Science.gov

Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and other biomedical products. Several studies report on ZnO nanoparticle mediated cytotoxicity. However, there are no reports on the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (1–5 mg/ml) on C2C12 cell viability at 48 and 72 h. ZnO nanoparticles increased ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme mRNA expression and their activities in C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased these enzyme activities and its mRNA expression in C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26586993

  2. AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a much greater degree than ALT. In most types of liver disease , the ALT level is higher than AST and the AST/ALT ratio will be low (less than 1). There are a few exceptions; the AST/ALT ratio is usually increased in alcoholic hepatitis , cirrhosis, and in the first day or ...

  3. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, see the Liver Panel article. In most types of liver diseases , the ALT level is higher than AST and the AST/ALT ratio will be low (less than 1). There are a few exceptions; the AST/ALT ratio is usually greater than 1 in alcoholic hepatitis , cirrhosis, and with heart or muscle injury ...

  4. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  5. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  6. AST3: dwarf nova outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Hu, Yi; Shang, Zhaohui; Wang, Lifan

    2016-05-01

    AST3#2 OT J024453.11-580940.1 discovery - new dwarf nova outburst with ampl > 5.8 The 2nd Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3#2) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 02:44:53.11 -58:09:40.1 on 2016-05-06.071 UT with Sloan-g magnitude of 15.5m (limit 18.6m).

  7. AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

    2014-04-01

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

  8. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  9. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  10. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  11. Nondestructive inspection requirements aboveground storage tanks (ASTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlock, C.N.

    1995-12-31

    Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are designed, built and nondestructively inspected to a variety of Standards and Codes. This discussion deals only with the nondestructive inspection requirements for the more common Standards and Codes generated in the United States for these type structures. The problems of how to communicate to the NDT technician the required inspection or testing information within these Standard or Code documents for both new ASTs and repaired, reconstructed or altered ASTs are discussed. In the presentation of this paper, NDT applications, acceptance criteria and personnel requirements for welds or components for radiography, ultrasonic alternatives to radiography, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, visual and leak testing for the mentioned Standards and Codes will be reviewed.

  12. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  13. Bridging the UST/AST gap

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Choosing between underground and aboveground storage tank options can be a daunting--and risky--enterprise. Although USTs are conveniently out of sight, they cannot remain out of mind, and must be monitored continuously for possible unseen leaks or structural damage. ASTs provide easy access for monitoring and maintenance, but this benefit makes them open targets for vandalism, accidents and long-term effects of exposure to the elements. CON/SPAN{reg_sign} Bridge Systems, Dayton, Ohio, in association with the Dayton-based engineering firm LJB Inc., developed a unique solution to the AST/UST dilemma by adapting the company`s modular-concrete bridge construction technology to storage tank installation.

  14. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  15. An innovative alt-alt telescope for small observatories and amateur astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghigo, M.; Landoni, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spanó, P.; Tomelleri, R.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper want to show an innovative amateur oriented telescope with an unconventional alt-alt conguration. The goal is to make a telescope with good optical quality reducing production costs by adopting a gimbal based mounting to develop an alt-alt conguration suitable for a telescope. Reduce costs while preserving the optical quality is a necessary condition to allow small groups of amateur astronomers, schools and cultural clubs, with reduced economic resources, to acquire an astronomical instrument that encourages learning and advancing astrophysical knowledge. This unconventional mechanism for the realization of a telescope alt-alt provides signicant advantages. The traditional rotary motors coupled with expensive precision bearings are replaced with two simple linear actuators coupled to a properly preloaded gimbal joint and the cell becomes the primary structure of the telescope. A second advantage would be secured by mechanical simplicity evident in the easy portability of the instrument. The frame alt-alt has some limitations on the horizon pointing but does not show the zenith blind spot of the alt-az mount. A dedicated alt-alt pointing and tracking model is under development to be compatible with commercial telescope softwares and with the proposed new mounting.

  16. The ALTE mysteries: who's to blame?

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. A recent paper on apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in newborn babies brought to mind an experience from practice, the cause of which remains a mystery. As many similar events are unexplained, is it acceptable that there is a tendency in the literature to claim that skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are risk factors for ALTEs? PMID:27008761

  17. The Antarctic Survey Telescopes AST3 and the AST3-NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Wang, Lifan; Gu, Bozhong; Du, Fujia; Li, Zhengyang; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haiping; Wen, Haikun; Gong, Xuefei; Shang, Zhaohui; Ashley, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Antarctic Survey Telescopes consists of three different filtered telescopes with 680mm primary mirror and 8 square degree field of view, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is anticipated to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the recent years site testing works jointly by CCAA and UNSW. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically runned for two months from March 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the AST3-1, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et. al were done for the second one. After the Mohe winterization test, the AST3-2 was deployed on Dome A successfully in Jan. 2015 and now the telescope is ready for remote observations. The blind tracking accuracy is about 0.2arcsecond. For the third one, a fold mirror was added to guide the focal plane outside the main optical tube which makes the CCD onsite assembly and maintenance easier and better tube seeing. By changing different correctors and detector, the third telescope can also work in near infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging in K band. The staylight analysis and thermal emission analysis will be given in this paper. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  18. Several notes on the OH* layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygalashvyly, M.

    2015-07-01

    This brief note introduces several analytical approaches to OH* layer parameters. The number density and height of the OH* layer peak are determined by the distributions of atomic oxygen and temperature, and by corresponding vertical gradients. The theory can be applied to satellite-borne and ground-based airglow measurements, as well as to model results.

  19. Fusarium sambucinum astA gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans astA.

    PubMed

    Piłsyk, Sebastian; Natorff, Renata; Gawińska-Urbanowicz, Hanna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. Orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (AstA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens Fusarium sambucinum and Fusarium graminearum. By physiological and biochemical analyses, the AstA orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. Similarly to astA in A. nidulans, the FsastA gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (SMR) in a sulfur-dependent manner. In contrast, the FgastA transcript was undetectable, however, when the FgastA gene was expressed heterologously in A. nidulans, the translated FgAstA protein acted as a sulfate transporter. Interestingly, F. sambucinum astA expression was remarkably augmented in infected potato tubers, despite the presence abundant sulfate and was found not to be correlated with plant resistance. PMID:25986548

  20. AST: A library for modelling and manipulating coordinate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Jenness, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In view of increased interest in object-oriented systems for describing coordinate information, we present a description of the data model used by the Starlink AST library. AST provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world co-ordinate systems to astronomical data, and for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS. AST is a mature system that has been in use for more than 17 years, and may consequently be useful as a means of informing development of similar systems in the future.

  1. PhAst: Display and Analysis of FITS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, R.; Trueblood, M.; Mighell, K.

    2011-12-01

    PhAst (Photometry-Astrometry) is an IDL astronomical image viewer based on the existing application ATV which displays and analyzes FITS images. It can calibrate raw images, provide astrometric solutions, and do circular aperture photometry. PhAst allows the user to load, process, and blink any number of images. Analysis packages include image calibration, photometry, and astrometry (provided through an interface with SExtractor, SCAMP, and missFITS). PhAst has been designed to generate reports for Minor Planet Center reporting.

  2. PhAst: A Flexible IDL Astronomical Image Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, R.; Trueblood, M.; Mighell, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present near-Earth asteroid data analyzed with PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer based on the existing application ATV. PhAst opens, displays, and analyzes an arbitrary number of FITS images. Analysis packages include image calibration, photometry, and astrometry (provided through an interface with SExtractor, SCAMP, and missFITS). PhAst has been designed to generate reports for Minor Planet Center reporting. PhAst is cross platform (Linux/Mac OSX/Windows for image viewing and Linux/Mac OSX for image analysis) and can be downloaded from the following website at NOAO: http://www.noao.edu/staff/mighell/phast/. Rehnberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  3. The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  4. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  5. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  6. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Wolf, G.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Hsu, W.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.

  7. A catch 22 -- Leak testing of ASTs with double bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlock, C.N.

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, public concern for the environment has been a high priority item. This was strongly reinforced on January 2, 1988 by the collapse of an aboveground storage tank (AST) that had been cut down, reconstructed in a new location and recently filled. The scope of this paper is limited to ASTs. To comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and many state, county and city agency regulations, some AST owners have made design and leak testing requirement changes in their AST construction specifications. This paper will compare the leak location methods that have been used or are being used. This paper will also compare the quantitative (also called volumetric) leak testing (LT) methods and double bottom designs being specified for ASTs and recommend a preference. Finally, this paper will discuss the catch 22 which exists when the results of a double bottom quantitative leak test do not meet the specified allowable pressure rise, pressure loss or mass inflow rate after the successful completion of all required preliminary leak tests. In such situations the contractor is confronted with the very costly dilemma of determining whether the problem is real leakage, and if so where; or whether the problem is due to the inherent deviation of the data caused by widespread ambient temperature fluctuations or inconsistent diurnal temperature cycles.

  8. Effects of an AST program on US titanium story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The singular importance of titanium as the primary structural material for an efficient advanced supersonic transport (AST) is outlined. The advantages of titanium over other metals are shown to apply to future subsonic aircraft as well as for supersonic designs. The cost problem of titanium is addressed and shown to be markedly reduced by the emerging technologies of superplastic forming/diffusion bonding sandwich, hot isostatic pressing of titanium powders, and isothermal forgings if demonstration programs should validate preliminary findings. The impact of a U.S. AST program on the United States titanium supply and demand picture is postulated.

  9. New Features in AST: A WCS Management and Manipulation Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.

    2012-09-01

    Recent developments in the AST library are described, including a Python interface, support for the FITS-WCS “-TAB” system for storing tabular co-ordinate information, and extended support for representing distortions in spatial projections, using several schemes in common use (IRAF TNX/ZPX, Spitzer SIP, NOAO TPV and SCAMP).

  10. Circulating alanine transaminase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), but not fetuin-A, is associated with metabolic risk factors, at baseline and at two-year follow-up: the prospective Cyprus Metabolism Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Chamberland, John P; Petrou, Michael; Gong, Huizhi; Christophi, Costas A; Christiani, David C; Kales, Stefanos N; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To comparatively evaluate traditional liver tests and fetuin A as predictors of cardiometabolic risk, we studied associations between serum alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and fetuin-A and anthropometric, metabolic, and cardiovascular parameters cross-sectionally at baseline, and prospectively, after 2-years of follow-up. Research Design and Methods 616 randomly enrolled young healthy participants in the Cyprus Metabolism Study, including all 93 subjects who participated in the follow-up study 2 years after baseline assessment, were included in this study. Results In the cross-sectional study, serum ALT and GGT were strongly correlated with anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables, while serum AST was only correlated with waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. Fetuin-A was correlated with anthropometric variables, systolic blood pressure (SBP), insulin, and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the unadjusted model. In the fully adjusted model, both serum ALT and GGT levels remained positively correlated with total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. GGT levels also remained correlated with triglycerides. ALT levels remained strongly positively correlated with insulin (r=0.17, p<.0001) and HOMA-IR (r=0.16, p=0.0001). Serum fetuin-A levels were no longer significantly correlated with any variables. Prospectively, ALT and GGT were predictors of anthropometric variables and LDL cholesterol, while baseline levels of AST and fetuin-A were not predictors of any variables at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions We confirmed associations of ALT and GGT levels but failed to demonstrate an independent association between fetuin-A and cardiometabolic risk factors in young healthy men. Traditional liver tests (LFTs) are thus better than fetuin-A predictors of metabolic risk factors cross-sectionally and prospectively in young healthy adults. PMID:24726813

  11. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverjanovich, A.; Rodionov, K.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-06-01

    For the first time, the Raman spectra of AsxTe1-x glasses, 0.2≤x≤0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As2Te3-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system

    SciTech Connect

    Tverjanovich, A.; Rodionov, K.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-06-15

    For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.4 and 0.4{<=}x{<=}0.6). Fractional concentrations of Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds in the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses calculated using experimental Raman data. The solid lines represent predictions of the dissociation model assuming that the main chemically ordered structural units are related to AsTe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The partial bond fractions were derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An empirical quantitative approach to the Raman data was proposed for the reaction modeling.

  14. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  15. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  16. ASTE observations of dense molecular gas in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, K.; Muraoka, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Tosaki, T.; Kuno, N.; Miura, R.; Sawada, T.; Sorai, K.; Okuda, T.; Kamegai, K.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, A.; Hatsukade, B.; Ezawa, H.; Sakamoto, S.; Cortes, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Matsuo, H.; Kawabe, R.

    Atacama Submillimetr Experiment (ASTE) is a joint project between Japan and Chile for installing and operating a 10 m high precision telescope in the Atacama Desert in order to explore the southern sky through the submillimeter wavelength. We have achieved an accuracy of 90 micron m (rms) for the main reflector surface and a stable radio pointing accuracy of about 2 arcsec (rms). A 350 GHz cartridge type SIS mixer receiver achieves good performance with a typical system noise temperature of 150 - 250 K in DSB and a main beam efficiency of 0.6 - 0.7 during winter nights. Four banks of a 512 MHz (or 128 MHz) digital spectrometer with 1024 channels have been installed. Recent scientific results obtained with ASTE, such as a wide area CO(3-2) mapping of nearby spiral galaxies (M 83, M 33, NGC 1672 etc.) and a possible detection of CO(3-2) emission toward the host galaxy of GRB 980425, are reported.

  17. Expression and purification of a functional recombinant aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lihui; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Daguang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Xiao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST; E.C. 2.6.1.1), a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, preferentially promotes the mutual transformation of aspartate and ?-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. It plays a key role in amino acid metabolism and has been widely recommended as a biomarker of liver and heart damage. Our study aimed to evaluate the extensive preparation of AST and its application in quality control in clinical laboratories. We describe a scheme to express and purify the 6His-AST fusion protein. An optimized sequence coding AST was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression. Ideally, the fusion protein has a volumetric productivity achieving 900 mg/l cultures. After affinity chromatography, the enzyme activity of purified AST reached 150,000 U/L. Commutability assessment between the engineered AST and standard AST from Roche suggested that the engineered AST was the better candidate for the reference material. Moreover, the AST showed high stability during long-term storage at -20C. In conclusion, the highly soluble 6His-tagged AST can become a convenient tool for supplying a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for the clinical laboratory. PMID:24722375

  18. AFLP MARKERS TIGHTLY LINKED TO THE ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE ALT3 IN RYE (SECALE CEREALE L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is considered to be the most aluminum (Al) tolerant species among the Triticeae. It has been suggested that aluminum tolerance in rye is controlled by three major genes (Alt genes) located on rye chromosome arms 6RS (Alt1), 3RL (Alt2), and 4RL (Alt3). Screening of an F6 rye...

  19. Reconsidering the Use of Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkle, Manuel C.

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous estimation of autoregressive (simplex) structures and latent trajectories, so called ALT (autoregressive latent trajectory) models, is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the analysis of change. Although historically autoregressive (AR) and latent growth curve (LGC) models have been developed quite independently from each…

  20. The Toroidal Pump Limiter ALT-II in TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, K.H.; Reiter, D.; Denner, T.

    2005-02-15

    The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT) project is the focus of a fruitful and intense International Energy Agreement collaboration on TEXTOR. The pump limiter is a mechanical boundary that is laid out for taking the full heat load of TEXTOR, namely 8 MW (assuming 2 MW radiated power) for 10 s, and provides a pumping efficiency of at least 5% of the working gas. This layout is adopted from the requirements of a fusion reactor: It is mandatory to remove both the full power that is convected to the limiter or divertor and the helium ash that is generated in the fusion process. In order to obtain pumping for all gases, the ALT-II is equipped with turbomolecular pumps. A short description of ALT-II is given, and the power and particle fluxes to the limiter surface and into the exhaust scoops are discussed. Requirements of the helium removal rate for a reactor and relevant measurements are discussed, and particle removal and the power distribution to the limiters are treated. Related topics of the ALT-II program were hydrogen recycling and the measurement of turbulence-induced anomalous particle transport in the plasma edge.

  1. Interchromosomal Homology Searches Drive Directional ALT Telomere Movement and Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam Woo; Dilley, Robert L.; Lampson, Michael A.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, approximately 10-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multi-telomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break (DSB) response at ALT telomeres triggers long-range movement and clustering between chromosome termini, resulting in homology-directed telomere synthesis. Damaged telomeres initiate increased random surveillance of nuclear space before displaying rapid directional movement and association with recipient telomeres over micron-range distances. This phenomenon required Rad51 and the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer, which are essential for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. These findings implicate a specialized homology searching mechanism in ALT dependent telomere maintenance and provide a molecular basis underlying the preference for recombination between non- sister telomeres during ALT. PMID:25259924

  2. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications associated with each assumption as well as the implications for bottom line economics, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Quick look analysis of an emergency separation for ALT captive-inert flight 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.; Seale, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Emergency separation capability for the landing configuration of ALT Captive Inert Flight Number One was investigated. The quick look analysis confirms emergency separation capability under nominal conditions for the ALT landing configuration. The recommended emergency separation procedure under those conditions is not applicable to all ALT configurations.

  5. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin; Shen, He Ding

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica are described first in the article. The mitogenomes (14 772 bp and 14 601 bp) contain 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes, and one putative control region (CR). CR is not well characterized due to the lack of discrete conserved sequence blocks. This characteristic is similar with CRs of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes, which is the typical bivalvia mitochondrial gene composition. PMID:26244691

  7. Two crews for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two crews for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are, left to right, Astronauts C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew; Fred W. Haise Jr., commander of the first crew; Joe H. Engle, commander of the second crew; and Richard H. Truly, pilot of the second crew. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  8. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  9. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Yuko; Hamada, Chieko; Seto, Takuya; Hotta, Yoko; Aruga, Seiki; Inuma, Jiro; Azuma, Kosuke; Kaneko, Kayo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression. PMID:24829798

  10. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  11. A pre-marketing ALT signal predicts post-marketing liver safety.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Cynthia A; Suzuki, Ayako; Papay, Julie I; Yuen, Nancy A; Ames, Michael; Hunt, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Drug induced liver injury during drug development is evidenced by a higher incidence of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations in treated versus placebo populations and termed an "ALT signal". We sought to quantify whether an ALT signal in pre-marketing clinical trials predicted post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Incidence of ALT elevations (ALT ? 3 times upper limits normal [ ULN]) for drug and placebo of new chemical entities and approved drugs associated with hepatotoxicity was calculated using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Post-marketing liver safety events were identified using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). The association of FDA AERS signal score (EB05 ? 2) and excess risk of pre-marketing ALT elevation (difference in incidence of ALT ? 3 ULN in treated versus placebo) was examined. An ALT signal of ? 1.2% was significantly associated with a post-marketing liver safety signal (p ? 0.013) and a 71.4% positive predictive value. An absent ALT signal was associated with a high likelihood of post-marketing liver safety; negative predictive value of 89.7%. Daily drug dose information improved the prediction of post-marketing liver safety. A cut-off of 1.2% increase in ALT ? 3 ULN in treated versus placebo groups provides an easily calculated method for predicting post-marketing liver safety. PMID:22668747

  12. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  13. An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

    2008-05-01

    A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

  14. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  15. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  16. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  17. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  18. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  19. Decay {B to K^ast(to Kπ)ℓ+ ℓ-} in Covariant Quark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubnička, S.; Dubničková, A. Z.; Habyl, N.; Ivanov, M. A.; Liptaj, A.; Nurbakova, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    Our article is devoted to the study of the rare {B to K^ast ℓ^+ℓ^-} decay where {ℓ=e,μ,τ}. We compute the relevant form factors in the framework of the covariant quark model with infrared confinement in the full kinematical momentum transfer region. The calculated form factors are used to evaluate branching fractions and polarization observables in the cascade decay {B to K^ast(to Kπ)ℓ^+ℓ^-}. We compare the obtained results with available experimental data and the results from other theoretical approaches.

  20. Prodrug AST-003 Improves the Therapeutic Index of the Multi-Targeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang; Zhou, Changhua; Chen, Xiao; Dong, Bing; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yawei; Li, Anrong; Yao, Meicun; Miao, Ji; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Patients have responded well to the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Sunitinib in the clinic. But the severe toxic side effects associated with Sunitinib limit its therapeutic index. To improve the therapeutic index of Sunitinib, a prodrug strategy was employed to modify Sunitinib. The inactive prodrug AST-003 can be converted to Sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. Compared with Sunitinib, AST-003 has unique biochemical, cellular and pharmacokinetic properties with improved tolerability in mice and yield higher efficacy in tumor xenograft models. This prodrug strategy may constitute a novel paradigm to improve the therapeutic index of Sunitinib and other TKI or anti-angiogenesis drugs in general. PMID:26513662

  1. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczy?ska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; St?pie?, ?ukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  2. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  3. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  8. Holographic Wilson loops in symmetric representations in {N} = {2}^{ast } super-Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Lin, Xinyi; Dekel, Amit; Zarembo, Konstantin

    2016-02-01

    We construct the D3-brane solution in the holographic dual of the {N} = {2}^{ast } theory that describes Wilson lines in symmetric representations of the gauge group. The results perfectly agree with the direct field-theory predictions based on localization.

  9. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-07-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  10. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0–5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5–5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE 1.1mm survey of SSA22 (Umehata+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We used the AzTEC camera operating at 1.1mm mounted on the ASTE 10-m submillimetre telescope located at Pampa la Bola, near Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. All of the AzTEC/ASTE observations of SSA22 were carried out at night during 2007 August-September and 2008 August-September. (4 data files).

  12. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(1); 49-60. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26511282

  13. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  14. European landscape in astrobiology, results of the AstRoMap consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Walter, Nicolas; Gomez, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field of research, which encompasses scientists ranging from cosmology, astronomy, planetary sciences, physics, chemistry, geology, paleontology to biology. In order to map the existing astrobiological expertise in Europe a comprehensive community consultation has been performed within the AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping) project that is supported by the European Commission FP7 framework. From this information a data base of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see:

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE source catalogue (Aretxaga+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Aguilar, E.; Alberts, S.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.; Austermann, J.; Downes, T. P.; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Tamura, Y.; Zeballos, M.

    2013-02-01

    We imaged a 2800 arcmin2 field centred at right ascension RA(J2000.0)=10:00:30.00 and declination DE(J2000.0)=2:14.00 with AzTEC mounted on the 10-m ASTE, located at 4800m in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The survey was carried out from 2008 October 20 to November 30. (1 data file).

  16. Synthesis and Electro-Optical Properties of Blue Emitting POLY(BP-alt-BCV) Conjugated Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jeong Ju; Jeong, Young Chul; Park, Lee Soon; Lee, Jung Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo; Kwon, Younghwan

    A new blue electroluminescent conjugated polymer, poly(BP-alt-BCV), was prepared by Hornor-Emmons polycondensation of [5-carbazol-9-yl-3-(diethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)-2-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-benzyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester (PHBP) and 4,4?-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde (BPCA) in the presence of tert-BuOK in THF. UV-visible absorption maximum (?max,UV, ?-?* transition) of poly(BP-alt-BCV) was measured at 340 nm. PL maximum (?max,PL) values of poly(BP-alt-BCV) were obtained at 406 and 430 nm, when excited at its own ?max,UV. It was found that double layer [ITO/poly(BP-alt-BCV)/Alq3 (50 )/Al] PLED exhibited maximum EL peak at 440 nm and blue emission (x = 0.1794, y = 0.1878), similar to the NTSC standard blue (x = 0.14, y = 0.08).

  17. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0.01) deviations from a normal distribution for both W. bancrofti and L. loa. The relationship between evolvability and selection in L. loa followed a second order polynomial distribution (R2 = 0.89), indicating that the two factors relate to one another in accordance with an additional unknown factor. Taken together, these findings indicate discrete evolutionary drivers acting on ALT-2 of the four organisms examined, and the described variation has implications for design of novel vaccines and diagnostic reagents. Additionally, this represents the first mathematical description of evolvability in a naturally occurring setting. PMID:26890364

  18. On the N={1}^{ast } gauge theory on a circle and elliptic integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of the N={1}^{ast } supersymmetric gauge theory on R^{2,1}× {S}^1 and its relation to elliptic integrable systems. Upon compactification on a circle, we show that the semi-classical analysis of the massless and massive vacua depends on the classification of nilpotent orbits, as well as on the conjugacy classes of the component group of their centralizer. We demonstrate that semi-classically massless vacua can be lifted by Wilson lines in unbroken discrete gauge groups. The pseudo-Levi subalgebras that play a classifying role in the nilpotent orbit theory are also key in defining generalized Inozemtsev limits of (twisted) elliptic integrable systems. We illustrate our analysis in the N={1}^{ast } theories with gauge algebras su(3), su(4), so(5) and for the exceptional gauge algebra G 2. We map out modular duality diagrams of the massive and massless vacua. Moreover, we provide an analytic description of the branches of massless vacua in the case of the su(3) and the so(5) theory. The description of these branches in terms of the complexified Wilson lines on the circle invokes the Eichler-Zagier technique for inverting the elliptic Weierstrass function. After fine-tuning the coupling to elliptic points of order three, we identify the Argyres-Douglas singularities of the su(3) N={1}^{ast } theory.

  19. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  20. Ethnic Differences in the Link Between Insulin Resistance and Elevated ALT

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Wiener, R. Constance; Barnes, Barrett H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) exhibits tight links with insulin resistance (IR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic black adolescents have more IR but a lower prevalence of NAFLD and MetS. Our hypothesis was that IR would be a better predictor of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations than is MetS among non-Hispanic blacks. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4124 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in the 1999 to 2010 NHANES, using unexplained elevations in ALT (>30 U/L) to characterize presumed NAFLD and using a pediatric adaptation of the Adult Treatment Panel III definition of MetS. RESULTS: Prevalence of elevated ALT varied by race/ethnicity (Hispanics 13.7%, non-Hispanic white 8.6%, non-Hispanic blacks 5.4%, P < .0001). Among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, a classification of MetS performed well in identifying adolescents with elevated ALT (odds ratios [ORs] 9.53 and 5.56, respectively), as did MetS-related indices. However, among non-Hispanic blacks, the association between MetS and ALT elevations was smaller in magnitude and technically nonsignificant (OR = 3.24, P = .051). Furthermore, among non-Hispanic blacks, the presence of IR and elevated waist circumference performed more poorly at identifying ALT elevations (ORs 3.93 and 2.28, respectively: significantly smaller than ORs for non-Hispanic whites, P < .05), with triglyceride elevations being a better predictor (OR = 4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Non-Hispanic black adolescents exhibit a lower relationship between IR and elevated ALT, supporting racial/ethnic differences in the link between MetS and NAFLD. These data may have implications regarding triggers for screening for NAFLD among non-Hispanic black adolescents, focusing particularly on those with triglyceride elevations. PMID:23940240

  1. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  2. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in cancer stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bojovic, Bojana; Booth, Ryan E.; Jin, Yi; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Crowe, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome ends are protected by telomeres which prevent DNA damage response and degradation. Telomerase expression extends telomeres and inhibits DNA damage response. Telomeres are also maintained by the recombination based alternative lengthening pathway. Telomerase is believed to be the sole mechanism for telomere maintenance in epidermis. We show that basal cells in epidermis maintain telomeres both by telomerase and ALT mechanisms in vivo. ALT was detected in epidermal stem cells in Terc−/− mice, and normal human epidermal keratinocytes are also ALT positive. ALT pathway is suppressed in primary but not metastatic epidermal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in Terc+/+ mice. ALT pathway is expressed in stem and basal cells in epidermal SCC in Terc−/− mice, and some telomerase positive human SCC lines. Telomeres shorten dramatically in stem and basal cells in epidermal SCC in vivo. Telomere shortening is associated with telomeric DNA damage response and apoptosis in stem and basal cells. Stem cells were transformed in both primary and metastatic epidermal SCC. Genetic ablation of this small cell population resulted in significant tumor regression in vivo. We concluded that alternative lengthening of telomeres is important in epidermal homeostasis and tumorigenesis in vivo. PMID:24531712

  3. ELEFUNT test results under AST Fortran V1. 8. 0 on the Sequent Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses testing of the floating-point arithmetic and of the elementary function libraries under AST Fortran on a 24-processor Sequent Symmetry computer. The programs MACHAR and PARANOIA were used to check the quality of arithmetic, and the ELEFUNT suite of programs from the book Software Manual for the Elementary Functions by Cody and Waite was used to check function performance. Two complete sets of tests were run, one for each type of floating-point processor, Intel 80387 and Weitek 1167, on the machine. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Detection of Carbapenemases in Clinical Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the VITEK AST-N202 Card

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Jang, In-Ho; Lee, Woonhyoung; Kim, Keonhan; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in clinical microbiology laboratories is essential for the treatment and control of infections caused by these microorganisms. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the VITEK AST-N202 card to detect CPE isolates. Materials and Methods A total of 43 (Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 37; Escherichia coli, n = 3; and Enterobacter cloacae, n = 3) CPE isolates and 79 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CNE) isolates were included in this study. The CPE isolates harbored KPC-2 (n = 11), KPC-3 (n = 20), GES-5 (n = 5), VIM-2 (n = 2), IMP-1 (n = 1), NDM-1 (n = 2), or OXA-232 (n = 2). Of the 79 CNE isolates, eight K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem, while the remaining 71 isolates were susceptible to the carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the VITEK AST-N202 card, and the results were interpreted as positive when the isolates showed resistant or intermediate results. Modified-Hodge tests (MHTs) were performed using ertapenem or meropenem disks for the screening of carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to identify β-lactamase genes. Results Sensitivity of MHT with ertapenem and meropenem disks for the detection of carbapenemase was 81.4% (35/43) and 81.4% (35/43), respectively, and a combination with both antibiotic disks increased the sensitivity to 88.4% (38/43). Specificity of the MHT was 100% (79/79) for the CNE isolates. Sensitivity of ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem as assessed by the VITEK AST-N202 card was 100% (43/43), 93% (40/43), and 95.3% (41/43), respectively. Specificity (89.8%, 71/79) of the test with each carbapenem was improved to 100% (71/71) when eight carbapenem-resistant CNE isolates were excluded from the testing. Conclusion The VITEK AST-N202 card showed high sensitivity for the detection of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae strains. PCR and sequencing experiments for the detection of carbapenemases are recommended when clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates show non-susceptibility to carbapenems. PMID:26483990

  5. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

  6. Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

    1986-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90/sup 0/ toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary.

  7. Optimization of Alt-PSM structure for 45nm node ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Takashi; Mesuda, Kei; Toyama, Nobuhito; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2005-11-01

    Alternating Aperture Phase Shifting Mask (Alt-APSM) has been expected as one of the practical techniques for 45nm node ArF lithography. We have already discussed and proposed the Single trench with undercut (UC) and bias structure is the primary candidate for 65nm node Alt-APSM structure. In fact, we have selected this structure as a standard in production for 65nm node Alt-PSM. For the 45nm node, according to the design shrinkage, mask rule such as MRC which specify minimum chrome CD between 0 and pi degree apertures and etc. is getting tighter. So, we need to consider about single trench with no undercut and bias structure. Such two types of structure are the candidates for 45nm node Alt-APSM. Exposure conditions will be considered as 0.9 or higher NA and the immersion technology as well. In this work, we will discuss about 45nm node Alt-PSM structure in terms of lithographic performance by using 3D rigorous optical simulation software. Two types of structure, single trench with UC and bias, and single trench with No UC and bias are compared. We examined the following items to find optimum Alt-PSM structure, 0/pi space bias to minimize CD difference at the wafer, quartz depth to optimize effective phase and optical proximity correction (OPC) to adjust printed line CD in through pitch condition. Wafer printing performance will be evaluated by the stability of line CD and 0-pi CD difference, contrast, NILS, phase angles, MEEF, ED-window and gate position shift.

  8. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  9. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120

    PubMed Central

    Velenosi, Thomas J.; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A.; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S.; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E.; Nevison, Stephanie E.; Kerr, Michael A.; Urquhart, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  10. Partition function of N={2}^{ast } SYM on a large four-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Kumar, S. Prem

    2015-12-01

    We examine the partition function of N={2}^{ast } supersymmetric SU( N) Yang-Mills theory on the four-sphere in the large radius limit. We point out that the large radius partition function, at fixed N, is computed by saddle-points lying on walls of marginal stability on the Coulomb branch of the theory on {R}^4 . For N an even (odd) integer and θ YM = 0( π), these include a point of maximal degeneration of the Donagi-Witten curve to a torus where BPS dyons with electric charge [N/2] become massless. We argue that the dyon singularity is the lone saddle-point in the SU(2) theory, while for SU( N) with N > 2, we characterize potentially competing saddle-points by obtaining the relations between the Seiberg-Witten periods at such points. Using Nekrasov's instanton partition function, we solve for the maximally degenerate saddle-point and obtain its free energy as a function of g YM and N, and show that the results are "large- N exact". In the large- N theory our results provide analytical expressions for the periods/eigenvalues at the maximally degenerate saddle-point, precisely matching previously known formulae following from the correspondence between N={2}^{ast } theory and the elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable model. The maximally singular point ceases to be a saddle-point of the partition function above a critical value of the coupling, in agreement with the recent findings of Russo and Zarembo.

  11. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-02-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes.

