Science.gov

Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and other biomedical products. Several studies report on ZnO nanoparticle mediated cytotoxicity. However, there are no reports on the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (1–5 mg/ml) on C2C12 cell viability at 48 and 72 h. ZnO nanoparticles increased ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme mRNA expression and their activities in C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased these enzyme activities and its mRNA expression in C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26586993

  2. Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-González, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Norma G; Martínez, Ubaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-??8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-??30.2). AST/ALT ratio <1 also increased linearly, as did the prevalence of MetS (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group to 40.3% for the obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-??65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-??31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio <1. WC was the best predictor of elevated ALT (AOR = 7.13). Pearson correlation showed that MetS components were significantly correlated with elevated ALT. Therefore elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and strongly associated with MetS in Mexican children, it should be screened in overweight and obese children. PMID:24548580

  3. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aminotransferase Related tests: AST ; ALP ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Albumin ; Total Protein All content on Lab Tests ... aminotransferase (AST) or as part of a liver panel to screen for and/or help diagnose liver ...

  4. AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aminotransferase Related tests: ALT ; ALP ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Albumin , Total Protein All content on Lab Tests ... aminotransferase (ALT) , or as part of a liver panel to screen for and/or help diagnose liver ...

  5. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  6. Comparison of Histologic Characteristics of Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistently Normal or Mildly Elevated ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Xue, Li; Yan, Rong; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Mei-Juan; Hai-Jun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease can develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) who seldom undergo liver biopsy. We aimed to determine histologic characteristics of a large cohort of Chinese CHB patients undergoing liver biopsy and to evaluate the utility of ALT and HBV DNA values at the time of biopsy in predicting liver disease in this population. This prospective study enrolled 230 treatment-naïve patients with persistently normal or mildly elevated ALT. All patients had a liver biopsy. ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and HBV DNA levels were some of the other parameters measured. Using Scheuer's classification, significant histology was defined as stage ?2 fibrosis and/or stage 1 fibrosis plus? grade 2 inflammation. Liver disease was observed in 34.4% and 61.8% of patients with normal ALT and mildly elevated ALT, respectively. Patients with mildly elevated ALT levels had significantly more events, including liver disease, elevated AST, and moderate to severe inflammation and liver fibrosis, than patients with normal ALT (all P?0.005). A total of 107 patients (46.5%) had liver disease and 123 (53.5%) did not. PLT and ALT were significantly associated with liver disease (both P<0.001). Patients with elevated ALT, lower platelet count and HBV DNA < 7 log10copies/mL may have histologically significant changes associated with liver disease. Multivariate analysis showed that PLT and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with normal ALT while gender and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with mildly elevated ALT. Assessing liver damage via biopsy in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT may help to identify those who would benefit from antiviral therapy. PMID:24260428

  7. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  8. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  9. AST inspection methods and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.C.; Acosta, N.J.; Lim, R.

    1995-12-31

    Changes in the regulatory climate regarding Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs) and the costs of properly operating and maintaining these structures across the country are resulting in an ever-increasing need for more refined inspection techniques to detect leaks in tanks. The growing maze of new rules and regulations being imposed on tank owners and operators makes the early detection of leaks in storage tanks a desirable goal in order to minimize the results of any unwanted release of stored product to the environment. The costs of removing tanks from service and making repairs to fix problems or to avoid future problems also makes detection of possible leak paths for storage tanks a desirable goal. Much attention is currently being brought by many different parties to the issue of advancing methods of leak detection for storage tanks. A review of the current state of AST inspection methods and equipment may prove informative.

  10. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  11. Secondary containment options for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, W.E.; Heintz, J.V. )

    1994-01-01

    Widespread publicity generated by several large overfill incidents and tank ruptures questioned the integrity of above ground petroleum storage tanks (ASTs). In response, several states have enacted requirements for the installation of adequate secondary containment at most above ground fuel tank locations. The federal government is also considering regulations for above ground fuel storage tanks. Secondary containment usually consists of a combination of dikes, liners, ponds, impoundments, curbs, ditches, sumps, receiving tanks, or other equipment capable of containing the products stored. Secondary containment facilities may contain single or multiple storage tanks. A secondary containment system should be constructed so that spills do not escape to ground or surface waters before cleanup occurs. Construction of diking and storage capacity of the diked area should be in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recommendations. Factors to consider when designing secondary containment systems include capacity, liner type, and spill cleanup.

