HR, 2.1; P?=?0.04) in patients with HCC of 5?cm or more. All 13 late recurrences of 1 year or more after hepatic resection (27.1%) in patients with HCC of 5?cm or more were accompanied by AST/ALT of 80?IU/L or more. CONCLUSION: AST/ALT of 80?IU/L or more is an independent risk factor for the recurrence of primary solitary HC-HCC after curative resection irrespective of the primary HC-HCC size. PMID:23534348

Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Shirabe, Ken; Toshima, Takeo; Tsuijita, Eiji; Takeishi, Kazuki; Harimoto, Norifumi; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2013-03-27

318

Metabolic syndrome is linked to a mild elevation in liver aminotransferases in diabetic patients with undetectable non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background Despite ongoing findings on the relationship between elevated levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), this association in diabetic patients without a known cause for liver enzymes elevation other than diabetes, per se, remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between circulating liver enzymes and MetS in a relatively large sample of patients with diabetes. Methods A total of 670 diabetic patients, without known causes of hepatocellular injury, were enrolled. Patients with ultrasonographic signs of fatty liver disease were not included. Fasting blood samples were obtained and biochemical characteristics were measured. MetS was defined according to the international diabetes federation criteria. Results Serum ALT and AST were significantly higher in patients with MetS (p < 0.001). High waist circumference and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly associated with elevated ALT (OR = 2.56 and 2.0, respectively) and AST (OR = 2.23 and 2.21, respectively). ALT and AST were significantly associated with MetS (OR = 2.17 and 2.31, respectively). These associations remained significant after multiple adjustments for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, HbA1c and medications. There was a significant (p < 0.01) positive association between the number of the MetS features and the level of ALT or AST. Conclusion In diabetic patients without ultrasonographic evidence of fatty liver, elevated aminotransferases are independently associated with MetS. Despite negative ultrasound results in diabetic patients with MetS, the serum level of liver aminotransferases may be elevated and should be more thoroughly monitored.

2010-01-01

319

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) of the liver as a safe and protective technique against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of IP in LT, particularly in marginal grafts. From 2007 to 2008, 75 LT donors were randomized to receive IP (IP+) or not (IP-). Considering the graft quality, we divided the main groups in two subgroups (marg+/marg-). IP was performed by 10-min inflow occlusion (Pringle maneuver utilizing a toruniquet). Donor variables considered were gender, age, AST/ALT, ischemia time and steatosis. Recipient variables were gender, age, indication to LT and MELD/CHILD/UNOS score. AST/ALT levels, INR, bilirubin, lactic acid, bile output on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7 were evaluated. Histological analysis was performed evaluating necrosis/steatosis, hepatocyte swelling, PMN infiltration and councilman bodies. Thirty patients received IP+ liver. No differences were seen between groups considering recipient and donor variables. Liver function and AST/ALT levels showed no significant differences between the main two groups. Marginal IP+ showed lower AST levels on day1 compared with untreated marginal livers (936.35 vs. 1268.23; p = 0.026). IP+ livers showed a significant reduction of moderate-severe hepatocyte swelling (33.3% vs. 65.9%; p = 0.043). IP+ patients had a significant reduction of positive early microbiological investigations (36.7% vs. 57.1%; p = 0.042). In our experience IP was safe also in marginal donors, showing a protective role against IRI. PMID:19519822

Franchello, A; Gilbo, N; David, E; Ricchiuti, A; Romagnoli, R; Cerutti, E; Salizzoni, M

2009-06-10

320

Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Personalized Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Emerging Role of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Background. The objectives were (i) to evaluate the impact of acute pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and anti-TB therapy on the relationship between AST, ALT, and GGT levels in absence of conditions related to hepatotoxicity; (ii) to evaluate the rate and the time of alterations of AST, ALT, and GGT. Design and Methods. A prospective followup of 40 adults (21 males; mean age of 34.7 ± 5.8 years) with active PTB on initial phase and continuation phase anti-TB. Results. Only 3% (n = 1) developed a transient and benign ADR at day 30 without interruption of anti-TB treatment. Within normal ranges, GGT decreased significantly from day 0 to day 60, while AST and ALT increased significantly and respectively. During day 0–day 60, there was a significant, negative, and independent association between GGT and AST. Conclusion. The initial two months led to significant improvement of oxidative stress. Values of oxidative markers in normal ranges might predict low rate of ADR.

Mokondjimobe, Etienne; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Akiana, Jean; Ndalla, Ulrich Oswald; Dossou-Yovo, Regis; Mboussa, Joseph; Parra, Henri-Joseph

2012-01-01

321

An AZTEC\\/ASTE 1.1mm Survey Of The Young, Dense, Nearby Star-forming Region, Serpens South  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Serpens South embedded cluster, recently discovered by the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey, stands out among over 100 clusters and groups surveyed by Spitzer as the densest (>430 pc-2) and youngest (77% Class I protostars) clustered star forming region known within the nearest 400 pc. In order to better characterize the primordial structure of the cluster's natal cloud, we

Robert A. Gutermuth; T. Bourke; B. Matthews; M. Dunham; L. Allen; P. Myers; J. Jorgensen; G. Wilson; M. Yun; D. Hughes; I. Aretxaga; K. Ryohei; K. Kotaro; K. Scott; J. Austermann

2010-01-01

322

Addressing nurse shortages: what can policy makers learn from the econometric evidence on nurse labour supply? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a detailed review of the international studies that have used formal econometric models to investigate the labour supply decision of Registered Nurses (RNs). The main finding is that, at least in the short-run, RN labour supply appears to be fairly unresponsive to wage changes. Consequently, even large wage increases are unlikely to be successful in tackling current

Michael A. Shields

2004-01-01

323

New Developments in Monetary Economics: Two ghosts, Two Eccentricities, a Fallacy, a Mirage and a Mythos &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monetary theory and policy are part of intertemporal public finance. The two ghosts are the liquidity trap and the real balance effect. The eccentricities are negative nominal interest rates and the helicopter drop of money. The fallacy is the Fiscal Theory of the Price Level, a logically inconsistent theory of the link between the government's intertemporal budget constraint and the

Willem H. Buiter

2005-01-01

324

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan: consumers' food safety perceptions and willingness to pay for tested beef &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as ‘mad cow disease’, in Japan caused anxiety about consuming beef and beef products. As a result, there was a sudden fall in sales of beef that hurt the Japanese beef industry as well as major beef exporters to Japan. We analyse factors that affect Japanese consumers' willingness to pay (WTP)

Jill J. McCluskey; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Hiromi Ouchi; Thomas I. Wahl

2005-01-01

325

The Effects of Critical Habitat Designation on Housing Supply: An Analysis of California Housing Construction Activity &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is required to designate critical habitat (CH) for listed species. Designation could result in modification to or delay of residential development projects within habitat boundaries, generating concern over potential housing market impacts. This paper draws upon a large data set of municipal‐level (FIPS) building permit issuances and critical habitat

Jeffrey E. Zabel; Robert W. Paterson

2006-01-01

326

The Relationship Between Task Interdependency and Role Stress: A Revisit of the Job Demands–Control Model &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Drawing from Karasek's job demands–control model, this study investigated how perceived amount and clarity of interdependency in managers’ jobs affect role stress, and the extent to which job control moderates these relationships. Results show that amount of interdependency was positively associated with role conflict, and clarity of interdependency was negatively associated with role ambiguity. There was also support for

Sze-Sze Wong; Gerardine DeSanctis; Nancy Staudenmayer

2007-01-01

327

Declining inflows and more frequent droughts in the Murray–Darling Basin: climate change, impacts and adaptation &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is likely that climate change will be associated with reductions in inflows of water to the Murray–Darling Basin. In this study, we analyse the effects of climate change in the Murray–Darling Basin using a simulation model that incorporates a state-contingent representation of uncertainty. The severity of the impact depends, in large measure, on the extent to which climate change

David Adamson; Thilak Mallawaarachchi; John Quiggin

2009-01-01

328

CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE EARNINGS GAP BETWEEN NATIVES AND IMMIGRANTS ALONG THE U.S.MEXICO BORDER &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Using 1990 and 2000 U.S. census data, this study investigates changes in immigrant/native earnings disparities for workers in U.S. cities along the international border with Mexico vis-à-vis the U.S. interior during the 1990s. Our findings—based on estimating earnings functions and employing the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce (1993, JPE) wage decomposition technique—indicate that the average earnings of Mexican immigrants along the U.S.-Mexico border improved

Alberto Dávila; Marie T. Mora

2008-01-01

329

Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage

1998-01-01

330

Dragon Children: Identifying the Causal Effect of the First Child on Female Labour Supply with the Chinese Lunar Calendar &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractInstrumental variables (IV) estimates of the effect of fertility on female labour supply have only been able to identify the causal effect of second and higher parity children. This study uses exogenous variation in fertility caused by the Chinese lunar calendar to identify the effect of the first child. Additionally, weighting formulas are presented to interpret IV estimates as weighted

J ames P. V ere

2008-01-01

331

The Europeanization of Media Discourse: A Study of Quality Press Coverage of Economic Policy Coordination since Amsterdam &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe article seeks to contribute to the debate about the Europeanization of publicized discourse as a key factor in the underpinning of legitimate and effective governance in Europe. It explores the degree to which two sets of European Union legal provisions for the co-ordination of national employment and fiscal policies have led to an adaptation of media discourses in selected

CHRISTOPH O. MEYER

2005-01-01

332

Natural Hazards as the Cause of Toxic Spills in the United States, with some Notes on Liability&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters that create technological emergencies by causing the release of dangerous materials such as oil, chemicals, or radiological\\/infectious agents are called “na-tech” events (Showalter and Myers 1992). Although there has yet to be a catastrophic na-tech event in the United States, low impact events are fairly common. An example of this occurred a few weeks ago when, during flooding

Pamela S Showalter

1995-01-01

333

A Brief History of HistorySome Models of History and Lessons for Leadership and Management&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking a managerial perspective, this article presents some models of history with a view to draw lessons for leadership and management of organizations and institutions. The suggested models include: evolution of human thought in terms of religions, science and spirituality and their convergence; transitions in society from kingdom–state to nation–state to corporates as state and beyond; creativity view of history;

Subhash Sharma

2005-01-01

334

Effects of Executive Characteristics and Venture Capital Involvement on Board Composition and Share Ownership in IPO Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the agency perspective, resource-based view and upper echelon research, this paper examines factors affecting board selection and share ownership in initial public offerings (IPOs). In line with socio-cognitive and behavioural research, it shows that board independence, cognitive capacity and the incentives of non-executive directors are negatively associated with the experience and power of executive directors, and that large-block share

Igor Filatotchev

2006-01-01

335

COHERENCE OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE AND THE FIRM'S INNOVATIVE PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM THE U.S. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relationship between the coherence of the knowledge base and the innovative performance of U.S. pharmaceutical firms during the 1990's. We develop measures of the coherence and scope of the firms' knowledge base. Count data regression models show a strong link between these two properties and the firms' innovative performance. Firms experience decreasing returns to scale in research

Lionel Nesta; Pier Paolo Saviotti

2005-01-01

336

The Impact of Goal Alignment on Board Existence and Top Management Team Composition: Evidence from Family-Influenced Businesses &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 714 private family influenced businesses in Germany, we investigate the relationship of goal alignment between owners and managers and the existence of a board of directors. Agency theory and stewardship theory serve as theoretical bases for our study. We find that firms with relatively high levels of goal alignment are less likely to have a board

Torsten M. Pieper; Sabine B. Klein; Peter Jaskiewicz

2008-01-01

337

The Effects of Initial Location, Aspirations, and Resources on Likelihood of First Sale in Nascent Firms &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of a new venture includes initial choices that affect the process of start-up. Primary among these decisions is the choice of location whether to start from home or from an away location. This paper examines the impact of initial firm location choices and aspirations of the entrepreneur on the resource assembly process and the likelihood of first sale.

Candida G. Brush; Linda F. Edelman; Tatiana S. Manolova

2008-01-01

338

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

1985-03-01

339

The Development of Rights-based Social Policy in the European Union: The Example of Disability Rights &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article examines the development of non-discrimination rights in the EU, with particular reference to disability. It outlines the origins of Article 13 TEC, which extended the competence of the Community institutions to combat discrimination, and traces the history of other initiatives in the disability policy area. Programmatic and juridical methods of promoting equality are described and compared. The analysis

DEBORAH MABBETT

2005-01-01

340

DOES NEOCLASSICAL THEORY ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF BIG FISCAL SHOCKS? EVIDENCE FROM WORLD WAR II &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much debate surrounds the usefulness of the neoclassical growth model for assessing the macroeconomic impact of fiscal shocks. We test the theory using data from World War II, which is by far the largest fiscal shock in the history of the United States. We take observed changes in fiscal policy during the war as inputs into a parameterized, dynamic general

Ellen R. M cG rattan; Lee E. Ohanian

2010-01-01

341

Narcissus Revisited: The Values of Management Academics and their RoleinBusiness School Strategies in the UK and Canada &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myth of Narcissus provides an appropriate metaphor for the continuing debate over the relationship between academics, business and other stakeholders; most recently expressed in terms of Mode 1 and Mode 2 knowledge and academic entrepreneurialism. Both myth and debate are based partly on conflicts over identity. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted on the identity of management

David R. Stiles

2004-01-01

342

Saving, Wealth and the Transition from Transfers to Individual Responsibility: The Cases of Taiwan and the United States &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUnder the life‐cycle saving model, population aging leads to an increased demand for life‐cycle wealth. Changes in transfer systems create or destroy one component of life‐cycle wealth—transfer wealth. The decline in the familial transfer system in Taiwan and reform of the US Social Security system are two examples of ways that transfer wealth is reduced. The combined effects of aging

Ronald Lee; Andrew Mason; Timothy Miller

2003-01-01

343

Convertible Securities and Bankruptcy Reforms: Addressing Too Big to Fail and Reducing the Fragility of the Financial System &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eliminating too big to fail should be the first priority of any regulatory reform. But this is easier said than done. As the crisis has taught us, when the systemic risks are perceived to be large, regulators will be very reluctant to close down insolvent firms or impose losses on creditors. So how do we reduce these risks so that

Charles I. Plosser

2010-01-01

344

Can Companies Use Hedging Programs to Profit from the Market? Evidence from Gold Producers &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors summarize the findings of their recent study of the hedging activities of 92 North American gold mining companies during the period 1989-1999. The aim of the study was to answer two questions: (1) Did such hedging activities increase corporate cash flows? (2) And if yes, were such increases the result of management's ability to anticipate

Tim R. Adam; Chitru S. Fernando

2008-01-01

345

Complexity VIII. Ontology of closure in complex systems: The C&ast; hypothesis and the O° notation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closure is a common characteristic of mathematical, natural and socio-cultural systems. Whether one is describing a graph, a molecule, a cell, a human, or a nation state, closure is implicitly understood. An objective of this paper is to continue a construction of a systematic framework for closure which is sufficient for future quantitative transdisciplinary investigations. A further objective is to

Jerry LR Chandler

1999-01-01

346

76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...motors (SRMs) on the Atlas V medium lift vehicle and larger SRMs...analyzed the operation of both medium and heavy lift expendable...would be added to the Atlas V medium lift vehicle and larger SRMs...environmental justice, and children's environmental health...