  12. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents' interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  13. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT)

    PubMed Central

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Franoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoo-Vallejo, Arturo; Sgal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Herv; Boussin, Franois D

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2R? (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. What's new? All cancerous cells share the need to maintain and elongate their telomeres. In approximately 30% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed ALT, making specific therapeutic strategies potentially interesting. Here, the authors showed that intracerebral grafts of an ALT glioma cell line called TG20 in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme, which could aid the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. This model could also support the development of specific therapies, with the study revealing G-quadruplex ligands as a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  14. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  15. Next challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS data processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    NEODyS and AstDyS are systems that provide asteroid dynamical data through dedicated web services. In particular, NEODyS is devoted to the Near Earth Objects orbital data computations and impact monitoring activities on a hourly basis, while AstDyS computes orbits and dynamical information (such as the asteroid family membership) of all numbered and multi-opposition asteroids on a monthly basis. Both systems are operational for more than 15 years.During the last years the major NEO surveys such as CSS, Pan-STARRS and so on and so forth increased the rate of discovery of new NEOs passing the threshold of 1000 discoveries/year. In particular, in 2014 there was a relative increase of about 42% wtrt 2013, mostly thanks to the full availability of the Pan-STARRS telescope for the NEO survey.In this framework is important to notice that the NEO population characterization is near to be complete for objects brighter that 18th, while the big majority of new discoveries are smaller and smaller objects.The major consequence is that we should expect a higher and higher number of discoveries of the so-called possible imminent impactors, that is small objects (from the Tunguska class and less) which are going to impact the Earth within the next days or hours.It is foreseen that in the next decade new dedicated surveys such as the American ATLAS and the European Fly-Eye telescopes will scan the sky just with the purpose of detecting such possible imminent impactors. The amount of data from the already operative surveys and the new ones will increase dramatically, while the time for processing such amount of data must be necessary shorten than in the past. Moreover, this huge quantity of astrometric data will increase also the knowledge of the dynamics of all known asteroids of the Solar System.In this panel we discuss the next decades new challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS systems and for the NEO system as a whole. The major players of the NEO system will be the observers (surveys), the data centers (MPC, NEODyS-NEOCC, JPL,...), the amateurs (follow-up) and the decision makers.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  2. A stable and selective electrochemical biosensor for the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mamun; Worsfold, Oliver; McCormac, Timothy; Dempsey, Eithne

    2009-05-15

    An electrochemical method to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity over its normal and elevated physiological range was developed based upon detection of L-glutamate at a glutamate oxidase-modified platinum electrode. Measurements were carried out in the presence of ALT co-substrates L-alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate and current response from either the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide or the re-oxidation of the mediator ferrocene carboxylic acid was employed. The enzyme electrode was tested over a 6-month period and found to retain 79% of its original activity towards ALT detection with >200 measurements performed over this time. Signals associated with interfering electroactive species (ascorbic acid and uric acid) were eliminated using background subtraction at a denatured glutamate oxidase enzyme electrode. The sensitivity of the device was found to be 0.845 nA U(-1) L ALT with t(90)=180 s, linear range 10-1000 U L(-1) and LOD of 3.29 U L(-1) using amperometry at E(app)=0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl at 308 K (35 degrees C). PMID:19356918

  3. A prospective study on the causes of notably raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Helgi Kristinn; Olafsson, Sigurdur; Bergmann, Ottar M; Björnsson, Einar S

    2016-05-01

    Objective High levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) can be a marker of severe liver disease with variable aetiologies and prognosis. Very few prospective studies have been undertaken on the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT levels. No population-based prospective study has systematically evaluated drug-induced liver injury (DILI) among these patients. The objective was to determine the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT. Materials and methods In a catchment area of 160,000 inhabitants, a population-based prospective study identified all adult patients with serum level of ALT >500 U/L during a 12-month period. All underwent thorough diagnostic work-up and follow-up. In suspected DILI, causality was assessed with Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method. Results A total of 155 patients were identified with ALT >500 U/L, 12 children and one with ALT of non-liver-related origin, leaving 142 patients for the analysis: 73 (51%) males, median age 52 (IQR 36-68, range 19-89 years). The most common causes were choledocholithiasis 48/142 (34%), ischaemic hepatitis 26 (18%), viral hepatitis 16 (11%) and DILI 15 (11%), hepatobiliary malignancy (n = 6), surgery/interventions (n = 8) and other aetiologies (n = 23). No specific aetiology was found in 6% of cases. In the total study cohort 99 (70%) required hospitalisation, 78 (55%) had jaundice and 22 (16%) died, liver-related death in 10%, 35% in IH and 7% in DILI. Conclusions The most common cause of notably high ALT was choledocholithiasis. Ischaemic hepatitis was a common aetiology with approximately 35% liver-related mortality. Viral hepatitis and DILI were important aetiologies among these patients. PMID:26653080

  4. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K.; Lue, Neal F.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and “trapped” the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  5. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, J. A.; Boyd, R. D.; Kempka, S. M.; Romig, A. D.; Smith, M. F.; Watson, R. D.; Whitley, J. B.; Conn, R. W.; Grotz, S. P.

    1984-05-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Jülich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II. Since the actively cooled limiter blade is the component in direct contact with the plasma edge, and thus subject to the severe plasma environment, most preliminary design efforts have concentrated on analysis of the blade. The screening process which led to the recommended preliminary design consisting of a dispersion strengthened copper or OFHC copper cover plate over an austenitic stainless steel base plate is discussed. A 1 to 3 mm thick low atomic number coating consisting of a graded plasma-sprayed Silicon Carbide-Aluminum composite is recommended subject to further experiment and evaluation. Thermal-hydraulic and stress analyses of the limiter blade are also discussed.

  6. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Order 1050.1E, Change 1, the FAA is announcing the availability of a FONSI for the FAA/AST action to... requirements of FAA Order 1050.1E, Change 1, paragraph 410, the FAA has independently evaluated the information... Order 1050.1E, Change 1. The FAA has determined that there is no new information or analysis that...

  7. Two members of the first crew of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two members of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr. (left), commander; and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  8. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  9. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  10. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.

  11. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  12. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Wang, Haijun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18–1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7–17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom’s MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:26717317

  13. Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2014-07-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

  14. Pole STAR: An 810 GHz Array Receiver for AST/RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, C.; Walker, C.; Hungerford, A.; Kulesa, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kooi, J.

    We are constructing a 4-channel receiver at 810 GHz for use on the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory located at the South Pole (AST/RO). The 810 GHz mixers and junctions for the array are being provided by KOSMA. The mixers are housed in a hybrid cryostat located in a warm Coude' room just below the 1.7 m telescope. A pair of parabolic mirrors will be used to reimage the telescope's focal plane through a Martin-Puplett LO diplexer onto a 2x2 array of lenses. The lenses efficiently couple the telescope to each mixer's corrugated feedhorn. The SIS junction is matched to the waveguide by an on-chip tuner and a single, fixed backshort. The 1-2 GHz IF output of each mixer is fed into a low-noise, balanced, HEMT amplifier. All bias signals are provided by a computer controlled bias system, which is fully optically isolated from the control computer. This system provides automated adjustment and optimization of bias levels with web based monitoring. The IF outputs are further processed at room temperature and fed into a 4-channel array AOS constructed by KOSMA. A Gunn oscillator (J. Carlstrom) and multiplier (Erickson & Narayanan) are used to drive the array.

  15. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  16. Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

    2013-01-01

    The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

  17. ASTE CO J = 3-2 SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Tomoharu; Onodera, Yui; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Nagai, Makoto; Kamegai, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    We present high-resolution CO J = 3-2 maps of the Galactic center region, taken with the ASTE 10 m telescope. We have collected approximately 30,000 spectra with a 34'' grid spacing. The mapping area is roughly -1.{sup 0}8 < l < +3.{sup 0}5 and -0.{sup 0}8 < b < +0.{sup 0}9, which includes the central molecular zone and Bania's Clump 2, covering almost the full extent of the molecular gas concentration in the Galactic center. These CO J = 3-2 images show a behavior similar to the CO J = 1-0 images with the same resolution. Molecular gas in the Galactic center shows a higher J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratio ({approx}0.7) than the gas in the spiral arms in the Galactic disk ({approx}0.4). The CO J = 3-2/CO J = 1-0 luminosity ratio is 0.71. We see several regions with very high J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratios exceeding 1.5, including the Sgr A, l = +1.{sup 0}3, l = -0.{sup 0}4, and l = -1.{sup 0}2 regions. A number of small spots of high ratio gas are also found. Many of them have large velocity widths, indicating that they are spots of hot molecular gas shocked by unidentified supernovae and/or winds from massive stars.

  18. Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. )

    1991-03-11

    Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

  19. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

  20. Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

  1. Telomere extension by telomerase and ALT generates variant repeats by mechanistically distinct processes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael; Hills, Mark; Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Lau, Loretta M.S.; Reddel, Roger R.; Pickett, Hilda A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are terminal repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes, and are considered to comprise almost exclusively hexameric TTAGGG repeats. We have evaluated telomere sequence content in human cells using whole-genome sequencing followed by telomere read extraction in a panel of mortal cell strains and immortal cell lines. We identified a wide range of telomere variant repeats in human cells, and found evidence that variant repeats are generated by mechanistically distinct processes during telomerase- and ALT-mediated telomere lengthening. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension resulted in biased repeat synthesis of variant repeats that differed from the canonical sequence at positions 1 and 3, but not at positions 2, 4, 5 or 6. This indicates that telomerase is most likely an error-prone reverse transcriptase that misincorporates nucleotides at specific positions on the telomerase RNA template. In contrast, cell lines that use the ALT pathway contained a large range of variant repeats that varied greatly between lines. This is consistent with variant repeats spreading from proximal telomeric regions throughout telomeres in a stochastic manner by recombination-mediated templating of DNA synthesis. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of variant repeats in cells utilizing either telomere maintenance mechanism suggests a conserved role for variant sequences at human telomeres. PMID:24225324

  2. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09 mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  3. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  4. Intrachain versus interchain electron transport in poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole): a quantum-chemical insight.

    PubMed

    Van Vooren, Antoine; Kim, Ji-Seon; Cornil, Jérôme

    2008-05-16

    Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) [F8BT], displays very different charge-transport properties for holes versus electrons when comparing annealed and pristine thin films and transport parallel (intrachain) and perpendicular (interchain) to the polymer axes. The present theoretical contribution focuses on the electron-transport properties of F8BT chains and compares the efficiency of intrachain versus interchain transport in the hopping regime. The theoretical results rationalize significantly lowered electron mobility in annealed F8BT thin films and the smaller mobility anisotropy (mu( parallel)/mu( perpendicular)) measured for electrons in aligned films (i.e. 5-7 compared to 10-15 for holes). PMID:18389513

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  7. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  8. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  9. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-10-22

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block. PMID:19320497

  10. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations. PMID:26007633

  11. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  12. The Anopheles stephensi odorant binding protein 1 (AsteObp1) gene: a new molecular marker for biological forms diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, S; Firooziyan, S; Ladonni, H; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Djadid, N Dinparast; Hosseini, A; Raz, A

    2015-06-01

    Anopheles (Cellia) stephensi Liston 1901 is known as an Asian malaria vector. Three biological forms, namely "mysorensis", "intermediate", and "type" have been earlier reported in this species. Nevertheless, the present morphological and molecular information is insufficient to diagnose these forms. During this investigation, An. stephensi biological forms were morphologically identified and sequenced for odorant-binding protein 1 (Obp1) gene. Also, intron I sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees. Despite nucleotide sequence variation in exon of AsteObp1, nearly 100% identity was observed at the amino acid level among the three biological forms. In order to overcome difficulties in using egg morphology characters, intron I sequences of An. stephensi Obp1 opens new molecular way to the identification of the main Asian malaria vector biological forms. However, multidisciplinary studies are needed to establish the taxonomic status of An. stephensi. PMID:25795618

  13. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  14. Blood transcript immune signatures distinguish a subset of people with elevated serum ALT from others given acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Sieber, S O; Bushel, P R; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury is hindered by the limited utility of clinical chemistries. We have shown that hepatotoxicants can produce peripheral blood transcriptome "signatures" (PBTS) in rodents and humans. In this study, 42 adults were treated with acetaminophen (APAP; 1 g every 6 hours) for seven days, followed by three days of placebo. Eleven subjects received only placebo. After five days, 12 subjects (30%) had increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ("responders"). PBTS of 707 and 760 genes, respectively, could distinguish responders and nonresponders from placebos. Functional analysis of the responder PBTS revealed increased expression of genes involved in TH2-mediated and innate immune responses, whereas the nonresponders demonstrated increased gene expression consistent with a tolerogenic immune response. Taken together, these observations suggest that the clinical subjects with transient increases in serum ALT failed to maintain or intensify a hepatic tolerogenic immune response. PMID:26690555

  15. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  16. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  17. Model study by FT-IR of the interaction of select cholate dissolution inhibitors with poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Gabor, Allen H.; Medina, Arturo N.

    1999-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interaction between the polymer matrix and the cholate based dissolution inhibitors are being studied by Fourier Transform-IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the simple cholate derivatives undergo, in a blend with poly(norbornene-alt- maleic anhydride) and in a blend with the terpolymers poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-t-butylacrylate) and poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-acrylic acid), stronger interaction as seen by shifts in the OH region of the spectra than do blends with dimeric or oligomeric cholates.

  18. Proceedings of the AST heart allocation meeting at the American Transplant Congress, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 4, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kobashigawa, Jon; Teuteberg, Jeffrey; Colvin, Monica; Edwards, Leah; Daun, Tiffany; Luu, Minh; Patel, Jignesh; Vega, John David; Meyer, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ensuring fair and equitable allocation of donor hearts in the US is the charge of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). However, the recent increase of candidates waiting without a corresponding increase in available donors, higher waitlist mortality rates in higher status patients, the presence of disadvantaged subgroups, and the changing management of heart failure patients with increased VAD usage, has necessitated review of allocation policy. Therefore, the Heart Subcommittee of the OPTN/UNOS Thoracic Committee is exploring a further-tiered allocation system, devising a "straw man" model as a starting point for modeling analyses and public discussion. On May 4, 2015, an American Society of Transplantation (AST)-endorsed forum to discuss these potential proposed changes took place. Attendees included 41 people, mostly highly experienced transplant cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons, representing 19 heart transplant centers across the US, UNOS, and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). There was unanimous agreement that the potential proposed policy will require careful wording to avoid ambiguity and "gaming" of the system, and strong support for abolishment of local organ sharing in favor of geographic sharing. However, contention existed concerning the appropriate prioritization levels of ECMO, temporary VAD/TAH patients as well as the 30-day LVAD listing. PMID:27000519

  19. Astakine LvAST binds to the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-β) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-β as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

  20. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB.

    PubMed

    Caniato, Fernanda F; Hamblin, Martha T; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ∼6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

  1. Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB

    PubMed Central

    Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ∼6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

  2. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  3. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  4. An AZTEC/ASTE 1.1mm Survey Of The Young, Dense, Nearby Star-forming Region, Serpens South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutermuth, Robert A.; Bourke, T.; Matthews, B.; Dunham, M.; Allen, L.; Myers, P.; Jorgensen, J.; Wilson, G.; Yun, M.; Hughes, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Ryohei, K.; Kotaro, K.; Scott, K.; Austermann, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Serpens South embedded cluster, recently discovered by the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey, stands out among over 100 clusters and groups surveyed by Spitzer as the densest (>430 pc-2) and youngest (77% Class I protostars) clustered star forming region known within the nearest 400 pc. In order to better characterize the primordial structure of the cluster's natal cloud, we have made a 1.1mm dust continuum map of Serpens South from the AzTEC instrument on the 10m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The projected morphology of the emission is best described by a central dense hub with numerous 0.5 pc-long filaments radiating away from the center. Large scale flux features that are typically removed via modern sky subtraction techniques are recovered using a novel iterative flux retrieval algorithm. Using standard assumptions (emissivity, dust-to-gas ratio, and T=10K), we compute the total mass of the Serpens South cloud core and filaments to be 480 Msun. We construct separate large and small scale structure maps via wavelet decomposition, and deploy a watershed structure isolation technique separately to each map in order to isolate all empirically observed substructure. This technique confirms our qualitative observation that the filaments north of the hub are notably less clumpy than those to the south, while the total mass is similar between the two regions. Both regions have relatively small numbers of young stellar objects, thus we speculate that we have caught this cloud in the act of fragmenting into pre-stellar cores.

  5. AST to platelet ratio index as a prospective predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma risk in patients with chronic HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yinzhi; Hann, Richard S.; Myers, Ronald E.; Patel, Fenil; Zhang, Kejin; Ye, Zhong; Wang, Chun; Yang, Hushan

    2015-01-01

    Background APRI (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] to platelet ratio index) is widely used to assess fibrosis and cirrhosis risk, especially in HCV-infected patients. Few studies have evaluated APRI and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. Prospective evidence is needed to assess whether APRI predicts HCC risk in HBV patients. Method In a prospectively enrolled clinical cohort of 855 HBV patients with a 1-year exclusion window (followed for >1 year and did not develop HCC within 1 year), the predictive value of APRI in HCC risk was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards model using univariate and multivariate analyses and longitudinal analysis. Results Higher APRI prospectively conferred a significantly increased risk of HCC in univariate analysis (quartile analysis, P trend=2.9×10−7). This effect remained highly significant after adjusting for common host characteristics but not cirrhosis (P trend=7.1×10−5), and attenuated when cirrhosis is adjusted (P trend=0.021). The effect remained prominent when the analysis was restricted to patients with a more stringent 2-year exclusion window (P trend=0.008 in quartile analysis adjusting all characteristics including cirrhosis), indicating that the association was unlikely due to including undetected HCC patients in the cohort, thus minimizing the reverse-causation limitation in most retrospective studies. Longitudinal comparison demonstrated a persistently higher APRI value in HBV patients who developed HCC during follow-up than those remaining cancer-free. Conclusion APRI might be a marker of HCC risk in HBV patients in cirrhosis-dependent and independent manners. Further studies are warranted to validate this finding and test its clinical applicability in HCC prevention. PMID:24995497

  6. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine. PMID:26843073

  7. Antileukemic effects of the novel, mutant FLT3 inhibitor NVP-AST487: effects on PKC412-sensitive and -resistant FLT3-expressing cells

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Ellen; Roesel, Johannes; Bold, Guido; Furet, Pascal; Jiang, Jingrui; Cools, Jan; Wright, Renee D.; Nelson, Erik; Barrett, Rosemary; Ray, Arghya; Moreno, Daisy; Hall-Meyers, Elizabeth; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Fox, Edward; Gilliland, Gary; Daley, John F.; Lazo-Kallanian, Suzan; Kung, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    An attractive target for therapeutic intervention is constitutively activated, mutant FLT3, which is expressed in a subpopulation of patients with acute myelocyic leukemia (AML) and is generally a poor prognostic indicator in patients under the age of 65 years. PKC412 is one of several mutant FLT3 inhibitors that is undergoing clinical testing, and which is currently in late-stage clinical trials. However, the discovery of drug-resistant leukemic blast cells in PKC412-treated patients with AML has prompted the search for novel, structurally diverse FLT3 inhibitors that could be alternatively used to override drug resistance. Here, we report the potent and selective antiproliferative effects of the novel mutant FLT3 inhibitor NVP-AST487 on primary patient cells and cell lines expressing FLT3-ITD or FLT3 kinase domain point mutants. NVP-AST487, which selectively targets mutant FLT3 protein kinase activity, is also shown to override PKC412 resistance in vitro, and has significant antileukemic activity in an in vivo model of FLT3-ITD+ leukemia. Finally, the combination of NVP-AST487 with standard chemotherapeutic agents leads to enhanced inhibition of proliferation of mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Thus, we present a novel class of FLT3 inhibitors that displays high selectivity and potency toward FLT3 as a molecular target, and which could potentially be used to override drug resistance in AML. PMID:18820131

  8. overline{B}to {D}^{(ast )}τ overline{ν} excesses in ALRSM constrained from B, D decays and {D}^0-{overline{D}}^0 mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hati, Chandan; Kumar, Girish; Mahajan, Namit

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHCb, BaBar and Belle collaborations on the semitauonic decays of B meson, overline{B}to {D}^{(ast )}τ overline{ν} , showing a significant deviation from the Standard Model (SM), hint towards a new physics scenario beyond the SM. In this work, we show that these enhanced decay rates can be explained within the framework of E 6 motivated Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Model (ALRSM), which has been successful in explaining the recent CMS excesses and has the feature of accommodating high scale leptogenesis. The R-parity conserving couplings in ALRSM can contribute universally to both overline{B}to Dτ overline{ν} and overline{B}to {D}^{ast}τ overline{ν} via the exchange of scalar leptoquarks. We study the leptonic decays {D}_s+to {τ}+overline{ν} , {B}+to {τ}+overline{ν} , {D}+to {τ}+overline{ν} and {D}^0-{overline{D}}^0 mixing to constrain the couplings involved in explaining the enhanced B decay rates and we find that ALRSM can explain the current experimental data on {R}({D}^{(ast )}) quite well while satisfying these constraints.

  9. The Arabidopsis Cell Cycle Checkpoint Regulators TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR Mediate the Active Process of Aluminum-Dependent Root Growth Inhibition[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nezames, Cynthia D.; Sjogren, Caroline A.; Barajas, Jesus F.; Larsen, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a global issue that severely limits root growth in acidic soils. Isolation of suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana Al-hypersensitive mutant, als3-1, resulted in identification of a cell cycle checkpoint factor, ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2), which monitors and responds to DNA damage. ALT2 is required for active stoppage of root growth after Al exposure, because alt2 loss-of-function mutants fail to halt root growth after Al exposure, do not accumulate CyclinB1;1 in the root tip, and fail to force differentiation of the quiescent center. Thus, alt2-1 mutants are highly tolerant of Al levels that are severely inhibitory to the wild type. The alt2-1 allele is a loss-of-function mutation in a protein containing a putative DDB1-binding WD40 motif, previously identified as TANMEI, which is required for assessment of DNA integrity, including monitoring of DNA crosslinks. alt2-1 and atr loss-of-function mutants, the latter of which affects the cell cycle checkpoint ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA-MUTATED AND RAD3-RELATED, are severely sensitive to DNA crosslinking agents and have increased Al tolerance. These results suggest that Al likely acts as a DNA-damaging agent in vivo and that Al-dependent root growth inhibition, in part, arises from detection of and response to this damage by TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR, both of which actively halt cell cycle progression and force differentiation of the quiescent center. PMID:22345493

  10. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  11. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fiona T. M.; Chan, F. Lyn; R. McGhie, James D.; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  13. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  14. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  15. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  16. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model

    PubMed Central

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D.; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R.; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Lim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereo-tactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  17. AltMV TGB1 nucleolar localization requires homologous interaction and correlates with cell wall localization associated with cell-to-cell movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...

  18. Candidate gene identification of an aluminum-activated organic acid transporter gene at the Alt4 locus for aluminum tolerance in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    PubMed

    Fontecha, G; Silva-Navas, J; Benito, C; Mestres, M A; Espino, F J; Hernández-Riquer, M V; Gallego, F J

    2007-01-01

    Among cereal crops, rye is one of the most tolerant species to aluminum. A candidate gene approach was used to determine the likely molecular identity of an Al tolerance locus (Alt4). Using PCR primers designed from a wheat aluminum tolerance gene encoding an aluminum-activated malate transporter (TaALMT1), a rye gene (ScALMT1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Subsequently, the ScALMT1 gene of rye was found to be located on 7RS by PCR amplification using the wheat-rye addition lines. SNP polymorphisms for this gene were detected among the parents of three F(2) populations that segregate for the Alt4 locus. A map of the rye chromosome 7R, including the Alt4 locus ScALMT1 and several molecular markers, was constructed showing a complete co-segregation between Alt4 and ScALMT1. Furthermore, expression experiments were carried out to clarify the function of this candidate gene. Briefly, the ScALMT1 gene was found to be primarily expressed in the root apex and upregulated when aluminum was present in the medium. Five-fold differences in the expression were found between the Al tolerant and the Al non-tolerant genotypes. Additionally, much higher expression was detected in the rye genotypes than the moderately tolerant "Chinese Spring" wheat cultivar. These results suggest that the Alt4 locus encodes an aluminum-activated organic acid transporter gene that could be utilized to increase Al tolerance in Al sensitive plant species. Finally, TaALMT1 homologous sequences were identified in different grasses and in the dicotyledonous plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Our data support the hypothesis of the existence of a common mechanism of Al tolerance encoded by a gene located in the homoeologous group four of cereals. PMID:17063338

  19. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  20. A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

  1. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  2. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the π-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  3. Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

    2013-03-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

  4. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  5. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 (L(Dip)=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, L(Et)=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum-tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 equilibrates with dimeric {(L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  6. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  7. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  8. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be addressed by application of a correction factor to fingerstick values. Remote reading of this device is feasible. PMID:26020244

  9. Measurement of CP violation parameters and polarisation fractions in {B}s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast 0} decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-11-01

    The first measurement of CP asymmetries in the decay {B}_s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast }{(892)}^0 and an updated measurement of its branching fraction and polarisation fractions are presented. The results are obtained using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 .0 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions recorded with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Together with constraints from B 0 → J/ψ ρ 0, the results are used to constrain additional contributions due to penguin diagrams in the CP -violating phase ϕ s , measured through B s 0 decays to charmonium. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Secoemestrin D, A Cytotoxic Epitetrathiodioxopiperizine and Emericellenes A–E, Five Sesterterpenoids from Emericella sp. AST0036, a Fungal Endophyte of Astragalus lentiginosus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ya-ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Mangping X.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A new epitetrathiodioxopiperizine, secoemestrin D (1), five sesterterpenoids bearing a new carbon skeleton, emericellenes A–E (2–6), together with previously known fungal metabolites, sterigmatocystin (7), arugosin C (8), and epiisoshamixanthone (9), were obtained from the endophytic fungal strain Emericella sp. AST0036 isolated from a healthy leaf tissue of Astragalus lentiginosus. The planar structures and relative configurations of the new metabolites 1–6 were elucidated using MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using a panel of six tumor cell lines and normal human fibroblast cells. Only metabolites 1 and 7 showed cytotoxic activity. More importantly, secoemestrin D (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50s ranging from 0.06–0.24 µM and moderate selectivity to human glioma (SF-268) and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. PMID:24251417

  11. Test and analysis of the stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hesheng; Jiang, Chongguo; Wu, Wang; Wang, Jinso; Zhang, Yuncheng; Xiong, Yaoheng; Yang, Wanjiang; Niu, Xin

    The test and analysis of the static and dynamic stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope at Yunnan Observatory are carried out. The actual velocities and accelerations to be needed for tracking the Moon and the Lageos satellite are simulated. The tested results show that the stability of friction drive system can meet the needs of the ±1″tracking accuracy.

  12. Effect of Segregation of Secondary Phase Particles and "S" Line on Tensile Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded 2024Al-T351 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2013-09-01

    A 5-mm-thick 2024Al-T351 plate was friction stir welded (FSWed) at welding speeds of 100, 200, and 400 mm min-1 with a constant rotation rate of 800 rpm, and the microstructure and tensile fracture behavior of the joints were investigated in detail. FSW resulted in the redistribution of secondary phase particles along the recrystallized grain boundaries at the nugget zone (NZ), forming linear segregation bands consisting of secondary phase particles. The segregation bands, mainly present in the shoulder-driven zone, were believed to result from periodic material flow, with the average band spacing on the longitudinal and horizontal cross sections equal to the tool advancement per revolution. At a low welding speed of 100 mm min-1, in spite of the highest density of segregation bands, the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joint fractured along the low hardness zone (LHZ) of the heat-affected zone because of large hardness gap between NZ and LHZ. Increasing the welding speed to 200 and 400 mm min-1 reduced both the hardness gap between NZ and LHZ and the density of segregation bands. In this case, the segregation bands played a role, resulting in unusual fracture of the joints along the segregation bands. The "S" line originated from the oxide film on the initial butting surfaces and did not affect the fracture behavior of the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joints.

  13. Aluminum-Dependent Terminal Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Root Tip Is Mediated through an ATR-, ALT2-, and SOG1-Regulated Transcriptional Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sjogren, Caroline A.; Bolaris, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    By screening for suppressors of the aluminum (Al) hypersensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant als3-1, it was found that mutational loss of the Arabidopsis DNA damage response transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF GAMMA RESPONSE1 (SOG1) confers increased Al tolerance similar to the loss-of-function mutants for the cell cycle checkpoint genes ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA AND RAD3 RELATED (ATR) and ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2). This suggests that Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip is an active process resulting from activation of the DNA damage checkpoint by an ATR-regulated pathway, which functions at least in part through SOG1. Consistent with this, ATR can phosphorylate SOG1 in vitro. Analysis of SOG1’s role in Al-dependent root growth inhibition shows that sog1-7 prevents Al-dependent quiescent center differentiation and endoreduplication in the primary root tip. Following Al exposure, SOG1 increases expression of several genes previously associated with DNA damage, including BRCA1 and PARP2, with gel-shift analysis showing that SOG1 can physically associate with the BRCA1 promoter in vitro. Al-responsive expression of these SOG1-regulated genes requires ATR and ALT2, but not ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED, thus demonstrating that in response to chronic Al exposure, ATR, ALT2, and SOG1 function together to halt root growth and promote terminal differentiation at least in part in a transcription-dependent manner. PMID:26320227

  14. Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

  15. Synthesis, biophysical, and pharmacological evaluation of the melanocortin agonist AST3-88: modifications of peptide backbone at Trp 7 position lead to a potent, selective, and stable ligand of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2014-10-15

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (?-, ?-, ?-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a ?-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ?5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII ?-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the ?-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  16. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  17. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  18. The independent living donor advocate: a guidance document from the American Society of Transplantation's Living Donor Community of Practice (AST LDCOP).

    PubMed

    Hays, R E; LaPointe Rudow, D; Dew, M A; Taler, S J; Spicer, H; Mandelbrot, D A

    2015-02-01

    The independent living donor advocate (ILDA) serves a mandated and supportive role in the care of the living organ donor, yet qualifications and role requirements are not clearly defined. Guidance comes from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Conditions for Transplant Center Participation and interpretive guidelines, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Policy and CMS and OPTN site surveys, yet interpretation of regulations varies. Herein, the AST Living Donor Community of Practice (LDCOP) offers seven recommendations to clarify and optimize the ILDA role: (a) the ILDA must have a certain skill set rather than a specific profession, (b) the ILDA must be educated and demonstrate competence in core knowledge components, (c) the ILDA's primary role is to assess components of informed consent, (d) centers must develop a transparent system to define ILDA independence, (e) the ILDA should have a reporting structure outside the transplant center, (f) the ILDA's role should be integrated throughout the donor care continuum, (g) the ILDA role should include a narrow "veto power." We address controversies in ILDA implementation, and offer pathways to maximize benefits and minimize limitations of approaches that may each meet regulatory requirements but confer different practice benefits. We propose a research agenda to explore the impact of the ILDA. PMID:25612499

  19. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    We present the results from a 1.1-mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z = 3.1 Lyman α emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the astronomical thermal emission camera (AzTEC) on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950-arcmin2 field down to a 1σ sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy beam-1 to find 125 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) with a signal-to-noise ratio ≥3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data and the median value is found to be z = 2.4. By combining these estimations with estimates from the literature, we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z = 3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z = 3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high-redshift Universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.

  20. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  1. Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    M'Kada, Helmi; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ramanujam, Nittia; Fautrel, Bruno; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Ratziu, Vlad; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Leblond, Véronique; Delattre, Jean Yves; Samson, Yves; Caen, Olivier Lyon; Bricaire, François; Khayat, David; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Herson, Serge; Amoura, Zahir; Tilleul, Patrick; Deckmyn, Olivier; Coriat, Pierre; Delpech, Vincent Nicolas; Boulogne, Philippe; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening. Design We prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care strategy for 24-week period based on referral cases to the hepatology unit. In the centralized strategy, a designated study biochemist identified patients with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal values (ULN) and notified the designated hepatologists, who then went to the patients' wards, analyzed the charts, and if necessary, interviewed the identified patients. During these two periods, patients with possible DILI were included after signing an informed consent in an ongoing European diagnostic study (SAFE-T consortium). Results During the 24-week period of the standard strategy, 12 (0.04%) patients out of a total of 28,145 were identified as having possible DILI, and 11 of these accepted to be included in the protocol. During the one-week proactive period, 7 patients out of a total of 1407 inpatients (0.498%) [odds ratio vs. standard = 12.1 (95% CI, 3.9–32.3); P<0.0001] were identified with possible DILI, and 5 were included in the protocol. Conclusion A simple strategy based on the daily analysis of cases with ALT >3 ULN by designated biochemists and hepatologists identified 12 times more acute cases of drug-induced liver disease than the standard strategy. This pilot cohort is registered on the number AP-HP P110201/1/08-03-2011 and AFSSAPS B110346-70. PMID:22905129

  2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 21. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  3. A Hypothetical Protein of Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 (amad1_06475) Predicted to be a Cold-Shock Protein with RNA Chaperone Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Kibria, KM Kaderi; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

    2014-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 is a deep sea protobacteria that is distinct from the surface isolates of the same species. This study was designed to elucidate the biological function of amad1_06475, a hypothetical protein of A. macleodii AltDE1. The 70 residues protein sequence showed considerable homology with cold-shock proteins (CSPs) and RNA chaperones from different organisms. Multiple sequence alignment further supported the presence of conserved csp domain on the protein sequence. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was also determined, and verified by PROCHECK, Verify3D, and QMEAN programs. The predicted structure contained five anti-parallel β-strands and RNA-binding motifs, which are characteristic features of prokaryotic CSPs. Finally, the binding of a thymidine-rich oligonucleotide and a single uracil molecule in the active site of the protein further strengthens our prediction about the function of amad1_06475 as a CSP and thereby acting as a RNA chaperone. The binding was performed by molecular docking tools and was compared with similar binding of 3PF5 (PDB) and 2HAX (PDB), major CSPs of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus caldolyticus, respectively. PMID:25574135

  4. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  5. New use of an old drug: chloroquine reduces viral and ALT levels in HCV non-responders (a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial).

    PubMed

    Peymani, Payam; Yeganeh, Behzad; Sabour, Siamak; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Keyvani, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saied; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy. HCV RNA load and plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at baseline, week 4 (initial response), week 8 (end-of-treatment response), and at the end of 12 weeks. A significant decrease in HCV RNA after the treatments (week 8) was observed in all patients in the CQ group (P = 0.04). However, HCV RNA levels increased within 4 weeks after discontinuation of CQ treatment although they were still lower than baseline. In addition, the ALT normalized during treatment in the CQ group. However, this response was also lost after treatment cessation. This study provides preliminary evidence that CQ is possibly a safe treatment option for HCV non-responders. PMID:26998724

  6. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  7. Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov., a novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103), and emended description of the genus Catenovulum.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Qi; Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Tao; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel agarolytic, Gram-stain negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale-white pigmented bacterial strain, designated Q1(T), was isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103) collected from the coastal area of Weihai, China. The cells are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The isolate requires NaCl for growth, while seawater is not necessary, and growth occurs optimally at about 30-33 °C, in 1-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7-7.5. Strain Q1(T) shows oxidase-positive and catalase-negative activities, and possesses the ability to hydrolyse starch and alginate, but not cellulose, gelatin, urea or Tween-80. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Q1(T) is affiliated with the family Alteromonadaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The isolate, strain Q1(T), is most closely related to Catenovulum agarivorans YM01(T) (94.85 %), with less than 91.2 % sequence similarity to other close relatives with validly published names. The draft genome sequence of strain Q1(T) consists of 62 contigs (>200 bp) of 4,548,270 bp. The genomes of Q1(T) and YM01(T) have an ANI value of 70.7 %, and the POCP value between the two genomes is 64.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Q1(T) is 37.9 mol% as calculated from the draft genome sequence. The main isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-8. The predominant cellular fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0 and C18:1 ω7c. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on data from a polyphasic chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical study, strain Q1(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Catenovulum, for which the name Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Q1(T) (=CICC 10836(T)=DSM 28813(T)). PMID:26036673

  8. Surface grafting of octylamine onto poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) gate insulators for low-voltage DNTT thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yun-Seo; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Ji-Heung; Kim, Yun Ho; Jang, Kwang-Suk

    2016-03-16

    This study investigates a spin-coating method for modifying the surface properties of a poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) gate insulator. The 60 nm-thick PEMA thin film exhibits excellent electrical insulating properties, and its surface properties could be easily modified by surface grafting of octylamine. Due to surface treatment via spin-coating, the surface energy of the PEMA gate insulator decreased, the crystal quality of the organic semiconductor improved, and consequently the performance of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) was enhanced. Our results suggest that the surface treatment of the PEMA gate insulator could be a simple and effective method for enhancing the performance of organic TFTs. PMID:26940136

  9. Optical and Transport Anisotropy in Poly(9,9'-dioctyl-fluorene-alt-bithiophene) Films Prepared by Floating Film Transfer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauendorffer, Arnaud; Nagamatsu, Shuichi; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrated the fabrication of self-aligned poly(9,9'-dioctyl-fluorene-alt-bithiophene) copolymer (F8T2) thin films at ambient temperature with a new solution-process technique named floating film transfer method (FTM). Atomic force microscope topography and polarized absorption spectroscopy showed that the polymer main chains aligned perpendicularly to the film propagation direction during the fabrication process. FTM films presented absorption dichroic ratios slightly below 3. Top-contact/bottom-gate field effect transistors made with FTM films exhibited anisotropic transport properties with a hole mobility along the aligned direction of F8T2 main chains of 2.2×10-3 cm2/(V·s), which was around 2.5 times greater than that along the perpendicular direction. Dichroic and transport anisotropy ratios were further enhanced up to 7-8 by thermal annealing, although the mobility improvement remained limited due to possible trapping effect at domain boundaries.