  12. Modeling of asteroid spectra - M4AST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Birlan, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The interpretation of asteroid spectra provides the basis for determining the chemical composition and physical process that modified the surface of the asteroids. The increasing number of asteroid spectral measurements has lead to well-developed methods for analyzing asteroid spectra. There is however no centralized database for all the published data and a set of standard routines is also required. Aims: We present a public software tool that combines both data archives and analyses of asteroid spectra. Methods: Our project M4AST (Modeling for asteroids) consists of an asteroid spectral database and a set of applications for analyzing asteroid spectra. These applications cover aspects related to taxonomy, curve matching with laboratory spectra, space weathering models, and mineralogical diagnosis. Results: M4AST project is fully available via a web interface. The database contains around 2700 spectra that can be either processed in M4AST and/or downloaded. The paper presents the algorithms we developed for spectral analyses based on existing methods. The robustness of routines is proven by the solutions found for spectra of three different asteroids: (9147) Kourakuen, (99 942) Apophis, and (175 706) 1996 FG3. The available results confirm those in the literature. M4AST applications can also be used to characterize any new asteroid spectra. Conclusions: M4AST is a robust and reliable tool dedicated to asteroid spectra. M4AST is available via the web interface: http://cardamine.imcce.fr/m4ast/

  13. Here are guidelines for inspecting AST internals

    SciTech Connect

    Caruthers, S.

    1996-07-08

    Despite its wide use, API Standard 653: Tank Inspection, Alteration, and Reconstruction is only a guide for internal inspection of aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) in petroleum products service. No US federal government regulations cover internal inspection of petroleum product tanks. API-653 is the current industry standard for AST inspection, evaluation, repair, reconstruction, and testing. The paper discusses bottom cleaning, inspection, contracting, inspection requirements, magnetic flux exclusion of tank bottoms, and inspection evaluation.

  14. Nondestructive inspection requirements aboveground storage tanks (ASTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlock, C.N.

    1995-12-31

    Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) are designed, built and nondestructively inspected to a variety of Standards and Codes. This discussion deals only with the nondestructive inspection requirements for the more common Standards and Codes generated in the United States for these type structures. The problems of how to communicate to the NDT technician the required inspection or testing information within these Standard or Code documents for both new ASTs and repaired, reconstructed or altered ASTs are discussed. In the presentation of this paper, NDT applications, acceptance criteria and personnel requirements for welds or components for radiography, ultrasonic alternatives to radiography, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, visual and leak testing for the mentioned Standards and Codes will be reviewed.

  15. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  16. Case Study: Alt's Problem Andrew Sommese

    E-print Network

    Buechler, Steven

    1991 Case Study: Alt's Problem Andrew Sommese University of Notre Dame Joint work with Alexander up to 2005: Andrew Sommese and Charles Wampler, Numerical solution of systems of polynomials arising)-b()y^-b^(^y^)-(b)y-b^( jjjjjjjj =+++ 0^^ jjjj =++ jj ^,andy^,x^,b^,a^y,x,b,,a #12;1991 13 #12;1991 14 Freudenstein and Roth system

  17. John Fagan, 107634405 AST 389 Walter

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    John Fagan, 107634405 5/1/12 Paper 3 AST 389 ­ Walter Ouhkx Join the United States Imperial Forces entered World War III, and the threat of nuclear annihilation was everywhere. After years of constant, the USE took to the stars; in 2037, the first colony on the Moon, renamed Luna, was created. Thanks #12;to

  18. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  19. Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC. `Carry-on accelerating'; March 2012 Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC;

    E-print Network

    Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC. `Carry-on accelerating'; March 2012 Weird Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC; University of Liverpool. that I have known #12;Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC. `Weird Magnets that I have known' PABC, STFC. `Weird Magnets that I have known' PAB, April 2013 Tuning up! The NINA Programmed Quadrupoles

  20. Bridging the UST/AST gap

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Choosing between underground and aboveground storage tank options can be a daunting--and risky--enterprise. Although USTs are conveniently out of sight, they cannot remain out of mind, and must be monitored continuously for possible unseen leaks or structural damage. ASTs provide easy access for monitoring and maintenance, but this benefit makes them open targets for vandalism, accidents and long-term effects of exposure to the elements. CON/SPAN{reg_sign} Bridge Systems, Dayton, Ohio, in association with the Dayton-based engineering firm LJB Inc., developed a unique solution to the AST/UST dilemma by adapting the company`s modular-concrete bridge construction technology to storage tank installation.