2011-08-18

347

Chi'08 alt.chi \\/ do we bump into things more while speaking on a cell phone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed more than 8,800 cases of people passing by an obstacle that was placed at different heights at the entrance to a university cafeteria. Of those cases, 491 were of pedestrians speaking on a cell phone. Overall, 2,422 bumping cases were recorded. Using a cell phone while walking did not increase the risk of bumping into protruding obstacles. The

Noam Tractinsky; David Shinar

2008-01-01

348

Academic learning time in physical education(ALT-PE): Academic learning time in physical education(ALT-PE): is it related to fundamental movement skill is it related to fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning? acquisition and learning? Tiempo de aprendizaje académico en educación física(ALT-PE): Tiempo de aprendizaje académico en educación física(ALT-PE): ¿tiene que ver con la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades ¿tiene que ver con la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales? motrices fundamentales?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the relationship between time-variables of the physical education lesson and fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning was examined. One hundred and ten first grade students and their six physical educators participa- ted. Students were pre-, post-, and re-tested both qualitatively and quantitatively on overhand throwing and catching. The Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985) was used

Vassiliki Derri; Kyriaki Emmanouilidou; Olga Vassiliadou; Efthimis Kioumourtzoglou; Edmundo Loza Olave

349

Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

2013-09-01

350

Regional Adipose Tissue and Elevations in Serum Aminotransferases in HIV-Infected Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume. Results After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (?14.3%, 95% CI: ?24.7 to ?4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (?11.9%, 95% CI: ?18.4 to ?5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (?7.1%, 95% CI: ?22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.

Tien, Phyllis C.; Kotler, Donald P.; Overton, E. Turner; Lewis, Cora E.; Rimland, David; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gripshover, Barbara

2009-01-01

351

Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats  

PubMed Central

The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation.

Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

2011-01-01

352

Characterization and quantification of the influence of season and gender on plasma chemistries of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni, Gmelin 1789).  

PubMed

The present study is the first to monitor plasma chemistries of a group of 30 Hermann's tortoises (HTs) over two summer seasons to characterize and quantify seasonal and gender-related influences. The following analytes were analyzed: ALT, ALP, AST, BA, CA, CHO, CK, LDH, GLU, GLDH, P, TP, TRIG, urea and uric acid. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, mean values, confidence intervals were calculated. The overall results showed distinct patterns and somewhat unexpected results concerning the plasma chemistry changes induced by season and gender in a majority of routine biochemical analytes. TRIG, CHO, CA, and P were significantly higher in females. AST, ALT, BA, LDH and GLDH showed an increase in males in midsummer. ALP showed a significant and analogous seasonal variation for both sexes. GLU showed a moderate increase during midsummer. Uric acid and urea concentrations showed a distinct seasonal variation. For some analytes, fitted curves could be calculated describing the seasonal variation. PMID:23535317

Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Schauberger, Günther

2013-03-25

353

Serum protein and enzyme levels in rats following administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed).  

PubMed

The The potential hepatotoxic effects following oral administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) was investigated in albino Wistar rats. Twenty eight (28) adult male Wistar rats were uniformly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were respectively gavaged with 200 mg/kg body weight, 400 mg/kg body weight and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for 21 days. At the end of treatments, animals were sacrificed, serum and liver tissues obtained for assay of total protein concentration and levels of ALT, AST and ALP. Results showed that treatment of rats with the respective doses of the extract did not significantly alter the serum and liver levels of total protein, ALT, AST and ALP in all test groups. This result suggests that ingestion of the extract may not be toxic at the doses investigated. PMID:20234750

Antai, A B; Eyong, E U; Eteng, M U; Itam, E H; Eko, M E; Ita, S O

2009-12-01

354

Antidiabetic and antiacetylcholinesterase effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was intended to examine the effects of the supplementation of active ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory ethyl acetate (CSE) fraction from the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne on blood glucose (BG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant levels. The diabetic rats were treated orally with CSE at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg bw for 14 days. BG, TC, TG, HDL-C, ALT, AST and AChE levels were significantly reduced; on the other hand antioxidant levels were significantly increased in the treated groups. These observations suggest protective effects of CSE against STZ-induced diabetic dementia model. PMID:21764274

Sancheti, Sandesh; Sancheti, Shruti; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-07-20

355

In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Agmy, Sherif M; Gaur, Rajiv L; Fernando, Augusta; Raj, Madhwa HG; Ouhtit, Allal

2009-01-01

356

Enzymatic activities in brains of diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulphate and sodium tungstate.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of the present study was that diabetes mellitus might affect brain metabolism. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, treated with vanadyl sulphate (V) and sodium tungstate (T) were employed to observe the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in brain homogenates. Significant increases in AST, ALT and CK activities were found in diabetic brain homogenates against controls, suggesting increments of transamination in brain and/or increases in cell membrane permeability to these enzymes. The increase in brain CK possibly expresses alterations in energy production. The decrease in CK activity caused by V and T treatment in diabetic rats suggests that both agents tend to normalize energy consumption. It is also possible that V and T-induced hypoglycemic effects cause metabolic alterations in brain. PMID:18038759

Lemberg, A; Fernández, M A; Ouviña, G; Rodríguez, R R; Peredo, H A; Susemihl, C; Villarreal, I; Filinger, E J

2007-12-01

357

Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model  

PubMed Central

Objective To observe the combination effect of doxorubicin and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime's) peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Doxorubicin and ChEE (5 rats per group) were administered in five groups of 3 rats each for 11 d. Group I: doxorubicin (dox) 4.67 mg/kg body weight; Group II: dox+ChEE 500 mg/kg body weight; Group III: dox+ChEE 1?000 mg/kg body weight; Group IV: ChEE 1?000 mg/kg body weight; Group V: untreated (control). Results ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity rats, but did not repair neither hepatohistopathology profile nor reduce serum activity of ALT and AST. Conclusion ChEE has potency to be developed as cardioprotector agent in chemotherapy.

Putri, Herwandhani; Nagadi, Standie; Larasati, Yonika Arum; Wulandari, Nindi; Hermawan, Adam

2013-01-01

358

Effect of oestrogen\\/gestagen replacement therapy on liver enzymes in patients with Ullrich-Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of breast development and the prevention of osteoporosis in Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) require oestrogen\\/gestagen substitution therapy. In 8 out of 35 (23%) patients with UTS treated with conjugated equine oestrogens and cyclically with norethisterone acetate, the serum liver enzymes increased to conspicuous levels (AST 35; 20–73 U\\/l, ALT 92; 37–141 U\\/l, GGT 77; 25–227 U\\/l, [median; min-max]). These

H. Wemme; J. Pohlenz; W. Schönberger

1995-01-01

359

Evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of jigrine post-treatment against thioacetamide induced hepatic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jigrine a polypharmaceutical herbal formulation containing aqueous extracts of 14 medicinal plants developed on the principles of unani system of medicine is used for liver ailments. The hepatoprotective potential of jigrine post-treatment at the dose of 0.5 ml\\/kg per day p.o. for 21 days was evaluated against thiocetamide induced liver damage in rats. Biochemical parameters like AST, ALT in serum

Aftab Ahmad; K. K Pillai; Abul K Najmi; Shibli J Ahmad; S. N Pal; D. K Balani

2002-01-01

360

Elevated Liver Enzyme Tests Among Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriatic Arthritis Patients treated with Methotrexate and/or Leflunomide  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential hepatotoxicity associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs [DMARDs] requires laboratory monitoring. In rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis [RA, PsA] patients, we examined the incidence of elevated alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) enzymes associated with methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide (LEF), and MTX+LEF vs. other DMARDs. Methods RA and PsA patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) initiating DMARDs were identified. Abnormalities were identified when either was 1 or 2-fold time above the upper limits of normal (ULN). Odds ratios [OR] between MTX/LEF dose and elevated ALT/AST enzymes were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Interaction terms for use of MTX+LEF quantified the incremental risk of the combination compared to each individually. Results Elevated ALT/AST levels (>1× ULN) occurred in 22, 17, 31, and 14% RA patients receiving MTX, LEF, MTX+LEF, or neither, respectively; elevations were 2.76 fold (95% CI 1.84 – 4.15) more likely in PsA patients. Elevations > 2× ULN occurred in 1–2% of patients on MTX or LEF monotherapy compared to 5% with the combination. After multivariable adjustment and compared with either monotherapy, combination MTX + LEF was associated with greater risk according to MTX dose used as part of the combination: MTX 10–17.5mg/week, OR=2.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–6.90) and MTX ?20 mg/week, OR=3.98 (95% CI: 1.72–9.24). Conclusions 14–35% of RA and PsA patients initiating DMARD therapy developed abnormal ALT/AST levels. Risks were incrementally greater in those with PsA and in those receiving MTX (? 10mg/day) + LEF. These findings should help inform monitoring for potential hepatotoxicity in these patient populations.

Curtis, Jeffrey R; Beukelman, Timothy; Onofrei, Alina; Cassell, Sarah; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Reed, George; Strand, Vibeke; Kremer, Joel M

2009-01-01

361

Effects of clomazone herbicide on hematological and some parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.  

PubMed

The effects of clomazone (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) according to nominal concentrations used in paddy rice fields (0.4-0.7 mg/L) on protein and carbohydrate metabolism and haematological parameters were evaluated in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h of exposure with a recovery period of 96 and 192 h. Liver glycogen increased significantly (P<0.05) in all periods and concentrations tested. The maximum glycogen increase reaches 250% after 12h of exposure. Muscle glycogen reduced significantly after 24, 48, 96 and 192 h for both clomazone concentrations (P<0.05). Significantly elevated plasma glucose values (P<0.05) and variation in glucose in the liver and muscle of exposed fish were observed. Muscle lactate levels increased after 12, 24 and 48 h of clomazone exposure (22-67%), but reduced in the liver (P<0.05). Protein levels were enhanced in the liver and white muscle, except at 96 and 192 h of exposure, whereas it increased in the plasma in the period from 48 to 96 h (P<0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were significantly elevated in the plasma (P<0.05). In the liver, ALT increased after 24 h, while AST activity was enhanced only after 12 h of exposure. Hematocrit contents were reduced after 96 and 192 h of exposure. Most of the metabolic disorders observed did not persist after the recovery period, except for the liver AST and ALT activity. Clomazone concentrations used in this study appear safe to fish, Rhamdia quelen, because overall parameters can be recovered after 96 and 192 h in clean water. ALT and AST activity may be an early biomarker of clomazone toxicity. PMID:16099506

Crestani, Márcia; Menezes, Charlene; Glusczak, Lissandra; Dos Santos Miron, Denise; Lazzari, Rafael; Duarte, Marta F; Morsch, Vera Maria; Pippi, Amy Lee; Vieira, Vânia Pimentel

2005-08-15

362

Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 ameliorates alcoholic liver disease in ethanol-containing diet-fed C57BL\\/6N mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) SBC8803 on the development of alcoholic liver disease using ethanol-containing diet-fed mice. Heat-killed L. brevis was orally administered at a dose of 100 or 500 mg\\/kg once a day for 35 days. Alcoholic liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a

Shuichi Segawa; Yoshihisa Wakita; Hiroshi Hirata; Junji Watari

2008-01-01

363

COMPARISON OF SERUM 0-HEXOSAMTNIDASE ISOENZYME B ACTIVITY WITH SERUM CARBOHYDRATE-DEFICIENT TRANSFERRIN AND OTHER MARKERS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared \\/i-hexosaminidase (\\/J-Hex) activity, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CUT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), y-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values in serum from male alcoholic patients with the corresponding values in moderate and non-drinking subjects. The total \\/J-Hex activity was 2.5 times higher in the alcoholics than in the moderate drinkers and this increase was mainly due

L. STOWELL; A. STOWELL; N. GARRETT; G. ROBINSON

364

Biochemical manifestations of anti-tuberculosis drugs induced hepatotoxicity and the effect of silymarin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the biochemical manifestations of liver toxicity caused by co-administration of anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), in a sub-chronic mode (12 weeks), were investigated. Significant alterations were revealed in (a) increased levels of alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and a high bilirubin content in serum; (b) elevated lipid

Sheikh A. Tasduq; Kaiser Peerzada; Supriya Koul; Rinku Bhat; Rakesh K. Johri

2005-01-01

365

Acute Brucella Hepatitis in an Urban Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35-year-old man was referred to our center because of low grade fever, vomiting, yellow sclera, and tenderness in the upper-right quadrant of his abdomen. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell (WBC) of 7100\\/?L, a platelet of 184,000\\/?L, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 4 mm\\/h, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 525 U\\/L, an as- partate aminotransferase AST of

Mina Asef Zadeh; Abbas Allami; Seyed Moayed Alavian

2009-01-01

366

Associations between ?-glutamyl transferase, metabolic abnormalities and inflammation in healthy subjects from a population-based cohort: A possible implication for oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the relationships between ? -glutamyl- transferase (GGT), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and various metabolic parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and an oxidative stress marker (nitrotyrosine, NT) in subjects without any metabolic abnormalities from a population-based sample. METHODS: Two hundred and fi ve subjects with normal body mass index (BMI), glucose tolerance, and without any metabolic abnormality were studied

Simona Bo; Roberto Gambino; Marilena Durazzo; Sabrina Guidi; Elisa Tiozzo; Federica Ghione; Luigi Gentile; Maurizio Cassader; Gian Franco Pagano

367

Abnormal liver function test results are related to metabolic syndrome and BMI in Taiwanese adults without chronic hepatitis B or C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Metabolic syndrome (MS) is considered a cause of abnormal deposition of fat into hepatocytes, which might be associated with hepatic steatosis or abnormal liver function.Objective:The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with MS and the relationship between MS and abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in Taiwanese subjects without chronic

M-H Hsieh; C-K Ho; N-J Hou; M-Y Hsieh; W-Y Lin; J-F Yang; C-C Chiu; J-F Huang; N-C Chang; C-L Wang; C-Y Dai; W-L Chuang; M-L Yu

2009-01-01

368

Elevated liver enzyme activity in construction workers: prevalence and impact on early retirement and all-cause mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) are widely used as markers\\u000a of hepatobiliary disorders in occupational health surveillance. Little is known, however, about the prevalence and occupational\\u000a and non-occupational determinants of elevated levels of these enzymes in specific occupational groups or about the prognostic\\u000a value of elevated levels with respect to long-term outcomes such as