  10. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol. PMID:26381639

  11. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloísa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2010-03-01

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion ® films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H 2 and O 2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 °C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion ® membranes.

  12. Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD⁺/NADH reduction.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-09-10

    A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  13. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2′-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  14. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 21. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  15. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  16. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  17. The research on property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. The function of servo system compensation network in control system (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-06-01

    According to the requirement of SLR (Satellite Laser Range) using 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope of Yunnan Observatory, and the analysis of function of cascade compensation network in control system and the observation results, the compensation network of servo system of 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope, and the performance of control system after its compensation are discussed in this article. When friction drive is fulfilled by two torque motors, and PD compensation network in servo control system is used, it is found that the capability of rapid tracking of the 1.2 m telescope is actually improved, and the telescope can achieve 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration, 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity, and it can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  18. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4Q22.7 GeV2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore »and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  19. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  20. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. Methods This was a randomized double-blind trial. Subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without mild/moderate asthma sensitized to A alternata and who also had a positive skin prick test to Alt a1 were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 18) or purified natural Alt a1 (n = 22) subcutaneously for 12 months. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and methacholine, exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and serum Alt a1-specific IgG4 antibodies were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Local and systemic adverse events were also registered. Results The mean (95% CI) allergen-specific IgG4 value for the active treatment group increased from 0.07 μg/mL (0.03-0.11) at baseline to 1.21 μg/mL (0.69-1.73, P < 0.001) at 6 months and to 1.62 μg/mL (1.02-2.22, P < 0.001) at 12 months of treatment. In the placebo group, IgG4 value increased nonsignificantly from 0.09 μg/mL (0.06-0.12) at baseline to 0.13 μg/mL (0.07-0.18) at 6 months and to 0.11 μg/mL (0.07-0.15) at 12 months of treatment. Changes in the active treatment group were significantly higher than in the placebo group both at 6 months (P < 0.001) and at 12 months of treatment (P < 0.0001). However, changes in AMP and methacholine responsiveness, ENO and EBC pH levels were not significantly different between treatment groups. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusion Although allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 is well tolerated and induces an allergen-specific IgG4 response, treatment is not associated with changes in AMP or methacholine responsiveness or with significant improvements in markers of inflammation in exhaled air. These findings suggest dissociation between the immunotherapy-induced increase in IgG4 levels and its effect on airway responsiveness and inflammation. PMID:20846390

  1. The property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. Mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-03-01

    According to the special requirement we have made the Laser Ranging for satellites on the low orbit of the Earth using the 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. This article discusses the mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives of the telescope. When friction drives are fulfilled with two moment electromotors, the telescope an reach 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration and 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity. This can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  2. Close linkage of a blast resistance gene, Pias(t), with a bacterial leaf blight resistance gene, Xa1-as(t), in a rice cultivar ‘Asominori’

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kaji, Ryota; Nakagomi, Koji; Kataoka, Tomomori; Yokogami, Narifumi; Nakamura, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Goro; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that a bacterial leaf blight-resistant line in rice obtained from a crossing using ‘Asominori’ as a resistant parent also has resistance to blast, but a blast resistance gene in ‘Asominori’ has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, a blast resistance gene in ‘Asominori’, tentatively named Pias(t), was revealed to be located within 162-kb region between DNA markers YX4-3 and NX4-1 on chromosome 4 and to be linked with an ‘Asominori’ allele of the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa1, tentatively named Xa1-as(t). An ‘Asominori’ allele of Pias(t) was found to be dominant and difference of disease severity between lines having the ‘Asominori’ allele of Pias(t) and those without it was 1.2 in disease index from 0 to 10. Pias(t) was also closely linked with the Ph gene controlling phenol reaction, suggesting the possibility of successful selection of blast resistance using the phenol reaction. Since blast-resistant commercial cultivars have been developed using ‘Asominori’ as a parent, Pias(t) is considered to be a useful gene in rice breeding for blast resistance. PMID:23341747

  3. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  4. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj; Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO2 nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  5. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  6. AzTEC/ASTE Deep and Wide Submillimeter Galaxy Survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field: Identification of VLA, Spitzer and Herschel Counterparts to 1100-μm-Selected Galaxies and Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Caputi, K.; Dunlop, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D.; Iono, D.; Ivison, R.; Kawabe, R.; Motohara, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Ohta, K.; Suzuki, K.; Tamura, Y.; Umehata, H.; Wilson, G.; Yabe, K.; Yun, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present results of our AzTEC/ASTE submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and VLA (21 cm), Spitzer (3.6-8 μm and 24 μm) and Herschel (100 and 160 μm) counterpart identifications for 1100-μm-selected SMGs. We obtained a 1100-μm map of ˜ 1200 arcmin2 with the rms noise level of ˜ 0.5 mJy (1 σ). Our AzTEC map achieved new detections of 281 sources (S/N ≥ 3.5 σ). For 221 of 281 AzTEC sources, we searched counterparts in order to obtain multi-wavelength data. Deep Herschel PACS 100-μm and 160-μm images cover the whole of the AzTEC map, and 34 of 221 (= 15 %) and 54 of 221 (= 24 %)AzTEC sources have PACS 100-μm and 160-μm counterparts, respectively. We found VLA radio and/or MIPS 24-μm robust (with a significance of ≥ 95 %) counterparts to 102 of 221 the AzTEC SMGs. In addition to this, we have developed an improved identification method using IRAC data (3.6-8 μm) and their colors, in order to cover the AzTEC SMGs located at higher redshift such as z > 3, which is inaccessible with the existing VLA, MIPS and Herschel data alone. With this method, we have achieved another robust detections of 20 IRAC counterparts to AzTEC sources. 131 of 221 AzTEC sources have at least one robust counterparts, and 23 of 221 have more than two robust counterparts. Including tentative identifications (with a significance of ≥ 90 %), 171 of 221 (= 78 %) 1100-μm-selected SMGs have counterparts. We estimated photometric redshifts of the counterparts using deep near-, and med-infrared and optical data, providing zmedian of 2.2. Among them, we found that there were some 1100-μm sources faint in multi-bands data suggesting the extremely high redshift.

  7. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  8. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  9. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  10. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  11. Increased liver markers are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Han, Kyung-Do; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between liver markers and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: A total of 8863 participants (3408 men and 5455 women) over 30 years of age were analyzed from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). The associations of serum liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), AST/ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with T2DM and IFG were analyzed using logistic regression models. Participants were divided into sex-specific quartiles on the basis of liver markers. RESULTS: The prevalence of T2DM and IFG were 11.3% and 18.3%. Increasing quartiles of ALT and GGT were positively and AST/ALT were negatively correlated with T2DM and IFG. Analysis of the liver marker combinations showed that if any two or more markers were in the highest risk quartile, the risks of both T2DM and IFG increased significantly. The risk was greatest when the highest ALT and GGT and lowest AST/ALT quartile were combined, with the risk of T2DM at 3.21 (95%CI: 1.829-5.622, P < 0.001) in men and 4.60 (95%CI: 3.217-6.582, P < 0.001) in women. Men and women with the highest AST and ALT and lowest AST/ALT quartile had a 1.99 and 2.40 times increased risk of IFG. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of GGT and ALT and lower AST/ALT within the physiological range are independent, additive risk factors of T2DM and IFG. PMID:26139993

  12. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  13. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  14. The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Mona; Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    De Ritis described the ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) almost 50 years ago. While initially described as a characteristic of acute viral hepatitis where ALT was usually higher than AST, other authors have subsequently found it useful in alcoholic hepatitis, where AST is usually higher than ALT. These interpretations are far too simplistic however as acute viral hepatitis can have AST greater than ALT, and this can be a sign of fulminant disease, while alcoholic hepatitis can have ALT greater than AST when several days have elapsed since alcohol exposure. The ratio therefore represents the time course and aggressiveness of disease that would be predicted from the relatively short half-life of AST (18 h) compared to ALT (36 h). In chronic viral illnesses such as chronic viral hepatitis and chronic alcoholism as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, an elevated AST/ALT ratio is predictive of long terms complications including fibrosis and cirrhosis. There are methodological issues, particularly whether or not pyridoxal phosphate is used in the transaminase assays, and although this can have specific effects when patient samples are deficient in this vitamin, these method differences generally have mild effects on the usefulness of the assays or the ratio. Ideally laboratories should be using pyridoxal phosphate supplemented assays in alcoholic, elderly and cancer patients who may be pyridoxine deplete. Ideally all laboratories reporting abnormal ALT should also report AST and calculate the De Ritis ratio because it provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:24353357

  15. Observational constraint on Pluto's atmospheric CO with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takahiro; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Hidemori, Takehiro; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Nakajima, Taku; Nakamoto, Satoru; Kato, Chihaya

    2016-02-01

    To confirm the previous observational results of Pluto's atmospheric CO in the J = 2-1 rotational transition, we conducted a new observation of CO (J = 3-2) in Pluto's atmosphere in 2014 August with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m single-dish telescope. In contrast to the previous observational result obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2009 and 2010 by using the J = 2-1 transition, no emission structure was observed near the rest frequency in our attempt. Possible explanations for the nondetection result of the J = 3-2 transition are discussed.

  16. The Attitude Scale towards Distance Nursing Education (AstDNE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgian; Unsal Barlas, Gul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a measurement is seen as an instrument to measure the attitudes of the nurses towards the distance nursing education was developed. The study population consist of nurses who working in two hospitals of the ministry of health and two special hospitals in Istanbul. The sample of the study consisted of 194 nurses who agreed to…

  17. The Student Teacher and Human Relations. AST Bulletin Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Irvin L.

    The student teacher must develop and incorporate into his behavior human relations skills to enable him to relate effectively to members of his classroom and of the school community. Serving as a basis for evaluation, a method of gaining the fullest satisfaction from teaching, and a prerequisite to more effective teaching, these skills are…

  18. Astrometry Verifications and Tests; AST-OV-20 (repeat 2185)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferys, William

    1990-12-01

    The goal of this test is to 1) verify that each FGS filter wheel position as commanded actually results from the command. This is required for any observations requiring a filter other than the "clear" filter. 2) verify that the FGSs will be able to observe stars of different magnitudes by using different integration sample times. The test will be coordinated with P-E. Successful conclusion of this test is required for astrometry on objects fainter than the Guide Star limit. 3) determine if objects fainter than the nominal 17.0 magnitude limit can be observed with the FGSs. The nominal limit may be used as a guide line, but the magnitudes may be uncertain by a magnitude. 4) verify the ability of the FGSs to obtain astrometric data on a 17th and 16th magnitude star which will allow its relative position to be determined to 0.002" in one minute. 5) determine the effects of varying FGE NFES Slope in transiting from coarse track to fine lock, on the statistical nature of the astrometric data, and on the parameters which allow acquisition of astrometric targets with different characteristics (FGS 3 and 1 only. FGS 2 completed). Test has been slightly modified to reflect partial success of first run of 2185. Transfer scans and 2/3 aperture have been added to magnitude limit sub-test. 2/3 aperture observations added to Verify Integration Times sub-test.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-pressure synthesis, crystal growth, phase diagrams, structural and magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x, HgBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+ALT="delta" /> and quasi-one-dimensional cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, J.; Meijer, G. I.; Schwer, H.; Molinski, R.; Kopnin, E.; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Jun, J.; Kazakov, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Hofer, J.; Alyoshin, V.; Sin, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present a review of high-gas-pressure single crystal growth studies of YBa2Cu4O8 and Y2Ba4Cu7O15-x performed in oxygen pressure up to 3000 bar and Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-7) compounds in argon pressure up 11 000 bar at temperature up to 1200 °C. Chain compounds A1-xCuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) have been synthesized at high oxygen pressure up to 2000 bar. High-pressure phase diagram studies of the investigated systems are also discussed. Structure analyses of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x (n = 6-8), Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-8), Sr0.73CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)4Cu6O10 single crystals have been performed. The effects of substitutions and trends in bondlengths are discussed. The vortex state properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu4O8 single crystals are compared. For Hg-based compounds, the influence of oxygen content, chemical substitutions and radiation defects on vortex pinning were determined. The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates Ca0.83CuO2 and Sr0.73CuO2 show an antiferromagnetically ordered state of long-range 3D character at T < 10 K. The spin dynamics of Sr0.73CuO2, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, indicate that this ordered state coexists with a dimerized singlet ground state.

  20. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  1. Organic photovoltaic cells of fully conjugated poly[2,6- (4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b';]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] doped with fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jen Wei; Hsu, Ming Seng; Lin, Tzu-Chin

    2014-09-01

    The fully conjugated poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b'] dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) was a low energy gap (Eg) organic polymer material with polydispersity index (PDI) 1.3. It's the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) 5.2 eV, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) 3.75 eV and Eg 1.45 eV. As compared with poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the lower Eg made the more absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) area. Its maximum absorption peak (λmax) was near 800 nm. The optimal conversion efficiency (ηp) of single-layered PCPDTBT:PC61BM organic photovoltaic (OPV) device reached 2.44% when the weight ratio of PCPDTBT:PC61BM was 1:2.5. In this study, we changed weight ratio, layer thickness, and solvent to enhance the optoelectronic properties of OPV devices. Variations the layer thickness were processed and investigated leading to an optimum ηp of 2.62 % for a single layer OPV cell with layer thickness of 150nm. The PCPDTBT molecule packed more order when the solvent evaporated to go slow. However, it did not increase the crystal level of PCPDTBT molecule for enhanced ηp.

  2. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices. PMID:26754052

  3. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a

  4. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise 747 SCA takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video begins with early morning shots of the Space Shuttle and the SCA being moved out of the shuttle mate-demate device, and follows the two vehicles as they taxi and take off from Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California.

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  7. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

  8. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes in the General Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Chinese population. Methods: This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study which was conducted in rural areas of China from the 2012 to 2013 Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study (NCRCHS), and 11,573 adults with complete data were included in our final analysis. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Serum ALT and AST levels within the reference range were divided into quartiles, and their associations with MetS were evaluated by logistic regressions. Results: A total of 7.4% and 3.5% participants had elevated serum ALT and AST levels, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 37.3% in males and 45.8% in females. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found ALT level elevation, even within the reference range, was independently associated with MetS. The odds ratio (OR) values of MetS in the ALT quartiles 2–4 groups within the reference range were 1.113 (95% CI: 1.019–1.280), 1.375 (95% CI: 1.212–1.560), 1.878 (95% CI: 1.650–2.138) compared with the ALT quartile 1 group, and OR in the elevated ALT group was 3.020 (95% CI: 2.496–3.653). Positive relationship for MetS was also observed in elevated AST group (OR: 1.689, 95% CI: 1.314–2.171), but within the reference range, the AST level was not associated with MetS. Conclusions: Serum ALT level, even within the reference range, was significantly associated with MetS. However, only elevated AST levels above 40 U/L was positively associated with MetS. Within the reference range, we did not find a relationship between AST levels and MetS. PMID:26901209

  9. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  10. Sonographic assessment of fatty liver: intraobserver and interobserver variability

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Mustafa; Sentürk, Senem; Cetin, Bulent; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendioğlu; Bilek, Senem Uysal

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide and ultrasonography is widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up we purposed to assess intraobserver and interobserver variability in the sonographic evaluation of the existence and steatosis grades of NAFLD. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and AST to ALT (AST/ALT) ratio were compared between the grades of hepatosteatosis. Hepatic ultrasonography (US) examinations consisted of 5-10 static images of 113 successive adult patients, whose records were in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of our hospital were retrospectively evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Hepatic images were graded into 4 groups; as normal, mild, moderate or severe hepatic steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis of the same set of images was repeated after one month under the same conditions. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed by using kappa (κ) statistics. In each group, the percentage of individuals with high ALT and/or AST, or AST/ALT ratio over 1 was calculated. The intraobserver agreement was 51%, fair kappa (κ=0.356) for observer 1; and 68%, moderate (κ=0.591) for observer 2. The interobserver agreements in the initial and second readings were 39% and 40%, fair (κ=0.208) and (κ=0.225), respectively. Elevations of ALT and/or AST levels were similar between groups depending on the degree of hepatosteatosis among the patients. Visual assessment of NAFLD by ultrasonography has substantial interobserver variability, and reproducibility of results is limited. More objective imaging modalities are needed to evaluate the degree of hepatosteatosis. PMID:25664055

  11. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects☆

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Methods Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Results Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. Conclusions As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27051595

  12. Ethnicity, alcohol drinking and changes in transaminase activity among heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Connors, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality differs by ethnicity in the United States. Some studies suggest alcohol sensitivity may contribute to this finding. This analysis evaluated if alcohol-associated changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) differed by ethnicity among heavy drinkers. METHODS: Subjects included 1691 subjects from Project MATCH, a multicenter alcohol use disorders treatment trial. Changes in AST and ALT over 15 months were modeled as functions of ethnicity, age, gender, time, study site and alcohol use. The main focus was on ethnic differences in changes in transaminase activity occurring with changes in alcohol use. RESULTS: At all levels of alcohol consumption AST was lower in non-Hispanic whites relative to African Americans and Mexican Americans. Changes in AST associated with changes in alcohol use did not vary by ethnicity. ALT significantly differed only between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Similar to AST, alcohol-associated ALT change did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with alcohol use disorders participating in a treatment trial, the effect of alcohol drinking on transaminase activity did not vary by ethnicity. However, in the general population, alcohol may still interact with other factors in mediating ethnic differences in cirrhosis mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17534015

  13. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K C

    2012-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was the source of the graft. We hypothesized that the cience of Galα1,3Gal in GTKO pig livers may render pig hepatocytes similar to human and baboon hepatocytes in their response to hepatocellular injury. Reviewing the literature, after WT pig liver allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, in the majority of reports, although changes in AST were reported, no mention was made of changes in ALT, suggesting that there was no change in ALT. However, Ramirez et al. reported two cases of liver xenotransplants from hCD55 pigs, following which there were increases in both AST and ALT, suggesting that it is not simply the cience of expression of Galα1,3Gal that is the cause. We acknowledge that our observation is based on a small number of experiments, but we believe it is worth recording. PMID:22360753

  14. Protective Effects of Extract from Sclerotium of the King Tuber Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Alagbaoso, Chidube A; Osubor, Christopher C; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of 50% ethanol extract from the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium on hepatocellular integrity of albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Activities of hepatic enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in serum. Antioxidant enzyme activities, total protein, and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in liver homogenate from treated rats. Oral administration of CCl4 (2 ml/kg body weight/day) for 7 consecutive days caused hepatotoxicity. There was a significant increase in the activity of serum ALT, AST, and ALP and the level of MDA in the liver. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, which are antioxidant enzymes, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with 250 mg/kg body weight of extract and CCl4 for 7 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease in the activity of liver marker enzymes [46% (ALT), 67.25% (AST), and 68.51% (ALP)]. These activities were further decreased [68.24% (ALT), 78.39% (AST), and 75.38% (ALP)] when the extract was increased to 500 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, total protein, and MDA content of the liver were improved to levels that are not significantly different from the control. These findings, therefore, suggest that ethanol extract from the sclerotia of P. tuberregium has a protective action against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26854100

  15. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  16. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  17. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  18. Effect of ferrous sulphate on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases of brain of Tilapia mossambica.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Elsa S; Desai, Shanti N; Desai, Prakash V

    2010-02-01

    Iron in the form of ferrous sulphate coming from sources such as mines, writing inks, blue pigments, dyeing industries, photography, medicine, deodorizers, disinfectants, fungicides and molluscides, etc. contributes in elevating ferrous sulphate of water bodies. The present study investigated the action of ferrous sulphate on the local fish Tilapia mossambica. Tilapia exposed to 0.001 g/L ferrous sulphate for 30 days showed reduction of cytosolic AST and ALT activities of cerebral cortex by 35.4% and 29.1%, respectively, while exposure to 0.01% ferrous sulphate promoted 49.2% and 38.4% reduction of AST and ALT activities. Similarly mitochondrial AST and ALT activities reduced by 50% and 34.8%, respectively, on exposure to 0.001 g/L ferrous sulphate while 0.01 g/L ferrous sulphate promoted 51% and 47.8% reductions of AST and ALT activities at the end of 30 days, suggesting interference in the glutamate and protein metabolism of Tilapia brain. PMID:19887097

  19. Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

  20. Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-α than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer. PMID:21473769

  1. Elevation in liver enzymes is associated with increased IL-2 and predicts severe outcomes in clinically apparent dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, Thamarasi; Carr, Jillian; Noordeen, Faseeha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the circulating TNF-α and IL-2 levels in dengue virus (DENV) infected patients and to correlate these with clinical severity of DENV infections. A single analyte quantitative immunoassay was used to detect TNF-α and IL-2 in 24 dengue fever (DF) and 43 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients, 15 healthy adults and 6 typhoid patients. The mean TNF-α and IL-2 levels of DENV- infected patients were higher than that of healthy adults and typhoid patients. No significant difference in TNF-α levels was noted between DF and DHF patients (p=0.5) but a significant increase in IL-2 levels was observed in DHF compared with DF patients (mean of DF=59.7pg/mL, mean of DHF=166.9pg/mL; p=0.02). No significant association of TNF-α or IL-2 levels was noted with packed cell volume (>45), thrombocytopenia, leucopenia or the presence of viraemia. The liver function tests measuring AST (aspartate aminotransferase) (p=0.01) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) (p=0.02) levels were significantly elevated in DENV-infected patients. AST:ALT was significantly elevated in DHF/DSS (dengue shock syndrome) compared with DF patients. A significant positive linear correlation was noted between AST and IL-2 (r=0.31; p=0.01) and ALT and IL-2 elevations (r=0.2; p=0.02). Thus, AST and ALT levels correlate with both disease severity and circulating IL-2 levels. We suggest a role for circulating IL-2 in liver dysfunction and propose that a combined assessment of AST/ALT in conjunction with IL-2 at the early stages of symptomatic DENV infection may be useful to predict the severe forms of dengue. PMID:27155816

  2. Hypertransaminasaemia in children with viral gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Oznur; Ugras, Meltem; Bicer, Suat; Col, Defne; Giray, Tuba; Erdag, Gulay Ciler; Yalvaç, Zerrin; Kaspar, Cigdem; Vitrinel, Ayca

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the rates of increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of patients with rotavirus, norovirus and enteric adenovirus gastroenteritis. Two hundred children with viral gastroenteritis were evaluated for hypertransaminasaemia retrospectively. The patients were between 0 - 17 years (mean ± SD: 5.10 ± 3.01) of age. ALT was elevated up to 67 IU/L in 7 (8.5%) patients in the rotavirus group (n=82), whereas it was elevated in 3 (4.0%) and 1 (2.3%) patients in the norovirus (n=74) and adenovirus (n=44) groups, respectively. AST was elevated up to 89 IU/L in 20 (24.4%) patients in the rotavirus group, whereas it was elevated in 6 (8.1%) and 1 (2.3%) patients in the norovirus and adenovirus groups, respectively. Both transaminases were elevated in 7.3%, 1.4%, and 2.3% of patients in the rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus groups, respectively. The increases in ALT and AST levels were found to be significantly higher in the rotavirus group (n=27) than in the norovirus (n=9), and adenovirus group (n=2) (p<0.05). Mean serum ALT and AST levels in the rotavirus group were significantly higher than those in the norovirus and adenovirus group (p<0.05). Our study investigated the correlation between viral gastroenteritis and hypertransaminasaemia. When evaluating a patient with hypertransaminasaemia physicians should remember to consider acute gastroenteritis due to some viruses as a cause of elevated AST and ALT. PMID:27031894

  3. The Association of Liver Enzymes with Biomarkers of Subclinical Myocardial Damage and Structural Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, Mariana; Rubin, Jonathan; Clark, Jeanne M.; Coresh, Josef; Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Ndumele, Chiadi; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are thought to be at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relationships NAFLD to subclinical myocardial injury or structural heart disease are unknown Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 8668 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used levels of liver enzymes (Alanine aminotrasferase [ALT], Aspartate aminotranferase [AST] and Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]), in the context of no history of elevated alcohol consumption as non-invasive surrogates of NAFLD. We used highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and n-terminal pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as biomarkers of myocardial damage and function. Results In this population-based study (mean age 63 years, 60% women, 78% white), higher levels of ALT, AST and GGT, even within the normal range, were significantly and independently associated with detectable (hs-cTnT>3 ng/L) and elevated (hs-cTnT≥14 ng/L) concentrations of hs-TnT. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for elevated liver enzymes (vs normal levels) with elevated hs-cTnT were: 1.65 (1.28–2.14) for ALT, 1.90 (1.36–2.68) for AST, and 1.55 (1.13–2.12) for GGT. Furthermore, there was evidence for inverse associations of ALT and AST with NT-proBNP. Conclusion Our results suggest that elevated liver enzymes in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption, may be associated with subclinical myocardial injury. The inverse association between NT-proBNP and ALT and AST support the recently described metabolic role of natriuretic peptides. PMID:25433159

  4. Serum aminotransferase ratio is independently correlated with hepatosteatosis in patients with HCV: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Huang-Shen; Chung, Chang-Ming; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Po-Han; Hu, Jing-Hong; Chou, Wen-Nan; Huang, Jui-Chu; Huang, Tung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant in hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers due to multiple mechanisms, and this worsens the progression of chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio correlates with the status of hepatosteatosis. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting Community-based annual examination in northern Taiwan. Participants A total of 1354 participants (age 20 years or over) were enrolled after excluding participants with HCV seronegative, laboratory or questionnaires loss, moderate alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis, tumours and postlobectomy. Outcome measures Fatty liver was diagnosed according to echogenic findings. NAFLD included grades 1–3 fatty liver and high-degree NAFLD defined grades 2–3 fatty liver. Results 580 males and 774 females with a mean age of 47.2 (SD=16.1) years were cross-sectionally studied. The participants with NAFLD have significantly higher levels of ALT/AST ratio, fasting glucose, triglyceride and systolic/diastolic blood pressure than non-NAFLD participants. The association between NAFLD and ALT/AST was significant even when adjusting for the metabolic syndrome (aOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.65; p<0.001). In patients with a high degree of NAFLD, the ALT/AST ratio was still a significant predictor for hepatosteatosis (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.58 to 3.77; p<0.001). Conclusions The ALT/AST ratio could be a strong risk of hepatosteatosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:26369802

  5. Serum Aminotransferases in Thai Children With Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prommalikit, Olarn; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatic manifestations are one of the unusual manifestations of dengue infection. Objectives: We conducted this study in order to study the pattern of serum aminotransferases and sequential changes before and after shock in Thai children with dengue infection. Patients and Methods: Children who were clinically and serologically diagnosed as dengue infection and were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during a peroid of one year were enrolled. They were clinically classified into a non-shock group and a shock group. The majority of serum aminotransferases including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were obtained within a week after the onset of fever and until 3 days after shock in the shock group. Student t-test and median in boxplot form were used for statistical analysis. Results: We enrolled 127 children with a mean age of 7.6 ± 3.6 years. The incidence of abnormal AST and ALT levels was 97.4% and 50.0% in the shock group, and 91.8% and 44.9% in the non-shock group respectively. 29% and 15.4% of the patients in shock group and only 10.2% and 4.1% in non-shock group had the respective AST and ALT levels > 200 U/L. Serum aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the shock group when compared to the non-shock group. AST tended to increase starting from one day before shock and continued to increase within a few days whereas ALT was less likely to be affected. Conclusions: Elevated serum aminotransferases are a common finding in children with dengue infection and the levels of AST are higher than those of ALT. Patients with shock have significantly higher aminotransferase levels that increase up to 3 days after shock. PMID:26635947

  6. [The activity of transaminases in the tissues of the Black-Sea mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, A D; Soldatov, A A; Andreenko, T I

    2015-01-01

    The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, E. C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, E. C. 2.6.1.2) were studied in the tissues of the bivalve mollusks differing in shell color. Shell color patterns were assessed by photographing and computer processing in Adobe Photoshop CS-3. The activity of transaminases was determined by the Reitman-Frankel procedure. Four color groups of mollusks were singled out: black, intermediate, dark- and light brown. The AST and ALT activities were found to increase as shells lose color probably reflecting different tolerance of mollusks to habitats with different concentration of oxygen. The ALT distribution pattern differs appreciably in the foot of M. galloprovincialis where the highest values were found in the black-colored mussels, evidently due to the change of the predominant enzyme function. In this tissue, the reaction of transamination replenishes the pool of free amino acids required for the synthesis of byssus threads. PMID:25859602

  7. Subacute and subchronic toxicity of Avalon(®) mixture (bentazone+dicamba) to rats.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dragica; Szakonyne-Pasics, Ilona; Gašić, Slavica; Teodorović, Ivana; Rašković, Božidar; Brkić, Nenad; Nešković, Neško

    2015-05-01

    Subacute and subchronic toxicity of the herbicide Avalon(®), a mixture of bentazone and dicamba, were tested on rats. Avalon(®) was administered at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight/day for 28 and 90 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were monitored together with biochemistry parameters. The results showed that the mixture caused increases in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, elevated concentrations of sodium, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio in males. In females, ALT activity, cholesterol and phosphate levels were increased. The changes generally were dose related and, in most cases, females exhibited lower susceptibility than males. The effects of a mixture are, in the most cases, different from the effects of the individual substances. The effects of bentazone were not prevalent which would be expected taking the composition of the mixture into account. PMID:25863332

  8. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Systems International (SSI) for the Continued Operation of the California Spaceport at Vandenberg Air... Launch Site Operator License (LSO-01-005) to SSI for the continued operation of the California Spaceport... Proposed Action to renew SSI's Launch Site Operator License for the continued operation of the...

  9. CO (J = 3 → 2) observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Kitamoto, Shoko

    2014-10-01

    We present the first map of 12CO (J = 3 → 2) and the first detection of 13CO (J = 3 → 2) in the nearby starburst galaxy with a superwind, NGC 1808. The molecular gas is concentrated in the inner 2 kpc region of the galaxy with extended structure along the galactic bar and along the minor galactic axis. The minor-axis structure can be explained as molecular gas entrained in a galactic wind observed as a dust outflow at optical wavelengths. We have carried out a radiative transfer analysis of the excitation conditions of molecular gas in the starburst region (radius 550 pc) by using the ratios of J = 1 → 0, J = 2 → 1, and J = 3 → 2 emission lines of 12CO and 13CO, and the large velocity gradient approximation. The beam-averaged density and kinetic temperature of molecular gas can be fitted at n H2 ≃ 103.5 cm-3 and Tk ≃ 35 K, indicating the presence of warm molecular gas, close to the estimated dust temperature of Td ≃ 34-37 K. The abundance ratio of the CO isotopologues is found to be [12CO]/[13CO] ≃ 34. The calculations show that, for the derived physical parameters, J = 2 → 1 and J = 3 → 2 transitions of 12CO are optically thick, 12CO J = 1 → 0 is moderately optically thick, and all transitions of 13CO are optically thin. We have estimated an average CO-H2 conversion factor of XCO ≃ 0.8 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 in the central 550 pc by using a simple theoretical model assuming homogeneous, gravitationally bound gas clouds with turbulent velocities. In the same region the molecular gas mass is 3.0 × 108 M⊙ available to fuel the nuclear starburst.

  10. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  11. A Search for the δ^- Wave-Function Component in Light Nuclei,^AST.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Matthews, J. L.; Zelevinsky, V. V.; Morris, C. L.; Zumbro, J. D.; Boudrie, R. L.; Glass, G.; Gram, P. A. M.; Pasyuk, E. A.; Kriss, B. J.

    1996-10-01

    The (π^+,π^± p) reactions in ^3H, ^4He, ^6Li, ^7Li, and ^10B have been studied in quasi-free kinematics. The experiment was performed at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility using two magnetic spectrometers and an incident pion beam energy of 500 MeV. This energy, well above the Δ resonance, and the final-state kinematics were chosen so that the momentum transfer exceeds the calculated^1 Fermi momentum of a Δ component in the nuclear ground state wave function. As in previous measurements,^2 an enhancement was observed in the (π^+, π^-p) cross section which can be attributed to pion double charge exchange occurring in a single step on a pre-existing Δ^- in the nucleus. Probabilities of Δ components have been extracted from the data and are found to be consistent with theoretical expectations.^3 ^*Work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy. skip=-05pt B. L. Friman, V. R. Pandharipande, and R. B. Wiringa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 763 (1983). C. L. Morris, J. M. O'Donnell, and J. D. Zumbro, Acta Phys. Pol. B 24, 1659 (1993). W. Strueve et al., Nucl. Phys. A 465, 651 (1987).

  12. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... hours at the following locations: Edwards AFB Base Library, 95 SPTG/SVMG, 5 West Yeager Blvd., Building 2665, Edwards AFB, CA 93524-1295. Kern County Library, Boron Branch, 26967 20 Mule Team Road, Boron, CA..., CA. The Proposed Action does not include any construction activities. The Mojave Air and Space...

  13. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY: Federal... for Issuing an Experimental Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor... issue an experimental permit to SpaceX to conduct suborbital launches and landings of the...

  14. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have...-034-AD; Amendment 39-16357; AD 2010-14-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034,...