  1. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  2. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  3. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  4. AST 250 Spring 2010 HOMEWORK #3

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    with this telescope? (3) How much more light gathering power does the proposed James Webb Space Telescope have than the current Hubble Space Telescope? (4) A CCD camera in the focal plane of Keck (10m f/1.75) has 2048 x 2048-steerable telescope in the world. It is located in Green Bank, WV ( = +38o 30'). Since it is an Alt-Az mount

  5. Several notes on the OH&ast; layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygalashvyly, M.

    2015-07-01

    This brief note introduces several analytical approaches to OH&ast; layer parameters. The number density and height of the OH&ast; layer peak are determined by the distributions of atomic oxygen and temperature, and by corresponding vertical gradients. The theory can be applied to satellite-borne and ground-based airglow measurements, as well as to model results.

  6. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries BINARY STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ! Degenerate state of matter. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries CLASSIFICATION OF DOUBLE STARS BinariesIntrAst2 (Petrovay) Binaries BINARY STARS Importance: ­ A high fraction (2/3?) of stars are members stars - high energy phenomena: X-ray and gamma sources - exotic objects (cataclismic variables, X

  7. The Antarctic Survey Telescopes AST3 and the AST3-NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Wang, Lifan; Gu, Bozhong; Du, Fujia; Li, Zhengyang; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haiping; Wen, Haikun; Gong, Xuefei; Shang, Zhaohui; Ashley, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Antarctic Survey Telescopes consists of three different filtered telescopes with 680mm primary mirror and 8 square degree field of view, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is anticipated to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the recent years site testing works jointly by CCAA and UNSW. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically runned for two months from March 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the AST3-1, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et. al were done for the second one. After the Mohe winterization test, the AST3-2 was deployed on Dome A successfully in Jan. 2015 and now the telescope is ready for remote observations. The blind tracking accuracy is about 0.2arcsecond. For the third one, a fold mirror was added to guide the focal plane outside the main optical tube which makes the CCD onsite assembly and maintenance easier and better tube seeing. By changing different correctors and detector, the third telescope can also work in near infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging in K band. The staylight analysis and thermal emission analysis will be given in this paper. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  8. Figure 4: Asymmetries A'LT for normal torus polarity Figure 5: Asymmetries A'LT for reversed torus polarity

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    (Figure 1). CEBAF produces 6 GeV electron beams at velociHes close to the speedResults Figure 4: Asymmetries A'LT for normal torus polarity Figure 5: Asymmetries A'LT for reversed torus polarity Normal Torus Polarity Reversed Torus Polarity

  9. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section...862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. (a) Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section...862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. (a) Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section...862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. (a) Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section...862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. (a) Identification. An aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device...

  13. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  14. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Spectra STELLAR SPECTRA

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    , Fleming): Classes A, B, ... etc. by decreasing importance of Balmer lines. 1901: Annie J. Cannon arranges: infrared domain #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Spectra The Balmer series: H: Balmer jump At shorter values

  15. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets THE GIANT PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    and colour varies. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets THE ICE GIANTS Uranus MU MJ/22 16 M a = 19.2 AU P = 84 yr Neptune MN MJ/18 19 M a = 30 AU P = 165 yr #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets Uranus C2H2, CH4; in troposphere H2, H2O, NH3, PH3. Cloud cover of Uranus is uniform. On Neptune, belts

  16. The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50°. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  17. AFLP MARKERS TIGHTLY LINKED TO THE ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE ALT3 IN RYE (SECALE CEREALE L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is considered to be the most aluminum (Al) tolerant species among the Triticeae. It has been suggested that aluminum tolerance in rye is controlled by three major genes (Alt genes) located on rye chromosome arms 6RS (Alt1), 3RL (Alt2), and 4RL (Alt3). Screening of an F6 rye...

  18. A catch 22 -- Leak testing of ASTs with double bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlock, C.N.

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, public concern for the environment has been a high priority item. This was strongly reinforced on January 2, 1988 by the collapse of an aboveground storage tank (AST) that had been cut down, reconstructed in a new location and recently filled. The scope of this paper is limited to ASTs. To comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and many state, county and city agency regulations, some AST owners have made design and leak testing requirement changes in their AST construction specifications. This paper will compare the leak location methods that have been used or are being used. This paper will also compare the quantitative (also called volumetric) leak testing (LT) methods and double bottom designs being specified for ASTs and recommend a preference. Finally, this paper will discuss the catch 22 which exists when the results of a double bottom quantitative leak test do not meet the specified allowable pressure rise, pressure loss or mass inflow rate after the successful completion of all required preliminary leak tests. In such situations the contractor is confronted with the very costly dilemma of determining whether the problem is real leakage, and if so where; or whether the problem is due to the inherent deviation of the data caused by widespread ambient temperature fluctuations or inconsistent diurnal temperature cycles.