Volker Arndt; Hermann Brenner; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Bernd Zschenderlein; Eckart Fraisse; Theodor M. Fliedner

1998-01-01

369

Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed,\\u000a age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) \\/ glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)\\u000a \\/ glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The\\u000a mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale,

M. Tibbo; Y. Jibril; M. Woldemeskel; F. Dawo; K. Aragaw; J. E. O. Rege

2008-01-01

370

Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia ( Syzygium cumini ) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm)\\u000a of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities\\u000a and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase\\u000a (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid

Ayman M. El-Anany; Rehab F. M. Ali

371

Long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats (Efectos a largo plazo del aceite esencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume en algunos parametros fisiológicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while high density lipoprotein HDL- cholesterol, total protein and uric acid

Talal A. ZARI; Ayed Sh

2009-01-01

372

Antischistosomal activity of colostral and mature camel milk on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-schistosomal activity of colostral and mature camel milk on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. Six weeks post infection, mean percentage of protection was detected through the hepatic portal vein. Glutathio ne-s-transferase (GST), alanine, aspartate transami nase (ALT and AST) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were detected in sera of treated mice

Amany S Maghraby; Mahmoud A Mohamed; Ahmed M Abdel-Salam

373

Heparin and quercitin generate differential metabolic pathways that involve aminotransferases and LDH-X dehydrogenase in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Heparin and quercetin induce capacitation in spermatozoa through membrane receptor binding and inhibition of Ca-ATPase of the plasma membrane, respectively. Although capacitation is energy intensive, ammonia from amino acid metabolism can inhibit respiration and Krebs cycle activity. The objective was to determine activities of key enzymes in bull spermatozoa that contribute to the redox state and supply energy for capacitation. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH-NAD(+)), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT, AST), and lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) were measured spectrophotometrically (340 nm); mean (+/-S.D.) activities in control spermatozoa were 7.65+/-1.67, 0.45+/-0.05 and 0.74+/-0.14x10(-2)U/10(8) spermatozoa for MDH-NAD(+), ALT and AST, respectively, and were 2.83+/-0.66U/10(8) spermatozoa for LDH-X. Heparin decreased (P<0.05) activities of MDH-NAD(+), ALT, AST and LDH-X (78, 53, 66 and 66% of control levels, respectively); we inferred that amino acid catabolism was decreased. Quercetin decreased (P<0.05) activities of MDH-NAD(+) and ALT (60 and 49% of control levels), but activities of AST and LDH-X were not significantly different from controls; apparently maintenance of LDH-X activity supplied pyruvate for cellular metabolism. The proportion of capacitated spermatozoa in controls (8.5+/-1.73%) was substantially increased (P<0.05) by treatment with either heparin (36.2+/-4.5%) or quercetin (32.8+/-4.7%), there was no significant difference among groups for acrosomal integrity and sperm viability. In conclusion, heparin- or quercetin-induced capacitation affected different metabolic pathways that modulated the redox state and oxidative metabolism in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. PMID:17084443

Córdoba, M; Pintos, L N; Beconi, M T

2006-11-03

374

Variation of transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase in irradiated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

Effect of ultraviolet and gamma radiations on the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the specific intermediate host of schistosomiasis, was investigated. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of LD in the species under study were also taken as a measured parameter and the effect of gamma-irradiation on the glutathione content in the haemolymph of the snails have been included. PMID:1934013

Nabih, I; el-Ansary, A

1991-01-01

375

Elevated post-transfusion serum transaminase values associated with a highly significant trend for increasing prevalence of anti-Vesivirus antibody in Korean patients.  

PubMed

A highly significant increase in anti-Vesivirus (family Caliciviridae) antibody prevalence, along the axis from healthy blood donors; donors with elevated transaminase; patients with clinical hepatitis; and patients with post-transfusion/dialysis hepatitis, has been reported in human sera from the USA and Europe. Asian samples have now been tested retrospectively using serology and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a Vesivirus partial-capsid antigen expressed as a fusion protein. Anti-vesiviral antibodies were measured by optical densities (OD(650)) and compared in patients separated by age, gender and Groups A-F as follows: Control Group A, an Experimental Group B, which was divided further into Group C, patients with elevated enzymes (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT); Group D, patients receiving transfused blood; Group E, patients with high enzyme levels after transfusion; and Group F, hepatitis B and C positive patients. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving transfusion(s), were positive for anti-Vesivirus antibody compared with non-transfused patients (P = 0.008; OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.43-10.43). Also, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly associated with elevated biochemical liver function tests: ALT ? 20?IU or AST ? 120?IU (P = 0.017; OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.30-13.80). In the blood transfusion group, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly correlated with high enzyme levels (ALT, P = 0.018; AST, P = 0.010; ?-GT, P = 0.020). These data provide serologic evidence of vesiviral transfusion-transmission-associated disease, which could include infection of any organ system where cytopathology resulted in high levels of either ALT or AST. PMID:23080501

Lee, Heetae; Cho, You-Hee; Park, Jeong Su; Kim, Eui-Chong; Smith, Alvin W; Ko, GwangPyo

2012-12-01

376

Carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme in the liver of male rats: role of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases and glutathione play an important role in the detoxification of most toxic agents. In the present study, the protective effects of some antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid (AA), vitamin E (VE) or garlic) on carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the level of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric

S. A Sheweita; M Abd El-Gabar; M Bastawy

2001-01-01

377

Morin protects acute liver damage by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible beneficial effects of morin on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats received a single dose of CCl4 (150 ?L\\/100 g 1:1 in corn oil). Morin treatment (20 mg\\/kg) was given at 48, 24, and 2 h before CCl4 administration. CCl4 challenge elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline

Hee-Seung Lee; Kyung-Hee Jung; Sang-Won Hong; In-Suh Park; Chongmu Lee; Hyo-Kyung Han; Don-Haeng Lee; Soon-Sun Hong

2008-01-01

378

Protective effects of thymoquinone and desferrioxamine against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and desferrioxamine (DFO) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. A single dose of CCl4(20 ?lkg, i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity, manifested biochemically by significant elevation of activities of serum enzymes, such as alanine transaminase (ALT, EC: 2.6.1.2), aspartate transaminase (AST, EC: 2.6.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC: 1.1.1.27). Hepatotoxicity was further evidenced by significant decrease of

Mahmoud A Mansour

2000-01-01

379

Protective effects of chitosan oligosaccharide and its derivatives against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), d-glucosamine (GlcNH2) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanisms that involved were investigated in male ICR mice. CCl4 (20mg\\/kg body weight, i.p.) administration induced marked increase in serum AST and ALT activities, primed liver lipid peroxidation, depleted sulfhydryl content, impaired total antioxidant capabilities and induced genotoxicity 24h after

Yang Yan; Liu Wanshun; Han Baoqin; Liu Bing; Fu Chenwei

2006-01-01

380

Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

2003-11-01

381

Evaluation of the physiological status of the Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax caeruleus , acclimated to different thermal regimes based on selected blood parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of temperature in the population dynamics and distribution of Pacific\\u000a sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus), few studies have examined the species’ physiological response to temperature under controlled conditions. The effect of\\u000a fluctuating thermal regimes on blood plasma cortisol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), alanine aminotransferase\\u000a (AST) and red blood cell (RBC) counts of Pacific sardine

Marcel Martínez-Porchas; Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez; Sharon Z. Herzka; Luis E. Gutierrez-Millán

2011-01-01

382

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl4, CCl4+silymarin, and CCl4+ERW groups. CCl4-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl4 also significantly

Chia-Fang Tsai; Yu-Wen Hsu; Wen-Kang Chen; Wen-Huei Chang; Cheng-Chieh Yen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Fung-Jou Lu

2009-01-01

383

Protective effects of seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the protective effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., SBT) seed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in male ICR mice. Our results showed that oral administration of SBT seed oil at doses of 0.26, 1.30, and 2.60mg\\/kg for 8weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride

Yu-Wen Hsu; Chia-Fang Tsai; Wen-Kang Chen; Fung-Jou Lu

2009-01-01

384

Hepatoprotective effect of total flavonoids from Laggera alata against carbon tetrachloride-induced injury in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes and in rats with hepatic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The hepatoprotective activities of total flavonoids of Laggera alata (TFLA) were evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes and in rats with hepatic damage. In vitro, TFLA at a concentration range of 1–100  $$\\\\upmu$$g\\/ml improved cell viability and inhibited cellular leakage of two enzymes, hepatocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), caused by CCl4.

Yihang Wu; Fang Wang; Qunxiong Zheng; Longxi Lu; Hongtian Yao; Changxin Zhou; Xiumei Wu; Yu Zhao

2006-01-01

385

Synergistic hepatoprotective effect of Schisandrae lignans with Astragalus polysaccharides on chronic liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic hepatoprotective effect of lignans from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (LFS) with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on chronic liver injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10% CCl4 twice a week for 3 months resulted in significantly (p<0.001) elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities compared to

Fei Yan; Qiao-Yan Zhang; Lei Jiao; Ting Han; Hong Zhang; Lu-Ping Qin; Rahman Khalid

2009-01-01

386

Protective effects of Dunaliella salina – A carotenoids-rich alga, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) on liver damage were evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male ICR mice were orally treated with D. salina or silymairn daily with administration of CCl4 twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl4 induced liver damage and significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and

Yu-Wen Hsu; Chia-Fang Tsai; Wen-Huei Chang; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Wen-Kang Chen; Fung-Jou Lu

2008-01-01

387

Signs of enhanced neuromotor maturation in children due to perinatal load with background levels of dioxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated psychomotor development (Bayley-test) and neuromotor functioning (Hempel-test) in a group of children with known perinatal load with background levels of dioxins. Bayley-test (n=32) at 2 years, and additionally investigated growth, medical history, physical condition, TT4, TT4\\/TBG, TSH, AST and ALT at the age of 2.5 years did not reveal abnormalities, or differences between the high- and the low-exposure

A. Ilsen; J. M. Briët; J. G. Koppe; H. J. Pluim; J. Oosting

1996-01-01

388

The Prevalence and Predictors of Elevated Serum Aminotransferase Activity in the United States in 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:The presence of elevated serum aminotransferase activity is a sign of possible underlying liver disease. We aimed to describe the prevalence and associations of elevated serum aminotransferase activity in a recent, nationally representative U.S. survey.METHODS:We described the prevalence and predictors of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT >43 IU\\/L) or elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST >40 IU\\/L) activity among 6,823 participants of the

George N. Ioannou; Edward J. Boyko; Sum P. Lee

2006-01-01

389

Resveratrol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in d-galactosamine sensitized rats: Role of nitric oxide synthase 2 and heme oxygenase-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of study was directed to investigate the effects of resveratrol (RES) pretreatment on the enhancing action of d-galactosamine (d-GalN; 800mg\\/kg) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5?g\\/kg) inducing liver failure in rats. Liver function was assessed by determination of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutathione S-transferase (alpha GST) and bilirubin (BILI). Plasma NO2? was assessed by NO2?\\/NO3? colorimetric kit.

Hassan Farghali; Dalibor ?erný; Ludmila Kameníková; Jind?ich Martínek; Aleš Ho?ínek; Eva Kmoní?ková; Zden?k Zídek

2009-01-01

390

Protective effects of chalcone derivatives for acute liver injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of chalcone derivatives were evaluated in D-galactosamine\\/ lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN\\/LPS)-induced\\u000a fulminant hepatic failure in mouse. Thirteen chalcone derivatives were synthesized for study and their hepatoprotective effects\\u000a were evaluated by assessing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in serum. Chalcone\\u000a preparations were injected into mice at 12 h and 1 h before intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN\\/LPS. After

Li-Ping Guan; Ji-Xing Nan; Xue-Jun Jin; Qing-Hao Jin; Kyung Chell Kwak; Kyu-yun Chai; Zhe-Shan Quan

2005-01-01

391

Effects and mechanisms of crude astragalosides fraction on liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astragalosides is the major active constituent of Radix Astragali. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of crude astragalosides fraction (CAF) on rats liver fibrosis and its possible mechanisms. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 50% CCl4 in Sprague–Dawley rats. The amount of CCl4 administered was 1mgkg?1. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels

Shuang-Ying Gui; Wei Wei; Hua Wang; Li Wu; Wu-Yi Sun; Wen-bi Chen; Cheng-Yi Wu

2006-01-01

392

Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage.  

PubMed

Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system. PMID:24029385

Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

2013-09-12

393

Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with optical coherence tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938546

Kova?evi?, Igor; Radosavljevi?, Aleksandra; Kalezi?, Bojan; Poti?, Jelena; Damjanovi?, Goran; Stefanovi?, Ivan

2012-08-01

394

The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.  

PubMed

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

2012-08-01

395

Potential of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum to reduce radiation induced hepatic damage in male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum on radiation-induced hepatic damage was evaluated. Rats were treated with a single dose of 600 rads (6 Gy) y-radiation to induce hepatic damage. Aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum (200 and 400 mg/kg b. wt) were administered orally to rats for two weeks prior to radiation and four weeks after radiation. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined for their antioxidant capacity. The activities of serum markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the histological changes were examined to evaluate potential ameliorative effects. Results from this study confirmed that exposure of animals to radiation led to induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activities while simultaneously a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST was observed. Administration of varying doses of P.G. and A.L. before and after irradiation inhibited the elevated levels of LPO, restored the GSH level and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. This findings demonstrated that aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum might mitigate the liver gamma-radiation-induced damage probably by increasing antioxidant activities. PMID:23033796

Nwozo, S O; Okameme, P E; Oyinloye, B E

396

Protective effect of binaphthyl diselenide, a synthetic organoselenium compound, on 2-nitropropane-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Organoselenides have been documented as promising pharmacological agents against a number of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here we have investigated, for the first time, the potential antioxidant activity of binaphthyl diselenide ((NapSe)(2); 50 mg kg(-1), p.o.) against the 2-nitropropane (2-NP)-induced hepatoxicity in rats, using different end points of toxicity (liver histopathology, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine). In addition, in view of the association of oxidative stress with 2-NP exposure, hepatic lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid levels, delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) and catalase (CAT) activities were evaluated. 2-NP caused an increase of AST, ALT and hepatic lipid peroxidation. 2-NP also caused hepatic histopathological alterations and delta-ALA-D inhibition. (NapSe)(2) (50 mg kg(-1)) prevented 2-NP-induced changes in plasmatic ALT and AST activities and also prevented changes in hepatic histology, delta-ALA-D and lipid peroxidation. Results presented here indicate that the protective mechanism of (NapSe)(2) against 2-NP hepatotoxicity is possibly linked to its antioxidant activity. PMID:20517888

Ibrahim, Mohammad; Prigol, Marina; Hassan, Waseem; Nogueira, Cristina W; Rocha, Joao B T

2010-06-01

397

Liver structure and function in print workers exposed to toluene.  