  15. The value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cardiovascular disease risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephen F; Kai, Joe; Guha, Indra Neil; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, reflecting liver disease severity, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the AST/ALT ratio improves established risk prediction tools in a primary care population. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cohort of 29 316 UK primary care patients, aged 25–84 years with no history of CVD at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to derive 10-year multivariate risk models for the first occurrence of CVD based on two established risk prediction tools (Framingham and QRISK2), with and without including the AST/ALT ratio. Overall, model performance was assessed by discriminatory accuracy (AUC c-statistic). Results During a total follow-up of 120 462 person-years, 782 patients (59% men) experienced their first CVD event. Multivariate models showed that elevated AST/ALT ratios were significantly associated with CVD in men (Framingham: HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.79; QRISK2: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.89) but not in women (Framingham: HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.43; QRISK2: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.35). Including the AST/ALT ratio with all Framingham risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) or QRISK2 risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.73, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) resulted in no change in discrimination from the established risk prediction tools. Limiting analysis to those individuals with raised ALT showed that discrimination could improve by 5% and 4% with Framingham and QRISK2 risk factors, respectively. Conclusions Elevated AST/ALT ratio is significantly associated with increased risk of developing CVD in men but not women. However, the ratio does not confer any additional benefits over established CVD risk prediction tools in the general population, but may have clinical utility in certain subgroups. PMID:26322236

  16. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system. PMID:18975131

  17. Effect of Increasing Maximal Aerobic Exercise on Serum Muscles Enzymes in Professional Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, Aynur; Otağ, İlhan; Sezen, Mehmet; Sever, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Exercise results in oxidative enzyme increase and micro-injuries in skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximal aerobic exercise on serum muscle enzymes in professional field hockey players. This study aims to determine the effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels. Material and Methods: 31 young professional field hockey players (13 female and 18 male players) volunteered for this study. All participants underwent the shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken from each participant before the shuttle run test. Post test blood samples were taken immediately after exercise and one hour after respectively. Pre and post test CK, CK-MB, AST and ALT values were measured by means of auto analyzer using original kits. Results: The acute post test measure of the CK level increased in male (p=0.002) and female (p=0.00) sportsmen. CK-MB values obtained one hour after the exercise was lower than those before the exercise in males (p=0.02). In females (p=0.017) and males (p=0.05) AST activity significantly increased immediately after exercise and decreased to resting activity 1 h recovery. ALT significantly increased immediately after exercise in female (p=0.03) and male (p=0.00) athletes and after 1 h recovery ALT activities decreased below resting values. Conclusion: The timing and severity of exercise used in our study increased CK values, decreased CK-MB values and AST, ALT values increased in female and male field hockey players. PMID:25948428

  18. Serum Fetuin-A Associated With Fatty Liver Index, Early Indicator of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya; Huang, Xiaolin; Ding, Lin; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Chen, Ying; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Di; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased fetuin-A has been reported in association with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, the large population data concerning fetuin-A and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum fetuin-A with fatty liver index (FLI), the indicator of NAFLD. A population-based cross-sectional analysis was performed in 5219 middle-aged and elderly participants who were recruited from 2 nearby urban communities in Shanghai, China. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fourth quartiles of FLI, alanine aminotransferance (ALT), aspartate aminotransferance (AST), and γ-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT) were defined as elevated FLI, ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. Fetuin-A was positively associated with log-transformed-FLI, -ALT, -AST, and -GGT after adjustment for the confounding factors (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that each one-standard deviation increase in serum fetuin-A (120.1 mg/L) was associated with 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.25, P = 0.04), 13% (95% CI 1.06–1.21, P < 0.001), and 10% (95% CI 1.03–1.17, P = 0.005) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. Categorical analysis showed that as compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of serum fetuin-A associated with a 35% (95% CI 0.98–1.86), 50% (95% CI 1.24–1.83), and 33% (95% CI 1.10–1.60) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. No significant association was found with GGT. In Chinese adults, serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly associated with elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, the early indicators of NAFLD. PMID:26426614

  19. Use of Databases for Early Recognition of Risk of Diabetic Complication by Analysis of Liver Enzymes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Malenica, Maja; Prnjavorac, Besim; Causevic, Adlija; Dujic, Tanja; Bego, Tamer; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Because of increasing prevalence of T2MD worldwide, it’s very important to recognize risk factors for diabetic complications, as soon as possible. Symptoms of complications appear a few or many years after tissue damage. So, it’s imperative to establish surveillance of diabetics with laboratory and other diagnostic procedures for early recognition of diabetic complications. Follow up of clinical curs of diabetes, by using databases of patients, provide possibility for permanent analysis of important laboratory parameters and any changes could be registered. Although an emerging evidence suggests a strong association of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and γGT (gamma glutamyl transferase) activity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT, γGT, and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities in controlled T2DM. Material and Methods: Gender differences are of special interest in trying to follow diabetes progression and development of its complications. Here the activities of ALT, AST, γGT, ALP were analyzed as well as levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in 40 T2DM patients and 40 age-matched healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from all participants in regular 3-months intervals up to 6 months period. Standard IFCC enzyme protocols were used to determine enzyme activities. Results and discussion: In first measured interval, significantly higher activities of ALT (p= 0,050) and glucose levels (p=0,045) were shown in male. A significant correlation was shown between ALT and AST activity with FPG and HbA1c levels in first and third measured interval. ALT activity was much higher in the group of patients with poor glycemia control. Average levels of activities of enzymes stay nearly in normal limits, but changes of enzymes activities should be recognized as soon as possible, earlier than tissue changes and diabetic complications become irreversible. PMID:27147797

  20. Audit on the appropriateness of integrated COPD management: the “ALT-BPCO” project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non communicable chronic diseases (including respiratory ones) are the leading cause of death and disability. To cope with them we need to redesign the health system, improving primary prevention, screening, and outpatient services, while fully integrating different branches of the health service. The Italian Ministry of Health published extended guidelines on integrated COPD management (COPD-GL) in 2010. In2011 a condensed version was produced. These documents define appropriateness of management regarding both the specialist and the health service. Methods An internal audit on how clinical practice conforms to COPD-GL standards was implemented in one Italian region involving 29 respiratory units (RU) (65.8% of the total regional RU): data were collected from the clinical database at time zero and after 6 months. In the meantime, specialists of RU underwent education on COPD-GL. Results At time zero, significant gaps between current practice and recommendations emerged both in medical practice (mean agreement 25%) and in the health organization (48%). At month 6 the gaps were reduced more in clinical practice (60.7%) than in organization (54.7%). Conclusions It is easier to resolve the gaps in specialist clinical practice than the organizational gaps, changing which is the politicians’ task. Correcting specialists’ inappropriateness may be worthless if this is not accompanied by improvement of the organizational obstacles. The search for appropriateness should not be limited only to specialists or to a strict control of drug prescription but should include all the organizational aspects. Implementation of COPD-GL calls for actions on the part of both specialists and the health system. PMID:25097757

  1. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  2. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  3. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, A Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils represents a major constraint for crop production as ~ 50% of the potentially arable soils worldwide are acidic. Therefore, understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying plant Al tolerance has been a major focus for a number of laboratories aroun...

  5. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  6. Balanced Ambipolar Poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-tetrafluorobenzene) Semiconducting Polymers Synthesized via Direct Arylation Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Guojie; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of an ambipolar π-conjugated copolymer consisting of alternating diketopyrrolopyrrole and tetrafluorobenzene via direct arylation polymerization (DAP) is reported. Two different combinations of monomers are investigated under various catalytic conditions for DAP. The target polymer obtained under an optimized catalytic condition shows minimal structural defects, a number-average molecular weight of 33.2 kDa, and balanced electron and hole mobility of 1 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) S(-1) in the organic field-effect transistors fabricated and tested under ambient conditions. PMID:26421942

  7. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  8. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top␣performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  9. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  10. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure. PMID:25960751

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2009-08-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

  12. Clinical Features of Drug-induced Liver Injury According to Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Moo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Ahn, Pyoung; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Jeong, Soung Won; Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an increasingly common cause of acute hepatitis. We examined clinical features and types of liver injury of 65 affected patients who underwent liver biopsy according DILI etiology. The major causes of DILI were the use of herbal medications (43.2%), prescribed medications (21.6%), and traditional therapeutic preparations and dietary supplements (35%). DILI from herbal medications, traditional therapeutic preparations, and dietary supplements was associated with higher elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels than was DILI from prescription medications. The types of liver injury based on the R ratio were hepatocellular (67.7%), mixed (10.8%), and cholestatic (21.5%). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations were more commonly associated with hepatocellular liver injury than were prescription medications (P = 0.002). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations induce more hepatocellular DILI and increased elevations in AST and ALT than prescribed medications. PMID:26713057

  13. Effects of repeated growth-promoting doses of clenbuterol on the hepatic function of female pigs.

    PubMed

    Gojmerac, Tihomira; Pleadin, Jelka; Zuric, Marijan; Mirko, Lojkic; Stipica, Curic

    2002-10-01

    The effect of repeated administration of clenbuterol in a growth-promoting dose on hepatocellular integrity of female pigs was assessed by correlating histopathologic lesions in the livers of dosed pigs with changes in serum ALT, AST, GGT and AP activities. The experiments were carried out in 12 (6 control and 6 treated) female pigs (Fl generation Swedish Landrace and Large Yorkshire) 6-7 mo and 80-100 kg bw. Experimental animals were treated with 10 microg clenbuterol/kg bw iv twice daily for 25 d prior to being sacrificed. Blood and liver samples were collected. Treated animals had increased serum AP and ALT activities (p< 0.02), whereas serum AST and GGT activities did not significantly change. Mild hyperplasia of biliary ducts, interstitial liver inflammation and hydropic and vacuolar hepatocyte degeneration were observed. These findings indicate that repeated administration of growth-promoting doses of clenbuterol to female pigs adversely affect liver function. PMID:12361107

  14. Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation. PMID:22736883

  15. TISSUE ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN KEMP'S RIDLEY TURTLES (LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII).

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Keiko Y; Knoll, Joyce S; Innis, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the tissue distribution and activities of eight enzymes in 13 juvenile Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died after stranding. Samples from the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, pancreas, lung, small intestine, and spleen were evaluated for activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipase. AST, CK, and LDH activities were highest in cardiac and skeletal muscle but were also found in all other tissues. Amylase and lipase activities were highest in the pancreas and low in all other tissues. ALP activity was highest in the lung. ALT activity was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle, and GGT activity was highest in the kidney, but activities of these enzymes were low in all tissues. These data may assist clinicians in interpretation of plasma enzyme activities of Kemp's ridley turtles. PMID:26352978

  16. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  17. Effects of buprenorphine on balance of oxidant/antioxidant system in the different ages of male rat liver.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Afshari, Reza; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Karimnezhad, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Our knowledge about a link between buprenorphine and hepatotoxicity is controversial. This study evaluated the effects of buprenorphine on the liver of young, adult, and aged rats. For this reason, young, adult, and aged rats received intraperitoneally 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg buprenorphine for 30 days. The present results revealed that the normal aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in the liver lipid peroxidation, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the aged rats. This study also demonstrated that buprenorphine led to a significant increase in the serum activities of ALT, AST, and LDH as well as liver lipid peroxidation content with a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of buprenorphine-treated aged rat versus the aged matched control animals. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that buprenorphine deteriorated oxidative damage in the aged livers. PMID:25683329

  18. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  19. Endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner rapidly improves plasma parameters of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Charlotte; Rensen, Sander S; Koek, Ger H; Joosten, Mandy F; Buurman, Wim A; Bouvy, Nicole D; Greve, Jan Willem M

    2013-11-01

    Bariatric surgery reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), nonsurgical bariatric device, on plasma parameters of NAFLD. Seventeen obese subjects with type 2 diabetes received the DJBL for 24 weeks. Before, during, and after DJBL implantation, we determined plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), albumin, caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). At baseline, subjects had increased levels of AST (35 ± 4 IU/L), ALT (54 ± 5 IU/L), and γ-GT (66 ± 14 IU/L), compared with healthy individuals; subjects' mean concentrations of caspase-cleaved CK-18 and L-FABP were 214.4 ± 35.6 U/L and 29.3 ± 2.6 ng/mL, respectively. Three months after implantation of DJBL, all NAFLD-related parameters had decreased from baseline (AST, 28 ± 3 IU/L; ALT, 32 ± 2 IU/L; γ-GT, 44 ±7 IU/L; caspase-cleaved CK-18, 140.6 ± 16.3U/L; and L-FABP, 18.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL; all P < .05). After 6 months, levels of ALT and γ-GT had further decreased (ALT, 28 ± 2 IU/L and γ-GT, 35 ± 5 IU/L), whereas levels of AST, caspase-cleaved CK-18, and L-FABP had stabilized (P = not significant). Six months after DJBLs were removed, levels of ALT (37 ± 3 IU/L), γ-GT (42 ± 5 IU/L), and caspase-cleaved CK-18 (124.5 ± 12.5U/L) were still reduced (P < .05), whereas AST and L-FABP had returned to near baseline levels (P = not significant). Therefore, in obese subjects, DJBL reduces plasma parameters of NAFLD. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00985114. PMID:23920034

  20. Aerobic Conditioning Might Protect Against Liver and Muscle Injury Caused by Short-Term Military Training.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Daleprane, Julio B; Pitaluga-Filho, Mario V; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Gonçalves, Mariana C; Passos, Magna C F

    2016-02-01

    Koury, JC, Daleprane, JB, Pitaluga-Filho, MV, de Oliveira, CF, Gonçalves, MC, and Passos, MCF. Aerobic conditioning might protect against liver and muscle injury caused by short-term military training. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 454-460, 2016-This study aimed to compare the biochemical markers of muscle and liver injury and total antioxidant capacity in army cadets after a traditional army physical training program and to correlate these effects with aerobic conditioning. Male army cadets (n = 87; age, 20 ± 2 years) were evaluated 12 hours before the start of training (T0), 12 hours after a 30-km march (T1), and 48 hours after military training (T2). Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were measured using an autoanalyzer. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Sc%). Seventy-four percent of army cadets were classified as having excellent aerobic conditioning (53.9 ± 3.0 ml·kg·min predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from the Cooper test). The median serum concentration of all enzymes increased 12 hours after marching (T1: CK 675%; ALT 59%; AST 336%; AST/ALT ratio 85%; p = 0.001) and 48 hours after the end of training (T2: CK 878%; ALT 256%; AST 418%; AST/ALT ratio 180%; p = 0.001). Sc% was higher in T2 (31.1 ± 9.8%; p = 0.01) than in T0 (3.4% change). Maximal oxygen consumption (ml·kg·min) correlated negatively with CK (r = -0.25; p = 0.009) and ALT (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) serum levels, and positively with the change in Sc% (r = 0.22; p = 0.04) at T2. The results indicate that intense military training can cause liver and muscle injury and that aerobic conditioning can be considered as a protective factor for these injuries. PMID:26813633

  1. Improvement of liver function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaya; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Nojima, Koji; Kawabata, Yumiko; Nishino, Masanori; Taniguchi, Hidenori; Itoi-Babaya, Michiko; Babaya, Naru; Inoue, Kaori; Ogihara, Toshio

    2005-04-01

    To increase our understanding of the effect of thiazolidinediones, a new class of antidiabetic drugs, on liver function as well as glycemic control, we investigated liver function before, during, and after treatment with troglitazone and pioglitazone. A total of 32 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied. Glycemic control and liver function were measured before, during, and after 4 to 12 weeks of treatment with troglitazone or pioglitazone. Glycemic control was assessed by fasting levels of plasma glucose, hemoglobin A 1c , and serum insulin, and liver function was assessed by asparatate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma -glutamyl transpeptidase ( gamma-GTP). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was used as an index of insulin resistance. During treatment with troglitazone, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A 1c levels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance were significantly decreased. Serum AST, ALT, and gamma-GTP levels were significantly decreased during treatment (AST, -17.4%; ALT, -27.2%; gamma-GTP, -47.9%) and returned to pretreatment levels after 4 weeks of withdrawal of the drug. A similar tendency was observed during treatment with pioglitazone (AST, -4.7%; ALT, -16.4%; gamma-GTP, -30.8%). These data suggest that, in contrast to the deterioration of liver function reported in a small subset of patients treated with troglitazone, treatment with thiazolidinediones was associated with a decrease in serum transaminases in most patients. The improvement in liver function parameters known to be associated with fatty liver in the present study, together with an improvement in fatty liver reported for another class of insulin sensitizers, biguanides, suggests that thiazolidinediones may have a beneficial effect on fatty liver. PMID:15798962

  2. Effects of cumin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: A double blind, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Torki, Masoumeh; Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Shavakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cumin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in compare to placebo. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with histopathological diagnosis NASH in two groups of case and control received oral cumin capsule or placebo thrice daily for 6 months. Clinical and laboratory data were body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS), steatosis grade, and side-effects and were measured at baseline and after treatment period using standard clinical chemistry techniques. The grade of steatosis was assessed by liver sonography in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe). Results: Of 100 eligible patients during follow-up 10/50 cases and 9/50 controls were excluded. At baseline and after treatment BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST, HDL, LDL, and FBS were not statistically significant between groups (P ≥ 0.5). BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST, LDL, and FBS after treatment decreased compare to baseline but were not statistically significant (P ≥ 0.5). The mean of changes in the level of BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, LDL and FBS were not statistically significant (P ≥ 0.5). The mean of changes in AST and HDL between groups was significant (P < 0.05). The grade of steatosis before and after treatment between studied groups was not statistically significant (P ≥ 0.5). Side-effects were not statistically significant among the two groups. Conclusion: Findings show that there the effect of cumin in in the treatment of NASH was not significantly different in compare to placebo. PMID:26605241

  3. The Effect of Green Tea Extract Supplementation on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Ali; Safi, Sara; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholamreza; Karami, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is believed to have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, one of which is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study investigated the effects of consumption of green tea in NAFLD patients. Methods: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose fatty liver in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >31 mg/dl and 41 mg/dl and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >31 mg/dl and 47 g/dl in women and men, respectively and without other hepatic diseases. A total of 80 participants (20–50 years) with NAFLD were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either green tea extract (GTE) supplement (500 mg GTE tablet per day) or placebo for 90 days. At baseline and at the end of the intervention weight, serum ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in fasting state, and dietary data were collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Green tea group showed significant reductions in ALT and AST levels after 12 weeks period (P < 0.001). The placebo group showed a reduction in ALT and AST levels at the end of the study, but it was no significant. ALP levels showed significant reductions in both groups after 12 weeks period (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, GTE supplementation decrease liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD. It can be claimed that GTE prescribed can be considered as a treatment to improve serum levels of liver enzymes in NAFLD patients. PMID:26955458

  4. Effect of combined therapy of diabinese and nicotinic acid on liver enzymes in rabbits with dithizone-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monago, Comfort C; Onwuka, Frank; Osaro, Erhabor

    2010-01-01

    The effects of diabinese, a known antidiabetic drug, and the combined effects of diabinese and nicotinic acid, a vitamin and antilipidemic drug, were studied in rabbits with dithizone-induced diabetes. Side effects of diabinese include hypoglycemia and liver toxicity. Dithizone was used to induce partial experimental diabetes and to increase blood glucose significantly (P < 0.05) by 31.3%, 23.5%, 19.5, 24.7%, and 23.9% in groups A (single therapy of diabinese 10 mg/kg body weight), B (10 mg of diabinese and nicotinic acid 150 mg/kg), C (10 mg diabinese and nicotinic acid 200 mg/kg), D (10 mg diabinese and nicotinic acid 250 mg/kg) and E control (distilled water 5 mL), respectively. Dithizone administration also increased bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 28.9%–35.6%, 41.2%–54.8%, 40.1%–46.1%, and 60.9%–68.4%, respectively. Diabinese monotherapy reduced bilirubin levels, while combined therapy reduced glucose, ALP, AST, and ALT levels more than single therapy. Reduction from the hyperglycemic level 48 hours after drug administration was 20.0%, 24.6%, 41.0%, and 42.0% for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, and was concentration-dependent. Also, combined therapy produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in AST and ALT levels, especially at 72 hours after drug administration, but did not affect ALP levels. No significant changes in glucose, bilirubin, ALP, AST, and ALT levels were observed in Group E (control). This study shows that liver toxicity and the hypoglycemic side effects of diabinese could be managed by the concomitant administration of nicotinic acid.

  5. Could biochemical liver profile help to assess metabolic response to aerobic effort in athletes?

    PubMed

    Chamera, Tomasz; Spieszny, Michał; Klocek, Tomasz; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Lachowicz, Milena; Buryta, Rafał; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring and optimizing the effectiveness of training course require wide analyses of athletes' blood parameter changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of biochemical liver profile to assess the metabolic response to semi-long-distance outdoor run in football players. Sixteen football players run outdoor for 60 minutes to achieve aerobic metabolism. Plasma activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and plasma levels of total and direct bilirubin were determined in samples obtained before exercise test (pre-exercise) and immediately after the run (post-exercise). Mean AST plasma activity (U·L-1) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 78.3/228.3 in women and 76.5/56.2 in men. Mean ALT plasma activity (U·L-1) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 27.5/59.1 in women and 36.2/35.3 in men. Mean GGT plasma activity (U·L-1) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 39.3/76.6 in women and 44.7/71.2 in men. Plasma levels of total and direct bilirubin were similar before and after the run regardless of the gender. Statistical significance of the differences between results obtained pre- and post-exercise occurred in women (p = 0.0212 for AST; p = 0.0320 for ALT; p = 0.0067 for GGT, respectively). The training monitoring in athletes should be performed using measurements of performance and biological or physiological parameters. It was found that AST, ALT, and GGT activities could be a valuable tool to assess the metabolic response in high-level fitness female athletes. Therefore, monitoring of those well-known diagnostic markers could prevent the trainee from harmful overtraining. PMID:25057846

  6. Comparison of liver enzymes level and sonographic findings value with liver biopsy findings in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Shariatifar, Behzad; Motamedi, Narges; Abdolahi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between sonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and liver enzyme level with histopathologic abnormalities and liver biopsy findings in patient with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 109 patients with diagnosed and under treatment NAFLD refer to Gastroenterology Clinics of AL Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Age, sex, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level recorded for all patients. Liver ultrasonography was performed for all patients. Steatosis grading and fibrosis stage were evaluated by liver biopsy. Results: We enrolled 109 subjects with NAFLD who had an indication for liver biopsy and met inclusion criteria of our study. Of these, 78 subjects (71.6%) were male and 31 subjects (28.4) were female. Mean age was 40.17 ± 11.01 years old. Our results showed there was a statistically significant relationship between ultrasonographic findings and histologic findings based on biopsy. There was statistically significant relationship between liver enzyme (ALT, AST and ALP) level and ultrasonographic findings, but there was no significant relationship between AST and ALT level and histologic findings, but the relationship between ALP level and histologic findings (steatosis and fibrosis) was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Ultrasonographic finding may be can use to identify nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and stage of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, but AST and ALT level is not reliable screening test to identify stage of fibrosis and steatosis in these patients. Therefore, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for establishing steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

  7. The early effects of short-term dexamethasone administration on hepatic and serum alanine aminotransferase in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Elisa R; Kilroy, Carolyn; Joslin, Diane L; Schomaker, Shelli J; Pruimboom-Brees, Ingrid; Amacher, David E

    2008-01-01

    Dexamethasone (DEXA) administration has been associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations that may result from enhanced ALT expression. The aim of our current study was to compare liver vs. serum ALT activity and to examine the onset of any hepatocellular changes. Groups of 4 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of DEXA or corn oil at 12, 16, and 24 h prior to euthanasia or once-daily for 2, 3, or 4 days. All (nonfasted) rats were necropsied together on Day 5. While DEXA incrementally increased liver ALT activity in the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day treatment groups (maximal, 3.7-fold), liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST) never exceeded 1.4-fold over control. Significant hepatic glycogen elevations were detected after DEXA treatment, which correlated with microscopic observations. Serum ALT, AST, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) increased after 2, 3, and 4 days of DEXA dosing (1.3-10.3-fold). DEXA-related necropsy findings included pale livers consistent with glycogen deposition. The relative percent liver to body weight was elevated in all DEXA-treated rats. Hepatocellular necrosis was observed in 1/4 rats at 12 h, 2/4 rats at 2 days, 4/4 rats at 3 days, and 3/4 rats at 4 days. DEXA treatment <2 days failed to produce consistent evidence of hepatic injury, as detected by serum biomarkers and pathology assessment. However, early DEXA treatment did correlate with apparent ALT induction. Ultimately, this may explain some early asymptomatic serum ALT elevations seen clinically. PMID:18850354

  8. Implications of metal exposure and liver function in Parkinsonian patients resident in the vicinities of ferroalloy plants.

    PubMed

    Squitti, Rosanna; Gorgone, G; Panetta, V; Lucchini, R; Bucossi, S; Albini, E; Alessio, L; Alberici, A; Melgari, J M; Benussi, L; Binetti, G; Rossini, P M; Draicchio, F

    2009-10-01

    Valcamonica is an Italian valley where ferro-manganese industries have been active for a century and where an increased prevalence of parkinsonism was observed. A group of 93 patients (65 from Valcamonica, 28 from the reference area of Brescia city) and 76 controls (52 from Valcamonica, 24 from Brescia) were screened for serum Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn in blood (MnB) and urine (MnU), transferrin, peroxides, alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) transaminases and direct bilirubin. Test results were compared among groups according to the residential area and related to the disease severity. Valcamonica patients had a serum-increase of Cu, as well as of AST/ALT ratio, and a serum-decrease of Zn and Fe compared with other subgroups of cases and controls. Cases and controls from Valcamonica had higher MnB and MnU levels compared to cases and controls from Brescia. After controlling for the duration of illness, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III domain correlated with serum Cu and AST/ALT ratio. Our results suggest the possibility that, in this area, a lifetime exposure to neurotoxicants and to Mn in particular, when accompanied to a subclinical liver dysfunction, may pose an increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders via metal metabolism (Cu, Zn, Fe) abnormalities. PMID:19680597

  9. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Serum Levels of Calcium, Iron and Liver Enzymes in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: To reach fetal appropriate growth during the third trimester, the requirements for dietary calcium and iron intakes during the pregnancy increases. This study was carried out to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum calcium and iron levels and liver enzymes among Iranian healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of consuming 200 g/d of conventional (n = 33) or probiotic yogurts (n = 37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yogurt contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. To measure serum calcium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, blood samples were drawn in a fasting state at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention. Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt (P = 0.01). Within-group differences in the conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction of serum calcium levels (−1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on serum iron, AST and ALT levels. Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels. PMID:24049622

  10. Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Mariappan; Parthasarathi, Kasi; Ranganathan, Lalpet Souri; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of earthworm extract (EE) (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) was evaluated against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar albino rat, in comparison with silymarin, the standard hepatoprotective drug. We observed a reduction in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) and in serum total protein, and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum aspertate aminotranferase (AST), serum alanine aminotranferase (ALT), bilirubin and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) due to liver injury in the paracetamol-administered rats (2 g/kg). On the contrary, increased activities of liver GSH, SOD, GPx, CAT and serum total protein level, and decrease in the contents of serum ALP, AST, ALT, bilirubin and liver TBARS were observed in rats administered with different doses of EE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg), which are similar to the activities of hepatoprotective drug silymarin (150 mg/kg). The mode of action of EE as evidenced by the above parameters may suggest that EE, on the one hand, prevents the formation of the reactive oxygen groups, or scavenges these groups, thereby preventing the damage on the hepatic cells, and, on the other hand, modulates the genes responsible for synthesis of antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, CAT and SOD in liver tissue and decreases the serum enzymatic activities such as ALP, AST and ALT. PMID:18257136

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25821491

  12. SILVER NANOPARTICLE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT TOXICITY IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Hackett, Diahanna; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their health risk assessment is of great importance. For acute toxicity evaluation of orally administered Ag-NPs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activity of liver function enzymes [(Alanine (ALT/GPT), Aspartate (AST/GOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)], concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), comet assay and histopathology of liver in the rat model were performed. Four groups of five male rats were orally administered Ag-NPs, once a day for five days with doses of 5, 25, 50, 100, mg/Kg, body weight. A control group was also made of five rats. Blood and liver were collected 24 hours after the last treatment following standard protocols. Ag-NPs exposure increased the induction of ROS, activities of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), concentration of Lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), tail migration and morphological alterations of the liver tissue in exposed groups compared to control. The highest two doses, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in ROS induction, ALT, AST, ALP activity, LHP concentration, DNA damage and morphological alterations of liver compared to control. Based on these results, it is suggested that short-term administration of high doses of Ag-NP may cause organ toxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:25355157

  13. Protective effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice pretreatment in a model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova SV; Popova PB; Galunska BT; Belcheva A

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AMFJ applied as pretreatment in a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: AMFJ was given orally to rats for 2 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 ml/kg either alone or as pretreatment before the oral application of CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg, 2 days). The plasma activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured as markers of the liver cell damage. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, were determined in rat liver and plasma.RESULTS: Administration of CCl4 caused an elevation of plasma AST and ALT activities. It also induced an elevation of MDA levels in rat liver and plasma. AMFJ applied alone in the tested doses did not cause any significant changes in the measured enzyme activities and in MDA levels. AMFJ applied as pretreatment prevented the CCl4-induced increase of AST and ALT activities, and also prevented the elevation of plasma and liver MDA levels.CONCLUSIONS: AMFJ showed a protective effect in a model of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This effect might be due to the antioxidant activity of its active ingredients.

  14. Influence of nandrolone decanoate administration on serum lipids and liver enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Samieinasab, Mohammad Reza; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samieinasab, Fatemah; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroids have been associated with several side effects range. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND, an anabolic steroid) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats in Iran. METHODS Forty adult male and female of Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 animals each: male control, female control, ND-male treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day), and ND-female treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in all studied groups. RESULTS Treating rats with ND (case group) resulted in a significant elevation of TC (69.4 8.7), TG (101.6 32.9) and ALT (72.2 13.8) and significant reduction of LDL (6.4 2.6) and AST (138.7 19.4) as compared to control group in female rats. ND supplementation (case group) significantly increased TC (64.4 6.2), AST (255.0 32.0), and ALT (84.3 3.8) in comparison with the control group in male rats. CONCLUSION Overall, our result indicated that the ND use can cause a negative effect on lipid profile and liver enzyme in rats. PMID:26478734

  15. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  16. Circulating microRNA-122, -21 and -223 as potential markers of liver injury following warm ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Van Caster, Patrick; Brandenburger, Timo; Strahl, Thorsten; Metzger, Sabine; Bauer, Inge; Pannen, Benedikt; Braun, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    The liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are commonly used but not specific markers to quantify hepatic injury. In this in vivo study it was determined whether hepatic expression and serum levels of the microRNAs (miRNA) miR-122, -21 and -223 are altered and correlated with the release of liver enzymes after warm hepatic ischaemia and reperfusion (IR). Male Wistar rats were subjected to either 45 min of partial (70%) hepatic ischaemia and 240 min of reperfusion (n=7) or sham operation (n=5). Expression levels of miR-122, -21 and -223 were analysed in serum and liver tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and tested for correlation with serum activities of AST, ALT and LDH. The relative expression levels of circulating miR-122 increased after IR and correlated with the serum activity of AST, ALT and LDH. Neither increased serum level of miR-21 nor elevated relative hepatic expression of miR-223 correlated with the serum activity of liver enzymes. The hepatic expression of miR-122 was unaffected by IR. The correlation between circulating miR-122 expression levels and liver enzyme activity qualifies miR-122 as a potential biomarker of warm hepatic IR injury. PMID:25954995

  17. Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.

    PubMed

    Nan, J X; Park, E J; Yang, B K; Song, C H; Ko, G; Sohn, D H

    2001-08-01

    The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from mycelial liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL/S) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dramatically increased. The WEC or IPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) in BDL/S rats reduced the serum AST, ALT and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). The EPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) reduced the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde contents in liver treated with WEC, IPC or EPC were significantly reduced (p<0.05). But Liver hydroxyproline content was decreased only in EPC treated BDL/S rats to 55% that of BDL/S control rats (p<0.01). The morphological characteristics and expression of alpha smooth muscle like actin in fibrotic liver, which appeared in BDL/S control group were improved in EPC treated fibrotic liver. These results indicate that EPC (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) has an antifibrotic effect on fibrotic rats induced by BDL/S. PMID:11534766

  18. Hepatitis during respiratory syncytial virus infection – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kirin, Branka Kristić; Topić, Renata Zrinski; Dodig, Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants and small children. The aim was to present a 13-months old boy diagnosed with acute airway infection, acute otitis media (AOM) and hepatitis during the RSV-infection. Material and methods: Serum catalytic activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotranspherase (AST), alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpherase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), and concentrations of bilirubin were monitored during hospitalization and at control examination. Results: The child had clinical signs and symptoms of respiratory failure, AOM, and laboratory findings of virus infection and liver disease. On admission, catalytic activities of enzymes were markedly increased, especially the activity of ALP (10333 U/L, i.e. 24-fold increase in comparison with the upper reference limit). The highest increased in AST (339 U/L, 4.5-fold), ALT (475 U/L, 10.3-fold) and LD (545 U/L, 1.5-fold) were registered on the 3rd day, and the highest increase in GGT (68 U/L, 3.1-fold) occurred on the 11th day. Seven weeks after discharge AST, ALT, GGT and LD decreased into reference range, and ALP remain mildly increased (478 U/L, 1.1 fold increase). RSV was confirmed in nasal lavage fluid. Conclusion: Laboratory results in patient with RSV infection needs to be interpreted in the light of both, respiratory and extrapulmonary manifestations of the infection, respectively. PMID:23457772

  19. Protective effect of allicin against glycidamide-induced toxicity in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Ting; Chen, Dong-Yan; Liu, Huang-You; Yan, Hai-Yang; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide is known to be a neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic compound. Glycidamide has a close relationship to the toxic mechanism of acrylamide. In order to explore the toxic mechanism of acrylamide, we further discussed the effects of oral administration of allicin on glycidamide-induced toxicity by determining the hematological parameters like AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, creatinine, ROS, and 8-OHdG, and biochemical parameters such as MDA, MPO, SOD, GST and GSH in the kidney, liver, brain and lung of male and female mice for the first time. We found that the same dose of glycidamide had more toxic effects and damage effects to the mice compared to the previous study of acrylamide. It could markedly increase the level of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, MPO while decrease the SOD, GST and GSH. However, our data showed the oral administered allicin with a concentration of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w./day could significantly decrease the damage indexes of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, and MPO, while increase the antioxidant indicators of SOD, GST and GSH. Thus allicin could be used as an effective dietary supplement for the chemoprevention of glycidamide genotoxicity internally, and to prevent the tissue damage and toxicity induced by glycidamide. PMID:25730897

  20. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-08-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  1. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  2. A paper-based multiplexed transaminase test for low-cost, point-of-care liver function testing

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nira R.; Rolland, Jason P.; Kumar, Shailendra; Beattie, Patrick D.; Jain, Sidhartha; Noubary, Farzad; Wong, Vicki L.; Pohlmann, Rebecca A.; Ryan, Una S.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In developed nations, monitoring for drug-induced liver injury via serial measurements of serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) in at-risk individuals is the standard of care. Despite the need, monitoring for drug-related hepatotoxicity in resource-limited settings is often limited by expense and logistics, even for patients at highest risk. This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of AST and ALT in a fingerstick specimen. Using 223 clinical specimens obtained by venipuncture and 10 fingerstick specimens from healthy volunteers, we have shown that our assay can, in 15 minutes, provide visual measurements of AST and ALT in whole blood or serum which allow the user to place those values into one of three readout “bins” (<3x upper limit of normal (ULN), 3-5x ULN, and >5x ULN, corresponding to tuberculosis/HIV treatment guidelines) with >90% accuracy. These data suggest that the ultimate point-of-care fingerstick device will have high impact on patient care in low-resource settings. PMID:22993296

  3. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  4. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is A Sensitive Biomarker for Severe Ischemia/reperfusion Injury in Patients with Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dewei; Li, Huating; Wang, Yudong; Jia, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Man, Kwan; Lo, Chungmau; Wong, Chiming; Wang, Yu; Lam, Karen S.L.; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver surgery. Therefore, it is important to identity reliable biomarkers to assist early diagnosis of hepatic I/R injury. This study aimed to investigate the potential of serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as a biomarker for hepatic I/R injury in patients with liver transplantation. Two independent cohorts of liver transplantation patients were recruited for determination of serum levels of FGF21, ALT, and AST. The results demonstrated that serum FGF21 at 2 hours post-reperfusion in cohort-1 exhibited an approximately 20-fold elevation relative to those in healthy subjects. In blood samples dynamically collected in cohort-2, a dramatic increase in serum FGF21 levels (~25-fold) was observed at two hours after surgery, whereas the peak levels of serum ALT and AST were detected only after 24 hours. Temporal correlation analysis demonstrated a significant association of peak serum levels of FGF21 at 2 hours with the magnitude of the increase in both serum ALT and AST levels at 24 hours post transplantation. In conclusion, serum FGF21 may represent a sensitive and specific prognostic biomarker for early detection of I/R injury in patients with liver transplantation. PMID:26806156

  5. Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system.