  19. Orbiter 'Enterprise' turns and banks during second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' makes a turn and bank maneuver during the second free flight of the Shuttle Apporach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. The 'Enterprise' separated form the NASA 747 carrier aircraft and after a five-minute, 28-second unpowered flight landed on a runway below. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the 'Enterprise.' The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  20. Effects of an AST program on US titanium story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The singular importance of titanium as the primary structural material for an efficient advanced supersonic transport (AST) is outlined. The advantages of titanium over other metals are shown to apply to future subsonic aircraft as well as for supersonic designs. The cost problem of titanium is addressed and shown to be markedly reduced by the emerging technologies of superplastic forming/diffusion bonding sandwich, hot isostatic pressing of titanium powders, and isothermal forgings if demonstration programs should validate preliminary findings. The impact of a U.S. AST program on the United States titanium supply and demand picture is postulated.

  1. The Toroidal Pump Limiter ALT-II in TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, K.H.; Reiter, D.; Denner, T.

    2005-02-15

    The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT) project is the focus of a fruitful and intense International Energy Agreement collaboration on TEXTOR. The pump limiter is a mechanical boundary that is laid out for taking the full heat load of TEXTOR, namely 8 MW (assuming 2 MW radiated power) for 10 s, and provides a pumping efficiency of at least 5% of the working gas. This layout is adopted from the requirements of a fusion reactor: It is mandatory to remove both the full power that is convected to the limiter or divertor and the helium ash that is generated in the fusion process. In order to obtain pumping for all gases, the ALT-II is equipped with turbomolecular pumps. A short description of ALT-II is given, and the power and particle fluxes to the limiter surface and into the exhaust scoops are discussed. Requirements of the helium removal rate for a reactor and relevant measurements are discussed, and particle removal and the power distribution to the limiters are treated. Related topics of the ALT-II program were hydrogen recycling and the measurement of turbulence-induced anomalous particle transport in the plasma edge.

  2. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS Definitions: (a) Stars displaying brightness variations (in the optical domain) All stars are variables (a matter of sensitivity only). (b) Stars) A variable star is what is listed in GCVS or VSX GCVS: General Catalogue of Variable Stars; http

  3. AST 364: Solar System(s) Fall 2014 -Course # 48600

    E-print Network

    Jefferys, William

    ­ 1 ­ AST 364: Solar System(s) Fall 2014 - Course # 48600 MWF 11­12 RLM 15.216B Professor: Dr. Adam 4-5 Course Logistics Text: There is no textbook. I will assigning readings, both pop on top of the topical course material. Course Description & Philosophy The course title is "Solar System

  4. Berufliches Curriculum Vitae PD Dr. phil. Andreas Walter Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Andreas

    .aste@unibas.ch 1976-1980 Primarschule in Basel. 1980-1988 Besuch des Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gymnasium Vikariate am Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gymnasium in Basel. 1992-1993 Diplomarbeit bei Prof. Dr-Alsace. Teilpensum als Physiklehrer am Gymnasium am M¨unsterplatz in Basel. Okt. 2010 ­ Hauptamlicher Dozent f

  5. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme aspartate amino transferase (AST) (also known as a serum glutamic oxaloacetic transferase or...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme aspartate amino transferase (AST) (also known as a serum glutamic oxaloacetic transferase or...

  7. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...previously Utah State University); AST, Inc. (previously Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services, and Erickson Air-Crane...Previously Utah State University); AST, Inc. (Previously Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services, and Erickson...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme alanine amino transferase (ALT) (also known as a serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or SGPT)...

  9. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS Kepler's first law I. Planets move (ramutatval egyez): retrograde #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler's second law II -- this is the expression of angular momentum conservation! #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler

  10. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN The Sun is a hot release. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution This can cover solar radiation for 10 billion (1010 distribution. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution Good agreement (

  11. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) The distribution of stars THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst2 (Petrovay) The distribution of stars THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS Distance example: Cepheid parallax #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) The distribution of stars TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX Closer object, long base line greater displacement. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) The distribution of stars Diurnal

  12. The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric

    E-print Network

    Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM interacts with TRF2 in ALT cells and promotes telomeric DNA telomeres by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway(s), which may involve homologous recombination. We find that endogenous BLM protein co-localizes with telomeric foci in ALT human cells

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. (a) Identification. An alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme alanine amino transferase (ALT) (also known as a serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or SGPT)...