PubMed

An unresolved controversy is whether exposure to organic solvents in the workplace causes hepatotoxicity. From a medical surveillance study of 289 printing factory employees who were exposed primarily to toluene, we identified eight workers who had persistently abnormal serum transaminase and/or alkaline phosphatase values. The eight men were generally healthy and gave no history of taking medications or of drinking ethanol to excess. None was obese or diabetic. Six patients had hepatomegaly based on physical examination. All eight had mild elevations (less than 2 to 3 times the upper value of normal) of serum transaminases [alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)]. However, there was a marked increase in the ratio of ALT/AST (mean = 1.61). In each case, liver biopsy revealed mild, pericentral fatty change. Our results, consistent with those previously published by some others, suggest that pericentral fatty liver with mild "reactive hepatitis" is the most likely diagnosis in workers exposed to solvents for whom common causes of mild liver test abnormalities have been excluded. An increased ALT/AST ratio may represent a convenient, previously unrecognized indicator of this condition. PMID:3230426

Guzelian, P; Mills, S; Fallon, H J

1988-10-01

398

Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system.

Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

2013-10-01

399

Clinical outcomes of Torque teno virus-infected thalassemic patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although a marked proportion of thalassemic patients acquire Torque teno virus (TTV) through blood transfusion, its clinical importance is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the clinical importance of TTV infection in thalassemic patients with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection in Iran. Methods In this case-control study, 107 thalassemic patients on chronic transfusion and 107 healthy individuals were selected. According to HCV and TTV infection status (detected by semi-nested PCR), patients were categorized into 4 groups: TTV and HCV negative, TTV positive, HCV positive, and TTV and HCV positive. Blood ferritin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in these 4 groups were assessed. Results Approximately half of the thalassemic patients (50.5%) and 27.1% of controls had TTV infection. Thalassemic patients had a greater chance of TTV infection compared to the control group with a sex-adjusted OR of 4.13 (95% CI=2.28-8.13). The increased levels of ALT, AST, and ferritin in the TTV and HCV-infected group were not significantly different from those in the TTV and HCV negative group. Co-infection with TTV and HCV did not significantly increase ALT, AST, and ferritin levels compared to infection with TTV alone. Conclusion Although common in thalassemic patients, TTV infection appears to have a negligible role in increasing the severity of liver disease, even when co-infection with HCV occurs.

Alavi, Samin; Sharifi, Zohreh; Nourbakhsh, Kazem; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi; Safarisharari, Alieh; Navidinia, Masoumeh

2011-01-01

400

A paper-based multiplexed transaminase test for low-cost, point-of-care liver function testing  

PubMed Central

In developed nations, monitoring for drug-induced liver injury via serial measurements of serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) in at-risk individuals is the standard of care. Despite the need, monitoring for drug-related hepatotoxicity in resource-limited settings is often limited by expense and logistics, even for patients at highest risk. This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of AST and ALT in a fingerstick specimen. Using 223 clinical specimens obtained by venipuncture and 10 fingerstick specimens from healthy volunteers, we have shown that our assay can, in 15 minutes, provide visual measurements of AST and ALT in whole blood or serum which allow the user to place those values into one of three readout “bins” (<3x upper limit of normal (ULN), 3-5x ULN, and >5x ULN, corresponding to tuberculosis/HIV treatment guidelines) with >90% accuracy. These data suggest that the ultimate point-of-care fingerstick device will have high impact on patient care in low-resource settings.

Pollock, Nira R.; Rolland, Jason P.; Kumar, Shailendra; Beattie, Patrick D.; Jain, Sidhartha; Noubary, Farzad; Wong, Vicki L.; Pohlmann, Rebecca A.; Ryan, Una S.; Whitesides, George M.

2013-01-01

401

Profile of Hepatic Involvement by Dengue Virus in Dengue Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background: The spectrum of liver dysfunction in children with dengue infection is wide and has been associated with disease severity. Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the range of hepatic involvement in dengue infection in children. Materials and Methods: This study assessed the biochemical and clinical profile of hepatic involvement by dengue virus in 120 children with serologically positive dengue fever (DF), aged 2 months to 14 years. Results: All cases were grouped into DF without warning signs (Group 1), DF with warning signs (Group 2) and severe dengue (Group 3) according to revised World Health Organization 2009 criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (80.8%), hepatic tenderness (46.3%), jaundice (60%), raised aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and prolonged prothrombin time (41.7%) and reduced serum albumin (56%). Conclusions: Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in Groups 2 and 3. There was 84.4% and 93.75% ALT and AST elevation respectively in Group 2 and 94.5% and 95.9% ALT and AST elevation respectively in Group 3 and fulminant hepatic failure was observed in Group 3. Therefore in a child with fever, jaundice, hepatomegaly and altered liver function tests, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered in areas where dengue infection is endemic.

Roy, Amrita; Sarkar, Debalina; Chakraborty, Sohini; Chaudhuri, Jasodhara; Ghosh, Pramit; Chakraborty, Swapna

2013-01-01

402

Effect of intraportal infusion of tacrolimus on ischaemic reperfusion injury in orthotopic liver transplantation: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Summary The increased use of older and/or marginal donor organs in liver transplantation over the last decade calls for strategies to minimize ischaemic reperfusion (I/R) injury to prevent early graft failure. Tacrolimus, a very potent and effective calcineurin inhibitor, was selected because of its ability to ameliorate I/R injury. A randomized, blinded, controlled single-centre trial of 26 liver transplant recipients was performed between February 2008 and December 2009. Donor organs were randomized to be perfused intraportally during liver transplantation with 1.5 l 5% albumin infusion containing either 20 ng/ml tacrolimus or placebo. The primary end point was liver function as assessed by aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) levels 6 days after transplantation. Treatment effectiveness was tested by transcriptome-wide analysis of biopsies. There was no difference in the primary end point, i.e. AST (IU/l) and ALT (IU/l) at day 6 after transplantation between groups. Furthermore, choleastatic parameters as well as parameters of liver synthesis were not different between groups. However, tacrolimus treatment suppressed inflammation and immune response in the transplanted liver on a genome-wide basis. Intrahepatic administration of tacrolimus did not result in a reduction of AST and ALT within the first week after transplantation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00609388)

Kristo, Ivan; Wilflingseder, Julia; Kainz, Alexander; Marschalek, Julian; Wekerle, Thomas; Muhlbacher, Ferdinand; Oberbauer, Rainer; Bodingbauer, Martin

2012-01-01

403

Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Serum Levels of Calcium, Iron and Liver Enzymes in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background: To reach fetal appropriate growth during the third trimester, the requirements for dietary calcium and iron intakes during the pregnancy increases. This study was carried out to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum calcium and iron levels and liver enzymes among Iranian healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of consuming 200 g/d of conventional (n = 33) or probiotic yogurts (n = 37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yogurt contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. To measure serum calcium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, blood samples were drawn in a fasting state at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention. Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt (P = 0.01). Within-group differences in the conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction of serum calcium levels (?1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on serum iron, AST and ALT levels. Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels.

Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

2013-01-01

404

Cerulenin Blockade of Fatty Acid Synthase Reverses Hepatic Steatosis in ob/ob Mice  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver or hepatic steatosis is a common health problem associated with abnormal liver function and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin on hepatic function in steatotic ob/ob mice. Different dosages of cerulenin were administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice for 2 to 7 days. Body weight, serum AST/ALT, hepatic energy state, and gene expression patterns in ob/ob mice were examined. We found that cerulenin treatment markedly improved hepatic function in ob/ob mice. Serum AST/ALT levels were significantly decreased and hepatic ATP levels increased in treated obese mice compared to obese controls, accompanied by fat depletion in the hepatocyte. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? and uncoupling protein 2 were suppressed with cerulenin treatment and paralleled changes in AST/ALT levels. Hepatic glutathione content were increased in some cases and apoptotic activity in the steatotic livers was minimally changed with cerulenin treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fatty acid synthase blockade constitutes a novel therapeutic strategy for altering hepatic steatosis at non-stressed states in obese livers.

Evans, Zachary P.; Sutter, Alton G.; Jin, Lan; Singh, Inderjit; May, Harold; Schmidt, Michael G.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

405

Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente

406

Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

2012-12-01

407

Acetyl-l-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial ?-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-l-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

2013-09-18

408

Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from ?-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional (1)H-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis. PMID:21380856

Ellinger, James J; Lewis, Ian A; Markley, John L

2011-03-06

409

A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of GS-9450 in Subjects With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

In nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the extent of hepatocyte apoptosis correlates with disease severity. Reducing hepatocyte apoptosis with the selective caspase inhibitor GS-9450 has a potential for altering the course of the liver disease. In this phase 2, double-blind study, 124 subjects with biopsy-proven NASH were randomized to once-daily placebo or 1, 5, 10, or 40 mg GS-9450 for 4 weeks. Absolute and percent changes from baseline in ALT levels, AST levels, and caspase-3–cleaved cytokeratin (CK)-18 fragments at week 4 were assessed by an analysis of covariance model with adjustment for baseline values. In the 40-mg group, mean (SD) ALT decreased by 47 (43) U/L from baseline to week 4 (P < 0.0001 versus placebo), and the proportion of subjects with normal ALT increased from 0% to 35% at week 4. In the 40-mg group, mean AST decreased by 13 U/L from baseline (not significant), and the proportion with normal AST increased from 20% at baseline to 48% at week 4. By week 4, mean CK-18 fragment levels had decreased to 393 (723) U/L in the GS-9450 10-mg group and 125 (212) U/L in the 40-mg group, but these reductions were not statistically significant. No serious adverse events were reported during treatment, and the percentage of subjects with at least one treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormality ranged from 11.5% to 17% across the GS-9450 treatment groups versus 35% in the placebo group. Conclusion GS-9450 treatment induced significant reductions in ALT levels in NASH patients. Reductions in CK-18 fragment levels also occurred, although they were not statistically significant. At appropriate therapeutic indices, selective caspase inhibitors may be a promising treatment option in patients with NASH.

Ratziu, Vlad; Sheikh, Muhammad Y.; Sanyal, Arun J.; Lim, Joseph K.; Conjeevaram, Hari; Chalasani, Naga; Abdelmalek, Manal; Bakken, Anezi; Renou, Christophe; Palmer, Melissa; Levine, Robert A.; Bhandari, B. Raj; Cornpropst, Melanie; Liang, Wei; King, Benjamin; Mondou, Elsa; Rousseau, Franck S.; McHutchison, John; Chojkier, Mario

2013-01-01

410

Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis. PMID:20466777

Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

2010-05-13

411

Talking Ourselves to Efficiency: Coordination in InterGenerational Minimum Effort Games with Private, Almost Common and Common Knowledge of Advice &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use experiments to investigate the use of advice as a coordinating device in the ‘Minimum Effort Game’ which is a coordination game with weak strategic complementarities and Pareto-ranked equilibria. The game is played by non-overlapping generations of players who, after they are done, pass on advice to their successors who take their place in the game. We conjectured that

Ananish Chaudhuri; Andrew Schotter; Barry Sopher

2009-01-01

412

Te Pikaunga-Mahi Me Te Kohukihuki (Workload and Stress)=A National Survey of Maori Aste Te Hau Takitini O Aotearoa Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996 a national survey was undertaken of 24 Maori members of the Association of Staff in Tertiary Education in New Zealand. It followed an earlier study and sought to investigate further the workloads of Maori staff members and related issues. The research process gave fundamental priority to ensuring culturally appropriate research practices.…

Sisley, Renee; Waiti, Danica

413

Expanding the Tension-Reduction Model of Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Comparison of Managerial and Non-Managerial Men and Women &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? The tension-reduction model that links workplace stress to alcohol use and problems has received mixed support in previous investigations. Following recommendations that this model include moderated mediated relationships ( Frone, 1999) using more specific forms of workplace stress, we examine the impact of gender ratio, generalized workplace abuse, and stereotype threat in an effort to predict alcohol use and

Sarah Moore; Patricia Sikora; Leon Grunberg; Edward Greenberg

2007-01-01

414

Prevalence of resistance to three fluoroquinolones: assessment of levofloxacin disk test error rates and surrogate predictors of levofloxacin susceptibility. AST Surveillance Group.  

PubMed Central

More than 3,000 consecutive clinical bacterial isolates from 10 U.S. medical centers were subjected to standard broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests to determine their susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, D-ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Levofloxacin was confirmed to be twice as active as ofloxacin and to have activity comparable to that of ciprofloxacin, with minor variations in activity against some species. The prevalence of resistant isolates was 7.1% to levofloxacin, 9.3% to ciprofloxacin, and 11.2% to ofloxacin. The susceptibilities of some species to the quinolones were less than those reported in previous studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates had the greatest variability in their susceptibilities to the three drugs between the participating centers. Two proposed zone size breakpoints for levofloxacin disk tests yielded similar low error rates. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin susceptibility test results correlated reasonably well with those of levofloxacin and could be used as surrogate indicators of levofloxacin susceptibility, but that resulted in some serious errors, and thus, direct testing of levofloxacin susceptibility is preferable. Replicate testing of standard quality control strains confirmed the established and proposed quality control parameters for all three quinolones tested.