  6. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Peganum harmala Seeds in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Komeili, Gholamreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Bameri-Niafar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. In an experimental study, 64 normal Wistar albino male rats (200–230 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups. Control and diabetic rats were treated with normal saline and three different doses (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds for 4 weeks orally. At the end of treatment, blood samples were taken and glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TCA), ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant changes in the values of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, MDA, TAC, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C in comparison with normal rats. Administration of the extract to diabetic rats resulted in a remarkable decrease in glucose, lipid profiles, MDA, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C levels and increase in TAC relative to diabetic group. The results of this study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities and could be useful in treatment of diabetes. PMID:27190643

  7. Biochemical assessment of oxidative status versus liver enzymes in patients with chronic fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Hanan H; Sarhan, Rania M; Saad, Ghada A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the oxidative status in Egyptian patients suffering chronic fascioliasis. The relationship between serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities was investigated in relation to the level of liver enzymes; ALT and AST compared to healthy controls. Twenty patients versus ten controls were included in the study. Among cases the MDA, CAT, AST and ALT were higher than controls, while SOD and GPX higher values were present among controls. There was a highly significant difference between cases and controls as regard MDA, CAT, SOD, GPX, and AST, and a significant difference regarding ALT. The findings of increased serum lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of chronic fascioliasis patients indicated the presence of persistent inflammation and oxidative stress which confirms the underlying pathogenesis and reflected the stage of infection providing a baseline data for comparison between normal and infected patients guided by the level of liver enzymes in relation to oxidative status. PMID:26688624

  8. Safety evaluation of olive phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Farag, R S; El-Baroty, G S; Basuny, Amany M

    2003-05-01

    Free and total polyphenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits and leaves of the Picual cultivar. The safety limits of these compounds were recognized by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total lipids of rat serum. The free and total phenolic compounds (400, 800, and 1600 ppm) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) (200 ppm) were daily ingested for 7 weeks. The administration of olive total and free phenolic compounds at 400 and 800 ppm did not cause any significant changes on ALT and AST activities and serum total lipids. These compounds at 1600 ppm caused significant increase in ALT and AST activities and the content of total lipids. Both olive phenolic compounds were superior to that of BHT in increasing HDL-cholesterol level. Nutritional experiments demonstrated that BHT at 200 ppm caused an enlargement in the kidney and liver of the rat compared with the administration of total and free olive phenolic compounds at 1200 and 1600 ppm. Microscopical examination of kidney and liver tissues of rats administered free and total phenolic compounds at 1200 ppm had the same histological character as that of control rats, while the administration of BHT (200 ppm) and phenolic compounds (1600 ppm) induced severe damage to the tissues of the rat kidney and liver. PMID:12775365

  9. Potential effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on haemolymph of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Mantawy, M I

    2001-12-01

    Biomphalaria alexandrina were fed on either Allium cepa or A. sativum to study their effects on some biochemical parameters such as total proteins, free amino acids and liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) on egg laying activity of the snails. The results revealed that ALP was highly significantly reduced in haemolymph of snails that fed on either Allium cepa or A. sativum. Also, ALT and AST were highly significantly reduced in haemolymph of snails that were fed on A. cepa while those fed on A. sativum showed no change in ALT activity and a high significant increase in AST activity. Total proteins were significantly decreased in haemolymph of all treated snails whereas variations in free amino acids contents were also observed. The reproductive activity of snails fed on either Allium cepa or A. sativum was highly affected. In addition, growth rate of newly hatched snails fed on either A. cepa or A. sativum was affected. Exposure of snails to water containing either A. cepa or A. sativum caused snail toxicity which may result from alterations in the snails' habitat. PMID:11775098

  10. Evaluation of aminotransferase abnormality in dengue patients: A meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Shi-Chen; He, Cheng; Xu, Xiu-Juan; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus is a type of flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The symptoms of infection by this virus range from asymptomatic or mild symptomatic dengue fever (DF) to dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Significant abnormality in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) has been shown in a large number of dengue infection cases and to be indicator for liver injury provided that there are no other combined infections or liver injury. This study aims to assess the abnormal levels of liver aminotransferase in dengue patients. The related literature was searched in multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. The literature was selected through strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quantitative synthesis of the liver aminotransferase abnormality was performed with R software. The fixed or random effects model was employed based on the results of the statistical test for homogeneity. In total, 15 studies were included. The proportion of AST abnormality with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.56-0.92) in DHF patients and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.84) in DF patients; the proportion of ALT abnormality was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.73) in DHF patients and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41-0.63) in DF patients. Serum ALT and AST levels may be indicators for evaluating liver injury in dengue infection and for diagnosis and treatment effect. PMID:26739659

  11. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: A Comprehensive Look at B Cells and Antibodies in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mengel, Michael; Chong, Anita; Rothstein, David. M.; Zorn, Emanuel; Maltzman, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) represents a significant clinical challenge for solid-organ transplantation. Mechanistic understanding of ABMR is incomplete and diagnostic accuracy for ABMR is limited, and as a result, targeted treatment remains elusive and new treatment modalities are difficult to validate. Three-hundred-twenty-six participants from 15 countries met for the first Cutting Edge of Transplantation (CEOT) symposium organized by the American Society of Transplantation in Chandler, Arizona, February 1416, 2013. During the three-day interactive symposium, presentations, moderated poster sessions, and round table discussions addressed cutting edge knowledge of B and plasma cell biology, mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury, advances and limitations in ABMR diagnostics, as well as current and potential new treatment options for ABMR. The outcome of the meeting identified the following unmet needs for: a) Improved understanding of the regulation of B cell maturation and antibody response to enable targeted therapies; b) More precise diagnostics of ABMR, including molecular pathology, risk stratification by sensitive antibody testing, and monitoring of treatment effects; and c) Innovative multicentre trial designs that enhance observational power, in particular, in assessing synergistic multimodality therapies with reduced toxicities. PMID:24674597

  12. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model. APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16–10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality. APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26945406

  13. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap.A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model.APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16-10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality.APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26945406

  14. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., combined. The 2000 SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket... government. Under the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket...

  15. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

    1984-01-01

    A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

  16. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

  17. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  18. ASTE observations in the 345 GHz window towards the HII region N113 of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P. A.; Rubio, M.; Fariña, C.; Komugi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: The HII region N113 is located in the central part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with an associated molecular cloud that is very rich in molecular species. Most of the previously observed molecular lines cover the frequency range 85-270 GHz. Thus, a survey and study of lines at the 345 GHz window is required for a more complete understanding of the chemistry and excitation conditions of this region. Methods: We mapped a region of 2.´5 × 2.´5 centred at N113 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 13CO J = 3-2 line with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. In addition, we observed 16 molecular lines as single pointings towards its centre. Results: From the 13CO J = 3-2 map we estimate the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and virial masses in about 1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104M⊙ for the molecular cloud associated with N113. From the dust continuum emission at 500 μm we additionally obtain a mass of gas of 7 × 103M⊙. Towards the cloud centre we detected emission from 12CO, 13CO, C18O (3-2), HCN, HNC, HCO+, C2H (4-3), and CS (7-6); these are the first reported detections of the HCN, HNC, and C2H (4-3) lines from this region. We confirm the detection of CS (7-6), which was previously tentatively detected. From analysing the HCN, HNC, and C2H lines we suggest that they might be emitted from a photodissociation region (PDR). Moreover, we suggest that the chemistry involving the C2H lines in N113 is probably similar to that in Galactic PDRs. We analysed the HCN J = 4-3, J = 3-2, and J = 1-0 lines with the code RADEX and we conclude that we observe very high density gas, between some 105 and 107 cm-3.

  19. Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1998-02-25

    This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

  20. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  1. Limited Utility of Plasma M30 in Discriminating Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis from Steatosis – A Comparison with Routine Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Sthaneshwar, Pavai; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The utility of Cytokeratin-18 fragment, namely CK18Asp396 (M30), for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently uncertain. We aimed to provide further data in this area among multi-ethnic Asian subjects with NAFLD. Materials and Methods The accuracy of M30 for detecting NASH was compared with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels in consecutive adult subjects with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Results Data for 93 NAFLD subjects (mean age 51.0±11.1 years old and 51.6% males) and 20 healthy controls (mean age 50.2±16.4 years old and 33.3% males) were analyzed. There were 39 NASH subjects (41.9%) and 54 non-NASH subjects (58.1%) among the NAFLD subjects. Plasma M30 (349 U/L vs. 162 U/L), and serum ALT (70 IU/L vs. 26 IU/L), AST (41 IU/L vs. 20 IU/L) and GGT (75 IU/L vs. 33 IU/L) were significantly higher in NAFLD subjects than in healthy controls. Serum ALT (86 IU/L vs. 61 IU/L), AST (58 IU/L vs. 34 IU/L) and GGT (97 IU/L vs. 56 IU/L) were significantly higher in NASH subjects compared to non-NASH subjects, but no significant difference was observed with plasma M30 (435 U/L vs. 331 U/L). The accuracy of plasma M30, and serum ALT, AST and GGT was good for predicting NAFLD (AUROC 0.91, 0.95, 0.87 and 0.85, respectively) but less so for NASH (AUROC 0.59, 0.64, 0.75 and 0.68, respectively). Serum ALT and AST, but not plasma M30 showed a significant trend with increasing grades of ballooning and lobular inflammation. Conclusion The utility of M30 in the detection of NASH in clinical practice appears limited, in comparison to routine biochemical markers. PMID:25184298

  2. Effects of Metformin, Pioglitazone, and Silymarin Treatment on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajiaghamohammadi, Ali Akbar; Ziaee, Amir; Oveisi, Sonia; Masroor, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common reasons of enzyme increase in liver. In About 10 percent of patients with NAFLD, the disease progresses toward Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and about one third of them may progress toward cirrhosis, liver dysfunction, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives According to high prevalence of NAFLD and the fact that there is no consensus on treatment of this disease, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of metformin, pioglitazone, and silymarin on treatment of NAFLD. Patients and Methods Sixty six patients with NAFLD who were presented in the Endocrinology and Metabolism clinic of Boo’ali Hospital, Qazvin, Iran, were assigned randomly into three groups (n = 22). First group was treated by pioglitazone 15 mg/d, second group by metformin 500 mg/d, and third group by silymarin 140 mg/d. All patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluations including weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profiles, body mass index (BMI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum insulin levels in pre- and post-intervention after eight-week follow up. Results Before the treatment there was no significant difference between three groups with respect to average age, BMI and gender, FBS, lipid profile, AST, ALT, serum insulin level, and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance. After the intervention, a significant reduction was observed in average amount of FBS, lipid profile, ALT, AST, serum insulin level and HOMA index in three groups (P < 0.01). The most reduction in average FBS, TG, serum insulin level, and HOMA index was observed in pioglitazone group, the most reduction in average amount of cholesterol was seen in metformin group, and the most decrease in average amount of AST and ALT occurred in silymarin group. Conclusions These results suggest that all drugs are beneficial in improving biochemical indices in patients with NAFLD. Changes in AST and ALT in silymarin group were demonstrated more than that in other groups and the average difference between changes was significant between silymarin and metformin groups. PMID:23087748

  3. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  4. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  5. Biochemical Changes in Patients with Combined Chronic Schistosomiasis and Viral Hepatitis C Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Fawzia A.; Esmat, Amr Y.; Hassan, Gehan K.; Abdel-Bary, Abeer

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes induced in chronic schistosomiasis and/or chronic HCV, as well as to pinpoint the most significant parameters which could be used as dependable indices for the differentiation of single and coupled infections with or without liver cirrhosis. The selected patients were allocated into 2 broad groups: GrII (Schistosomiasis) which was subdivided into 3 subgroups: GrII(a) schistosomal patients with hepatosplenomegaly; GrII(b) hepatosplenic schistosomal patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis; GrII(c) schistosomal patients with no organomegaly. GrIII (Combined) comprised 2 subgroups: GrIII(a) schistosomal-HCV infection with decompensated liver cirrhosis; GrIII(b) schistosomal-HCV infection without liver cirrhosis. For statistical comparison normal healthy subjects were taken as a reference group (Gr I). Results showed that schistosomal patients without organomegaly manifested non significant changes in all studied parameters compared to normal controls. Highly significant elevations in serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities were recorded in all other subgroups but the highest levels are reported in GrIIb. AST/ALT and direct/indirect bilirubin ratios were highest in GrIIIa (1.17 ± 0.26, 1.54 ± 0.37, respectively). Serum total protein and albumin levels showed the highest reduction (33 and 59%) concomitantly with the highest increase in γ-globulin level (75%) in GrIII(a). Blood total iron was significantly reduced in GrII(a,b) (15.6 and 12%) (8.8%) bilirubin, GGT and AST in this order are good discriminators between the different subgroups in GrII. On the other hand, ALT, AST, albumin, ALP, GGT, protein and direct bilirubin are the most significant indices to differentiate chronic schistosomiasis and the combined group with/or without liver cirrhosis. PMID:11381190

  6. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement, indicating that separate reference intervals should be established for serum and plasma. Finally, storage of these enzymes at -70 degrees C for 1 mo resulted in up to a 25% decrease in enzymatic activity in manatee plasma. PMID:18634208

  7. Effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    SONG, YING-MING; LIAN, CHANG-HONG; WU, CHENG-SONG; JI, AI-FANG; XIANG, JUAN-JUAN; WANG, XIAO-YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis. BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Then, the labeled BMSCs were injected into rats with liver injury via the portal vein or tail vein. Two weeks after transplantation, three rats in each group were sacrificed to test the distribution of GFP in the liver and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Six weeks later, the remaining rats were sacrificed, and serum ALT, AST, albumin, hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and procollagen type III (PC-III) levels were measured. The expression of albumin in the liver was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Two weeks after BMSC transplantation, GFP-positive cells were detected in the livers of rats with BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein. Compared with pre-transplantation levels, the ALT levels of the groups with BMSC transplantation via the portal vein and tail vein were significantly decreased after two and six weeks of BMSC transplantation (P<0.05), whereas the AST and albumin levels were not significantly different at two weeks after BMSC transplantation in the two groups (all P>0.05). However, the AST and albumin levels were significantly reduced at six weeks after BMSC transplantation (all P<0.05). At six weeks after BMSC transplantation, the serum HA, LN and PC-III levels in rats transplanted with BMSCs via the portal vein or tail vein had decreased significantly (all P<0.05), as compared with the levels prior to BMSC transplantation. BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein achieved similar improvements in liver function in rats with liver cirrhosis, which suggests that peripheral venous administration is a convenient and effective route for BMSC transplantation. PMID:25780424

  8. Inverse associations of total and decaffeinated coffee with liver enzyme levels in NHANES 19992010

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I.; Freedman, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coffee may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic markers. However, it is unclear whether decaffeinated coffee is also associated with liver enzymes. Methods The study population included 27,793 participants, age 20 or older, in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (19992010). Coffee intake was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of aminotransferase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT) were measured. We examined the relationship between coffee intake and enzymatic levels using weighted multiple variable logistic (abnormally elevated levels of enzymes) and linear regression (continuous enzymatic levels). Results Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with abnormal levels of all four liver enzymes and continuous levels of AST, ALP and GGT. Compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, participants reporting ?3 cups per day had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)), 0.82 (0.68, 0.98), 0.73 (0.55, 0.95) and 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) for abnormal levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with decaffeinated coffee intake and abnormal levels of ALT (OR?2 vs 0 cup/d: 0.62 (0.41, 0.94)), AST (0.74 (0.49, 1.11)), and GGT (0.70, 0.491.00). Conclusion Higher intakes of coffee, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes. PMID:25124935

  9. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were categorized into quintiles. Sub-distribution hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a competing risks regression model in which deaths from other causes were treated as competing risks. Results Of 8808 deaths, 1111 (12.6%) were due to external causes. Injury accounted for 256 deaths, and suicide accounted for 255. After adjusting for covariates, elevated ALT and AST were significantly associated with an increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, as well as suicide and injury. Sub-distribution hazards ratios (95% CIs) of the highest versus the lowest quintiles of serum ALT and AST were, respectively, 1.57 (1.26-1.95) and 1.45 (1.20-1.76) for all external causes, 2.73 (1.68-4.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.66) for suicide, and 1.79 (1.10-2.90) and 1.85 (1.21-2.82) for injury. The risk of external-cause mortality was also significantly higher in the fourth quintile of ALT (21.6-27.5 IU/L) than in its first quintile. Conclusion Elevated aminotransferase levels, even within the normal range, were significantly associated with increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, including suicide, and injury. PMID:26446640

  10. Acute Hepatic Phenotype of Wilson Disease: Clinical Features of Acute Episodes and Chronic Lesions Remaining in Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisao; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Yahata, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Hiroki; Momose, Kenji; Isaji, Ryohei; Sasaki, Youji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Wilson disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism, and an international group for the study of WD (IGSW) has proposed three phenotypes for its initial presentation: acute hepatic, chronic hepatic, and neurologic phenotypes. Characterization of the acute hepatic phenotype may improve our understanding of the disease. Methods: Clinical features of 10 WD patients with the acute hepatic phenotype and characteristics of chronic lesions remaining in survivors were assessed by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Results: All six patients younger than 30 years had survived an acute episode of hemolytic anemia with residual liver disease of cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The acute episode was self-limiting in two of the four patients over the age of 30 years and progressed to acute liver failure in the other two patients. One of the two survivors had residual liver disease of chronic hepatitis, while the other had chronic hepatitis and neurologic disease. Neurologic disease remained in a patient who successfully received a liver transplantation. During acute episodes, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) changed rapidly along with anemia. Liver-specific ALT levels were age-dependently correlated with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Enzyme reduction was milder for AST than ALT, which resulted in a high AST/ALT ratio in the anemic stage. The anemic stage in two patients transformed to acute liver failure. Conclusions: All survivors of an acute episode of the acute hepatic phenotype had residual liver disease or both liver and neurologic diseases. The rapid changes in liver enzymes during the acute episode and the liver and neurologic diseases remaining in survivors may provide a better understanding of WD. PMID:26807378

  11. Differences in Liver Impairment Between Adults and Children with Dengue Infection.

    PubMed

    Martínez Vega, Rosario; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Dhitavat, Jittima; Sutherat, Maleerat; Choovichian, Vorada

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection (DI) is a major vector-borne disease in southeast Asia and an important cause of morbidity. The complications such as hepatic impairment are common, and because the physiology of the liver differs between children and adults, the DI-associated liver impairments might be expected to differ as well. This study aims to compare the differences in liver impairment between adults and children with DI. We retrospectively studied 158 adults and 79 children with serologically confirmed DI admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 2008 to 2012. In total, 93% of adults and 87% of children exhibited abnormal liver enzyme levels during hospitalization. Overall, 76 (42.4%) adults and 16 (20.3%) children had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Compared with children, adults with dengue fever (DF) presented a significantly higher incidence of liver function impairment (alanine transaminase [ALT] > 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN]) (47.1% versus 25.5%), hepatitis (ALT > 4 × ULN) (29.4% versus 12.8%), and severe hepatitis (aspartate transaminase [AST]/ALT > 10 × ULN) (16.5% versus 4.3%). Children with DHF showed a significantly higher incidence of liver function impairment due to AST derangement than did adults (100% versus 73%). There were no differences in the total bilirubin, albumin, or total protein levels between adults and children. Liver enzymes normalized significantly more slowly in adults, and AST recovery was faster than ALT. In conclusion, liver function impairment was more common among adults than children with DF. As the severity progressed to DHF, liver injury became more common in children. PMID:26976884

  12. Resveratrol and fenofibrate ameliorate fructose-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by modulation of genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Haleim, Enas A; Bahgat, Ashraf K; Saleh, Samira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of resveratrol, alone and in combination with fenofibrate, on fructose-induced metabolic genes abnormalities in rats. METHODS: Giving a fructose-enriched diet (FED) to rats for 12 wk was used as a model for inducing hepatic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Adult male albino rats (150-200 g) were divided into a control group and a FED group which was subdivided into 4 groups, a control FED, fenofibrate (FENO) (100 mg/kg), resveratrol (RES) (70 mg/kg) and combined treatment (FENO + RES) (half the doses). All treatments were given orally from the 9th week till the end of experimental period. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver index, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), serum and liver triglycerides (TGs), oxidative stress (liver MDA, GSH and SOD), serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. Additionally, hepatic gene expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and adipose tissue genes expression of leptin and adiponectin were investigated. Liver sections were taken for histopathological examination and steatosis area were determined. RESULTS: Rats fed FED showed damaged liver, impairment of glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. As for gene expression, there was a change in favor of dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. All treatment regimens showed some benefit in reversing the described deviations. Fructose caused deterioration in hepatic gene expression of SOCS-3, SREBP-1c, FAS, MDA and TGF-β1 and in adipose tissue gene expression of leptin and adiponectin. Fructose showed also an increase in body weight, insulin resistance (OGTT, HOMA), serum and liver TGs, hepatic MDA, serum AST, AST/ALT ratio and TNF-α compared to control. All treatments improved SOCS-3, FAS, MCD, TGF-β1 and leptin genes expression while only RES and FENO + RES groups showed an improvement in SREBP-1c expression. Adiponectin gene expression was improved only by RES. A decrease in body weight, HOMA, liver TGs, AST/ALT ratio and TNF-α were observed in all treatment groups. Liver index was increased in FENO and FENO + RES groups. Serum TGs was improved only by FENO treatment. Liver MDA was improved by RES and FENO + RES treatments. FENO + RES group showed an increase in liver GSH content. CONCLUSION: When resveratrol was given with half the dose of fenofibrate it improved NASH-related fructose-induced disturbances in gene expression similar to a full dose of fenofibrate. PMID:26973390

  13. Biochemical Evaluation of Patients of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Non-alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Torkadi, Prasad P; Apte, I C; Bhute, A K

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is due to excessive alcohol intake for long duration. Distinguishing ALD from non-ALD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatitis of viral origin) is difficult as patient may deny alcohol abuse. Clinical examination, histology and serology may not differentiate these conditions. Accurate diagnosis is important as management of ALD differs from non-ALD patients. The aim of our study was (1) To evaluate the patients of ALD and non-ALD by biochemical parameters compared to controls, (2) To assess whether these parameters can differentiate ALD from non-ALD. Study was carried out on 50 patients of ALD in group I and 35 patients of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and acute viral hepatitis each in group II. Age matched healthy controls n=50. Selection criteria-history of alcohol intake (amount and duration), clinical examination, sonography of abdomen, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin levels. Blood samples were analyzed for bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) by kinetic method. Statistical analysis was done by Student unpaired 't' test. Patients of ALD have raised AST/ALT ratio (De Ritis ratio) (>2), ALP and GGT compared to controls (P<0.01).There is significant difference in AST/ALT ratio, serum GGT and ALP in ALD group compared to that in NASH and acute viral hepatitis (P<0.05). This study suggests that De Ritis ratio>2 in ALD patients may be due to alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial injury and pyridoxine deficiency. High GGT and ALP values may indicate enzyme induction by alcohol and mild cholestasis. Thus ALD patients have severe hepatic damage. De Ritis ratio<1 and normal to mild elevation in GGT level in NASH and acute viral hepatitis suggest mild hepatic injury of non-alcoholic origin. Our study concludes that ALD patients can be differentiated from NASH and acute viral hepatitis with certainty by measuring serum AST/ALT ratio, GGT and ALP. These biochemical parameters may help clinicians to support the diagnosis of ALD and non-ALD. PMID:24478554

  14. Disproportional exaggerated aspartate transaminase is a useful prognostic parameter in late leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Ho, Yu-Pin; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Lin, Deng-Yn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hepatic dysfunction in leptospirosis is usually mild and resolved eventually. However, sequential follow-up of liver biochemical data remained lacking.. METHODS: The biochemistry data and clinical symptoms of 11 sporadic patients were collected and analyzed, focusing on the impacts of leptospirosis upon liver biochemistry tests. RESULTS: The results disclosed that of the 11 cases, 5 or 45% died. The liver biochemistry data in the beginning of the disease course were only mildly elevated. Nevertheless, late exaggerated aspartate transaminase (AST) elevations were noted in three cases who finally died when compared with the typical course. Besides, significant higher AST/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratios (AARs) of the peak levels for transaminase were also noted in the cases who eventually succumbed. The mean±SD of AARs for the survival group and dead group were 5.652.27 (n = 5) and 1.860.64 (n = 6) respectively (P = 0.006). The ratios of the cases who finally died were all more than 3.0. Conversely, the survival group’s ratios were less than 3.0. CONCLUSION: Serial follow-up of transaminase might provide evidence to predict some rare evolutions in leptospirosis. If AST elevated progressively without a concomitant change of ALT, it might indicate an acute disease course with ensuing death. Additionally, AAR is another prognostic parameter for leptospirosis. Once the value was higher than 3.0, a grave prognosis is inevitable. PMID:16222754

  15. In Acute Myocardial Infarction Liver Parameters Are Associated With Stenosis Diameter.

    PubMed

    Baars, Theodor; Neumann, Ursula; Jinawy, Mona; Hendricks, Stefanie; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Kälsch, Julia; Riemenschneider, Mona; Gerken, Guido; Erbel, Raimund; Heider, Dominik; Canbay, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Detection of high-risk subjects in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by noninvasive means would reduce the need for intracardiac catheterization and associated complications. Liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A potential predictive value for liver serum markers for the severity of stenosis in AMI was analyzed.Patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 437) were retrospectively evaluated. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and percent stenosis diameter (SD) were determined from quantitative coronary angiography. Patients were classified according to the severity of stenosis (SD ≥ 50%, n = 357; SD < 50%, n = 80). Routine heart and liver parameters were associated with SD using random forests (RF). A prediction model (M10) was developed based on parameter importance analysis in RF.Age, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and MLD differed significantly between SD ≥ 50 and SD < 50. Age, AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and troponin correlated significantly with SD, whereas MLD correlated inversely with SD. M10 (age, BMI, AP, AST, ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, troponin) reached an AUC of 69.7% (CI 63.8-75.5%, P < 0.0001).Routine liver parameters are associated with SD in AMI. A small set of noninvasively determined parameters can identify SD in AMI, and might avoid unnecessary coronary angiography in patients with low risk. The model can be accessed via http://stenosis.heiderlab.de. PMID:26871849

  16. In Acute Myocardial Infarction Liver Parameters Are Associated With Stenosis Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Theodor; Neumann, Ursula; Jinawy, Mona; Hendricks, Stefanie; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Kälsch, Julia; Riemenschneider, Mona; Gerken, Guido; Erbel, Raimund; Heider, Dominik; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detection of high-risk subjects in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by noninvasive means would reduce the need for intracardiac catheterization and associated complications. Liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A potential predictive value for liver serum markers for the severity of stenosis in AMI was analyzed. Patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 437) were retrospectively evaluated. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and percent stenosis diameter (SD) were determined from quantitative coronary angiography. Patients were classified according to the severity of stenosis (SD ≥ 50%, n = 357; SD < 50%, n = 80). Routine heart and liver parameters were associated with SD using random forests (RF). A prediction model (M10) was developed based on parameter importance analysis in RF. Age, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and MLD differed significantly between SD ≥ 50 and SD < 50. Age, AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and troponin correlated significantly with SD, whereas MLD correlated inversely with SD. M10 (age, BMI, AP, AST, ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, troponin) reached an AUC of 69.7% (CI 63.8–75.5%, P < 0.0001). Routine liver parameters are associated with SD in AMI. A small set of noninvasively determined parameters can identify SD in AMI, and might avoid unnecessary coronary angiography in patients with low risk. The model can be accessed via http://stenosis.heiderlab.de. PMID:26871849

  17. Therapeutic effect of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose on experimental fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, J F; Zhan, T; Yu, X L; He, Q A; Huang, W J; Lin, L Z; Du, Y T; Pan, Y T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose on experimental fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed high-fat fodder to establish a rat fatty liver model, and were then fed different concentrations of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose for six weeks. Lipitor was used as a positive control. Measured levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG); the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), hepatic lipase (HL), and lipoprotein lipase; and liver histopathological changes. Successfully established rat fatty liver model after feeding high-fat fodder for one week. A diet of P. eryngii cellulose for six weeks significantly reduced ALT, AST, TC, and TG levels in rat serum (P < 0.01); TC and AST levels in P. eryngii cellulose high-dose group and Lipitor group were not significantly different from those of the control (P > 0.05). SOD activity increased significantly, while MDA and HL activity decreased (P < 0.05); fatty degeneration and fat accumulation both decreased in hepatic tissue. Hepatic protection of P. eryngii cellulose showed dose-related effect. P. eryngii cellulose can affect lipid metabolism, having therapeutic effects on fatty liver in rats. PMID:26985922

  18. Relationship between Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) and Skill Concepts Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Vassiliadou, Olga; Tzetzis, George; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between time-related variables of the physical education lesson and skill concepts acquisition and retention. One hundred and four students aged 6.4 to 7.9 years, and their six physical educators participated. The motor behavior of thirty-six selected students was videotaped during a…

  19. Relationship between Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) and Skill Concepts Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Vassiliadou, Olga; Tzetzis, George; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between time-related variables of the physical education lesson and skill concepts acquisition and retention. One hundred and four students aged 6.4 to 7.9 years, and their six physical educators participated. The motor behavior of thirty-six selected students was videotaped during a

  20. Preliminary temperature accelerated life test (ALT) on lattice mismatched triple-junction concentrator solar cells-on-carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Vincenzo; Espinet, Pilar; Nuñez, Neftalí; Eltermann, Fabian; Contreras, Yedileth; Bautista, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel; Bett, Andreas W.; Algora, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on concentrator lattice mismatched Ga0.37In0.63P/Ga0.83In0.17As/Ge triple-junction solar cells-on-carrier is being carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 125, 145 and 165°C and the nominal photo-current condition (500X) is emulated by injecting current in darkness. The final objective of these tests is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of these solar cells in a moderate period of time. Up to now only the test at 165°C has finished. Therefore, we cannot provide complete reliability information, but we have carried out preliminary data and failure analysis with the current results.

  1. Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

  2. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  3. Unusually high stability of a poly(alkylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) conjugated copolymer in its n and p-doped states.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mikhael D; Fisyuk, Alexander S; Demadrille, Renaud; Markevich, Elena; Gofer, Yossi; Aurbach, Doron; Pron, Adam

    2006-08-21

    Incorporation of electron accepting units (oxadiazole) into the 2,5-thienylene conjugated chain leads to a significant improvement in the n-doping-undoping redox stability of the resulting polymer. PMID:16883416

  4. Astronomie in Stein. Archäologen und Astronomen enträtseln alte Bauwerke und Kultstätten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drößler, R.

    Contents: 1. Archäoastronomie - eine moderne Wissenschaft. 2. Der Blick zur Sonne. 3. Streit um die Geometrie der Steinzeit. 4. Erdwerke, Henges und steinzeitlicher Sonnenkalender. 5. Fakten und Spekulationen. 6. Von Scharrbildern und Medizinrädern.