  14. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  15. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  16. A non-intrusive AST assessment program using acoustic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Ternowchek, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The need to optimize an AST owner/operator`s return on maintenance dollars while continuing to meet growing regulatory requirements has required the development of new and/or improved non-intrusive inspection techniques. Because of the high cost involved with opening and internally inspecting an AST, better ways of determining which tanks are in need of maintenance or repair, prior to opening, are required. A means of determining which tanks may have active corrosion, or those that may have developed leaks or may have cracks growing which could lead to catastrophic failure, can provide the owner/operator with an early warning to a potentially serious problem. This early warning would then be used as a guide in prioritizing internal inspections hence directing the maintenance dollars toward the tanks most in need of it. Acoustic Emission testing has been used successfully for years in the process industry to detect and locate structurally significant problems prior to catastrophic failure. It has been successfully applied as a non-intrusive leak detection method for ASTs for the past five years. Corrosion detection has been possible in the process industry equipment and it is now finding its way into AST applications. This paper describes how Acoustic Emission technology can be applied as a non-intrusive screening technique to detect: active corrosion on tank bottoms, leakage from tank bottoms and cracking in tank shells, the knuckle area and a portion of the tank bottom. It describes its advantages when compared to other non-invasive techniques and shows the economic benefits of using Acoustic Emission testing.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system

    SciTech Connect

    Tverjanovich, A.; Rodionov, K.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-06-15

    For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.4 and 0.4{<=}x{<=}0.6). Fractional concentrations of Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds in the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses calculated using experimental Raman data. The solid lines represent predictions of the dissociation model assuming that the main chemically ordered structural units are related to AsTe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The partial bond fractions were derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An empirical quantitative approach to the Raman data was proposed for the reaction modeling.

  18. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  19. AST/RO Surveys of the Southern Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tothill, N. F. H.; AST/RO Team

    2004-12-01

    We have taken advantage of the excellent atmospheric conditions prevalent on the Antarctic plateau to complete two large millimeter- and submillimeter-wave surveys of the southern galactic plane: Firstly, a survey of the galactic center region, and secondly, a series of cuts through the plane which give us an unbiased view of CO 4--3 and atomic carbon submillimeter emission. We are currently undertaking surveys of the Chamaeleon and Lupus molecular clouds in support of the `Cores to Disks' Legacy Program of the Spitzer Space Telescope. With its proven ability to map large areas at both millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and its southern location, AST/RO is uniquely placed to contribute to the Legacy Program's goal of understanding star formation in these nearby clouds, by characterising the physical conditions of the molecular gas. We also comment on the current status and prospects of AST/RO, together with TREND and SPIFI, two instruments designed to exploit the 1.4 THz atmospheric window at the South Pole. AST/RO is supported by the NSF Office of Polar Programs.

  20. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  1. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  2. The $K^{\\ast 0}\\Lambda$ photoproduction off a neutron

    E-print Network

    Wan, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the preliminary experimental data by the CLAS Collaboration, the $K^{\\ast 0}\\Lambda$ photoproduction off a neutron is studied within an effective Lagrangian approach. The contributions from the Born terms including $s$, $u$, and $t$ channels are considered to calculate the amplitude, with which the cross sections are calculated and compared with preliminary CLAS data. The theoretical results indicate that the contribution from the $K$-exchange $t$ channel plays a dominant role for the $K^{\\ast 0}\\Lambda$ photoproduction. The contribution from the $\\kappa$ exchange is found one order of magnitude smaller than that from $K$ exchange. Both the Regge model and the Feynman model are applied to treat the $t$-channel contribution. The discrepancy between two models is found small in the energy range of CLAS data and predicted to become obvious at energies higher than 3 GeV. More precise experimental data especially at backward angles will be helpful to further understand the interaction mechanism of the ...

  3. An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

    2008-05-01

    A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

  4. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  7. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  8. Universitat Bonn Wolfgang Alt, Martin Rost Abteilung Theoretische Biologie Sommersemester 2003

    E-print Network

    Universit¨at Bonn Wolfgang Alt, Martin Rost Abteilung Theoretische Biologie Sommersemester 2003 Mathematik in der Biologie II Rechnerpraktikum Projekt 3: Exponentialverteilung Aufgabe 3.1 (Verteilung der

  9. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES Planetary The Solar System has 8 planets : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System "Small Solar System Bodies" (SSSB) (IAU 2006