Fuchs, P C; Barry, A L; Brown, S D

1996-01-01

415

Nascent vibrational populations in He&ast;(2 1,3S)+H2, HD, D2 Penning ionization from electron spectroscopy in crossed supersonic molecular beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penning ionization electron spectroscopy (PIES) in crossed supersonic molecular beams has been used to measure nascent H+2, HD+, and D+2 vibrational populations, line shifts, and their collision energy dependence in the case of H2 (E=1.6, 2.1, and 2.6 kcal\\/mol), in the title systems. The use of optical spin–state selection and beam modulation enabled estimates of vibrational populations to be obtained

H. M. Bevsek; D. C. Dunlavy; P. E. Siska

1995-01-01

416

(re) C overing the P ast , remem B ering t rauma : the Politi C s o F C ommemoration at sites o F atro C ity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the current upsurge in the production of memory with the construction of memorial sites worldwide to commemorate incidences of mass violence, atrocity, and genocide. Through the two empirical lenses of Cambodia and Rwanda, it grapples with what propels the impetus to memorialize, in whose interest memorials are constructed, and how memorials may fulfill multiple and competing purposes

Lisa M. Moore

417

Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions ${\\\\cal B}(B^0 \\\\to K^{\\\\ast 0} \\\\gamma)\\/{\\\\cal B}(B^0_s \\\\to \\\\phi \\\\gamma)$  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of branching fractions of the radiative $B$ decays $B^0\\\\to K^{*0}\\\\gamma$ and $B^0_s\\\\to \\\\phi\\\\gamma$ has been measured using $0.37\\\\,$fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre of mass energy of $\\\\sqrt{s}=7\\\\,$TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The value obtained is \\\\begin{equation} \\\\frac{{\\\\cal B}(B^0\\\\to K^{*0}\\\\gamma)}{{\\\\cal B}(B^0_s\\\\to \\\\phi\\\\gamma)} = 1.12 \\\\pm 0.08^{+0.06}_{-0.04}\\\\phantom{.}^{+0.09}_{-0.08},\\\

R Aaij; C Abellan Beteta; B Adeva; M Adinolfi; C Adrover; A Affolder; Z Ajaltouni; J Albrecht; F Alessio; M Alexander; G Alkhazov; P Alvarez Cartelle; A A Alves; S Amato; Y Amhis; J Anderson; R B Appleby; O Aquines Gutierrez; F Archilli; L Arrabito; A Artamonov; M Artuso; E Aslanides; G Auriemma; S Bachmann; J J Back; D S Bailey; V Balagura; W Baldini; R J Barlow; C Barschel; S Barsuk; W Barter; A Bates; C Bauer; Th Bauer; A Bay; I Bediaga; S Belogurov; K Belous; I Belyaev; E Ben-Haim; M Benayoun; G Bencivenni; S Benson; J Benton; R Bernet; M-O Bettler; M van Beuzekom; A Bien; S Bifani; T Bird; A Bizzeti; P M Bjørnstad; T Blake; F Blanc; C Blanks; J Blouw; S Blusk; A Bobrov; V Bocci; A Bondar; N Bondar; W Bonivento; S Borghi; A Borgia; T J V Bowcock; C Bozzi; T Brambach; J van den Brand; J Bressieux; D Brett; M Britsch; T Britton; N H Brook; H Brown; K de Bruyn; A Büchler-Germann; I Burducea; A Bursche; J Buytaert; S Cadeddu; O Callot; M Calvi; M Calvo Gomez; A Camboni; P Campana; A Carbone; G Carboni; R Cardinale; A Cardini; L Carson; K Carvalho Akiba; G Casse; M Cattaneo; Ch Cauet; M Charles; Ph Charpentier; N Chiapolini; K Ciba; X Cid Vidal; G Ciezarek; P E L Clarke; M Clemencic; H V Cliff; J Closier; C Coca; V Coco; J Cogan; P Collins; A Comerma-Montells; F Constantin; A Contu; A Cook; M Coombes; G Corti; B Couturier; G A Cowan; R Currie; C D'Ambrosio; P David; I De Bonis; S De Capua; M De Cian; F De Lorenzi; J M De Miranda; L De Paula; P De Simone; D Decamp; M Deckenhoff; H Degaudenzi; L Del Buono; C Deplano; D Derkach; O Deschamps; F Dettori; J Dickens; H Dijkstra; P Diniz Batista; F Domingo Bonal; S Donleavy; F Dordei; A Dosil Suárez; D Dossett; A Dovbnya; F Dupertuis; R Dzhelyadin; A Dziurda; S Easo; U Egede; V Egorychev; S Eidelman; D van Eijk; F Eisele; S Eisenhardt; R Ekelhof; L Eklund; Ch Elsasser; D Elsby; D Esperante Pereira; A Falabella; E Fanchini; C Färber; G Fardell; C Farinelli; S Farry; V Fave; V Fernandez Albor; M Ferro-Luzzi; S Filippov; C Fitzpatrick; M Fontana; F Fontanelli; R Forty; O Francisco; M Frank; C Frei; M Frosini; S Furcas; A Gallas Torreira; D Galli; M Gandelman; P Gandini; Y Gao; J-C Garnier; J Garofoli; J Garra Tico; L Garrido; D Gascon; C Gaspar; R Gauld; N Gauvin; M Gersabeck; T Gershon; Ph Ghez; V Gibson; V V Gligorov; C Göbel; D Golubkov; A Golutvin; A Gomes; H Gordon; M Grabalosa Gándara; R Graciani Diaz; L A Granado Cardoso; E Graugés; G Graziani; A Grecu; E Greening; S Gregson; B Gui; E Gushchin; Yu Guz; T Gys; C Hadjivasiliou; G Haefeli; C Haen; S C Haines; T Hampson; S Hansmann-Menzemer; R Harji; N Harnew; J Harrison; P F Harrison; T Hartmann; J He; V Heijne; K Hennessy; P Henrard; J A Hernando Morata; E van Herwijnen; E Hicks; K Holubyev; P Hopchev; W Hulsbergen; P Hunt; T Huse; R S Huston; D Hutchcroft; D Hynds; V Iakovenko; P Ilten; J Imong; R Jacobsson; A Jaeger; M Jahjah Hussein; E Jans; F Jansen; P Jaton; B Jean-Marie; F Jing; M John; D Johnson; C R Jones; B Jost; M Kaballo; S Kandybei; M Karacson; T M Karbach; J Keaveney; I R Kenyon; U Kerzel; T Ketel; A Keune; B Khanji; Y M Kim; M Knecht; R F Koopman; P Koppenburg; M Korolev; A Kozlinskiy; L Kravchuk; K Kreplin; M Kreps; G Krocker; P Krokovny; F Kruse; K Kruzelecki; M Kucharczyk; T Kvaratskheliya; V N La Thi; D Lacarrere; G Lafferty; A Lai; D Lambert; R W Lambert; E Lanciotti; G Lanfranchi; C Langenbruch; T Latham; C Lazzeroni; R Le Gac; J van Leerdam; J-P Lees; R Lefévre; A Leflat; J Lefrançois; O Leroy; T Lesiak; L Li; L Li Gioi; M Lieng; M Liles; R Lindner; C Linn; B Liu; G Liu; J von Loeben; J H Lopes; E Lopez Asamar; N Lopez-March; H Lu; J Luisier; F Machefert; I V Machikhiliyan; F Maciuc; O Maev; J Magnin; S Malde; R M D Mamunur; G Manca; G Mancinelli; N Mangiafave; U Marconi; R Märki; J Marks; G Martellotti; A Martens; L Martin; A Martín Sánchez; D Martinez Santos; A Massafferri; Z Mathe; C Matteuzzi; M Matveev; E Maurice; B Maynard; A Mazurov; G McGregor; R McNulty; M Meissner; M Merk; J Merkel; R Messi; S Miglioranzi; D A Milanes; M-N Minard; J Molina Rodriguez; S Monteil; D Moran; P Morawski; I Mous; F Muheim; K Müller; R Muresan; B Muryn; B Muster; M Musy; J Mylroie-Smith; P Naik; T Nakada; R Nandakumar; I Nasteva; M Nedos; M Needham; N Neufeld; A D Nguyen; C Nguyen-Mau; M Nicol; V Niess; N Nikitin; A Nomerotski; A Novoselov; A Oblakowska-Mucha; V Obraztsov; S Oggero; S Ogilvy; O Okhrimenko; R Oldeman; M Orlandea; J M Otalora Goicochea; P Owen; K Pal; J Palacios; A Palano; M Palutan; J Panman; A Papanestis; M Pappagallo; C Parkes; C J Parkinson; G Passaleva; G D Patel; M Patel; S K Paterson; G N Patrick; C Patrignani; C Pavel-Nicorescu; A Pazos Alvarez; A Pellegrino; G Penso; M Pepe Altarelli; S Perazzini; D L Perego; E Perez Trigo; A Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo; P Perret; M Perrin-Terrin; G Pessina; A Petrella; A Petrolini; A Phan; E Picatoste Olloqui; B Pie Valls; B Pietrzyk; T Pila?; D Pinci; R Plackett; S Playfer

2012-01-01

418

The Role for Paid Employment for Women and Men in their 50s and 60s in the UK Around the Millenium and Beyond&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine recent trends in the employment of older men and women. I also forecast likely future scenarios given different assumptions. The analysis concentrates on the UK, but international comparisons and contrasts are noted. More than half the population of women aged 50-59 years in the UK are currently employees or self-employed. With each successive cohort a

Chris Trinder

1994-01-01

419

Extreme ultraviolet laser\\/time-of-flight mass spectra of Kr2 near Kr&ast;(4d,5p?,6s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New single-photon spectra of jet-cooled Kr2 between ?98 700 and 99 900 cm?1 have been recorded with an extreme ultraviolet laser generated by four-wave sum-mixing in Xe gas. Molecular ions created by (1+1?) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization, and daughter atomic ions created by excited state predissociation prior to ionization were mass dispersed and detected in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Analyses

D. M. Mao; X. K. Hu; Y. J. Shi; J. H. Leech; R. H. Lipson

2001-01-01

420

ASTE CO (3-2) MAPPING TOWARD THE WHOLE OPTICAL DISK OF M 83: PROPERTIES OF INTER-ARM GIANT MOLECULAR-CLOUD ASSOCIATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present a new on-the-fly mapping of CO (J = 3-2) line emission with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment toward the 8' x 8' (or 10.5 x 10.5 kpc at the distance of 4.5 Mpc) region of the nearby barred spiral galaxy M 83 at an effective resolution of 25''. Due to its very high sensitivity, our CO (J = 3 - 2) map can depict not only spiral arm structures but also spur-like substructures extended in inter-arm regions. This spur-like substructures in CO (J = 3-2) emission are well coincident with the distribution of massive star-forming regions traced by Halpha luminosity and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera 8 mum emission. We have identified 54 CO (J = 3-2) clumps as Giant Molecular-cloud Associations (GMAs) employing the CLUMPFIND algorithm, and have obtained their sizes, velocity dispersions, virial masses, and CO luminosity masses. We found that the virial parameter alpha, which is defined as the ratio of the virial mass to the CO luminosity mass, is almost unity for GMAs in spiral arms, whereas there exist some GMAs whose alpha are 3-10 in the inter-arm region. We found that GMAs with higher alpha tend not to be associated with massive star-forming regions, while other virialized GMAs are. Since alpha mainly depends on velocity dispersion of the GMA, we suppose that the onset of star formation in these unvirialized GMAs with higher alpha are suppressed by an increase in internal velocity dispersions of giant molecular clouds within these GMAs due to shear motion.

Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kuno, Nario; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro; Handa, Toshihiro [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sorai, Kazuo [Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: kmuraoka@p.s.osakafu-u.ac.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-12-01

421

Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application-dual flow. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic and diagnostic data that were obtained to determine the influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of coannular nozzles with thermal acoustic shields are summarized in this comprehensive data report. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale-model nozzles The tested nozzles included baseline (unshielded), 180 deg shielded, and 360 deg shielded dual flow coannular plug configurations. The baseline configurations include a high radius ratio unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coanuular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor. The tests were conducted at nozzle temperatures and pressure typical of operating conditions of variable cycle engine.

Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Price, A. O.

1984-10-01

422

Terrorism Risk Coverage in the Post9\\/11 Era: A Comparison of New Public–Private Partnerships in France, Germany and the U.S.&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the development and operation of terrorism insurance programmes established in France, Germany and the U.S as reaction to 9\\/11. These three programmes are all based upon a public–private partnership with government backup. However, there are some fundamental differences regarding issues such as exclusions, price differentiation, risk mutualization, current level of terrorism insurance demand and the government exit

Erwann Michel-Kerjan; Burkhard Pedell

2005-01-01

423

THE ROLE OF LABOR AND MARRIAGE MARKETS, PREFERENCE HETEROGENEITY, AND THE WELFARE SYSTEM IN THE LIFE CYCLE DECISIONS OF BLACK, HISPANIC, AND WHITE WOMEN &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the NLSY79, we structurally estimate a dynamic model of the life cycle decisions of young women. The women make sequential joint decisions about school attendance, work, marriage, fertility, and welfare participation. We use the model to perform counterfactual simulations designed to shed light on three questions: (1) How much of observed minority–majority differences in behavior can be

Michael P. Keane; Kenneth I. Wolpin

2010-01-01

424

AST/R?BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

425

AST/R BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire ...

426

Selective ?-bond fission in bromoacetyl chloride upon local excitation at the carbonyl functional group via the n??&ast;(C=O) electronic transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the continuing challenges in chemistry is to develop qualitative understanding and predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed product chan­ nels. In the area of chemical reaction dynamics, studies of molecular dissociation have proven particularly valuable. For unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multi photon, 1 or overtone excitation 2 in the ground elec­ tronic state, statistical theories

M. D. Person; P. W. Kash; S. A. Schofield; L. J. Butler

1991-01-01

427

The International Bargaining Power of the European Union in ‘Mixed’ Competence Negotiations: The Case of the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies of the European Union's role in international policy negotiations typically focus either on trade agreements, where the Community often enjoys exclusive competence in negotiations, or on military and security accords, where Member States take the diplomatic lead in international talks. Between these extremes are a number of issue negotiations in which Community officials and Member State representatives speak jointly

MARK RHINARD; MICHAEL KAEDING

2006-01-01

428

Comment on “Resonant dissociative electron transfer of the presolvated electron to CCl4 in liquid: Direct observation and lifetime of the CCl4&ast;? transition state”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent paper [J. Chem. Phys.128, 041102 (2008)] reports resonant dissociative electron transfer (RDET) to CCl4 in liquid ethanol. Part of the motivation for this work was the proposed importance of RDET processes for stratospheric ozone chemistry via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) triggered by cosmic ray activity in the polar winter stratosphere. In the present comment, it is argued that

2008-01-01

429

Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. RESULTS: Four RCTs including 338 patients met the prede?ned inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00?001; I2 = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. CONCLUSION: Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections.

Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

2011-01-01

430

Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. (Center for the Research of Environmental and Occupational Disease, Graduate Institute of Public Health and Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine (China))

1991-05-01

431

LAS FLECHAS EN EL ARTE LEVANTINO: APORTACIONES DESDE EL ANÁLISIS DE LOS PROYECTILES DEL REGISTRO ARQUEOLÓGICO DEL RIU DE LES COVES (ALT MAESTRAT, CASTELLÓ )  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: En el presente trabajo se aborda el estudio de las flechas en el Arte Levantino a partir de su contrastación con los proyectiles en piedra tallada recuperados en los yacimientos meso- líticos y neolíticos más próximos a los abrigos pintados del núcleo de la Valltorta-Gasulla. El aná- lisis de las diferentes modalidades de representación y las distintas propuestas de

Javier FERNÁNDEZ LÓPEZ DE PABLO

432

[Feeding disorders, ALTE syndrome, Sandifer syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the course of food hypersensitivity in 8-month old infant].  