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  6. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  7. Back to the roots - die Anfänge der Dermatologie in der altägyptischen Medizin.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027750

  8. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  9. Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald's formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease. PMID:25120819

  10. Cement Dust Exposure and Perturbations in Some Elements and Lung and Liver Functions of Cement Factory Workers

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Egbe Edmund; Augusta Chinyere, Nsonwu-Anyanwu; Jeremaiah, Offor Sunday; Opara, Usoro Chinyere Adanna; Henrieta, Etukudo Maise; Ifunanya, Egbe Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cement dust inhalation is associated with deleterious health effects. The impact of cement dust exposure on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), liver function, and some serum elements in workers and residents near cement factory were assessed. Methods. Two hundred and ten subjects (50 workers, 60 residents, and 100 controls) aged 18–60 years were studied. PEFR, liver function {aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT) and total and conjugated bilirubin (TB and CB)}, and serum elements {lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As)} were determined using peak flow meter, colorimetry, and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA and correlation at p = 0.05. Results. The ALT, TB, CB, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were significantly higher and PEFR, Fe, and Zn lower in workers and residents compared to controls (p < 0.05). Higher levels of ALT, AST, and Fe and lower levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were seen in cement workers compared to residents (p < 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between duration of exposure and PEFR (r = −0.416, p = 0.016) in cement workers. Conclusions. Cement dust inhalation may be associated with alterations in serum elements levels and lung and liver functions while long term exposure lowers peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:26981118

  11. Presence of Concurrent Derangements of Liver Function Tests in Type 2 Diabetes and Their Relationship with Glycemic Status: A Retrospective Observational Study from Meghalaya

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Kaustubh; Borah, Meghna; Chutia, Happy; Nath, Chandan Kumar; Das, Dulmoni; Ruram, Alice Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The liver plays a pivotal role in carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, functional state of the liver in patients with diabetes is of interest. The objectives of the current study were to (i) identify co-existent biochemical derangements of liver function tests (LFTs) in type 2 diabetes and (ii) determine the association between liver function parameters and glycemic status in type 2 diabetics from Shillong, Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: Data from 320 type 2 diabetes patients were screened retrospectively for abnormalities in LFTs. Relationship of fasting serum glucose was assessed with the following tests in the LFT panel: Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin. Correlation coefficient was computed between individual LFT and fasting glucose status. These bivariate analyses were supplemented by multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: 71.25% subjects had an abnormality in at least one LFT. Elevated ALT (46.8%) and elevated ALP (48.5%) were the most common abnormality in males and females, respectively. ALP correlated positively with fasting glucose in both sexes. AST, ALT, and ALP were found to be independent determinants of glycemic status. Conclusion: Derangements in liver function are widely co-existent in type 2 diabetics from Shillong. Deranged liver enzymes are associated with glycemic status. Screening for liver dysfunction in diabetics and subsequent workup may lead to the identification of hepatic co-morbidities and better management. PMID:27013810

  12. Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpenia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumalatha, Suhani; Pai, K Shridhar R; Kumar, Nitesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity is one of the inevitable side effects of long term use of medicines in many different disorders, chronic use of alcohol and in certain infectious disorders. Even though there are few effective drugs to treat such hepatotoxicity, mortality due to hepatotoxicity is increasing day by day. Therefore, in search of alternative and more effective medicine we found that Caesalpenia bonduc (CB), a shrub grows in hotter places of south Asia has been effectively used to treat such hepatotoxicity in folk medicine. Aim: Aim of the study is to scientifically evaluate the hepatoprotective nature of aqueous extract of CB using Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxic rat model. Materials and Methods and Result: Elevated levels of blood ALT, AST and ALT enzymes were found in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rat models. Treating these animals with CB either prior or after the induction of hepatotoxicity, shows significant decrease in the levels of ALP, AST, and ALT in their blood in comparison with the untreated hepatotoxic group. Additionally, histologically, hepatotoxic rats show necrotic changes & vacuolation in their hepatocytes, altered hepatic architecture and congested hepatic sinusoids. However, such histopathological adverse changes were minimized when these animals treated with CB. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that CB acts as both preventive and curative hepatoprotector PMID:25584245

  13. Effect of glycyrrhizic acid on titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Fakhredini, Fereshtesadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that most nanoparticles (NPs) have an adverse or toxic action on liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against hepatic injury induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. NTiO2-intoxicated rats received 300 mg/kg of NTiO2 for 14 days by gavage method. Protection group pretreated with GA for 7 days before NTiO2 administration. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected as biomarkers in the blood to indicate hepatic injury. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated for oxidative stress in hepatic injury. Light microscopy for histopathological studies and TUNEL assay was also done. Administration of NTiO2 induced a significant elevation in plasma AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NTiO2 increased oxidative stress through the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in SOD and GPx enzymes. Histopathological studies showed that treatment with NTiO2 caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis, which was accompanied by congestion and accumulation of inflammatory cells. Apoptotic index was also significantly increased in this group. Pretreatment of GA significantly decreased ALT, AST and ALP, attenuated the histopathology of hepatic injury, decreased apoptotic index, ameliorated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue, and increased the activities of SOD and GPx. These findings indicate that GA effectively protects against NTiO2-induced hepatotoxicity. GA has a potent protective effect against the NPs induced hepatotoxicity and might be clinically useful. PMID:25016076

  14. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely. PMID:25686027

  15. The etiology of hypertransaminasemia in Turkish children

    PubMed Central

    Serdaroglu, Filiz; Koca, Tugba; Dereci, Selim; Akcam, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in children. We analyzed the medical records for children aged 3 months to 18 years who presented to the hospital with ALT >45 IU/L and/or AST >50 IU/L, between 2012 and 2014, for various reasons, including those not related to liver disease. In total, 281 children met the study criteria. This group comprised of 125 (44.5%) females and 156 (55.5%) males. At the presentation, the most common patient complaint was fatigue (53.4%), while 15.7% of the patients reported no symptoms. The most common findings on the physical examination were jaundice and hepatomegaly. In 15% of the cases, the findings were normal. According to the diagnosis, the most common cause of the elevated transaminases were infections (34%), with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection as the leading cause (18.9%). Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was the cause in 18.1% of the cases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 11.1%. The highest transaminase levels were associated with HAV infection, while DILI and NAFLD caused only slightly elevated transaminases. Overall, our results show that the elevated transaminases in children are most often caused by infections, DILI, and NAFLD. In a majority of cases, elevated ALT and AST indicate liver disease, however, they could also be associated with conditions other than liver damage. Additionally, the elevated enzymes can be detected in completely healthy individuals. PMID:26894285

  16. The etiology of hypertransaminasemia in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu, Filiz; Koca, Tuğba; Dereci, Selim; Akçam, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in children. We analyzed the medical records for children aged 3 months to 18 years who presented to the hospital with ALT >45 IU/L and/or AST >50 IU/L, between 2012 and 2014, for various reasons, including those not related to liver disease. In total, 281 children met the study criteria. This group comprised of 125 (44.5%) females and 156 (55.5%) males. At the presentation, the most common patient complaint was fatigue (53.4%), while 15.7% of the patients reported no symptoms. The most common findings on the physical examination were jaundice and hepatomegaly. In 15% of the cases, the findings were normal. According to the diagnosis, the most common cause of the elevated transaminases were infections (34%), with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection as the leading cause (18.9%). Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was the cause in 18.1% of the cases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 11.1%. The highest transaminase levels were associated with HAV infection, while DILI and NAFLD caused only slightly elevated transaminases. Overall, our results show that the elevated transaminases in children are most often caused by infections, DILI, and NAFLD. In a majority of cases, elevated ALT and AST indicate liver disease, however, they could also be associated with conditions other than liver damage. Additionally, the elevated enzymes can be detected in completely healthy individuals. PMID:26894285

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  18. Urinary enterolactone associated with liver enzyme levels in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-07-14

    Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that appear to have beneficial effects on human health. To date, no data are available about phyto-oestrogen consumption affecting liver health in a population. The present study aimed to explore the relationship of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with serum liver enzymes in US adults. A nationally representative sample of US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-10 was analysed. The cross-sectional study sample consisted of 6438 adults with data on urinary phyto-oestrogen levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transaminase (GGT) concentrations and data on other potential confounders. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression were applied to assess associations between urinary phyto-oestrogen levels and ALT, AST, ALP and GGT concentrations. We found a remarkable association between urinary enterolactone and GGT in both adult males (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.61; P= 0.003) and females (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.54; P= 0.009). Moreover, elevated enterolactone levels were inversely associated with ALT and AST levels in adult males. However, no association was present between levels of urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein with liver enzyme levels in this population. The present study results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone levels are associated with liver GGT levels in humans. This suggests a potential protective effect of enterolactone on human liver function. However, the underlying mechanisms still need further investigation. PMID:25990984

  19. Protective effect of naringenin against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in metallothionein (MT)-null mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingjian; Zhang, Baoxu; Xing, Guozhen; Wang, Fuqiang; Hu, Zhewen

    2013-02-01

    Naringenin is a natural flavonoid aglycone of naringin that has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity. This study was designed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of naringenin against acetaminophen (250 mg kg(-1), sc) in metallothionein (MT)-null mice. 42 SPF MT-knockout mice were used. Naringenin (200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1), ig) was administered for 4 days before exposure to acetaminophen (250 mg kg(-1), sc). Liver injury was measured by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as liver malondialdehyde (MDA). The glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) was also assessed. The evidence of liver injury induced by acetaminophen included not only a significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST, LDH and liver MDA, and also a significant decrease in GSH/GSSG. Pretreatment of mice with naringenin at 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) reversed the altered parameters. Such reversal effects were dose-dependent: ALT decreased 78.62% and 98.03%, AST decreased 88.35% and 92.64%, LDH decreased 76.54% and 81.63%, MDA decreased 48.59% and 66.27% at a dose of 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) respectively; GSH/GSSG increased 22.57% and 16.93% at a dose of 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) respectively. Histopathological observation findings were also consistent with these effects. Together, this study suggests that naringenin can potentially reverse the hepatotoxic damage of acetaminophen intoxication in MT-null mice. PMID:23142768

  20. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    PubMed

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats. PMID:26462568

  1. Lycium barbarum extract provides effective protection against paracetamol-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Yılmaz; İçer, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Kanıcı, Ayşe; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alabalık, Ulaş; Gürbüz, Hüseyin; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Lycium barbarum (LB) extract against paracetamol-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. The subjects were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the LB group were administered a dose of 100 mg/kg LB extract dissolved in saline via the intraperitoneal route for 7 days. Subsequently, after last dose of LB, PCT was given in a single dose of 1 g/kg diluted in saline via the oral route. Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were drawn from all of the subjects for serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) tests, and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological evaluation. The mean TAS level of the group that was subjected to PCT intoxication was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Additionally, the mean TOS, Oxidative stress index (OSI), ALT and AST values were significantly higher in this group. Though the mean TAS level in the PCT + LB group was significantly higher than that of the PCT group, the TOS, OSI, ALT, and AST levels were significantly lower. When the PCT + LB group and the PCT only group were compared in terms of liver damage during the histopathological evaluation, a statistically significant difference was observed in Grade I and Grade III damage (P=0.013 and P=0.038, respectively). We conclude that Lycium barbarum extract leads to a significant improvement in PCT-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of the histopathological results, serum oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes. PMID:26221346

  2. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

  3. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (p<0.05 respectively) and TB (p<0.001) were higher in SCA subjects than in NSCA subjects. [R] and [NOx] were higher in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively). Supplementation caused greater percent increases in [R], and [NOX] in SCA than in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 in each case). l-Arginine caused greater percent reductions in ALT and AST in SCA subjects but greater percent reduction in ALP in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 in each case). Changes in [MDA] and [TB] in the two groups were similar. Study shows that chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine improved liver function, oxidative stress, plasma arginine concentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects. PMID:27156372

  4. Changes of serum omentin-1 levels and relationship between omentin-1 and insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Walaa Moustafa Hussein; Amin, Ashraf Ismail; Hassan, Zeinab Abdeltawab; Abdelaziz, Dalia Hussein Abdelhafiz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine that has a pivotal role in modulating the insulin sensitivity, immunity and inflammation. The current study was conducted to evaluate the serum omentin-1 level in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients, with or without type 2 diabetes, and to investigate its correlation with liver function parameters and insulin resistance. Methods: Eighty subjects were enrolled in this study divided into four groups: chronic HCV infected patients (n=20), chronic hepatitis C patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes (n=18), type 2 diabetic patients (n=22) and 20 healthy controls. Serum omentin-1 levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, and liver parameters including aminotransferases (ALT and AST) were determined. Results: Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly elevated in HCV infected patients compared to all other groups. Omentin-1 levels were positively correlated with AST and ALT levels (r =0.43, p< 0.001; r =0.423, p<0.001, respectively). Additionally, a significant negative correlation was found between omentin-1 and both fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = -0.238, p<0.05; r = -0.277, p<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-β were negatively correlated to serum omentin-1 levels however these correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Serum omentin-1 level is elevated in HCV infected patients and is positively associated with liver enzymes AST and ALT. This suggested that omentin-1 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C and its metabolic complications. However its role needs to be elucidated by further studies.

  5. Effects of Copper, Zinc, and Vitamin Complex (Cernevit®) on Hepatic Healing in Rats Experimentally Subjected to Blunt Hepatic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Ayten, Refik; Aygen, Erhan; Cerrahoglu, Yusuf Ziya; Camci, Cemalettin; Ilhan, Yavuz Selim; Girgin, Mustafa; Ilhan, Necip; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi

    2015-12-01

    Solid organ injuries following blunt trauma are frequently encountered. The use of non-operative approach is gradually increasing. Thus, research on the methods that could enhance healing in solid organ injuries is in progress. Agents known to have antioxidant property were used after an experimentally induced blunt hepatic trauma. Thirty-two Wistar albino rats weighing 200 g were dropped from a height of 40 cm on to the right upper abdominal quadrant to produce a grade II-III hepatic injury. Rats were divided into control, Zn-administered, Cu-administered, and vitamin complex-administered groups, with eight rats in each. Aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured in the blood samples. The percentage of cells displaying Ki-67 nuclear staining was estimated. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the degree of inflammation in the samples was semi-quantitatively assessed. Treatment with zinc, copper, and Cernevit® caused varying levels of decrease in AST, ALT, and LDH levels compared to the control group. Ki-67 positivity was significantly lower in group I compared with groups II and III (p = 0.002). Ki-67 positivity was significantly higher in group II compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). A marked improvement was observed in inflammation in group II. Copper and zinc treatment decreased inflammation as well as blood levels of AST and ALT, and enhanced the healing of traumatized hepatic tissue. However, Cernevit® reduced only the degree of inflammation. PMID:27011508

  6. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (± SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 ± 9.5, AST 37.73 ± 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 ± 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 ± 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 ± 289 cells/mm3. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  7. Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2 mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5 mg/d/250 L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST > ALT > ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT > AST > ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

  8. Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHI-BIN; LI, QING; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; SUN, XIAO-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson’s staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

  9. Lycium barbarum extract provides effective protection against paracetamol-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Yılmaz; İçer, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Kanıcı, Ayşe; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alabalık, Ulaş; Gürbüz, Hüseyin; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Lycium barbarum (LB) extract against paracetamol-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. The subjects were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the LB group were administered a dose of 100 mg/kg LB extract dissolved in saline via the intraperitoneal route for 7 days. Subsequently, after last dose of LB, PCT was given in a single dose of 1 g/kg diluted in saline via the oral route. Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were drawn from all of the subjects for serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) tests, and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological evaluation. The mean TAS level of the group that was subjected to PCT intoxication was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Additionally, the mean TOS, Oxidative stress index (OSI), ALT and AST values were significantly higher in this group. Though the mean TAS level in the PCT + LB group was significantly higher than that of the PCT group, the TOS, OSI, ALT, and AST levels were significantly lower. When the PCT + LB group and the PCT only group were compared in terms of liver damage during the histopathological evaluation, a statistically significant difference was observed in Grade I and Grade III damage (P=0.013 and P=0.038, respectively). We conclude that Lycium barbarum extract leads to a significant improvement in PCT-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of the histopathological results, serum oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes. PMID:26221346

  10. Hautriwaic acid as one of the hepatoprotective constituent of Dodonaea viscosa.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamid; Kabir, Nurul; Muhammad, Akhtar; Shah, Mohammad Raza; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Iqbal, Naveed; Nadeem, Said

    2014-01-15

    It is widely known that hepatitis and its complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma are one of the major health problems of the world especially since no specific treatment is available. In the present study we investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Dodonaea viscosa and its ethyl acetate, aqueous, butanol and n-hexane fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) induced hepatoxicity in rats. Hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in serum enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) that occur after CCl₄ injury, and by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The methanolic extract reduced the serum enzyme level (ALT, AST, and ALP) down to control levels despite CCl₄ treatment. It also reduced the CCl₄-induced damaged area to 0% as assessed by histopathology. The CD68+ macrophages were also reduced in number around the central vein area by the methanolic extract. These hepatoprotective effects were better than the positive control silymarin. Similar hepatoprotective activities were found with the ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the methanolic extract. The butanol and n-hexane fractions showed elevated levels of ALT, AST and ALP as compared to the positive control silymarin. Histopathology showed ∼30% damage to the liver cells with the butanol and n-hexane fractions which still showed some protective activity compared to the CCl₄ treated control. HPLC fingerprinting suggested that hautriwaic acid present in the methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions may be responsible for this hepatoprotective activity of Dodonaea viscosa which was confirmed by in vivo experiments. PMID:24075215

  11. Pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid effect on hepatic biomarkers in Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Jainu, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1). Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers protection to some extent against NASH. PMID:24761121

  12. Combinatorial Effects of Thymoquinone on the Anticancer Activity and Hepatotoxicity of the Prodrug CB 1954

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Wamidh H.; AbuKhader, Majed M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. PMID:23833717

  13. Elevated Liver Enzymes in Cases of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Dacaj, Ramadan; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Stojkanovic, Goran; Dreshaj, Skender

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical parameters in serum of women with preeclampsia and IUGR. Material and methods: A clinical prospective study was conducted and included 120 pregnant women divided in two groups: non IUGR group included healthy pregnant women (n=60) and IUGR group included pregnant women with preeclampsia and IUGR (n=60). Outcome measures were following values of biochemical parameters in serum of mother and fetuses: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin (indirect and direct) and cholesterol. A blood for analysis was drawn from the cubital vein of mothers and the umbilical vein of the fetuses during delivery period. Results: The mean of maternal age was 30.0±6.1 years in women with preeclampsia and IUGR and 28.1±5.1 years in healthy pregnant women, p > 0.05. The most of women with preeclampsia and IUGR had grade III of placental maturation (48.3%). There is a significant association between the placental maturation and the diagnosis, p < 0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in body mass of newborns between IUGR and non IUGR groups, p < 0.001. There was a significant statistically difference in serum value of AST, ALT, LDH and total cholesterol between women with preeclampsia and IUGR and healthy pregnant women (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurement of AST, ALT, LDH, and total cholesterol in serum of pregnant women and newborns with IUGR allows the differentiation and threatening risk of perinatal complications due to hypoxia. PMID:26980931

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress.

  15. Protective Role of Crocin Against Nicotine-induced Damages on Male Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Tabatabaei, Hadis; Kakaberiei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against nicotine on the liver of mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were equally divided into 8 groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus nicotine treated groups. Saline, crocin, nicotine and crocin/nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight (48.37%) and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (239%), central hepatic vein (28.45%), liver enzymes level (ALP 29.43%, AST 21.81%, ALT 21.55%), and blood serum nitric oxide level (57.18%) compared to saline group (P < 0.05). However, crocin and crocin plus nicotine administration significantly boosted liver weight (49.54%) and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (40.48%), central hepatic vein (15.44%), liver enzymes (ALP 22.02%, AST 19.05%, ALT 23.11%), and nitric oxide levels (35.80%) in all groups compared to nicotine group (percentages represent the maximum dose) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Crocin showed its partly protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26442615

  16. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides in controlling ROS-meditated hypoxic injury in cells and can be useful in many hepatic complications. PMID:23833369

  17. [Influence of stir-baked with sand on active ingredients, diarrhea and hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan-juan; Shen, Gang; Yin, Rong-li; Shen, Cheng-ying; Cheng, Ling; Qiu, Ling; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-long

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of stir-baked with sand on active ingredients, diarrhea and hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum, the contents of herperione and herpetin in H. caudigerum before and after stir-baking with sand were analyzed by HPLC. The effect of stir-baked with sand on diarrhea of H. caudigerum TL was evaluated using the mean stool rate (MSR) and mean diarrheal index ( MDI) and the influence of stir-baked with sand on hepatoprotective effect of H. caudigerum TL was examined using a mouse model of CCl4-induced liver injury based on the analysis of serum ALT and AST activities. The results of HPLC analysis showed the content of herperione in H. caudigerum after stir-baking with sand decreased by 40.9% (P < 0.01) and the content of herpetin had no change. Pharmacodynamic results showed that the MSR and MDI of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL after stir-baking with sand were significantly lower than that of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL without stir-baking with sand; The high-dose and middle-dose of H. caudigerum TL with/without stir-baking with sand significantly alleviated liver injury as indicated by the decreased levels of serum ALT and AST, but the ALT and AST levels of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL after stir-baking with sand were higher than that of H. caudigerum TL without stir-baking with sand. The results revealed that the stir-baking with sand could effectively relieve diarrhea effect of H. caudigerum TL, while it also reduces the hepatoprotection of H. caudigerum TL. PMID:26080551

  18. Effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzyme activity in rats exposed to organophosphate pesticide diazinon.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shobi, Sepideh; Attar, Hossein; Shayegan, Sahel; Payam, Sakineh Sadat Hosseini; Ghorbani, Faezeh

    2012-10-01

    Diazinon, a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, has been widely used throughout the world in agriculture and horticulture to control insects that feed on crops, ornamentals, lawns, fruits, vegetables and other food products. The toxicity of the DZN causes adverse effects on many organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in rats exposed to diazinon. In this study, male wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 different groups. The groups were administered normal saline, soybean oil (as the solvent for diazinon and fat-soluble vitamins), diazinon, (30 mg kg(-1), vitamins E, C and A (100, 500 mg kg(-1) and 400 IU kg(-1), respectively) and a combination of diazinon with the same dose of each vitamin intraperitoneally i.p.daily for 14 days. Seven days after the final injection, the animals were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. The photometric method was used to measure the activity of the enzymes. The activities of ALT and AST in the diazinon group were significantly higher than that observed in the control group; however, the diazinon/vitamin E, A, C group displayed significant reduction in ALT and AST activities compared to the diazinon group. The lowest level of LDH enzyme activity was observed in the dazinon/vitamin C group and this was statistically lower than the diazinon group. The results of this study revealed that vitamin E, A and C have a potent protective effect against diazinon-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which may be due to the scavenging of free radicals and increased antioxidant status. PMID:24159690

  19. Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

    of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

  20. Toxic Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Liver and Some Hematological Parameters in Male and Female Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Heydrnejad, M Saeed; Samani, Roya Jafarzadeh; Aghaeivanda, Simin

    2015-06-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate toxic effects of nanosilver (Ag-NPs) on liver function and some blood parameters of male and female mice Mus musculus. A group of 54 BALB/c mice was randomly divided into three groups (each with two replications): Ag-NP (2) and control (1), each with nine mice. The experiment lasted for 14 days. In the treatment groups, two different doses of 20 and 50 ppm of Ag-NP solution were administered orally, while in the untreated (control) group, no Ag-NP solution but distilled water was used. At the end of the experiment, the serum was obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The biochemical levels including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and blood cells were assayed by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Also, liver biopsy was performed and samples were stained using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The values of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) did not vary significantly in the control and Ag-NP-treated animals. There were significant changes in the treatment and control groups in the levels of liver enzymes so that at both doses, there were significantly elevated levels of ALT and AST in mice treated with Ag-NPs compared with the control (p < 0.05). Sexuality was not significantly involved in the results. Oral exposure to Ag-NPs produced changes in blood chemistry and hepatotoxicity as indicated by increased serum activity levels of both AST and ALT and histological damages to the liver with no significant changes between male and female mice. PMID:25637567

  1. Tissue factor and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released by human islets affect islet engraftment in type 1 diabetic recipients.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Marzorati, Simona; Maffi, Paola; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Melzi, Raffaella; de Taddeo, Francesca; Valtolina, Veronica; D'Angelo, Armando; di Carlo, Valerio; Bonifacio, Ezio; Secchi, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Islet survival in the early posttransplantation period is likely to be influenced by inflammatory events in and around islets. Twenty-seven human islet preparations were transplanted by 24 infusions into 14 patients with brittle type 1 diabetes under the Edmonton protocol. Patients were monitored for their coagulation [cross-linked fibrin degradation products (XDPs)] and liver function test [aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT)] as markers of early posttransplant complications, and these were correlated with in vitro islet number, purification, volume, monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and tissue factor (TF) islet release. Consistent with activation of coagulation pathways and hepatic damage, serum XDP values increased early after 11 infusions and transaminase after 13 of 24 infusions. TF and CCL2/MCP-1 were detected in supernatants of 21 and 22 islet preparations, respectively. Serum XDP peak values were correlated with TF/equivalent islets (EI) (r(2)=0.26, P = 0.001) and CCL2/MCP-1/EI (r(2) = 0.42; P < 0.001); serum transaminase areas under the curve in the first week posttransplantation were correlated with CCL2/MCP-1/EI (r(2) = 0.55; P < 0.001 for ALT and r(2) = 0.51; P = 0.001 for AST) and TF/EI (r(2) = 0.31; P = 0.002 for ALT, and r(2) = 0.36; P = 0.002 for AST). These data suggest that reducing the islet proinflammatory state may be a means to reduce the early posttransplant complications and perhaps improve islet engraftment. PMID:15531535

  2. Economic Analysis of Requests for Laboratory Tests in Primary Health Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Operation of the Primary health care center and Medical-biochemical laboratories depends on the number of performed laboratory tests. The number of unnecessary tests significantly affect the operation of health institutions. Material and methods: We analyzed the 1000 requests for laboratory tests at the Primary Health Care Centre in Gracanica from primary care units. Based on the requests for laboratory diagnostics advisable diagnoses from primary health care unit in the Primary Health Care Center (PHC) we made an economic analysis of the total required laboratory tests in the requests for laboratory diagnosis. Incorporating the economic analysis of laboratory tests in requests for laboratory diagnosis by doctors in primary health care (PHC) and the economic analysis of laboratory tests by the disease in primary health care. Results: The economic value of 5333 laboratory tests was 84 312 points (1 point is 0.80 KM). Of the total value of the index score requirements of GPs are 44, 1%, the requirement of family doctors account for 40% and requirements of other specialists make up 15, 9%.. Discussion: In the requests of the PHC units for laboratory tests are required all levels of services: urine, CBC, SE, glucose, bilirubine, ALT, AST, AF, CK, cholesterol, HDL chol., triglicerdes, creatinine, urea, uric acid, CRP, fibrinogen, calcium and phosphorus. The following requests are the most common laboratory tests: urine, CBC, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases, creatinine, urea. The doctors in family practice most often requested: blood glucose, urine, CBC, SE, TGL. , Chol., ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. General practitioners were demanding more cholesterol and triglycerides, and family medicine doctors were demanding less cholesterol and triglycerides and more often CRP, fibrinogen, ALT, AST, what from the level of economic cost analysis rises the issue whether this was justified? PMID:23322950

  3. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation: Role of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Xu, Xihui; Babcock, Sara A.; Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) plays a critical role in the detoxification of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. This study was designed to examine the impact of global ALDH2 overexpression on alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. Methods Wild-type friendly virus B (FVB) and ALDH2 transgenic mice were placed on a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 weeks. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin and cholesterol, hepatic triglyceride, steatosis, fat metabolism-related proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), autophagy and autophagy signaling were examined. The role of autophagy was evaluated in ADH1-transfected human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (VA-13) treated with or without autophagy inducer rapamycin and lysosomal inhibitors. Results Chronic alcohol intake led to elevated AST, ALT, bilirubin, AST/ALT ratio, cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides, hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by H&E and oil Red O staining, associated with disturbed fat metabolism-related proteins (fatty acid synthase, SCD1), upregulated interleukin-6, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase, oxidative stress, and loss of autophagy, the effects of which were attenuated or ablated by ALDH2 transgene. Moreover, ethanol (100 mM) and acetaldehyde (100, 500 μM) increased levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and suppressed autophagy in VA-13 cells, the effects of which were markedly alleviated by rapamycin. In addition, lysosomal inhibitors mimicked ethanol-induced p62 accumulation with little additive effect with ethanol. Ethanol significantly suppressed LC3 conversion in the presence of lysosomal inhibitors. Conclusions In summary, our results revealed that ALDH2 plays a beneficial role in ameliorating chronic alcohol intake-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through regulation of autophagy. PMID:25457208

  4. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  5. Ameliorative effect of butylated hydroxyanisole against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2015-11-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen and has been shown to adversely induce oxidative stress and tissue toxicity after both acute and chronic exposure. Present studies were designed to study the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant used in foods on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain (4-6 weeks old) weighing 125-150 g were used in this study. Animals were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) after a week's treatment with BHA. BHA was administered orally once daily for 7 days at doses of 1 and 2 mg/animal/day. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters as serum transaminases (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST)) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Fe-NTA treatment increased ALT, AST, and LDH levels significantly when compared to the corresponding saline-treated group (p < 0.001). Fe-NTA also depleted the levels of glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-tranferase (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with BHA significantly decreased ALT, AST and LDH levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). BHA also increased antioxidant enzymes level and decreased lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation to 1.3-1.5-fold as compared to Fe-NTA-treated group. The results show the strong hepatoprotective activity of BHA which could be due to its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:26499990

  6. Predicting Clinical Outcomes Using Baseline and Follow-up Laboratory Data From The Hepatitis C Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghany, Marc G.; Kim, Hae-Young; Stoddard, Anne; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Lok, Anna S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C is challenging. We used the HALT-C Trial database to develop two models, using baseline values of routinely available laboratory tests together with changes in these values during follow-up to predict clinical decompensation and liver-related death/liver transplant in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Methods Patients randomized to no treatment and who had ≥2 year follow-up without a clinical outcome were included in the analysis. Four variables (platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, total bilirubin and albumin) with three categories of change (stable, mild or severe) over two years were analyzed. Cumulative incidence of clinical outcome was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome. Results 470 patients with 60 events were used to develop models to predict clinical decompensation. Baseline values of all four variables were predictive of decompensation. There was a general trend of increasing outcomes with more marked worsening of laboratory values over 2 years, particularly for patients with abnormal baseline values. A model that included baseline platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, bilirubin and severe worsening of platelet count, bilirubin and albumin was the best predictor of clinical decompensation. 483 patients with 79 events were used to evaluate predictors of liver-related death or liver transplant. A model that included baseline platelet count and albumin as well as severe worsening of AST/ALT ratio and albumin was the best predictor of liver-related outcomes. Conclusion Both the baseline value and the rapidity in change of the value of routine laboratory variables were shown to be important in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22045670

  7. Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Farías, Carlett; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Nidia; Martínez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martínez, Ingrid; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-González, José A

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 ± 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration. PMID:18240347

  8. Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Manuel; Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2009-10-31

    Aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. Over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in León (NW of Spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. Samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility, and two public artesian drinking-water fountains. Because of low numbers of coliforms or Clostridium perfringens, the non-compliance rate with microbial standards was 3.8% whereas the percentage of positive samples for motile mesophilic Aeromonas was 26.5%. For all but two samples, Aeromonas was recovered between October and early March when the temperature was below 14 degrees C and the residual chlorine ranged from 0.21 to 0.72 mg/l. An apparent relationship was observed between rainfall and the incidence of Aeromonas. The 35 selected Aeromonas isolates were identified as A. caviae and A. media. The alt and laf genes were present in all isolates, the aerA gene was present in six isolates, and the four remaining genes investigated (hlyA, ast, stx1 and stx2) were absent. The combinations of putative virulence genes were: aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (82.9%) and aerA(+)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (17.1%). None of the isolates bore plasmids. As Aeromonas strains harbouring two or more virulence-associated genes have the potential to cause disease by direct transmission via drinking water or by water use in food preparation, it would be advisable to control excessive numbers of these bacteria in drinking-water supplies. PMID:19720415

  9. Protective effects of sevoflurane in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Yuan, Tong; Zhao, Xin; Lv, Guo-Yue; Liu, Huan-Qiu

    2016-06-01

    The endothelial glycocalyx plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular structure and functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, can preserve the endothelial glycocalyx in heart tissues against ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, little is known about the effects of sevoflurane pretreatment on the vascular structure and functions of liver tissues following ischemia-reperfusion injury. To this end, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 28) were anesthetized either with ketamine (80-120 mg/kg, i.p.) or with one minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane (2% v/v). Following in vivo hepatic ischemia procedure, the liver was isolated and reperfusion was produced. During the period of reperfusion, liver reperfusion samples were collected, and the concentrations of heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 (Syn-1), and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, were measured. The morphology of hepatocytes and endothelial glycocalyx were then assessed by using the light and electron microscopies, respectively. Ischemia-reperfusion increased the release of HS and Syn-1, and elevated the levels of ALT and AST in a time-dependent manner. However, sevoflurane pretreatment reduced the release of HS and Syn-1and attenuated the levels of ALT and AST, in a time-dependent manner, as compared with ketamine pretreatment. Furthermore, sevoflurane pretreatment decreased the shedding of endothelial glycocalyx and hepatocytes necrosis. Sevoflurane pretreatment preserved the endothelial glycocalyx in the liver tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury. The effect appears to help protect hepatocytes against ischemia-reperfusion-induced necrosis. PMID:26966142

  10. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of andrographolide derivatives as potent hepatoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlei; Gu, Guolong; Wang, Bin; Deng, Xin; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-03-01

    Poor water solubility limits the clinical use of andrographolide and its derivatives. In an attempt to develop potent hepatoprotective drugs, a strategy was proposed to improve the aqueous solubility of andrographolide. Ten andrographolide derivatives were designed, synthesized, evaluated for aqueous solubility and in vivo hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 -induced liver injury in mice. As expected, the aqueous solubility of synthetic derivatives was effectively improved. All compounds demonstrated the effect of different degrees in improving the liver enzyme (ALT and AST) activity, especially the most promising compound 9d significantly improved liver enzyme activity, with high potency to be a new lead. PMID:24118795

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Abazarfard, Zohreh; Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gradual weight reduction has been shown to be associated with improvements in liver enzymes. However, some evidence demonstrated that liver enzymes may transiently increase immediately after a diet-induced weight loss. Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effects of a hypocaloric, almond-enriched diet (AED) compared with a hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) on liver function tests in the context of a three-month weight reduction program in overweight/obese women. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with ID number of IRCT2013062313751N1. Overweight and obese Iranian women [n = 108; age = 42.7 y, body mass index = 29.6 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to consume an AED or NFD. The carefully planned hypocaloric diets were identical for both groups except for the AED group who consumed 50 grams of almonds daily for three months. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory measurements including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention. Results: Of 108 participants, 50 women in AED group and 50 women in NFD group completed the protocol of the study (response rate: 92.6 %). The AED led to a median weight loss of 3.79 kg (interquartile range: 4.4 kg). Significant decreases within AED and NFD were observed in ALT (-16.6 ± 16.3 and -11.7 ± 16.8, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar significant decreases were observed in AST (-13.6 ± 15.7 and -7.7 ± 16.1; P < 0.001, respectively). The decrease in GGT was also significant in both groups (-11.4 ± 21.6 and -6.2 ± 19.8; P < 0.001 respectively). ALT, AST and GGT decreased significantly in the AED group compared to the NFD group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: AED improved liver enzymes in obese women. However, mild, transient increases in ALT and AST values can be observed immediately after an NFD in women. PMID:27231581

  12. Biochemical study on the protective role of folic acid in rabbits treated with chromium (VI).

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Elaswad, Fathia A M

    2006-01-01

    Deleterious effects of chromium (VI) compounds are diversified affecting almost all the organ systems in a wide variety of animals. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of folic acid (FA) in alleviating the toxicity of chromium (VI) on certain biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0 mg FA and 0 mg Cr(VI)/kg BW (control); 8.3 microg FA/kg BW; 5 mg Cr(VI)/kg BW; 5 mg Cr(VI) plus 8.3 microg FA/kg BW, respectively. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every day for 10 weeks. Results obtained showed that Cr(VI) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the levels of free radicals and the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), and decreased the content of sulfhydryl groups (SH groups) in liver, testes, brain, kidney, and lung. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased in liver and testes due to Cr(VI) administration. Also, AlP and AcP activities were significantly decreased in kidney and lung. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma. Contrariwise, the activities of AST and ALT were significantly increased in plasma, while AlP and AcP decreased. Chromium (VI) treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total protein (TP) and globulin, and increased total lipids (TL), cholesterol, glucose, urea, creatinine, and bilirubin concentrations. Folic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals in liver, brain, and kidney, and increased the content of SH-group. The activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver; AST, ALT, AlP, AcP, and LDH in testes; AcP in kidney; AlP and AcP in lung, and LDH in brain were significantly increased. Plasma TP and albumin were increased, while urea and creatinine were decreased. The presence of FA with Cr(VI) restored the changes in enzyme activities and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, folic acid could be effective in the protection of chromium-induced toxicity. PMID:16785179

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ≥ 6,1 mmol/L, TG ≥ 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in increasing the risk of liver injury. PMID:26543313