  10. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczy?ska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; St?pie?, ?ukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  11. AST-120 for the management of progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Gerald; Vanholder, Raymond; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by promoting glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis with loss of nephrons and vascular damage. AST-120, an orally administered intestinal sorbent, adsorbs indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, thereby reducing serum and urinary concentrations of indoxyl sulfate. AST-120 has been available in Japan since 1991, and subsequently Korea (2005), and the Philippines (2010) as an agent to prolong the time to initiation of hemodialysis and for improvement of uremic symptoms in patients with CKD. A Medline search was performed to identify data supporting clinical experience with AST-120 for managing CKD. Prospective open-label and double-blind trials as well as retrospective analyses were included. In prospective trials and retrospective analyses, AST-120 has been shown to prolong the time to initiation of hemodialysis, and slow decline in glomerular filtration rate and the increase serum creatinine. In an initial randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the United States, AST-120 was associated with a significant dose-dependent reduction in serum indoxyl sulfate levels and a decrease in uremia-related malaise. The Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC) trials, two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials undertaken in North America/Latin America and Europe, are evaluating the efficacy of AST-120 for preventing the progression of CKD. The results of the EPPIC trials will further define the role of AST-120 in this debilitating condition. PMID:24501542

  12. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor ?Su/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFN? production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(1); 49-60. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26511282

  13. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  14. Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness and Education

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness from 22 of these educators about their experiences using Control-Alt-Hack with over 450 students to thinking about security and that facilitates ad hoc, social interactions led us to design Control-Alt-Hack

  15. Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games In Education and Research

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games, produced, distributed, and evaluated Con- trol-Alt-HackTM: a recreational tabletop card game in- tended we released Control-Alt-Hack: White Hat Hacking for Fun and ProfitTM--a recreation- al tabletop card

  16. AST `94 (aboveground storage tanks). Held in Dallas, Texas on September 27-29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clonts, M.

    1994-12-31

    The document provides the papers given at the AST `94 conference. The conference is a forum for technology innovation, pollution prevention, and facilities management information related to aboveground storage tanks.

  17. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability...Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, cooperating...

  18. astro-ph/960907910Sep96 IASSNS-AST-96/47

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wayne

    astro-ph/960907910Sep96 IASSNS-AST-96/47 THE DAMPING TAIL OF CMB ANISOTROPIES Wayne Hu Institute, hereafter HSa, HSb, HSc and Hu & White 1996b). A particularly fruitful way to visualize the CMB spectrum

  19. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

  20. Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Samir; Kaul, Zeenia; Gocha, April Sandy; Martinez, Alaina R.; Harris, Julia; Parvin, Jeffrey D.; Groden, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM. PMID:25084169

  1. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  2. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  3. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  4. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  5. ALT1-encoded alanine aminotransferase plays a central role in the metabolism of alanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    García-Campusano, Florencia; Anaya, Víctor-Hugo; Robledo-Arratia, Luis; Quezada, Héctor; Hernández, Hugo; Riego, Lina; González, Alicia

    2009-04-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the paralogous genes ALT1 and ALT2 have been proposed to encode alanine aminotransferase isozymes. Although in other microorganisms this enzyme constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis, its role in S. cerevisiae had remained unclear. Results presented in this paper show that under respiratory conditions, Alt1p constitutes the sole pathway for alanine biosynthesis and catabolism, constituting the first example of an alanine aminotransferase that simultaneously carries out both functions. Conversely, under fermentative conditions, it plays a catabolic role and alanine is mainly synthesized through an alternative pathway. It can thus be concluded that ALT1 has functions in alanine biosynthesis and utilization or only alanine utilization under respiratory and fermentative conditions, respectively. ALT2 expression was repressed under all tested conditions, suggesting that Alt2p biosynthesis is strictly controlled and only allowed to express under peculiar physiological conditions. PMID:19396236

  6. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

  7. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p? p ? ? h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p? p ? ? h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p? p ? h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  8. Guidelines for the design and safe installation of tank integrity systems under existing ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The technology has been developed to safely and accurately install perforated piping horizontally under existing in-service aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Piping that is properly networked under a tank is useful for multiple functions including: evaluation of tank bottom-to-soil potentials at various undertank locations; soil side tank bottom corrosion control with the placement of anodes undertank; rapid detection of product leaks and releases; and control and/or remediation of released product. All functions can be employed simultaneously or as needed in the future. They provide an affordable solution to high AST maintenance and operating costs. The design of a multipurpose undertank piping network requires the consideration of numerous factors and objectives. A safe and reliable procedure to install the piping networks in close proximity to a tank bottom is essential. There are important guidelines and criteria that need to be achieved for any technology used to place piping under an AST.