PubMed

This paper describes the occurrence of feeding disorders, atopic dermatitis, life-threatening symptoms, Sandifer syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease in 8-month old infant in the course of food hypersensitivity. Used in the treatment of cow's milk protein hydrolysates with a considerable degree of hydrolysis, omeprazole, Cisapride. It was not until the introduction of elemental diet based on free amino acids resulted in the withdrawal of life-threatening child's symptoms. PMID:20712248

Iwa?czak, Barbara; Mowszet, Krystyna; Iwa?czak, Franciszek

2010-07-01

433

Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance,

A. della Corte; V. Corato; A. Di Zenobio; C. Fiamozzi Zignani; L. Muzzi; G. M. Polli; L. Reccia; S. Turtù; P. Bruzzone; E. Salpietro; A. Vostner

2010-01-01

434

Performance analysis of MBOC, AltBOC and BOC modulations in terms of multipath effects on the carrier tracking loop within GNSS receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work is the evaluation of the impact of new modulation strategies foreseen for the galileo signal in space (SIS) on the carrier tracking operation within the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receiver (namely frequency locked loop (FLL)\\/phase locked loop (PLL)) in presence of multipath. Although multipath has more relevant effects in term of measurement errors on

Maurizio Fantino; Gianluca Marucco; Paolo Mulassano; Marco Pini

2008-01-01

435

Efficient all-polymer solar cells based on blend of tris(thienylenevinylene)-substituted polythiophene and poly[perylene diimide-alt-bis(dithienothiophene)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A narrow band-gap alternating copolymer of perylene diimide and bis(dithienothiophene) (2) and a polythiophene derivative substituted by a tris(thienylenevinylene) conjugated side chain (4) are used as acceptor and donor, respectively, in all-polymer solar cells (SCs). The optimized device based on the blend of 4 and 2 in the ratio 3:1 (w/w) gives a short circuit current (Jsc) of 5.02 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency of 1.48%, under simulated AM 1.5 illumination at 100 mW cm-2. These values are among the highest values reported for all-polymer SCs.

Tan, Zhan'ao; Zhou, Erjun; Zhan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yongfang; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.

2008-08-01

436

Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb3Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb3Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

della Corte, A.; Corato, V.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Muzzi, L.; Polli, G. M.; Reccia, L.; Turtù, S.; Bruzzone, P.; Salpietro, E.; Vostner, A.

2010-04-01

437

Troponin-T as a serum marker for myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report here our experience with serum troponin T (TnT), measured with the sandwich immunoassay introduced by Boehringer Mannheim as a marker for myocardial infarction. We assayed TnT in serial serum samples from 30 patients with time courses of serum CK, CK-MB, AST, and LD that we consider typical of acute myocardial infarction (MI). In every patient but one, TnT rose in parallel with both CK-MB and AST, but remained elevated significantly longer. The ratios of the elevations of the different markers varied from patient to patient with marked variation in the ratio of TnT to CK-MB. There appeared to be a significant association between the magnitude of that ratio with the level of ALT. PMID:9138099

Murthy, V V; Karmen, A

1997-01-01

438

Long-Term Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Liver Enzymes in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Obesity is associated with elevated serum transaminase levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and weight loss is a recommended therapeutic strategy. Bariatric surgery is effective in obtaining and maintaining weight loss. Aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on transaminase levels in obese individuals. Methods The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is a prospective controlled intervention study designed to compare the long-term effects of bariatric surgery and usual care in obese subjects. A total of 3,570 obese participants with no excess of alcohol consumption at baseline (1,795 and 1,775 in the control and surgery group, respectively) were included in the analyses. Changes in transaminase levels during follow-up were compared in the surgery and control groups. Results Compared to usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with lower serum ALT and AST levels at 2- and 10- year follow up. The reduction in ALT levels was proportional to the degree of weight loss. Both the incidence of and the remission from high transaminase levels were more favorable in the surgery group compared to the control group. Similarly, the prevalence of ALT/AST ratio <1 was lower in the surgery compared to the control group at both 2- and 10-year follow up. Conclusions Bariatric surgery results in a sustained reduction in transaminase levels and a long-term benefit in obese individuals.

Burza, Maria Antonella; Romeo, Stefano; Kotronen, Anna; Svensson, Per-Arne; Sjoholm, Kajsa; Torgerson, Jarl S.; Lindroos, Anna-Karin; Sjostrom, Lars; Carlsson, Lena M. S.; Peltonen, Markku

2013-01-01

439

Role of liver function enzymes in diagnosis of choledocholithiasis in biliary colic patients.  

PubMed

Liver functional tests due to inflammatory process which induced by cholecystitis might changed and some clinicians suggested that these changes might help us to stone prediction in common bile ducts and decrease hazards of performing ERCP and other invasive procedures. Present study was performed for assessment of role of liver functional test in diagnosis of common bile duct stone in patients with cholecystitis and help in their management. Present prospective study was performed between April 2010 and March 2011 on 350 patients who come to our hospital with cholecystitis or biliary colic diagnosis. Patients with cholesistitis diagnosis were underwent operation for removing gall bladder stone and retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed for patients with suspicious to biliary colic and common bile duct (CBD) stones. Ultrasonography, aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct and total serum bilirubin were measured for all of participated patients. Mean of AST. ALT, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were had no significant differences between two study groups. In logistic regression analysis, after entering into the model only CBD diameter (OR: 20; P=0.00) and elevated serum level of ALT (OR: 2; P=0.04) were remained into the model and were known as independent predictor of cholelithiasis. Elevated level of liver enzymes had not main role in CBD diagnosis and ERCP had no to perform for suspicious CBD stone only with elevated liver enzyme and even with normal ultrasonography findings. Endosonography as non invasive procedure recommend for patients before ERCP. PMID:22071641

Zare, Mohammad; Kargar, Saeed; Akhondi, Mohsen; Mirshamsi, Mohammad Hussein

2011-01-01

440

Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $B(B^0 \\\\to K^{\\\\ast 0} \\\\gamma) \\/ B(B^0_s \\\\to \\\\phi \\\\gamma)$ and the direct $C\\\\!P$ asymmetry in $B^0 \\\\to K^{\\\\ast 0} \\\\gamma$  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of branching fractions of the radiative $B$ decays $B^0\\\\rightarrow K^{*0}\\\\gamma$ and $B^0_s\\\\rightarrow\\\\phi\\\\gamma$ has been measured using an integrated luminosity of $1.0\\\\mbox{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\\\sqrt{s}=7\\\\mathrm{\\\\,Te\\\\kern -0.1em V}$. The value obtained is \\\\begin{equation*} \\\\frac{{\\\\cal B}(B^0\\\\rightarrow K^{*0}\\\\gamma)}{{\\\\cal B} (B^0_s\\\\rightarrow\\\\phi\\\\gamma)} = 1.23 \\\\pm 0.06\\\\mathrm{\\\\,(stat.)} \\\\pm 0.04\\\\mathrm{\\\\,(syst.)} \\\\pm 0.10\\\\,(f_s\\/f_d)\\\\,, \\\\end{equation*} where

R Aaij; C Abellan Beteta; A Adametz; B Adeva; M Adinolfi; C Adrover; A Affolder; Z Ajaltouni; J Albrecht; F Alessio; M Alexander; S Ali; G Alkhazov; P Alvarez Cartelle; A A Alves Jr; S Amato; Y Amhis; L Anderlini; J Anderson; R B Appleby; O Aquines Gutierrez; F Archilli; A Artamonov; M Artuso; E Aslanides; G Auriemma; S Bachmann; J J Back; C Baesso; V Balagura; W Baldini; R J Barlow; C Barschel; S Barsuk; W Barter; A Bates; C Bauer; Th Bauer; A Bay; J Beddow; I Bediaga; S Belogurov; K Belous; I Belyaev; E Ben-Haim; M Benayoun; G Bencivenni; S Benson; J Benton; A Berezhnoy; R Bernet; M-O Bettler; M van Beuzekom; A Bien; S Bifani; T Bird; A Bizzeti; P M Bjørnstad; T Blake; F Blanc; C Blanks; J Blouw; S Blusk; A Bobrov; V Bocci; A Bondar; N Bondar; W Bonivento; S Borghi; A Borgia; T J V Bowcock; C Bozzi; T Brambach; J van den Brand; J Bressieux; D Brett; M Britsch; T Britton; N H Brook; H Brown; A Büchler-Germann; I Burducea; A Bursche; J Buytaert; S Cadeddu; O Callot; M Calvi; M Calvo Gomez; A Camboni; P Campana; A Carbone; G Carboni; R Cardinale; A Cardini; L Carson; K Carvalho Akiba; G Casse; M Cattaneo; Ch Cauet; M Charles; Ph Charpentier; P Chen; N Chiapolini; M Chrzaszcz; K Ciba; X Cid Vidal; G Ciezarek; P E L Clarke; M Clemencic; H V Cliff; J Closier; C Coca; V Coco; J Cogan; E Cogneras; P Collins; A Comerma-Montells; A Contu; A Cook; M Coombes; G Corti; B Couturier; G A Cowan; D Craik; S Cunliffe; R Currie; C D'Ambrosio; P David; I De Bonis; K De Bruyn; S De Capua; M De Cian; J M De Miranda; L De Paula; P De Simone; D Decamp; M Deckenhoff; H Degaudenzi; L Del Buono; C Deplano; D Derkach; O Deschamps; F Dettori; J Dickens; H Dijkstra; P Diniz Batista; F Domingo Bonal; S Donleavy; F Dordei; A Dosil Suárez; D Dossett; A Dovbnya; F Dupertuis; R Dzhelyadin; A Dziurda; A Dzyuba; S Easo; U Egede; V Egorychev; S Eidelman; D van Eijk; F Eisele; S Eisenhardt; R Ekelhof; L Eklund; I El Rifai; Ch Elsasser; D Elsby; D Esperante Pereira; A Falabella; C Färber; G Fardell; C Farinelli; S Farry; V Fave; V Fernandez Albor; F Ferreira Rodrigues; M Ferro-Luzzi; S Filippov; C Fitzpatrick; M Fontana; F Fontanelli; R Forty; O Francisco; M Frank; C Frei; M Frosini; S Furcas; A Gallas Torreira; D Galli; M Gandelman; P Gandini; Y Gao; J-C Garnier; J Garofoli; J Garra Tico; L Garrido; D Gascon; C Gaspar; R Gauld; E Gersabeck; M Gersabeck; T Gershon; Ph Ghez; V Gibson; V V Gligorov; C Göbel; D Golubkov; A Golutvin; A Gomes; H Gordon; M Grabalosa Gándara; R Graciani Diaz; L A Granado Cardoso; E Graugés; G Graziani; A Grecu; E Greening; S Gregson; O Grünberg; B Gui; E Gushchin; Yu Guz; T Gys; C Hadjivasiliou; G Haefeli; C Haen; S C Haines; S Hall; T Hampson; S Hansmann-Menzemer; N Harnew; S T Harnew; J Harrison; P F Harrison; T Hartmann; J He; V Heijne; K Hennessy; P Henrard; J A Hernando Morata; E van Herwijnen; E Hicks; D Hill; M Hoballah; P Hopchev; W Hulsbergen; P Hunt; T Huse; N Hussain; R S Huston; D Hutchcroft; D Hynds; V Iakovenko; P Ilten; J Imong; R Jacobsson; A Jaeger; M Jahjah Hussein; E Jans; F Jansen; P Jaton; B Jean-Marie; F Jing; M John; D Johnson; C R Jones; B Jost; M Kaballo; S Kandybei; M Karacson; T M Karbach; J Keaveney; I R Kenyon; U Kerzel; T Ketel; A Keune; B Khanji; Y M Kim; M Knecht; O Kochebina; I Komarov; R F Koopman; P Koppenburg; M Korolev; A Kozlinskiy; L Kravchuk; K Kreplin; M Kreps; G Krocker; P Krokovny; F Kruse; M Kucharczyk; V Kudryavtsev; T Kvaratskheliya; V N La Thi; D Lacarrere; G Lafferty; A Lai; D Lambert; R W Lambert; E Lanciotti; G Lanfranchi; C Langenbruch; T Latham; C Lazzeroni; R Le Gac; J van Leerdam; J-P Lees; R Lefèvre; A Leflat; J Lefrançois; O Leroy; T Lesiak; L Li; Y Li; L Li Gioi; M Lieng; M Liles; R Lindner; C Linn; B Liu; G Liu; J von Loeben; J H Lopes; E Lopez Asamar; N Lopez-March; H Lu; J Luisier; F Machefert; I V Machikhiliyan; F Maciuc; O Maev; J Magnin; S Malde; R M D Mamunur; G Manca; G Mancinelli; N Mangiafave; U Marconi; R Märki; J Marks; G Martellotti; A Martens; L Martin; A Martín Sánchez; M Martinelli; D Martinez Santos; A Massafferri; Z Mathe; C Matteuzzi; M Matveev; E Maurice; A Mazurov; J McCarthy; G McGregor; R McNulty; M Meissner; M Merk; J Merkel; D A Milanes; M-N Minard; J Molina Rodriguez; S Monteil; D Moran; P Morawski; I Mous; F Muheim; K Müller; R Muresan; B Muryn; B Muster; J Mylroie-Smith; P Naik; T Nakada; R Nandakumar; I Nasteva; M Needham; N Neufeld; A D Nguyen; C Nguyen-Mau; M Nicol; V Niess; N Nikitin; T Nikodem; A Nomerotski; A Novoselov; A Oblakowska-Mucha; V Obraztsov; S Oggero; S Ogilvy; O Okhrimenko; R Oldeman; M Orlandea; J M Otalora Goicochea; P Owen; B K Pal; A Palano; M Palutan; J Panman; A Papanestis; M Pappagallo; C Parkes; C J Parkinson; G Passaleva; G D Patel; M Patel; G N Patrick; C Patrignani; C Pavel-Nicorescu; A Pazos Alvarez; A Pellegrino; G Penso; M Pepe Altarelli; S Perazzini; D L Perego; E Perez Trigo; A Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo; P Perret

2012-01-01

441

Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 ± 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration.

Ramirez-Farias, Carlett; Madrigal-Santillan, Eduardo; Gutierrez-Salinas, Jose; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Nidia; Martinez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martinez, Ingrid; Hernandez-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-Gonzalez, Jose A

2008-01-01

442

The antioxidant and antifibrogenic effects of the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate in a subchronic rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrogenesis.  

PubMed

Hepatic fibrosis involves the interplay of many factors including reactive oxygen species. Recent reports described antioxidant properties of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Since several findings have shown that hyaluronic acid (HYA) and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) may act as antioxidant molecules, the aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of HYA and C4S treatment in a rat model of liver fibrosis. The effect on tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was also studied. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by eight intraperitoneal injections of CCl4, twice a week for 6 weeks. HYA or C4S alone (25 mg/kg) or HYA and C4S in combination (12.5 + 12.5 mg/kg) were administered daily by the same route during the 6 weeks. At the end of the 6-week treatment period (24 h after the last dose of GAGs), the following parameters were evaluated: (1) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, as index of hepatic cell disruption; (2) hepatic conjugated dienes (CD), as index of lipid peroxidation; (3) hepatic TIMPs activity and expression; (4) hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as index of endogenous defences; (5) hepatic hydroxyproline, as index of collagen deposition. CCl4-induced liver fibrosis enhanced lipid peroxidation and TIMPs activation, increased ALT and AST, depleted antioxidants SOD and GPx, and caused collagen deposition in liver tissue. Treatment with GAGs, especially when in combination, successfully reduced ALT and AST rise, lipid peroxidation by evaluating conjugated dienes, TIMPs activation and mRNA expression, partially restored SOD and GPx activities, and limited collagen deposition in the hepatic tissue. The data obtained showed that these molecules were able to limit hepatic injury induced by chronic CCl4 intoxication and especially limited liver fibrosis. They also confirm that HYA and C4S may exert antioxidant mechanism, while reduction of TIMPs expression suggests that GAGs may influence MMPs and TIMPs imbalance in liver fibrosis. PMID:15276869

Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Campo, Salvatore; D'Ascola, Angela; Ferlazzo, Alida M; Calatroni, Alberto

2004-07-20

443

Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides in controlling ROS-meditated hypoxic injury in cells and can be useful in many hepatic complications.

Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

2013-01-01

444

Clinical effects of long-term metreleptin treatment in patients with lipodystrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the long-term clinical effect of treatment with metreleptin (an analogue of human leptin) on glycemic and lipid abnormalities and markers of hepatic steatosis in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. Methods Fifty-five patients (36 with generalized lipodystrophy and 19 with partial lipodystrophy) with at least 1 of 3 metabolic abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, fasting triglyceride level ?200 mg/dL, and insulin resistance) and low leptin levels received subcutaneous injections of metreleptin once or twice daily in an ongoing clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. Results At baseline, hemoglobin A1c—8.5% ± 2.1% (mean ± standard deviation [SD])—and triglycerides—479 ± 80 mg/dL (geometric mean ± standard error [SE])—were substantially elevated. Robust and sustained reductions in both variables were evident for the observed patient population during a 3-year metreleptin treatment period (?2.1% ± 0.5% [mean ± SE] and ?35.4% ± 13.7% [mean ± SE], respectively). Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were elevated at baseline (100 ± 120 U/L and 71 ± 77 U/L [mean ± SD], respectively) and decreased by ?45 ± 19 U/L and ?33 ± 14 U/L (mean ± SE), respectively, during the 3-year metreleptin treatment period. Improvements in hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, ALT, and AST were more pronounced in the subsets of patients having elevated levels at baseline. The most notable adverse events observed in this patient population were likely attributable to underlying metabolic abnormalities or comorbidities. Conclusion Metreleptin treatment substantially reduced glycemic variables, triglycerides, and liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and demonstrated durability of response throughout a 3-year treatment period. These results support metreleptin as a potential treatment for certain metabolic disorders (for example, diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia) associated with lipodystrophy.

Chan, Jean L.; Lutz, Karen; Cochran, Elaine; Huang, Wenying; Peters, Yvette; Weyer, Christian; Gorden, Phillip

2012-01-01

445

Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

446

Acute pancreatitis and microcrystals. Importance of the bile collection and biochemical parameters.  

PubMed

For a substantial number of patients with acute pancreatitis, no recognizable causes can be identified and such cases are called "idiopathic". With the introduction of duodenal bile collection for microscopic examination, it became possible to detect minor constituents of the bile, such as cholesterol and/or calcium bilirrubinate crystals. The mechanism by which crystals produce pancreatitis seems to be related to migration of aggregate crystals through the papilla, inducing papillary trauma or temporary impaction which can cause a biliopancreatic reflux. We now report a series of 45 patients with acute pancreatitis idiopathic, 120 with gallstones and 22 alcoholic. Of the patients with idiopathic pancreatitis whom we studied by biliary drainages, 22 were found to have abnormal drainages (MC+) (20 cholesterol crystals and 2 calcium bilirrubinate), 9 patients had more than 10 crystals per slide. The microcrystals positive (MC+) group had significantly higher values for AST (69.8 +/- 1.7) (mean +/- SEM), ALT (123.3 +/- 28.1), FA (252 +/- 28.1), G-GT (144.6 +/- 26.7) and BT (1.83 +/- 0.37) than the microcrystals negative group: AST (19.6 +/- 2.5), ALT (28.3 +/- 5.8), FA (170.5 +/- 15.1), G-GT (54.3 +/- 10.7) and BT (0.76 +/- 0.09). The more 10 crystals group had higher values (AST: 82.0 +/- 29.1, ALT: 143.1 +/- 43.5, FA: 294.8 +/- 57.2, G-GT: 171.8 +/- 38.4, BT: 2.61 +/- 0.82) than in the microcrystals negative group. We concluded that in the absence of other overt causes, the presence of crystals in bile of patients with pancreatitis justifies etiology. The number is not important. PMID:9534358

Baeyens, E; De Teresa, J; Gil Extremera, B; Gato, R; Agredano, G; Rodrigo, M

1997-11-01

447

Protective effect of L-carnitine on experimental lead toxicity in rats: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Female Wistar-albino rats were given lead acetate (PbAc) for 60 days to investigate the protective effects of L-carnitine (CA) clinically and histopathologically on PbAc-induced tissue damage. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein for hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine. PbAc treatment caused a significant decrease in HB, HCT and RBC, a significant increase in WBC, AST, ALT and creatinine compared to controls. Although administration of CA did not reverse HB and HCT values, it reversed both the decrease in RBC and the increase in WBC, AST, ALT and creatinine. After the experimental period, all rats were weighed, then decapitated for pathological examination. Control rat liver, kidney and brain showed normal histological architecture. Lead-induced nephropathic kidneys; degenerative changes, inflammation and portal edema of the liver; and brain neuropil vacuolation, neuronal vacuolation, satellitosis and neuronophagia were observed in experimental groups. All changes were reduced in the PbAc group treated with CA (PbAc + CA). PbAc caused copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) expression in both the hepatocytes and tubular epithelium of the kidney. PbAc + CA exposure caused moderate Cu/Zn-SOD immunoreactivity. While in the brain sections of the PbAc group the degenerative neurons were stained intensely with anti-ubiquitin antibody, PbAc + CA rats showed moderate staining in neurons with anti-ubiquitin antibody. These results show that CA as a food additive reduced the severity of tissue damage caused by PbAc. PMID:21039307

Ozsoy, S Y; Ozsoy, B; Ozyildiz, Z; Aytekin, I

2010-11-02

448

Influence of Sleeve Gastrectomy on NASH and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 85% of adipose patients and may proceed to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). With insulin resistance and obesity being the main risk factors for NASH, the effect of isolated sleeve gastrectomy (ISG) on these parameters was examined. Methods. 236 patients underwent ISG with intraoperative liver biopsy from December 2002 to September 2009. Besides demographic data, pre-operative weight/BMI, HbA1c, AST, ALT, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were determined. Results. A significant correlation of NASH with higher HbA1c, AST and ALT and lower levels for HDL was observed (P < .05, <.0001, <.0001, <.01, resp.). Overall BMI decreased from 45.0 ± 6.8 to 29.7 ± 6.5 and 31.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2 at 1 and 3 years. An impaired weight loss was demonstrated for patients with NASH and patients with elevated HbA1c (plateau 28.08 kg/m2 versus 29.79 kg/m2 and 32.30 kg/m2 versus 28.79 kg/m2, resp.). Regarding NASH, a significant improvement of AST, ALT, triglyceride and HDL levels was shown (P < .0001 for all). A resolution of elevated HbA1c was observed in 21 of 23 patients. Summary. NASH patients showed a significant loss of body weight and amelioration of NASH status. ISG can be successfully performed in these patients and should be recommended for this subgroup.

Karcz, W. K.; Krawczykowski, D.; Kuesters, S.; Marjanovic, G.; Kulemann, B.; Grobe, H.; Karcz-Socha, I.; Hopt, U. T.; Bukhari, W.; Grueneberger, J. M.

2011-01-01

449

Temporal response pattern of biochemical analytes in experimental diabetes.  

PubMed

The activities of the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), creatine kinase (CK), amylase (AMS) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been used to assess the toxic effects of xenobiotics that have hypoglycaemic action in hepatic, pancreatic, renal and muscle tissue. Using a validated experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats, we ascertained whether this syndrome itself affected the serum activities of these enzymes over a 53-day period. Levels of hepatic enzymes AST, ALT and ALP were higher in the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats (group D), but were controlled by insulin therapy (group DI). AMS was reduced in group D and unchanged in group DI rats. Proteinuria was detected 1 day after STZ administration and partially controlled by insulin (group DI); its early presence in group D rats, and the lack of any change in serum ACE in this group, indicates that proteinuria is the better marker for microangiopathy. Microscopic examination of liver, kidney, heart and skeletal muscles (soleus and extensor digitorum longus) revealed various alterations in group D rat tissues, which were less pronounced in group DI. The liver, pancreas and kidney tissue-damage was consistent with the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and AMS and proteinuria. We conclude that: (i) rigorous control is required when these serum-enzyme levels are used as indicators of tissue toxicity in experimental diabetes, and (ii) LD, CK and bilirubin serum levels, which are unaffected by diabetes, can be used when testing effects of xenobiotics on tissues. PMID:12826018

Mori, Daniela M; Baviera, Amanda M; de Oliveira Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo; Vendramini, Regina C; Brunetti, Iguatemy L; Pepato, Maria T

2003-10-01

450

Early diagnostic markers of sepsis after oesophagectomy (including thromboelastography)  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of sepsis and its differentiation from the noninfective SIRS is very important in order that treatment can be initiated in a timely and appropriate way. In this study we investigated standard haematological and biochemical parameters and thromboelastography (TEG) in patients who had undergone surgical resection of the oesophagus to find out if changes in any of these parameters could help in early differentiation between SIRS and sepsis development. Methods We enrolled 43 patients (aged 41–74?years) of whom 38 were evaluable. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and then at 24-hour intervals for the next 6?days. Samples were analysed for procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL- 6), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) , lactate, white blood count (WBC), D-dimers, antithrombin (AT), international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and parameters of TEG. Results Significant differences between patients who developed sepsis during this period (9 patients) and SIRS were found in ALT on Day 1, in AST on Days 1–4, in PCT on Days 2–6; in CRP on Days 3–6; in IL-6 on Days 2–5; in leucocytes on Days 2, 3 and 6; and in D-dimers on Days 2 and 4. Significance values ranged from p?ALT, AST, PCT and IL-6 during the early postoperative period can be used for early differentiation of sepsis and postoperative SIRS after oesophagectomy. Among the coagulation parameters measured, only D-dimer concentrations appeared to be helpful in this process. TEG does not seem to be a useful early predictor of sepsis development; however it can be used to differentiate sepsis and SIRS from Day 5 after surgery.

2012-01-01

451

Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides  

SciTech Connect

Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

1993-01-01

452

A rise in the plasma activities of hepatic enzymes is not a common consequence of hypoglycaemia.  

PubMed

Eight otherwise healthy insulin-dependent diabetic patients were subjected to controlled, symptomatic hypoglycaemia for 20 min (median glucose concentration 1.7 mmol/l, range 1.0-2.6 mmol/l). Concentrations of plasma adrenaline and plasma vasopressin were significantly increased, indicating normal counter-regulatory responses for these hormones. Plasma activities of the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, LDH, GGT, and CK did not increase during or following the period of hypoglycaemia. Thus, abnormal plasma enzyme activities noted after clinical hypoglycaemia should be fully investigated, and not disregarded as due to the hypoglycaemic episode. PMID:2897267

Jones, R G; Grant, P J; Brown, D; Stickland, M; Wiles, P G

1988-04-01

453

Metabolically healthy but obese individuals: relationship with hepatic enzymes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of plasma hepatic enzymes in obese women displaying the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype. We studied 104 obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women. Subjects were classified as MHO or at risk based on insulin sensitivity as assessed with the oral glucose tolerance test-derived Matsuda index. Subjects were divided into quartiles according to insulin sensitivity values. Subjects in the upper quartile were categorized as MHO, whereas subjects in the lower 3 quartiles represented at-risk subjects. Outcome measures were hepatic enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT

Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Robillard, Marie-Eve; Bellefeuille, Philippe; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

2009-08-25

454

Zearalenone induces modifications of haematological and biochemical parameters in rats.  

PubMed

Zearalenone produced by the fungus Fusarium roseum causes important perturbations in the gestation cycle of the rat with hormonal disorders and infertility. In order to find out other eventual toxic effects, female rats were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) (1.5, 3 and 5 mg/kg) zearalenone in sterile olive oil. Forty-eight hours later, some blood parameters changed (hematocrit, MCV, the number of platelets and WBC) as well as some biochemical markers such as aminotransferases (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum creatinine, bilirubin, indicating liver toxicity, and likely impairment of blood coagulation process. PMID:8783448

Maaroufi, K; Chekir, L; Creppy, E E; Ellouz, F; Bacha, H

1996-05-01

455

Resistance to Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice Which Lack CYP2E1 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1?\\/?) were used to investigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in the development of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Malecyp2e1?\\/?and wild-type (cyp2e1+\\/+) mice were given a single ip injection of 1 ml\\/kg (=1.59 g\\/kg) CCl4and 24 h later liver injury was assessed by elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. No significant increases

Felice W.-Y. Wong; W.-Y. Chan; Susanna S.-T. Lee

1998-01-01

456

Presumptive Acute Neural Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Red-Necked Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus)  

PubMed Central

A red-necked male wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) from a German zoo was presented for acute onset of severe neurological signs, including head tremor, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and weakness. Serum biochemical abnormalities included increased LDH- and AST-levels, hyperproteinaemia, and reduced ALT-, ALP-, and creatinine-levels. The wallaby was found serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect haemagglutination test. After initiation of therapy by subcutaneous injections of trimethoprim/sulfadoxin, amelioration of neurological signs was noted and after 10 days the affected wallaby recovered. T. gondii can be confirmed rapidly by serology, and immediate therapy may reduce clinical illness and fatality of the disease within captive macropods.

Hermosilla, Carlos; Pantchev, Nikola; Gies, Nicole; Taubert, Anja

2010-01-01

457

Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with hepatic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Chinese medicine formula-Yu Zhang Dan (YZD, composed of Herba Lysimachiae, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, Radix Curcumae) on the model rats with hepatic fibrosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in the present study, and they were separated randomly into 4 groups: a normal control group (Group A, n=5), a model control (Group B, n=15), a high dose of YZD (Group C, n=10), and a low dose of YZD (Group D, n=10). Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The variation of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronate acid (HA), laminin (LN), type • • procollagen peptide (P• •NP), L-Glutathione (GSH) was respectively measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and detection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) and smooth muscle alpha actin (?-SMA) was conducted with immunohistochemistry. The ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The TGF-?1 and ?-SMA levels of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the TGF-?1 levels of the model rats (P<0.05) , and only the high dose of YZD significantly decreased the ?-SMA levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The expression of TGF-?1 and ?-SMA in the liver tissues of the rats were in the cytoplasm of the cells. It may be through decreasing the ALT, AST, HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model rats and decreasing the expression of TGF-?1 and ?-SMA in the liver tissues of the model rats that YZD significantly relieved the hepatic fibrosis. PMID:21304620

Zhou, Yun-Xiao; Chen, Jiu; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yan-Li; Jin, Xiao-Dong

2009-12-30

458

Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. The elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, TP, HA, LN, TG, and CHO were restored towards normalization significantly by GBP in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, GBP also produced a significant and dose-dependent reversal of CCl(4)-diminished activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced CCl(4)-elevated level of MDA. In general, the effects of GBP were not significantly different from those of the standard drug Essentiale. PMID:21596107

Yang, Lan; Wang, Cheng-zhang; Ye, Jian-zhong; Li, Hai-tao

2011-05-10

459

Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Time-course and dose-response studies in rats were conducted to evaluate Cd-induced hepatotoxicty. Morphological and biochemical evidence of liver injury occurred soon after a high dose of Cd and by ten hr severe hepatic necrosis was evident. Plasma enzyme activities of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase paralleled morphological changes. Data indicate the liver is a major target organ of chronic Cd-poisoning and suggest that Cd-induced liver injury may play an important role in the nephrotoxicity observed after chronic exposure to Cd.