  14. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Wang, Cheng-zhang; Ye, Jian-zhong; Li, Hai-tao

    2011-09-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. The elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, TP, HA, LN, TG, and CHO were restored towards normalization significantly by GBP in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, GBP also produced a significant and dose-dependent reversal of CCl(4)-diminished activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced CCl(4)-elevated level of MDA. In general, the effects of GBP were not significantly different from those of the standard drug Essentiale. PMID:21596107

  16. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.01) in comparison to a control group. Data of the present study indicate that there might be an effect of acute alcohol intoxication on transaminase levels. The AST/ALT ratio seems to reflect the damage in hepatocytes after intensive alcohol consumption. The present study indicates a sex-specific difference in alcohol metabolism and effects between girls and boys: girls need less alcohol than boys to achieve the same blood alcohol levels than boys, and are more prone to loss of consciousness. PMID:26992701

  17. Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Ceiba pentandra in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ladeji, Olusola; Omekarah, Ikechukwu; Solomon, Mariam

    2003-02-01

    The claim by Nigerian traditional herbal medicine practitioners that the silk cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra L. Gaertn (Bombacaceae) barks extract has antidiabetic properties was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and graded doses of the aqueous bark extract were then administered ad libitum in drinking water to the experimentally diabetic rats for 28 days. Administration of the aqueous bark extract caused a statistically significant reduction in plasma glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract appeared non-toxic as evidenced by normal serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin. The data appear to support the hypoglycemic effects of C. pentandra. PMID:12648806

  18. Toxicity and dose determination of quillaja saponin, aluminum hydroxide and squalene in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Park, Chang-Su; Kim, Heung-Yun; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2014-03-15

    Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immune response of a given antigen. Most of the adjuvants are toxic at certain doses, and toxicity varies in different species. Moreover, there are no standard dosage limits set for adjuvant use in fish vaccines. We evaluated the acute toxicity, serum enzymes (AST/ALT) indicating hepatic injury and histopathological changes due to intra-peritoneal administration of different concentrations of a panel of adjuvants including quillaja saponin, aluminum hydroxide, squalene emulsion and Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) with a dose ranging study of saponin (500, 160, 50, 16 and 5μgfish(-1)), aluminum hydroxide (5000, 1600, 500, 160 and 50μgfish(-1)), squalene emulsion (20, 10 and 5%), and FIA to determine the acceptable dosage for vaccination in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings measuring 4.66±0.41g, 8.47±0.42cm. Saponin was highly toxic with a LD50 of approximately 105μgfish(-1) (22.4mgkg(-1)) causing severe histological damage and AST level was high at dose above 16μgfish(-1) and ALT, specific for liver damage was high only at 160μgfish(-1) (11U/L) and was safe at 5μgfish(-1). Aluminum hydroxide was toxic at 5000μgfish(-1) and was acceptable at dose below 1600μgfish(-1) with moderate histology and AST/ALT levels similar with control. Squalene emulsion showed increased inflammation at 20% and 10% emulsions and the inflammatory response was mild at a concentration of 5% oil emulsion and AST/ALT levels being similar to control in 10% and 5% emulsions and elevated in 20% on both sampling days. FIA was not lethal, but induced severe inflammation at injection site and around blood vessels. In comparison to FIA, saponin found to be safe at dose of 5μgfish(-1), aluminum hydroxide below 1600μgfish(-1), and squalene at 5% emulsion and could be accepted for vaccination studies. These results provide an insight for the selection of safer dose of adjuvants for intra-peritoneal vaccination of olive flounder. PMID:23570990

  19. [Changes in the biochemical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of pericardial fluid in the case of fatal narcotic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Altaeva, A Zh; Zhunisov, S S; Aĭdarkulov, A Sh; Selivokhina, N V; Kidraliev, R R; Darikulova, B U; Zagumennikova, A A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the biochemical and chemical-toxicological investigations into the properties of the pericardial fluid designed to improve the effectiveness of forensic medical examination of the cases of fatal drug poisoning. The objectives of the study were the detection and determination of the type of narcotic substances in the pericardial fluid, evaluation of the quantitative changes in enzyme activities (AST, ALT and CPK) in the pericardial fluid, and the development of the criteria for the forensic medical diagnostics of fatal drug poisoning. The materials used in the study were the pericardial fluid and blood taken during forensic medical examination of 247 corpses of men (87.04%) and women (12.96%) at the age from 13 to 35 years who died from different causes. They were divided into two groups. The study group was comprised of 142 subjects who died from drug poisoning, the control group consisted of 105 subjects who died from other causes. The methods used to study the pericardial fluid included gas-liquid chromatography to detect the presence and the type of the poisonous drugs, as well as biochemical and colorimetric methods to determine the amount of enzymes AST, ALT, and CPK. The study revealed no traces of drugs or their metabolites in the pericardial fluid from the 105 control corpses. Positive results of the forensic drug tests were obtained in all the 142 cases of the study group. The changes in the parameters and the biochemical composition of pericardial fluid and blood in fatal drug poisoning were reliably established including the alteration of the enzyme levels, such as AST, ALT, and CPK. In the control group, the quantitative parameters of the enzyme activities did not exceed the normal values whereas in the study group a significant increase of AST, ALT, and CPK levels in the pericardial fluid and blood in comparison with the normal values was documented. Conclusion: the results obtained in the studies of both groups provide a basis on which to propose the reliable criteria for forensic medical diagnostics of fatal drug poisoning taking into consideration the changes in the chemical, toxicological, and biochemical parameters of the pericardial fluid. PMID:25275183

  20. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fraction of Stellaria media L.

    PubMed

    Gorina, Ya V; Saprykina, E V; Gereng, E A; Perevozchikova, T V; Krasnov, E A; Ivanova, E V; Fait, E A; Baranova, O V

    2013-03-01

    Therapy of rats with CCl4 hepatitis with Stellaria media L. water-soluble polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduces serum activities of transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and the thymol test values. In the liver, the density of inflammatory infiltration of the organ parenchyma, total count of necrotic hepatocytes, fatty and protein degeneration are reducing. Hence, water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, isolated from the terrestrial part of Stellaria media L., is characterized by hepatoprotective activity. PMID:23658890

  1. Vitamin E reduces liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Aiko; Kawabe, Naoto; Hashimoto, Senju; Murao, Michihito; Nakano, Takuji; Shimazaki, Hiroaki; Kan, Toshiki; Nakaoka, Kazunori; Ohki, Masashi; Takagawa, Yuka; Takamura, Tomoki; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E treatment on liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-eight NAFLD patients were administered vitamin E for > 1 year. The doses of vitamin E were 150, 300, or 600 mg; three times per day after each meal. Responses were assessed by liver enzyme levels [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotranferease (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP)], noninvasive scoring systems of hepatic fibrosis-4 [FIB-4 index and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index (APRI)], and liver stiffness [velocity of shear wave (Vs)] measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. Vs measurements were performed at baseline and 12 mo after baseline. The patients were genotyped for the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms and then divided into either the CC/CG or GG group to examine each group’s responses to vitamin E treatment. RESULTS: We found marked differences in the platelet count, serum albumin levels, alkaline phosphatase levels, FIB-4 index, APRI, and Vs at baseline depending on the PNPLA3 polymorphism. AST, ALT, and γ-GTP levels (all P < 0.001); FIB-4 index (P = 0.035); APRI (P < 0.001); and Vs (P < 0.001) significantly decreased from baseline to 12 mo in the analysis of all patients. In the subset analyses of PNPLA3 genotypes, AST levels (P = 0.011), ALT levels (P < 0.001), γ-GTP levels (P = 0.005), APRI (P = 0.036), and Vs (P = 0.029) in genotype GG patients significantly improved, and AST and ALT levels (both P < 0.001), γ-GTP levels (P = 0.003), FIB-4 index (P = 0.017), and APRI (P < 0.001) in genotype CC/CG patients. CONCLUSION: One year of vitamin E treatment improved noninvasive fibrosis scores and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients. The responses were similar between different PNPLA3 genotypes. PMID:26644818

  2. Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Shumaila; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Khan, Bakhtyawar Ali; Durrani, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusions It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters. PMID:23569919

  3. Red Mold Rice against Hepatic Inflammatory Damage in Zn-deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of red mold rice (RMR) against liver injury in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks was investigated in this study. Rats were orally administered RMR (151 mg/kg body weight or 755 mg/kg body weight; 1 × dose or 5 × dose, respectively) with or without Zn once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The severity of liver damage was evaluated by measuring the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Zn-deficient rats. RMR significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT levels by Zn-deficient induction. Hepatic antioxidase activity was also significantly increased in the RMR + Zn group (RZ), thereby suppressing the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines in the liver of Zn-deficient rats. These findings suggested that RMR exerted hepatoprotective effects against Zn deficiency-induced liver inflammation. PMID:24716115

  4. The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, γ-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001). Odds ratios (ORs) of instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ≥ 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ≥ 3 times/week to γ-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets. PMID:24284330

  5. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases: systematic review with individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic and manual searches were combined. Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. Participants Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. Main outcome measures Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Data synthesis The results of included trials were combined in meta-analyses. Sequential, subgroup and regression analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias. Results We included 12 RCTs on lixisenatide versus placebo and 3 RCTs with the active comparators liraglutide, exenatide or sitagliptin. The mean treatment duration was 29 weeks. Lixisenatide increased the proportion of patients with normalisation of ALT (risk difference: 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14; number needed to treat: 14 patients, p=0.042). The effect was not confirmed in sequential analysis. No effects of lixisenatide were identified on AST, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. No evidence of bias was identified. Mixed effect multilevel meta-regression analyses suggest that the benefit of lixisenatide on ALT was limited to patients who were overweight or obese. Conclusions This review suggests that lixisenatide increases the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. Trial registration number PROSPERO; CRD42013005779. PMID:25526792

  6. The Association of PNPLA3 Variants with Liver Enzymes in Childhood Obesity Is Driven by the Interaction with Abdominal Fat

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Grandone, Anna; Cirillo, Grazia; Santoro, Nicola; Amato, Alessandra; Brienza, Carmine; Savarese, Piera; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Perrone, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A polymorphism in adiponutrin/patatin-like phospholipase-3 gene (PNPLA3), rs738409 C->G, encoding for the I148M variant, is the strongest genetic determinant of liver fat and ALT levels in adulthood and childhood obesity. Aims of this study were i) to analyse in a large group of obese children the role of the interaction of not-genetic factors such as BMI, waist circumference (W/Hr) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in exposing the association between the I148M polymorphism and ALT levels and ii) to stratify the individual risk of these children to have liver injury on the basis of this gene-environment interaction. Methods 1048 Italian obese children were investigated. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic data were collected and the PNPLA3 I148M variant genotyped. Results Children carrying the 148M allele showed higher ALT and AST levels (p = 0.000006 and p = 0.0002, respectively). Relationships between BMI-SDS, HOMA-IR and W/Hr with ALT were analysed in function of the different PNPLA3 genotypes. Children 148M homozygous showed a stronger correlation between ALT and W/Hr than those carrying the other genotypes (p: 0.0045) and, therefore, 148M homozygotes with high extent of abdominal fat (W/Hr above 0.62) had the highest OR (4.9, 95% C. I. 3.2–7.8, p = 0.00001) to develop pathologic ALT. Conclusions We have i) showed for the first time that the magnitude of the association of PNPLA3 with liver enzymes is driven by the size of abdominal fat and ii) stratified the individual risk to develop liver damage on the basis of the interaction between the PNPLA3 genotype and abdominal fat. PMID:22140488

  7. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using cation-exchange prior to hydridegeneration permits accurate arsenic(III) determinations in acid mine waters containing high concentrations of interfering metals. Stabilization of the arsenic redox species for as many as 15 months is demonstrated for samples that have been properly filtered and acidified with HCl in the field. The detection limits for the method described in this report are 0.1 micrograms per liter for total arsenic and 0.8 micrograms per liter for arsenic(III).

  8. AST/R–BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

  9. AST/R BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire ...

  10. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application-dual flow. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Price, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic and diagnostic data that were obtained to determine the influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of coannular nozzles with thermal acoustic shields are summarized in this comprehensive data report. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale-model nozzles The tested nozzles included baseline (unshielded), 180 deg shielded, and 360 deg shielded dual flow coannular plug configurations. The baseline configurations include a high radius ratio unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coanuular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor. The tests were conducted at nozzle temperatures and pressure typical of operating conditions of variable cycle engine.

  11. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

  12. Deep 1.1mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by AzTEC/ASTE - I. Source catalogue and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, K. S.; Yun, M. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Aguilar, E.; Aretxaga, I.; Ezawa, H.; Ferrusca, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Iono, D.; Giavalisco, M.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Rand, J.; Tamura, Y.; Tosaki, T.; Velazquez, M.; Williams, C. C.; Zeballos, M.

    2010-07-01

    We present the first results from a confusion-limited map of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. We imaged a field to a 1σ depth of 0.48-0.73 mJybeam-1, making this one of the deepest blank-field surveys at mm-wavelengths ever achieved. Although by traditional standards our GOODS-S map is extremely confused due to a sea of faint underlying sources, we demonstrate through simulations that our source identification and number counts analyses are robust, and the techniques discussed in this paper are relevant for other deeply confused surveys. We find a total of 41 dusty starburst galaxies with signal-to-noise ratios S/N >= 3. 5 within this uniformly covered region, where only two are expected to be false detections, and an additional seven robust source candidates located in the noisier (1σ ~ 1 mJybeam-1) outer region of the map. We derive the 1.1 mm number counts from this field using two different methods: a fluctuation or ``P(d)'' analysis and a semi-Bayesian technique and find that both methods give consistent results. Our data are well fit by a Schechter function model with . Given the depth of this survey, we put the first tight constraints on the 1.1 mm number counts at S1.1mm = 0.5 mJy, and we find evidence that the faint end of the number counts at from various SCUBA surveys towards lensing clusters are biased high. In contrast to the 870μm survey of this field with the LABOCA camera, we find no apparent underdensity of sources compared to previous surveys at 1.1mm the estimates of the number counts of SMGs at flux densities >1mJy determined here are consistent with those measured from the AzTEC/SHADES survey. Additionally, we find a significant number of SMGs not identified in the LABOCA catalogue. We find that in contrast to observations at λ <= 500μm, MIPS 24μm sources do not resolve the total energy density in the cosmic infrared background at 1.1 mm, demonstrating that a population of z >~ 3 dust-obscured galaxies that are unaccounted for at these shorter wavelengths potentially contribute to a large fraction (~2/3) of the infrared background at 1.1 mm.

  13. AST/RBASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

  14. Insulin resistance and β cell function in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ghergherehchi, Robabeh; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is a common finding in chronically transfused β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients with possible effect on β cell function and insulin resistance. In this study we aimed to evaluate glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and β cell function in β-TM patients. A total of 78 transfusion-dependent β-TM patients and 40 age and sex matched normal children were included. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in all subjects. Fasting plasma insulin level, insulin resistance index (IRI) and β cell function index (BFI) were also estimated. β-Thalassemia major patients had significantly more abnormal OGTT than the control group. β-Thalassemia major patients had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fasting blood sugar and IRI than the control group. Findings between β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients, with and without abnormal OGTT results, were also compared; β-thal patients with abnormal OGTT had significantly higher duration of chelation therapy, serum ferritin levels, AST, ALT and increased IRI and decreased BFI in comparison to patients with normal OGTT. Abnormal glucose metabolism is common in β-TM patients with chelation therapy and multiple transfusions which are attributable to impaired β cells' function and increased insulin resistance. PMID:25572183

  15. The Effect of rhCygb on CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrogenesis in Rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Wei, Wei; Chen, Bohong; Cai, Gaotai; Li, Xin; Wang, Ping; Tang, Jinping; Dong, Wenqi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the use of recombinant human cytoglobin (rhCygb) impact on hepatic fibrogenesis caused by CCl4. SD (n = 150) rats were randomly divided into three groups of normal, CCl4 model and rhCygb groups. After model establishment, rats in rhCygb groups were administered daily with rhCygb (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Histological lesions were staged according to metavir. Serum parameters including ALT, AST, HA, LN, Col III and Col IV were determined. The liver proteins were separated by 2-DE and identified. As a result, the stage of hepatic damage and liver fibrosis in rhCygb groups were significantly milder than that in CCl4 model groups. Meanwhile, rhCygb dramatically reversed serum levels of ALT and AST, and also markedly decreased the liver fibrosis markers levels of LN, HA, Col III and Col IV. In 2-DE, 33 proteins among three groups with the same changing tendency in normal and rhCygb treated groups compared with CCl4 model group were identified. GO analysis showed that several identified proteins involved in oxidative stress pathway. The study provides new insights and data for administration of rhCygb reversing CCl4-induced liver fibrosis suggesting that rhCygb might be used in the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27006085

  16. The Effect of Etoricoxib on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kunak, Celalettin Semih; Kukula, Osman; Mutlu, Emre; Genç, Fatma; Güleç Peker, Gülçer; Kuyrukluyıldız, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Altuner, Durdu; Alp, Hamit Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage is known to be a pathological process which continues with the increase of oxidants and expands with the inflammatory response. There is not any study about protective effect of etoricoxib on the liver I/R damage in literature. Objective. This study investigates the effect of etoricoxib on oxidative stress induced by I/R of the rat liver. Material and Methods. Experimental animals were divided into four groups as liver I/R control (LIRC), 50 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-50), 100 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-100), and healthy group (HG). ETO-50 and ETO-100 groups were administered etoricoxib, while LIRC and HG groups were orally given distilled water by gavage. Hepatic artery was clamped for one hour to provide ischemia, and then reperfusion was provided for 6 hours. Oxidant, antioxidant, and COX-2 gene expressions were studied in the liver tissues. ALT and AST were measured. Results. Etoricoxib in 50 and 100 mg/kg doses changed the levels of oxidant/antioxidant parameters such as MDA, MPO, tGSH, GSHRd, GST, SOD, NO, and 8-OH/Gua in favour of antioxidants. Furthermore, etoricoxib prevented increase of COX-2 gene expression and ALT and AST levels. This important protective effect of etoricoxib on the rat liver I/R can be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:26236425

  17. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  18. Synbiotics reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation by improving intestinal permeability and microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wan-Chun; Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and animal experiments indicated that gut-derived endotoxin and imbalanced intestinal microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In this study, we investigated whether synbiotic supplementation could improve ALD in rats by altering the intestinal microbial composition and improving the intestinal integrity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and subjected to either a normal liquid diet (C), a normal liquid diet with synbiotic supplementation (C + S), an ethanol liquid diet (E), or an ethanol liquid diet with synbiotic supplementation (E + S) for 12 weeks. Results revealed that the ethanol-fed group showed increases in plasma AST and ALT activities, the endotoxin level, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) level, and hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels, and a decrease in the hepatic IL-10 level. Ethanol-feeding also contributed to increased intestinal permeability and decreased fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli amounts. However, synbiotic supplementation effectively attenuated the plasma endotoxin, hepatic TG and TNF-α levels, and increased the hepatic IL-10 level. Furthermore, synbiotic supplementation protected the rats against ethanol-induced hyperpermeability of the intestine, and significantly increased amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the feces. This study demonstrated that synbiotics possess a novel hepatoprotective function by improving the intestinal permeability and microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. PMID:25910227

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at acupoint GB34 against CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Yun-Kyoung; Lee, Hyun; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Byung-Ryul; Kim, Tae-Han; Yi, Ji-Young

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB34) on CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats. METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated with manual acupuncture using reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34 (Yanglingquan) 3 times a week for 10 wk. A non-acupoint in left gluteal area was selected as a sham point. To estimate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at GB34, measurement of liver index, biochemical assays including serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol, histological analysis and blood cell counts were conducted. RESULTS: Manual acupuncture at GB34 reduced the liver index, serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol levels as compared with the control group and the sham acupuncture group. It also increased and normalized the populations of WBC and lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Manual acupuncture with reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34 reduces liver toxicity, protects liver function and liver tissue, and normalizes immune activity in CCl4-intoxicated rats. PMID:16610030

  20. Establishment and application of an experimental model of human fetal hepatocytes for investigation of the protective effects of silybin and polyporus umbellalus polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao-Rong; Le, Mei-Zhao; Xu, Jia-Zhang; He, Chang-Lun

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new experimental model system of human fetal hepatocytes to study the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of silybin and polyporus umbellalus polysaccharides (PSP) on the cellular ultrastructure. METHODS: Human fetal hepatocytes were obtained from the liver of a human fetus that resulted from a medically necessary induced labor; the mother provided informed consent for sampling, experimental use and publication of findings. The hepatocytes were cultured and then pretreated with silybin or PSP or without either (control), after which the treated cells were exposed to CCl4 for 4 h. Changes in cellular ultrastructure were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed. RESULTS: Levels of ALT and AST were significantly decreased, and level of SOD was elevated in the two pretreatment groups following CCl4 exposure, as compared to the control group. The cellular integrity and ultrastructure were well preserved in the two pretreatment groups but were seriously damaged in the control group. CONCLUSION: The CCl4-induced hepatotoxic cell model system of human fetal hepatocytes is an effective tool for studying the hepatoprotective effect of drugs and may be applicable for studies to screen medicines for treatment of hepatitis.

  1. Effect of olive leaf extract treatment on doxorubicin-induced cardiac, hepatic and renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumral, Alkın; Giriş, Murat; Soluk-Tekkeşin, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Türkoğlu, Ümit; Uysal, Müjdat

    2015-06-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to increase in oxidative stress in several organs. Olive leaf extract (OLE) has potent antioxidant effects; therefore, we evaluated the ability of OLE to reduce DOX-induced toxicity in the heart, liver, and kidneys of rats. DOX (30mg/kg; i.p.) was administered to rats, which were sacrificed 4 days after DOX. The rats received OLE (6 and 12mL/L in drinking water) for 12 days. Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, urea and creatinine levels, as well as prooxidant and antioxidant status in organs were measured. DOX was found to increase serum markers that indicate tissue injury, malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels, and to decrease glutathione (GSH) levels in organs. Histopathologic changes were also evaluated. OLE, especially OLE 1000, led to decreases in serum cTnI and urea levels, ALT and AST activities, and amelioration in histopathologic findings. Decreases in MDA, DC, and PC, and increases in GSH levels were observed in organs of DOX-treated rats due to OLE. We conclude that OLE treatment may be effective in decreasing DOX-induced cardiac, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and injury. PMID:26002558

  2. Butyrylcholinesterase as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Guilherme M; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Bottari, Nathieli B; Machado, Gustavo; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Moresco, Rafael N; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis. Forty-two serum samples of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis were used, of which 24 were from animals with the acute phase of the disease and 18 with subclinical disease. In addition, sera from 17 healthy dogs were used as negative controls. The hematocrit, BChE activity, hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), nitric oxide, and cytokines levels were evaluated. The BChE activity was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in dogs with the acute phase of the disease when compared to healthy animals. However, there was a reduction on BChE activity on dogs with subclinical disease compared to the other two groups. AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the acute phase, as well as the inflammatory mediators (NOx, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-6) when compared to the control group. On the other hand, IL-10 levels were lower in the acute phase. Based on these results, we are able to conclude that the acute infection caused by E. canis in dogs leads to an increase on seric BChE activity and some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this enzyme might be used as a marker of acute inflammatory response in dogs naturally infected by this bacterium. PMID:26616656

  3. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1α)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occurred when the expression balance of SDF-1α between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1α expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  4. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Haoqin Qingdan Decoction against Liver Injury Induced by a Chemotherapeutic Drug Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Baole; Jia, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    Haoqin Qingdan decoction (HQQD), a modern Chinese formula, has been widely used in Eastern Asia. Our study focuses on the hepatoprotective effect of HQQD against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity. S180, a kind of ascites tumor cells, was used to establish S180-bearing mice, followed by the injection of cyclophosphamide (CP, 80 mg/kg) every other day for 5 times. HQQD was used intragastrically at the dose of 80 g/kg, 40 g/kg, and 20 g/kg twice a day for 12 days. HL-7702 hepatic cell line was incubated with HQQD-medicated serum. Then we detected the effects of HQQD on (i) tumor suppression; (ii) morphological examination; (iii) SOD, MDA, GSH, ALT, and AST; (iv) cleaved caspase-3 expression and (v) cellular viability. CP caused dramatic elevations of AST, ALT, and MDA, while HQQD notably attenuated these elevations. SOD and GSH were notably increased, which were efficiently attenuated by HQQD. CP injection significantly increased apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase-3 expression, which was obviously inhibited by HQQD, accompanied by the improvement of cells viability. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Therefore, HQQD may protect liver tissue through attenuating oxidative stress and the caspase-3-dependent intrinsic apoptosis induced by CP, which suggests the potentially therapeutic effect of HQQD in the use of alkylating agent for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26101538

  5. Antioxidant and protective effects of Phytocee™ against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Radhakrishnan, Uma; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Phytocee™) in the rodent model. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 6) were pretreated with Vitamin C (20 mg/kg) or Phytocee™ (20, 100, and 200 mg/kg), respectively for 10 days. Oxidative stress in rat liver was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 2 ml/kg as a single dose orally to all groups except the vehicle control group. After 24 h of administration of CCl4, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. Results: Phytocee™ administered groups at all the dose levels significantly reduced the hepatic MDA, serum ALT and AST levels with a marked increase in hepatic SOD and catalase as compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Phytocee™ markedly reversed the effects of CCl4 induced oxidative stress and can be used as an antioxidant feed supplement. PMID:25810658

  6. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  7. Minimal change disease in a patient receiving IFN-alpha therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dizer, Ufuk; Beker, Can Murat; Yavuz, Izzet; Ortatatli, Mesut; Ozguven, Volka; Pahsa, Alaaddin

    2003-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several extrahepatic syndromes. The principal types of renal disorders associated with chronic HCV infection are cryoglobulinemia or noncryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) may precipitate or exacerbate the occurrence of MPGN. Our patient was a 32-year-old man who tested positive for HCV in July 1997. The patient was treated with IFN-alpha in another medical center for 6 months because his liver biopsy showed chronic active hepatitis. In December 1998, he applied to our clinic for a follow-up examination. The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 44 U/L, and that of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 69 U/L. HCV RNA was positive in serum, and chronic HCV infection was detected by liver biopsy. IFN-alpha therapy (5 million U/day) was administered for 6 months longer. In May 1999, the patient came to our polyclinic with edema of the feet and legs. We detected proteinuria, serum cholesterol of 269 mg/dl, AST of 50 U/L, ALT of 41 U/L, serum total protein of 3.4 g/dl, serum albumin of 1.2 g/dl, positive cryoglobulin, and urine protein of 9.84 g/day. Cryoglobulinemic MPGN was suspected and kidney biopsy was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). PMID:12639299

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves and its two triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Tang, Xinhui; Dou, Huan; Fan, Yimei; Zhao, Xiaoning; Xu, Qiang

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the chloroform extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver damage and D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatocyte injury. Moreover, the effects of ursolic acid and asiatic acid, two isolated components of TCCE, on mitochondria and free radicals were investigated to determine the mechanism underlying the action of TCCE on hepatotoxicity. In the acute hepatic damage test, remarkable rises in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (5.7- and 2.0-fold) induced by CCl(4) were reversed and significant morphological changes were lessened with pre-treatment with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) TCCE. In the hepatocyte injury experiment, the increases in ALT and AST levels (1.9- and 2.1-fold) in the medium of primary cultured hepatocytes induced by D-GalN were blocked by pre-treatment with 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 g L(-1) TCCE. In addition, Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling was dose-dependently inhibited by 50-500 microM ursolic acid and asiatic acid. Both ursolic acid and asiatic acid, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 microM, showed dose-dependent superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. It can be concluded that TCCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanism is related to protection of liver mitochondria and the scavenging action on free radicals. PMID:15525453

  9. [Effects of Hemerocallis citrine baroni flavonids on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis of rats].

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Huang, Xiao-dong; Li, Zhi-wei; Wang, Yan-chun; Qi, Ling; An, Ying; Liu, Ting-ting

    2015-05-01

    This study is designed to explore the possible effects of Hemerocallis citrina baroni flavonids (HCBF) on liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. The liver fibrosis model was induced by CCl4, and HCBF were administered by gastric perfusion at 25 and 50 mg x kg(-1) qd for 50 days, while the contents of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured and the contents of PINP were measured in liver tissue, and the expression of TGF-β1 were observed by immunohistochemisty and Western blot. The pathological changes of liver tissue were examined by HE. The results showed that HCBF (25, 50 mg x kg(-1)) improved the liver function significantly through reducing the level of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and increasing the content of SOD (P < 0.01), while reducing the content of MDA (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), the expression of TGF-β1 (P < 0.05) and the content of PINP (P < 0.05). The results suggest that HCBF (25, 50 mg x kg(-1)) may inhibit the liver injury induced by CCl4 by decreasing the oxidative stress. PMID:26234134

  10. Safety assessment of hydroethanolic rambutan rind extract: acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Thinkratok, Aree; Suwannaprapha, Parin; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) andalanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE. PMID:25345248

  11. Caffeine test in predicting flutamide-induced hepatic injury in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozono, S; Yamaguchi, A; Mochizuki, H; Kawakami, T; Fujimoto, K; Otani, T; Yoshida, K; Ichinei, M; Yamashita, T; Hirao, Y

    2002-01-01

    The caffeine test measures the activity of cytochrome p450 (CYP1A2) which is a major enzyme involved in the activation of flutamide. The usefulness of this test in predicting flutamide-induced hepatic injury in patients with prostate cancer was examined. The subjects were: (1). five patients whose aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level rose to 100 IU/l or higher following the start of flutamide (moderately injured group); (2). four patients whose AST and ALT levels were higher than normal but less than 100 IU/l (mildly injured group); and (3). two patients whose hepatic function remained normal (normal group). The subjects were each given canned coffee to drink. Urinary caffeine (137X), paraxanthine (17X) and 1, 7-dimethyluric acid (17U) levels were measured 4-5 h later. The metabolite ratio, (17U+17X)/137X, was calculated to serve as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The metabolite ratio for the moderately injured group (3.98+/-1.56) and the mildly injured group (5.55+/-1.42) were lower than that for the normal group (9.56). The results suggest that a decrease in CYP1A2 activity is involved in the onset of flutamide-induced hepatic injury, and that the caffeine test seems to provide a useful means of its prediction. PMID:12497002

  12. Health status of health care workers at Srinagarind Hospital: experience from the Annual Health Check-up Program.

    PubMed

    Krusun, Napaporn; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chaiear, Naesinee

    2005-11-01

    The authors conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of a health check-up program and the health status of health care workers at Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. The authors reviewed all yearly-check up charts of personnel who worked at Srinagarind Hospital from 2002 to 2003 including history taking, physical examination, and laboratory testings. There were 606 office workers and 1,024 nursing staff enrolled The mean ages of both groups were 38.9 and 36.5 years old, respectively. The office workers visited physicians significantly more often than the nursing staff (553 of 606 vs 271 of 1,024; p-value = 0.00). Obesity was found much more in office workers (127 of 472 versus 129 of 749). There were significant differences between the groups on impaired fasting plasma glucose, DM, HT, high cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, and significant elevation of ALT or AST (all p-value = 0.00). In the obese group, there was also a significantly higher number of cases who had high blood pressure, defined as IFG or DM, high cholesterol level, and high triglyceride level (p-value = 0.00) except the significant elevation of ALT or AST level. Cases of obesity with significant elevation of hepatic enzyme had many atherosclerotic risk factors. Therefore, metabolic derangements are the important problem for health care workers. PMID:16471110

  13. Determinants of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in normotensive young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo Gwang; Kang, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is simple, noninvasive method which correlates well with arterial stiffness. Herein, we assessed the determinants of baPWV in normotensive young adults with type 2 diabetes. We retrospectively enrolled 103 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients aged between 30 and 39 yr who measured baPWV with noninvasive pulse wave analyzer. The anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, pulse rate, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, fasting C-peptide, HbA1c, lipid profile, hs-CRP, albuminuria status, AST/ALT, γ-GTP were checked concurrently. Also, we investigated history of smoking, alcohol drinking and medications by questionnaire. We found that maximal baPWV was positively correlated with mean blood pressure (r = 0.404, P < 0.001), heart rate (r = 0.285, P = 0.004), AST (r = 0.409, P < 0.001), ALT (r = 0.329, P = 0.001), γ-GTP (r = 0.273, P = 0.006), Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (r = 0.321, P = 0.003). By multiple linear regression, mean blood pressure and heart rate were significantly associated with maximal baPWV in male and total group. In female group, mean blood pressure was the only variable associated with maximal baPWV. These factors can be surrogate markers of arterial stiffness in this population. PMID:23166418

  14. Normal liver enzymes are correlated with severity of metabolic syndrome in a large population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kälsch, Julia; Bechmann, Lars P.; Heider, Dominik; Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Kälsch, Hagen; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Key features of the metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and diabetes. The liver as central metabolic organ is not only affected by the metabolic syndrome as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but may contribute to insulin resistance and metabolic alterations. We aimed to identify potential associations between liver injury markers and diabetes in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf RECALL Study. Demographic and laboratory data were analyzed in participants (n = 4814, age 45 to 75y). ALT and AST values were significantly higher in males than in females. Mean BMI was 27.9 kg/m2 and type-2-diabetes (known and unkown) was present in 656 participants (13.7%). Adiponectin and vitamin D both correlated inversely with BMI. ALT, AST, and GGT correlated with BMI, CRP and HbA1c and inversely correlated with adiponectin levels. Logistic regression models using HbA1c and adiponectin or HbA1c and BMI were able to predict diabetes with high accuracy. Transaminase levels within normal ranges were closely associated with the BMI and diabetes risk. Transaminase levels and adiponectin were inversely associated. Re-assessment of current normal range limits should be considered, to provide a more exact indicator for chronic metabolic liver injury, in particular to reflect the situation in diabetic or obese individuals. PMID:26269425

  15. Protective effects of silymarin against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bektur, Nuriye Ezgi; Sahin, Erhan; Baycu, Cengiz; Unver, Gonul

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to estimate protective effects of silymarin on acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, paracetamol; APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice. Treatment of mice with overdose of APAP resulted in the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr) levels in serum, liver, and kidney nitric oxide (NO) levels and significant histological changes including decreased body weight, swelling of hepatocytes, cell infiltration, dilatation and congestion, necrosis and apoptosis in liver, and dilatation of Bowman's capsular space and glomerular capillaries, pale-stained tubules epithelium, cell infiltration, and apoptosis in kidney. Posttreatment with silymarin 1 h after APAP injectionfor 7 days, however, significantly normalized the body weight, histological damage, serum ALT, AST, BUN, SCr, and tissue NO levels. Our observation suggested that silymarin ameliorated the toxic effects of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice. The protective role of silymarin against APAP-induced damages might result from its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24193058