  9. Variable stars observed with the AST3-1 telescope from dome A of antarctica

    E-print Network

    Li, Gang; Liu, Xuanming

    2015-01-01

    Dome A in the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best astronomical observing sites on Earth. The first one of three Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1), a 50/68 cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable telescope of China operating in Antarctica and the biggest telescope located in Antarctic inland. AST3-1 obtained huge amounts of data in 2012 and we processed the time-series parts. Here we present light curves of 29 variable stars identified from ten-day observations in 2012 with AST3-1, including 22 newly discovered variable stars. 23 of them are eclipsing binaries and the others are pulsating stars. We present the properties of the 29 variable stars, including the classifications, periods and magnitude ranges in i band. For the 17 eclipsing binaries, the phased light curves are presented with the orbital period values well determined.

  10. Prodrug AST-003 Improves the Therapeutic Index of the Multi-Targeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang; Zhou, Changhua; Chen, Xiao; Dong, Bing; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yawei; Li, Anrong; Yao, Meicun; Miao, Ji; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Patients have responded well to the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Sunitinib in the clinic. But the severe toxic side effects associated with Sunitinib limit its therapeutic index. To improve the therapeutic index of Sunitinib, a prodrug strategy was employed to modify Sunitinib. The inactive prodrug AST-003 can be converted to Sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. Compared with Sunitinib, AST-003 has unique biochemical, cellular and pharmacokinetic properties with improved tolerability in mice and yield higher efficacy in tumor xenograft models. This prodrug strategy may constitute a novel paradigm to improve the therapeutic index of Sunitinib and other TKI or anti-angiogenesis drugs in general. PMID:26513662

  11. EE 241.3 (3L-3P alt. week) Introduction to Electric Power Systems

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EE 241.3 (3L-3P alt. week) Introduction to Electric Power Systems Department of Electrical Content: 1. Introduction to Electric Power Systems (4h) Electric energy, its impact on society, electric energy sources, renewable energy resources, electric power system structure. 2. A.C. Power Circuits (8h

  12. Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt

    E-print Network

    manager, we discuss the requirements for a context-aware advertising platform, including a context-advertisingUsers' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt and often highly visible surfaces that can be used as advertising space. Until now, advertising

  13. EE 202.3 (3L-3P alt weeks) Electric and Magnetic Fields and Circuits

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EE 202.3 (3L-3P alt weeks) Electric and Magnetic Fields and Circuits Department of Electrical and magnetic fields and circuits beyond the level of the prerequisite courses. Fundamental topics include. Circuit topics include Thevenin's theorem and source conversion, maximum power transfer theorem

  14. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. CME 433.3 (3L-3P alt. weeks) Digital Systems Architecture

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    CME 433.3 (3L-3P alt. weeks) Digital Systems Architecture Department of Electrical and Computer Architecture, 5th Ed.: A Quantitative Approach Behrooz Parhami, Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors Engineering Fall 2014-15 Description: Components and architecture complement each other in the design

  17. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year.

  19. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 9:00 AM Bhavin Joshi (AST 113) Angel Garcia (GLG 104)

    E-print Network

    :30 AM Bhavin Joshi (AST 113) Angel Garcia (GLG 104) 10:00 AM 10:30 AM Emilie Dunham (GLG 103) Joey) Emilie Dunham (GLG 103 Nari Miller (GLG 103) Joey Romero (GLG 103) Jake Hanson (AST 113) Kate Leary (GLG

  20. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, TX. The Grasshopper...vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city limits...Draft EA on the FAA/AST Web site at http://www.faa.gov...Chapter 8 of the Draft EA). A paper copy of the Draft EA may...

  1. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System LUNAR MOTION

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System ECLIPSES Moon completely in umbra: total lunar in umbra: total solar eclipse Observer in penumbra: partial solar eclipse Observer beyond end of umbra (Moon near apogee): annular solar eclipse #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar

  2. TREND a low noise terahertz receiver user instrument for AST/RO at the South Pole

    E-print Network

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid

    telescope at the South Pole Station [1]. Presently, the 1.7 meter diameter AST/RO submillimeter wave; c Submillimeter Wave Technology Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Lowell, Research in the laboratory, we are building a Terahertz REceiver with NbN HEB Device (TREND) to be installed on the 1.7 meter

  3. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Small Solar System bodies SSSB nomenclature (IAU 1994) (Notation: # serial no.)