Dudley, R.E.

1984-01-01

460

A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L.  

PubMed

A new saponin, cristatain (1), together with four other saponins, celosin A (2), celosin B (3), celosin C (4) and celosin D (5) were isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. (Amaranthaceae). Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. For the first time, the saponins were found in C. cristata L. In addition, compound 1 exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, which were evidenced by significant decreases in the values of asparate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of serum and histopathological examinations compared to controls. PMID:20804825

Wang, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Wu, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Li

2010-09-08

461

Impact of Decreased Serum Transaminase Levels on the Evaluation of Viral Hepatitis in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of serum transaminases (ST) in evaluating hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection was studied in 217 hemodialysis (HD) patients and 804 normal controls. Mean serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 22.3 (22.0-22.7) and 22.6 (21.6-23.6) IU\\/1 or 0.371 (0.366-0.378) and 0.376 (0.36-0.393) ?kat\\/1 in controls and HD patients, respectively (nonsignificant), while mean serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 20.3

Jinn-Yuh Guh; Yung-Hsiung Lai; Chi-Yuan Yang; Shinn-Cherng Chen; Wan-Long Chuang; Tzu-Chao Hsu; Hung-Chun Chen; Wen-Yu Chang; Juei-Hsiung Tsai

1995-01-01

462

Co-occurrence of obesity and patterns of alcohol use associated with elevated serum hepatic enzymes in US adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to present nationally representative findings on the co-occurrence of obesity and\\u000a specific patterns of alcohol use associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase\\u000a (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) among adults in the United States. We analyzed data from 8,373 adults aged ? 20 years\\u000a who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

James TsaiEarl; Earl S. Ford; Guixiang Zhao; Chaoyang Li; Kurt J. Greenlund; Janet B. Croft

463

Producción de enzimas lignolíticas por Basidiomycetes mediante la técnica de fermentación en sustrato sólido Solid substrate fermentation for lignolytic enzyme production using Basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid substrate fermentation has wide industrial application; nowadays enzymes are mainly used in obtaining dairy products, sweeteners, drugs, food, liquor, detergent, etc. Lignin is enzymatically degraded by Basidiomycetes fungi through the non-specific oxidation of three different types of enzymes: laccase, manganese-peroxidase and lignin-peroxidase. Their non-specificity is most important in degrading different recalcitrant substances showing structural similarity with lignin, such as

Angélica María; García Torres; Rodrigo Gonzalo Torres Sáe

2003-01-01

464

[A case with chronic hepatitis C who developed liver cirrhosis due to liver dysfunction caused by pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment despite negativity of serum HCV RNA, during therapy].  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic hepatitis C in whom liver cirrhosis was later diagnosed following abnormality of ALT levels during pegylated interferon ?2a and ribavirin treatment. A 62-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was treated with pegylated interferon ?2a plus ribavirin for 72 weeks. Her HCV RNA became negative 16 weeks after the start of treatment and continued to be negative for most of the treatment duration. Her AST/ALT, ALP/?-GTP levels became elevated soon after the initiation of treatment and thereafter remained unchanged. However, most of these levels normalized after the end of treatment. Post-treatment liver biopsy showed liver cirrhosis, probably due to the interferon treatment itself. This unusual therapeutic outcome should be considered if the levels of hepatic dysfunction during interferon treatment are severe. PMID:21307632

Ohkoshi, Shogo; Morita, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Yukari; Yano, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Manabu; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Haruo; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasunobu; Nomoto, Minoru; Aoyagi, Yutaka

2011-02-01

465

Serum chemistry profiles for Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche): variations with age and sex.  

PubMed

1. Over an 8-year period, 19 biochemical parameters have been determined at various ages in the blood serum of 92 clinically healthy Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche), 33 males and 59 females. 2. Significant differences have been noted with age. In neonates, the lowest values of total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and iron have been noted; the highest ones have been seen for cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. 3. With regard to sex, raised values of glucose, urea, alkaline phosphatase and ALT, and lowered values of cholesterol, have been noted in juvenile females compared with males of the same age. 4. In adult females, higher levels of urea and cholesterol and lower levels of glucose, triglycerides and natrium have been recorded compared with males. 5. With sex and age, no significant changes have been found in the levels of GGT, magnesium, chlorides and copper. 6. Our findings are discussed with those abstracted from the literature for related species. PMID:8403853

Váhala, J; Kase, F

1993-09-01

466

NIKEI: A New Inexpensive and Non-Invasive Scoring System to Exclude Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with NAFLD  

PubMed Central

Aims To develop, validate and compare a non-invasive fibrosis scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) derived from routinely obtained clinical and biochemical parameters. Methods 267 consecutive patients with biopsy proven fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were randomly assigned to the estimation (2/3) or validation (1/3) group to develop a model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis. Univariate statistics were performed to compare patients with and without advanced fibrosis, and following a multivariate logistic regression analysis a new scoring system was constructed. This non-invasive Koeln-Essen-index (NIKEI) was validated and compared to the FIB-4 index by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We evaluated a stepwise combination of both scoring systems for the precise prediction of advanced fibrosis. To set in contrast, we additionally tested the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio, BARD score and the NAFLD fibrosis score in our cohort. Results Age, AST, AST/ALT ratio, and total bilirubin were identified as significant predictors of advanced fibrosis and used to construct the NIKEI with an AUC of 0.968 [0.937; 0.998] compared to 0.929 [0.869; 0.989] for the FIB-4 index. The absence of advanced fibrosis could be confirmed with excellent accuracy (99–100%). The positive predictive value of the FIB-4 index was higher (100% vs. 60%), however, the false negative rate was also high (33%). With a stepwise combination of both indices 82%–84% of biopsies would have been avoidable without a single misclassification. The AUROC for AST/ALT ratio, the NAFLD fibrosis score, and the BARD score were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72–0.90), 0.96 (95% CI 0.92–0.99), and 0.67 (95% CI 0.55–0.78), respectively. Conclusion The NIKEI can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. In combination with the FIB-4 index misclassification with inadequate clinical management can be avoided while the need for liver biopsies can be reduced.

Schlattjan, Martin; Drebber, Uta; Wedemeyer, Inga; Nierhoff, Dirk; Kaul, Ingrid; Sowa, Jan; Canbay, Ali; Tox, Ulrich; Steffen, Hans-Michael

2013-01-01

467

Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2?000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

2013-01-01

468

Effects of Exogenous Antioxidants on Dietary Iron Overload  

PubMed Central

In dietary iron overload, excess hepatic iron promotes liver damage. The aim was to attenuate free radical-induced liver damage using vitamins. Four groups of 60 Wistar rats were studied: group 1 (control) was fed normal diet, group 2 (Fe) 2.5% pentacarbonyl iron (CI) followed by 0.5% Ferrocene, group 3 (Fe + V gp) CI, Ferrocene, plus vitamins A and E (42× and 10× RDA, respectively), group 4 (Fe – V gp) CI, Ferrocene diet, minus vitamins A and E. At 20 months, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ames mutagenicity test, AST, ALT and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunohistochemistry were measured. 8OHdG levels of the Fe + V and Fe – V groups were 346 ± 117 and 455 ± 151, ng/g w.wt, respectively. Fe + V and Fe – V differences were significant (p<0.005). A positive correlation between DNA damage and mutagenesis existed (p<0.005) within the iron-fed gps. AST levels for Fe + V and Fe – V groups were 134.6 ± 48.6 IU and 202.2 ± 50.5 IU, respectively. Similarly, ALT levels were 234.6 ± 48.3 IU and 329.0 ± 48.6 IU, respectively. However, Fe – V and Fe + V groups transaminases were statistically insignificant. 4-HNE was detected in Fe + V and Fe – V gp livers. Vitamins A and E could not prevent hepatic damage.

Asare, George A.; Kew, Michael C.; Mossanda, Kensese S.; Paterson, Alan C.; Siziba, Kwanele; Kahler-Venter, Christiana P.

2009-01-01

469

Anti-obesity effect of HT048, a herbal combination, in high fat diet-induced obese rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of HT048, a combination of C. pinnatifida fruit and C. unshiu peel extracts, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 4-Week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal and high fat diet (HFD) groups. The HFD groups were further divided into five groups treated with distilled water, orlistat (40 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o) and HT048 (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Orlistat, an anti-obesity drug, was used as positive control in the HFD-induced obese rats. We measured the food intake, body weight, epididymal adipose tissue and liver weights, and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The body weight and epididymal adipose tissue and liver weights of the HT048 100 and 300 mg/kg treated groups were significantly lower than that of the HFD control group. Also, serum TC, TG, ALT, and AST levels in the HT048 100 and 300 mg/kg treated groups were significantly decreased. Moreover, the orlistat treated group showed significantly reduced body weight and improved serum lipoprotein, compared with the HFD control group. These results show that HT048 supplements improved obesity-related body weight and serum lipoprotein parameters in a HFD-induced obese rat model. PMID:23519251

Lim, Dong Wook; Song, Mikyung; Park, Juyeon; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Nak Hoon; Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

2012-12-11

470

Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Momordica charantia L. (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as balsam pear, bitter gourd or karela, used in several purposes in traditional medicine is an important medicinal plant. Two sets of experiments were carried out, the first experiment indicated that the LD(50) for MC juice and alcoholic extracts were 91.9 and 362.34 mg/100g b.wt., respectively, of subcutaneously "s.c." injected mice. The toxic signs were recorded within the first 24 h post-injection. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of MC juice and alcoholic extracts on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in normal and diabetic rats. Both extracts induced a significant decrease in serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. The two extracts did not show any significant effect in urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and AP in normal rat, while in diabetic rats the two extracts caused a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, AP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, these results suggested that MC extracts possesses anti-diabetic, hepato-renal protective and hypolipidemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, MC is alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16815658

Abd El Sattar El Batran, Seham; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; El Shabrawy, Osama A

2006-05-26

471

Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

1993-12-31

472

Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

The protective effects of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male mice were investigated. Administration of ethanol (50%, v/v, 10 mL kg?¹) to mice for 6 weeks induced liver damage with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of the liver index, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT) in the serum and the hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. In contrast, administration of juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles (10 mL kg?¹ bw) along with alcohol significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of the enzymes (AST, ALT and ?-GT), liver index, concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH) in the serum and the hepatic TG and LPO levels. Mice treated with juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles showed better profiles of the antioxidant systems with relatively higher glutathione (GSH) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that both of the juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles have beneficial effects in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol. PMID:22648047

Xiang, Jinle; Zhu, Wenxue; Li, Zhixi; Ling, Shengbao

2012-06-01

473

Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH?:?GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

2013-01-01

474

Acute liver damage induced by 2-nitropropane in rats: effect of diphenyl diselenide on antioxidant defenses.  

PubMed

The effect of post-treatment with diphenyl diselenide on liver damage induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP) was examined in male rats. Rats were pre-treated with a single dose of 2-NP (100 mg/kg body weight dissolved in canola oil). Afterward, the animals were post-treated with a dose of diphenyl diselenide (10, 50 or 100 micromol/kg). The parameters that indicate tissue damage such as liver histopathology, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), urea and creatinine were determined. Since the liver damage induced by 2-NP is related to oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbic acid level were also evaluated. Diphenyl diselenide (50 and 100 micromol/kg) effectively restored the increase of ALT and AST activities and urea level when compared to the 2-NP group. At the higher dose, diphenyl diselenide decreased GGT activity. Treatment with diphenyl diselenide, at all doses, effectively ameliorated the increase of hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation when compared to 2-NP group. 2-NP reduced CAT activity and neither alter SOD activity nor ascorbic acid level. This study points out the involvement of CAT activity in 2-NP-induced acute liver damage and suggests that the post-treatment with diphenyl diselenide was effective in restoring the hepatic damage induced by 2-NP. PMID:16445897

Borges, Lysandro P; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Panatieri, Rodrigo B; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Zeni, Gilson

2006-01-30

475

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present investigation was determine whether a standardized Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces aqueous extract has an effect on body weight in an obese animal model induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate. Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract, containing 33.64 mg of total anthocyanins per each 120 mg of extract, was orally administered (120 mg/kg/day) for 60 days to healthy and obese mice, and body weight gain, food and liquid intake, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were measured. Hibiscus sabdariffa administration significantly reduced body weight gain in obese mice and increased liquid intake in healthy and obese mice. ALT levels were significantly increased on the 15th and 45th days in obese mice, but AST levels did not show significant changes. Mortality was not observed in the Hibiscus sabdariffa treated groups. Triglycerides and cholesterol levels showed non-significant reductions in animals treated with Hibiscus sabdariffa. Our data confirm the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa reported by the Mexican population. PMID:17765418

Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Perez-Garcia, Ma Dolores; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Romero-Nuñez, Eunice; Campos-Sepulveda, Efrain A; Vazquez-Carrillo, Laura I; Roman-Ramos, Ruben

2007-07-27

476

Effect of Methylsulfonylmethane Pretreatment on Aceta-minophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound found in a wide range of human foods including fruits, vegetables, grains and beverages. In this study the effect of MSM pretreatment on acetaminophen induced liver damage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 100 mg/kg MSM for one week. On day seven rats were received acetaminophen (850 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were taken to determine serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Tissue samples of liver were also taken for the determination of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity together with histopathological observations. Results: High dose of acetaminophen administration caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the liver tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in SOD activity and increases in tissue MDA level and MPO activity. Serum ALT, AST levels were also found elevated in the acetaminophen-treated group. Pretreatment with MSM for one week was significantly attenuated all of these biochemical indices. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MSM pretreatment could alleviate hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen intoxication, may be through its sulfur donating and antioxidant effects.

Bohlooli, Shahab; Mohammadi, Sadollah; Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Mirzanejad-asl, Hafez; Yosefi, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Nei, Amir; Chinifroush, Mir Mehdi

2013-01-01

477