  16. Normal liver enzymes are correlated with severity of metabolic syndrome in a large population based cohort.

    PubMed

    Kälsch, Julia; Bechmann, Lars P; Heider, Dominik; Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Kälsch, Hagen; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Key features of the metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and diabetes. The liver as central metabolic organ is not only affected by the metabolic syndrome as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but may contribute to insulin resistance and metabolic alterations. We aimed to identify potential associations between liver injury markers and diabetes in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf RECALL Study. Demographic and laboratory data were analyzed in participants (n = 4814, age 45 to 75 y). ALT and AST values were significantly higher in males than in females. Mean BMI was 27.9 kg/m(2) and type-2-diabetes (known and unkown) was present in 656 participants (13.7%). Adiponectin and vitamin D both correlated inversely with BMI. ALT, AST, and GGT correlated with BMI, CRP and HbA1c and inversely correlated with adiponectin levels. Logistic regression models using HbA1c and adiponectin or HbA1c and BMI were able to predict diabetes with high accuracy. Transaminase levels within normal ranges were closely associated with the BMI and diabetes risk. Transaminase levels and adiponectin were inversely associated. Re-assessment of current normal range limits should be considered, to provide a more exact indicator for chronic metabolic liver injury, in particular to reflect the situation in diabetic or obese individuals. PMID:26269425

  17. Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sukkasem, Nadta; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Tatiya-aphiradee, Nitima; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) or PI (20, 200, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) consecutively for 14 days. Hepatic histomorphology was examined. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined. Results: Plumbagin and PI concentration-dependently induced hepatic injury based on histopathological changes via imbalance of antioxidative system. Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin. Conclusion: Plumbagin and PI caused hepatotoxic effects in the mice by unbalancing of the redox defense system. Therefore, plumbagin and PI-containing supplements should be used cautiously, especially when consumed in high quantities or for long periods. PMID:27104034

  18. Anti-fibrotic effects of neferine on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Si; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Wang, Jia-Ling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Xiao, Jun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The effects of neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinline alkaloid extracted from the seed embryo of the Chinese traditional medicine Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice were evaluated. Adult male Kunming mice were administered with CCl4 1 ml/kg via intraperitoneal injection twice a week for 8 weeks. At the beginning of the 9th week, mice were treated with normal saline, colchicine (0.1 mg/kg), and neferine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection once a day for 2 weeks. The liver index and histological examination, plasma ALT/AST levels, hydroxyproline and TGF-β1 content of liver tissue were examined. In the model group, the liver index, the hydroxyproline content of liver tissue and plasma ALT/AST levels were increased, and a high expression of TGF-β1 was observed. The abnormal changes could be improved by neferine in a dose-dependent manner. Our data showed that neferine had an antifibrosis effect on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice, possibly partly due to the decreased expression of TGF-β1 in the liver. PMID:25800905

  19. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required. PMID:23927622

  20. Biochemical profile of dogs experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E L; Pinto, M C L; Labarrère, C R; Paes, P R O; Paes-Leme, F O; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Melo, M M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the canine blood and urinary profiles after envenomation by Tityus serrulatus venom. Twelve dogs were randomly distributed into two equal groups. Control group animals received 0.5 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected subcutaneously into the internal portion of the left thigh, whilst dogs in the envenomed group were injected with scorpion venom (250 microg/kg in 0.5 mL PBS). No significant alterations were detected in the urine of envenomed dogs. Levels of plasma glucose and serum urea, creatinine, total protein, potassium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and amylase were determined. Semi-quantitative analysis of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was performed using an immunochromatographic test. The concentrations of cortisol and insulin were determined using commercial radioimmunoassay kits. Increases in serum cortisol levels in experimental group animals coincided with hyperglycaemia and was probably a response to pain. Increased insulin levels were observed during the hyperglycaemic peaks. Envenomed dogs presented discreet increases in ALT, AST and CK, but no alterations in LDH, amylase, cTnI, urea, creatinine and potassium levels were observed. It was concluded that the venom of T. serrulatus induces blood and urinary biochemical changes in dogs. PMID:20060404

  1. Effect of acepromazine on the signs of capture stress in captive and free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Montané, J; Marco, I; López-Olvera, J R; Rossi, L; Manteca, X; Lavín, S

    2007-05-26

    The differences between the capture stress responses of captive and free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and their modulation by acepromazine, during a period of three hours' physical restraint after capture in drive-nets, were examined in 16 free-ranging and 16 captive roe deer. Eight of the free-ranging and eight of the captive animals received acepromazine intramuscularly, and the other eight free-ranging and eight captive deer received the same volume of saline. Heart rate, body temperature and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were analysed. In the groups treated with acepromazine, the heart rate stabilised sooner, and the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin concentration, packed-cell volume, the serum activities of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the concentrations of creatinine and lactate were significantly lower, and serum glucose started to decrease earlier, than in the untreated groups. Serum potassium levels decreased over time only in the untreated groups. The body temperature stabilised earlier, and the RBC count, haemoglobin concentration, serum CK, AST, ALT and LDH activities, and serum creatinine, lactate, cholesterol and glucose concentrations were significantly lower in the free-ranging roe deer than in the captive deer. PMID:17526895

  2. Effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhong; Sun, Xuehui; Sang, Guifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (group A), chloral hydrate group (group B) and pentobarbital sodium group (group C). Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione s transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level as well as serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) were determined. Liver histopathological examinations were performed at termination. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were also evaluated. The SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT activities significantly decreased but TBARS levels increased in group B and C compared with group A. Hepatic injury was evidenced by a significant increase in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities in group B and C, which also confirmed by the histopathological alterations. Moreover, administration of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium could induce certain hepatic apoptosis accompanied by the upregulated Bax expression, the downregulated Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and the increase of caspase-3 activity. Repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia could produce hepatotoxicity. PMID:26379846

  3. Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Singh, Satyavir; Potliya, Sandeep; Kumar, Kailash; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep. Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar. Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48%) were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32%) and Moniezia spp. (5 case, 20%). In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocytic count (TEC). Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALKP) and bilirubin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin. PMID:27046991

  4. Case Report: Hexachloroethane Smoke Inhalation: A Rare Cause of Severe Hepatic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Ching-Hui; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chang, Jun-Hei; Chen, Hong-I

    2006-01-01

    Context We report on two patients, a 23-year-old man and a 24-year-old man, who had chemical pneumonitis and respiratory distress after inhaling hexachloroethane/zinc oxide (HC/ZnO) smoke during military training. Case Presentation The patients had been healthy previously and denied any history of alcohol or drug abuse. Hematologic tests revealed leukocytosis with neutrophils predominant. The respiratory conditions of both patients improved after steroid therapy and oxygen support, but deterioration of liver function was found. The laboratory results showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were elevated about 1.5-fold the normal limits and that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were marginally elevated. The elevation of liver aminotransferase started from day 1 and day 2 and peaked from day 18 to day 22. ALT/AST levels then returned to normal in 6 weeks. Common viral hepatitis was ruled out after serologic tests. Abdominal sonography and physical examination failed to show any specific findings. Discussion The hepatotoxic effect was attributed to inhalation of high-concentration HC/ZnO smoke in an enclosed area, where several hepatotoxicants, including ZnCl2, HC, and chlorinated vapors, could have been generated and mixed in the smoke. Relevance to clinical practice These case reports elaborate the hepatic effects that may occur in addition to pulmonary effects of HC/ZnO smoke. PMID:16675434

  5. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

  6. Inflammatory stress potentiates emodin-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Can; Gao, Dan; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Li, Na; Jia, Ge-Liu-Chang; Pang, Jing-Yao; Cui, He-Rong; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Xiao, Xiao-He; Wang, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines containing emodin, widely used for the treatment of hepatitis in clinic, have been reported with hepatotoxicity in individuals. A modest inflammatory stress potentiating liver injury has been linked to the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with emodin could synergize to cause liver injury in rats. Emodin (ranging from 20, 40, to 80 mg/kg), which is in the range of liver protection, was administered to rats, before LPS (2.8 mg/kg) or saline vehicle treatment. The biochemical tests showed that non-toxic dosage of LPS coupled with emodin caused significant increases of plasma ALT and AST activities as compared to emodin alone treated groups (P < 0.05). In addition, with LPS or emodin alone could not induce any changes in ALT and AST activity, as compared with the control group (0.5% CMC-Na treatment). Meanwhile, the plasma proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 increased significantly in the emodin/LPS groups compared to either emodin groups or the LPS (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that liver damage was only found in emodin/LPS cotreatmented rat livers samples. These results indicate that non-toxic dosage of LPS potentiates the hepatotoxicity of emodin. This discovery raises the possibility that emodin and herbal medicines containing it may induce liver injury in the inflammatory stress even in their therapeutic dosages. PMID:26557087

  7. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  8. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246 against Copper Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246, which has a relatively strong copper binding capacity and tolerance to copper ions, was obtained by screening from 16 lactic acid bacteria in vitro. The selected strain was then applied to a mouse model to evaluate its protective function against copper intoxication in vivo. The experimental mice were divided into an intervention group and a therapy group; mice in the intervention group received co-administration of CCFM8246 and a copper ion solution by gavage, while mice in the therapy group were treated with CCFM8246 after 4 weeks of copper exposure. In both two groups, mice treated with copper alone and that treated with neither CCFM8246 nor copper served as positive and negative controls, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, the copper content in feces and tissues, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, and oxidation stress indices in liver and kidney tissue were determined. Learning and memory ability was evaluated by Morris water maze experiments. The results indicated that treatment with CCFM8246 significantly increased the copper content in feces to promote copper excretion, reduce the accumulation of copper in tissues, reverse oxidative stress induced by copper exposure, recover the ALT and AST in serum and improve the spatial memory of mice. PMID:26605944

  9. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, M Saeed; Khosravian-Hemamai, Mozhdeh; Nematollahi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 μg/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  11. Natural Progression of Canine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yi, Haiqing; Austin, Stephanie L; Thurberg, Beth L; Young, Sarah P; Fyfe, John C; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa) is caused by a deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme activity. Hepatomegaly, muscle degeneration, and hypoglycemia occur in human patients at an early age. Long-term complications include liver cirrhosis, hepatic adenomas, and generalized myopathy. A naturally occurring canine model of GSD IIIa that mimics the human disease has been described, with progressive liver disease and skeletal muscle damage likely due to excess glycogen deposition. In the current study, long-term follow-up of previously described GSD IIIa dogs until 32 mo of age (n = 4) and of family-owned GSD IIIa dogs until 11 to 12 y of age (n = 2) revealed that elevated concentrations of liver and muscle enzyme (AST, ALT, ALP, and creatine phosphokinase) decreased over time, consistent with hepatic cirrhosis and muscle fibrosis. Glycogen deposition in many skeletal muscles; the tongue, diaphragm, and heart; and the phrenic and sciatic nerves occurred also. Furthermore, the urinary biomarker Glc4, which has been described in many types of GSD, was first elevated and then decreased later in life. This urinary biomarker demonstrated a similar trend as AST and ALT in GSD IIIa dogs, indicating that Glc4 might be a less invasive biomarker of hepatocellular disease. Finally, the current study further demonstrates that the canine GSD IIIa model adheres to the clinical course in human patients with this disorder and is an appropriate model for developing novel therapies. PMID:26884409

  12. Protective role of Phyllantus niruri extract in doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, A.H.M.; Shirodkar, Akshay; Koti, B.C.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar; Praveen, D.M.; Swamy, A.H.M. Viswanatha; Patil, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri (Aq.E.PN) against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced myocardial toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was produced by Dox administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Aq.E PN (200 mg/kg, orally) was administered as pretreatment for 2 weeks alternated with Dox for the next 2 weeks. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and alkaline phosphatase, diagnostic enzyme markers like aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were monitored after 3 weeks of the last dose. Results: Pretreatment with the Aq.E.PN significantly (P < 0.01) protected the myocardium from the toxic effects of Dox by reducing the elevated level of biomarker and diagnostic enzymes like LDH, CPK, AST and ALT to the normal levels. Aq.E PN increased the GSH, SOD and CAT levels and decreased the MDA levels in cardiac tissue. Administration of Dox caused cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficiency. Conclusion: These results suggest a cardioprotective effect of P. niruri due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:21455418

  13. Protective effects of fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Youssef, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of fish oil (FO), allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in experimental rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as a negative control. Group 2 served as hepatic IR control injury. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received N-acetylcysteine (standard), FO, allopurinol, and verapamil, respectively, for 3 consecutive days prior to ischemia. All animals were fasted for 12 h, anesthetized and underwent midline laparotomy. The portal triads were clamped by mini-artery clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and total nitrate/nitrite levels, in addition to histopathological examination. Results: Fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil reduced hepatic IR injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. FO and verapamil markedly reduced oxidative stress as compared to control IR injury. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers in liver were also reduced after treatment with FO, allopurinol, or verapamil. In accordance, a marked improvement of histopathological findings was observed with all of the three treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study prove the benefits of FO, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic IR-induced liver injury and are promising for further clinical trials. PMID:26283828

  14. Protective effects of Dunaliella salina--a carotenoids-rich alga, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Chen, Wen-Kang; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2008-10-01

    The protective effects of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) on liver damage were evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male ICR mice were orally treated with D. salina or silymairn daily with administration of CCl(4) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4) induced liver damage and significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and GSH content in liver whereas increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content as compared with control group. Treatment with D. salina or silymarin could significantly (p<0.05) decrease the ALT, AST, and ALP levels in serum and increase the activities of SOD, catalase, GSH-Px, glutathione reductase, and GSH content and decrease the MDA content in liver when compared with CCl(4)-treated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl(4). The results suggest that D. salina exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver damages in mice, and that the hepatoprotective effects of D. salina may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:18761048

  15. Serum soluble CD40 is associated with liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, HONG-HUI; BAI, BING-KE; WANG, YA-QING; ZHOU, GUANG-DE; HOU, JUN; HU, YAN; ZHAO, JING-MIN; LI, BAO-SEN; HUANG, HAI-LI; MAO, PAN-YONG

    2015-01-01

    Soluble cluster of differentiation 40 (sCD40) is proteolytically cleaved from membrane-bound CD40 and binds to CD154, thereby inhibiting CD40-CD154-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of sCD40 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The sCD40 levels in sera from 132 patients with CHB and 33 healthy individuals were retrospectively measured. sCD40 concentrations in patients with CHB were higher than those in healthy controls, and sCD40 levels correlated positively with serum levels of the liver dysfunction biomarkers alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). sCD40 concentrations increased with a rise in the severity of liver necroinflammation and fibrosis. Patients with >75% liver tissue staining positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen expression showed significantly lower sCD40 levels than those who stained negative for the HBV antigen. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of sCD40 was greater than that of ALT and AST; thus, sCD40 levels have a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting severe liver inflammation in patients with CHB, and could serve as an immunological marker of hepatic tissue injury. PMID:25667667

  16. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kowsalya, R.; Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Vaishnavi, M.; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced significant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses significant anticancer properties PMID:25992348

  17. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  18. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  19. Biochemical and histological responses of Rattus novergicus (Wistar) infected by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juberlan S; Hooper, Cleber S; Simões, Raquel O; Dos Santos, Marcos Antônio J; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-05-31

    Tests were performed to evaluate the biochemical alterations in Rattus norvegicus after infection by the intestinal trematode Echinostoma paraensei. The rodents received 150 metacercariae each, serum samples were collected and the parasite load was quantified weekly until the fifth week of infection. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, glucose, total proteins and fractions and hepatic glycogen were determined. All the animals exposed to the metacercariae were infected in the first week and worms were recovered up to the third week after infection. The levels of AST, ALT, GGT, bilirubin and globulin rose in the first and/or second week and declined thereafter to levels near those of the control group. In contrast, the level of total proteins in the plasma fell significantly in the first week while the ALKP activity went down only in the fourth and fifth weeks in relation to the control group. There was no significant difference in the levels of albumin, glycogen and glucose. Infection by E. paraensei in R. norvegicus causes changes in the hepatic function, possibly resulting from the cholestasis produced by the partial obstruction of the bile duct by the helminths. PMID:21255935

  20. Modification of nanocellulose by poly-lysine can inhibit the effect of fumonisin B1 on mouse liver cells.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Yasini Ardakani, Seyed Ali; Shahdadi, Hossein; Balal Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 is an important mycotoxin, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides. It has toxic effects on liver, brain, and kidney cells. The first aim of this study was to synthesize nanocellulose modified with poly-lysine (NMPL), and the second aim was to evaluate the adsorption of fumonisin B1 by NMPL. As third aim, the function of mouse liver cells was investigated after exposure to fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B1+ NMPL. In this study, NMPL was prepared using cross-linker, and then incubated with fumonisin B1 at controlled conditions. After incubation, the adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were evaluated in each condition. Next, mouse liver cells were separately exposed to fumonisin B1, NMPL, and (fumonisin B1+NMPL). Then, the level of aniline aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was evaluated. It was found that both adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were not affected by temperature and incubation time, but affected by pH and concentration of NMPL. Also, this study showed NMPL could adsorb fumonisin B1 in different foodstuffs. Importantly, although the levels of ALT and AST were increased when the cells were treated with fumonisin B1 alone, they were not affected when exposed to NMPL or (fumonisin B1+NMPL). The authors suggest that NMPL is a good adsorbent to remove and inhibit fumonisin B1. PMID:25601749

  1. Sublethal toxicity of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and permethrin on selected biochemical constituents and enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of Anabas testudineus.

    PubMed

    Sapana Devi, Maisnam; Gupta, Abhik

    2014-10-01

    The freshwater fish Anabas testudineus was exposed for 21 days to two commercial formulations of synthetic pyrethroids deltamethrin and permethrin at sublethal concentrations of 0.007 and 0.0007 mg L(-1), and 0.093 and 0.0093 mg L(-1), that represented 10% and 1%, respectively, of the 96 h LC50 of these two pesticides for this fish. The glycogen, protein and lactic acid contents, along with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of control and pesticide-exposed fish were estimated. When compared with those of control fish, significant depletion of glycogen content was observed in liver, and that of protein in muscle tissue of fish treated with both the pesticides at their higher as well as lower concentrations. Lactic acid reduction was significant only in fish muscle treated with deltamethrin. SDH level was reduced significantly in both liver and muscle tissues except in fish exposed to 0.0093 mg L(-1) permethrin. AST level was reduced significantly in liver and muscle tissues and ALT in muscle tissue of deltamethrin treated fish only. It is concluded that deltamethrin, a type-II pyrethroid, is more toxic to fish than the type-I pyrethroid permethrin and is capable of rendering toxicity at a dose as low as 1% of its LC50 value. PMID:25307465

  2. Acute Exposure of Apigenin Induces Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhat; Mishra, Shrawan Kumar; Noel, Sanjeev; Sharma, Sharad; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Apigenin, a dietary flavonoid, is reported to have several therapeutic effects in different diseases including cancer. Toxicity of Apigenin is however, least explored, and reports are scanty in literature. This warrants dose-specific evaluation of toxicity in vivo. In the present study, Apigenin was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss mice at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Serum levels of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured along with the examination of liver histology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, glutathione S-transferase activity and gene expression in liver tissue. Increase in ALT, AST, ALP, ROS, ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) and LPO, altered enzyme activities along with damaged histoarchitecture in the liver of 100 or 200 mg/kg Apigenin treated animals were found. Microarray analysis revealed the differential expression of genes that correspond to different biologically relevant pathways including oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggested the oxidative stress induced liver damage which may be due to the regulation of multiple genes by Apigenin at higher doses in Swiss mice. PMID:22359648

  3. [The catalase inhibitor aminotriazole alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing; Ge, Pu; Dai, Jie; Liang, Tian-Cai; Yang, Qing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the effects of catalase (CAT) inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury were investigated to explore the potential roles of CAT in alcoholic liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and various doses of ATZ (100-400 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 30 min before alcohol exposure. After 24 h of alcohol exposure, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were determined. The degree of hepatic histopathological abnormality was observed by HE staining. The activity of hepatic CAT, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue were measured by corresponding kits. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that treatment with ATZ dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of ALT, AST and LDH levels induced by alcohol exposure, and that ATZ alleviated alcohol-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, ATZ inhibited the activity of CAT, reduced hepatic levels of H₂O₂and MDA in alcohol exposed rats. ATZ also decreased the levels of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 in rats with alcohol exposure. These results indicated that ATZ attenuated alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats, suggesting that CAT might play important pathological roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25672632

  4. Association of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 with adipocyte number, insulin resistance and liver function markers

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Tanushree; Alvarenga, Juan Carlos Lopez; Tejero, M. Elizabeth; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Proffitt, J. Michael; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.; Cole, Shelley A.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine known to induce adipocyte dedifferentiation and insulin resistance. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Fasting plasma from 43 baboons were assayed for MCP-1, insulin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Adipocyte number and volume were measured via biopsies of omental adipose tissue. The homeostatic model assessment method (HOMA) was used to estimate systemic insulin resistance. Results Sex and age adjusted correlations were significant for MCP-1 with adipocyte number (r = −0.42; P = 0.01), adipocyte volume (r = 0.38; P = 0.02), HOMA (r = 0.45; P = 0.004), ALT (r = 0.46; P = 0.03) and AST (r = 0.45; P = 0.03). Conclusions These results suggest that MCP-1 is related with adipocyte dedifferentiation and systemic insulin resistance, thereby potentially contributing to the development of NAFLD. PMID:19702660

  5. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md Rakibul; Chowdhury, J M Kamirul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  6. High risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in autoimmune disease patients showing no immediate increase in hepatic enzyme under steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shunichiro; Nagoya, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Tateda, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to determine the relationship between liver function and the incidence of ONF after steroid therapy in AID patients. The present study investigated 58 AID patients who had received high-dose systemic steroid therapy to determine whether a correlation exists between parameters of hepatic function and steroid-induced ONF at the precise time-point when steroid-induced ONF develops. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of MRI findings: ONF (n = 31) and non-ONF (n = 27). The ONF group showed no increase in AST, ALT, or LDH within 4 weeks after the commencement of steroid therapy. By contrast, the non-ONF group showed an immediate and significant increase in all of these parameters. In the ONF group, hepatic steatosis and elevated triglyceride levels were also observed. Following 4 weeks of steroid therapy, there were no significant differences in biochemical data between two groups. Patients showing no immediate increase in ALT and AST in response to steroid therapy were at high risk of ONF. These findings provide important insights into the pathogenesis of steroid-induced ONF and may facilitate the development of prevention strategies in patients with AID. PMID:22215042

  7. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, Olawale R; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Marnewick, Jeanine L

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  8. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  9. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite. PMID:25346195

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Grespan, Renata; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Giubilei, Frederico Nunes; Fuso, Rafael Rocco; Damião, Marcio José; Silva, Expedito Leite; Mikcha, Jane Graton; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Bersani Amado, Ciomar; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose is a significant clinical problem and could benefit from new therapeutic strategies. Objective. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO), which is used popularly for various beneficial effects, such as its antiseptic, carminative, and antimicrobial effects. The hepatoprotective activity of TEO was determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in mice. Their livers were then used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity and subjected to histological analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•)-scavenging effects of TEO and TEO-induced lipid peroxidation. TEO reduced the levels of the serum marker enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP and MPO activity. The histopathological analysis indicated that TEO prevented acetaminophen-induced necrosis. The essential oil also exhibited antioxidant activity, reflected by its DPPH radical-scavenging effects and in the lipid peroxidation assay. These results suggest that TEO has hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. PMID:24639884

  11. Serum Enzyme Profiles Differentiate Five Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuling; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Yiming; Li, Yaqin; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Wang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background. Differentiation among types of muscular dystrophy (MD) has remained challenging. In this retrospective study, we sought to develop a methodology for differentiation of MD types using analysis of serum enzyme profiles. Methods. The serum levels of enzymes from 232 patients, including 120 with DMD, 36 with BMD, 36 with FSHD, 46 with LGMD, and 11 with EDMD, were evaluated. Results. The characteristic profiles of serum enzymes facilitated differentiation of these five types of MD. DMD was characterized by simultaneous elevation of ALT, AST, LDH, and ALP; BMD and LGMD were characterized by elevation of ALT, AST, and LDH; and FSHD and EDMD were characterized by a lack of abnormal serum enzyme levels. We further developed discriminant functions to distinguish BMD and LGMD. For LGMD, LGMD2B patients had significantly higher ALP levels than non-LGMD2B patients (98 ± 59 U/L versus 45 ± 9 U/L, resp., p < 0.05). Conclusions. Our approach enabled the determination of MD subtypes using serum enzyme profiles prior to genetic testing, which will increase the chance a mutation will be found in the first gene analyzed. PMID:26063958

  12. The Effect of rhCygb on CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrogenesis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Wei, Wei; Chen, Bohong; Cai, Gaotai; Li, Xin; Wang, Ping; Tang, Jinping; Dong, Wenqi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the use of recombinant human cytoglobin (rhCygb) impact on hepatic fibrogenesis caused by CCl4. SD (n = 150) rats were randomly divided into three groups of normal, CCl4 model and rhCygb groups. After model establishment, rats in rhCygb groups were administered daily with rhCygb (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Histological lesions were staged according to metavir. Serum parameters including ALT, AST, HA, LN, Col III and Col IV were determined. The liver proteins were separated by 2-DE and identified. As a result, the stage of hepatic damage and liver fibrosis in rhCygb groups were significantly milder than that in CCl4 model groups. Meanwhile, rhCygb dramatically reversed serum levels of ALT and AST, and also markedly decreased the liver fibrosis markers levels of LN, HA, Col III and Col IV. In 2-DE, 33 proteins among three groups with the same changing tendency in normal and rhCygb treated groups compared with CCl4 model group were identified. GO analysis showed that several identified proteins involved in oxidative stress pathway. The study provides new insights and data for administration of rhCygb reversing CCl4-induced liver fibrosis suggesting that rhCygb might be used in the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27006085

  13. Effect of curcumin supplementation on physiological fatigue and physical performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Tang, Deh-Wei; Lee, Zon-Min; Wei, Li; Chen, Fu-An; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (CCM) is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 μg/mL) by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK). CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue. PMID:25647661

  14. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  15. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of capsaicin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Memy H; Edfawy, Mohamed; Mansour, Ahmed; Hamed, Abdel-Aziz

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective utility of capsaicin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury and to explore the possible mechanisms whereby this agent mediated its beneficial effects. We randomized 40 rats into four groups for treatment with corn oil, CCl₄, capsaicin and both CCl₄ and capsaicin, respectively, for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and used for determination of aspartylaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin, while the liver tissues were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin examination; evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and active caspase-3 contents; and evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Animals treated with CCl₄ exhibited significant elevation in AST, ALT, total bilirubin and caspase-3 and exhibited significant decrease in activities of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH contents. The combination (both capsaicin and CCl₄) group has preserved the liver histology, liver enzymes and bilirubin close to normal, exhibited significant induction in the activities of CAT, SOD and GST, increased the liver content of GSH and active caspase-3 and conversely showed significant decrease in liver MDA content compared to CCl₄ challenged rats. Capsaicin confers an appealing hepatoprotective effect which might be explained partially via diminishing the generation of MDA, induction of antioxidant systems and inhibition of active caspase-3. PMID:21859771

  16. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  17. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pósa, Anikó; Kupai, Krisztina; Szalai, Zita; Veszelka, Médea; Török, Szilvia; Varga, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX) or sham operation (SO). OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running) and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL), high triglyceride diet (HT), or restricted diet (CR). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet. PMID:25874022

  18. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana; Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-12-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol-elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  19. Comparison of the chronic effects of ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Motor, Sedat; Alp, Harun; Şenol, Serkan; Pınar, Neslihan; Motor, Vicdan Köksaldı; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alp, Ayşe; Gökçe, Cumali

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to comparison of the effects of the chronic use of the Ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were given orally 30 mg/kg/day doses of Ribavirin for 30 days, and intraperitoneally 10 μmol/kg doses of CAPE. The 37 rats were divided into 4 groups: (I) Control (n=7), (II) Ribavirin (R) (n=10), (III) CAPE (n=10), and (IV) R+CAPE (n=10). Results: Ribavirin and CAPE yielded similar results in terms of Serum, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), amylase, lipase, and insulin compared to the control group. However, while Ribavirin provided similar results with the control group in terms of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, the CAPE group had elevated AST and ALT levels compared to the control group. Histopathologic evaluations revealed that CAPE or Ribavirin had no degenerative effects on both the pancreas and liver tissues. In this way, the biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathologic results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Ribavirin does not lead to any pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity, and has more beneficial effects than CAPE on especially liver tissue. PMID:24955174

  20. Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Musab Awad; Eldin, Imad Mohamed Taj; Mohammed, Abd-Elwahab Hassan; Hassan, Hozeifa Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural products with therapeutic properties such as plants, minerals, and animal products, for many years, were the main sources of drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases; hence selection of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) to study its hepatoprotective activity was considered. Objectives: This was an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of L. inermis leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The L. inermis leaves’ methanolic extract, which obtained by maceration, was orally administered in doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg to the tested animals to assess its effects on serum levels of hepatotoxicity parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and total proteins along with histopathological liver sections examination, while silymarin (25 mg/kg), a potent hepatoprotective drug, was used as standard control. Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect, as evident by the significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin along with the improvement in histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-only treated animals. Conclusion: As experimentally evident, it could be concluded that this plant material could provide a hepatoprotective effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:27069719

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon TetrachlorideInduced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  2. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks. PMID:20170700

  3. Liver Damage in Patients with HCV/HIV Coinfection Is Linked to HIV-Related Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiangbo; Liang, Hua; Fan, Xueying; Zhu, Liyan; Shen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection aggravates the progression of liver damage in HCV-coinfected patients, with the underlying pathogenesis being multifactorial. Although high level of oxidative stress has been observed frequently in patients infected with HIV or HCV, the status of oxidative stress in HIV/HCV coinfection and its contribution to HCV liver damage have not been determined. This study involved 363 HBsAg-negative, anti-HCV-positive former blood donors recruited from a village in central China in July 2005; of these, 140 were positive for HIV. Of these 363 subjects, 282 were successfully followed up through July 2009. HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects had higher rates of end-stage liver disease-related death than those monoinfected with HCV. Liver ultrasound manifestations were poor in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative individuals, in both chronic HCV carriers and those with resolved HCV. Serum concentrations of total glutathione (tGSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), GSSG, and reduced GSH were higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative subjects. GSSG concentrations were higher in HIV-infected subjects with abnormal ALT/AST levels than in those with normal ALT/AST levels and were associated with poorer liver ultrasound manifestations. These finding indicated that HIV infection accelerated HCV-associated liver damage in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Increased oxidative stress, induced primarily by HIV coinfection, may contribute to aggravated liver damage. PMID:26881041

  4. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  5. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  6. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Licorice Extract against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Hai Zhong; Wang, Bing; Liang, Yong Kang; Bao, Yong Yang; Gu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Licorice has been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Licorice has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antiinfection. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of licorice aqueous extract (LE) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in a rat model. Hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the increased activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and decreased levels of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and globulin (G) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl4 at 3 mL/kg b.w. (1:1 in groundnut oil). Licorice extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST, ALP and ALT activities and the decreased TP, Alb and G levels caused by CCl4 intoxication. It also enhanced liver super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione (GSH) level, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Licorice extract still markedly reverses the increased liver hydroxyproline and serum TNF-α levels induced by CCl4 intoxication. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of licorice extract against liver oxidative injury. PMID:22072903

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

  8. The Effect of Symbiotic Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, C-reactive Protein and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Atefe; Askari, Gholamreza; Esmailzade, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Mohammadi, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Methods: Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P < 0.005) but symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Conclusions: Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression. PMID:27076897

  9. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  10. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  11. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of aqueous extract from Scutia buxifolia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Robson Borba; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Piana, Mariana; da Silva Jesus, Roberta; Veloso, Carolina Fantinel; Kober, Helena; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increase in the number of people taking herbals worldwide. Scutia buxifolia is used for the treatment of hypertension, but little is known about its action on liver. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control and groups treated during 30 days with 100, 200 and 400 mg of lyophilized aqueous extract of S. buxifolia (SBSB)/kg of body weight. This study was planned to explore hepatotoxic effect of SBSB, which was assessed by serum transaminases (ALT and AST). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined in liver, along with thiols content (NPSH), catalase (CAT) activity and, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Histopathological studies of liver tissue were performed. Flavonoids and phenolics were quantified in SBSB by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). We did not observe alterations on redox status (TBARS, NPSH, CAT and, SOD) in the control and experimental groups. An increase on AST activity was only observed at 200 mg of SBSB, whereas ALT score was not affected by SBSB. Moreover, no morphological alterations were observed on the hepatocytes, matching the analysed biochemical parameters. This way, we conclude that SBSB was not toxic. PMID:23812249

  12. Hepatoprotective Potential of Prosopis farcta Beans Extracts against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wister Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Akram; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash; Torbati, Mohammad Bagher Montazar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. Prosopis farcta beans extract (PFE) has some antioxidant property and may alleviate hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PFE against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats weighing 220 ± 30 g were distributed into six groups. Two groups were pretreated with PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) for 7 days before administration of acetaminophen (600 mg/kg). Two were given acetaminophen or PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) alone, and the control received normal saline. One day after acetaminophen, administration blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver function enzymes markers; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high, low, and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL). Results: In acetaminophen-treated rat plasma AST (314 ± 18.54 vs. 126.37 ± 4.13), ALT (304 ± 49.24 vs. 187.33 ± 3.71), cholesterol, TG, LDL, and VLDL were increased by 149, 160, 37, 92, 60, and 94%, respectively. PFE at both doses significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the above biochemical indices to near normal. Conclusions: Prosopis farcta beans extract (50 and 75 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against APAP. PMID:25400887

  13. Alterations in the serum biomarkers belonging to different metabolic systems of fish (Oreochromis niloticus) after Cd and Pb exposures.

    PubMed

    Atli, Glzar; Ariyurek, Sedefgul Yuzbasioglu; Kanak, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    The serum of vertebrates including human gives sufficient data about the current health status of organism in concern. Biomarkers have gained importance in evaluation of data from biological monitoring studies. In this study, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were individually exposed Cd or Pb using acute (10?M, 2 d) and chronic (20?M, 20 d) exposure protocols to investigate the alterations in serum parameters (ALP, ALT, AST, LDH, lipase, glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride) and response of the endocrine system functioning in different axis, namely HPI (cortisol), HPT (TSH, T3, T4), gonadal (LH, FSH) and prolactin. Data showed that except LH, the levels of all hormones decreased significantly following exposure to Cd and Pb both in acute and chronic exposures. In acute exposures, the activity of ALP and levels of cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly following both Cd and Pb exposures, while glucose levels increased only after Cd exposure. In chronic exposures, both metal exposures caused significant decreases in ALP activity and levels of cholesterol and triglyceride, though there were increases in glucose level after Cd exposure and AST, ALT and LDH levels after Pb exposure. Data emphasized the importance of biomarker selection and multiparameter usage of relevant systems in ecotoxicological research to achieve proper evaluation of environmental data. PMID:26310509