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    : Eris (2326 km), Pluto (2322 km) #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Small Solar System bodies Pluto and Charon: Charon, 1270 km ("binary dwarf planet") Eris D 2400 km a = 67 AU e = 0.46 i = 17.2 Perihelion: q = 36 AU

  4. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  6. UCT Finance Policies & Procedures ast001_asstreg Page 1 of 4

    E-print Network

    Tadross, Mark

    to keep a record of its fixed assets (movable and immovable). This record, the asset register, is used date AST001 - UCT Asset Register 1 October 2005 Objective To identify the assets that must be included in the UCT asset register and clarify the related processes and responsibilities. Scope Includes all movable

  7. pLAsmA AstRophysics Acceleration of killer electrons

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    pLAsmA AstRophysics Acceleration of killer electrons Richard Bertram horne is at the British electrons are accelerated from energies of the order of a few keV to several MeV has long been a puzzle fluctuations in the outer belt, and are accelerated by betatron and Fermi processes1,2 . And the second

  8. How AstHmA-Friendly is your scHool?

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    How AstHmA-Friendly is your scHool? NatioNal Heart, luNg aNd Blood iNstitute National asthma education and Prevention Program NaePP school asthma education subcommittee students who have asthma need proper support at school to keep their asthma under control and be fully active. use this checklist

  9. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-07-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  11. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0–5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5–5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  12. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K.; Lue, Neal F.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and “trapped” the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  13. Effects of reconstitution of telomerase activity on telomere maintenance by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway.

    PubMed

    Grobelny, J V; Kulp-McEliece, M; Broccoli, D

    2001-09-01

    Telomere length maintenance is essential for cellular immortalization, and thus tumorigenesis. Most human tumors and immortal cell lines maintain their telomeric DNA via the activity of a specialized reverse transcriptase, telomerase. Stabilization of telomeric repeat tracts may also be achieved through a telomerase-independent mechanism, referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). ALT cells are telomerase negative and are characterized by extremely long and heterogeneously sized telomeres and novel multiprotein structures called ALT-associated PML nuclear bodies which are unique to ALT cells. To determine if reconstitution of telomerase activity suppressed ALT and restored wild-type telomere lengths, we introduced the catalytic subunit of telomerase into two ALT cell lines. Initially, two clonal lines exhibited enrichment of shorter telomeres while maintaining a population of ultra-long telomeres similar to that observed in the parental line, suggesting that telomerase is stabilizing the shorter telomeres in the population. Telomere length in the third clonal line was not detectably different from that in the parental cell line. One clonal line with a phenotype of shorter telomeres maintained this pattern over time in culture while the second gradually reverted to the parental ALT telomere length pattern, concurrent with reduction of telomerase activity. All clones continued to maintain ALT-associated PML nuclear bodies regardless of whether telomerase was present. The data suggest that introduction of telomerase activity alone is not sufficient to completely repress ALT, that telomerase acts preferentially on the shortest telomeres in the culture and that the ALT and telomerase pathways may be present concurrently in mammalian cells. PMID:11555632

  14. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  15. The Uremic Toxin Adsorbent AST-120 Abrogates Cardiorenal Injury Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lekawanvijit, Suree; Kumfu, Sirinart; Wang, Bing H.; Manabe, Minako; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Kelly, Darren J.; Krum, Henry; Kompa, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated progressive decline in renal function is a frequent accompaniment of myocardial infarction (MI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin that accumulates from the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is contributory to both renal and cardiac fibrosis. IS levels can be reduced by administration of the oral adsorbent AST-120, which has been shown to ameliorate pathological renal and cardiac fibrosis in moderate to severe CKD. However, the cardiorenal effect of AST-120 on less severe renal dysfunction in the post-MI setting has not previously been well studied. MI-induced Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either AST-120 (MI+AST-120) or were untreated (MI+Vehicle) for 16 weeks. Serum IS levels were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Echocardiography and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed prior to sacrifice. Renal and cardiac tissues were assessed for pathological changes using histological and immunohistochemical methods, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Compared with sham, MI+Vehicle animals had a significant reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (by 42%, p<0.001) and fractional shortening (by 52%, p<0.001) as well as lower GFR (p<0.05) and increased serum IS levels (p<0.05). A significant increase in interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex was demonstrated in MI+Vehicle animals (p<0.001). Compared with MI+Vehicle, MI+AST-120 animals had increased GFR (by 13.35%, p<0.05) and reduced serum IS (p<0.001), renal interstitial fibrosis (p<0.05), and renal KIM-1, collagen-IV and TIMP-1 expression (p<0.05). Cardiac function did not change with AST-120 treatment, however gene expression of TGF-?1 and TNF-? as well as collagen-I and TIMP-1 protein expression was decreased in the non-infarcted myocardium (p<0.05). In conclusion, reduction of IS attenuates cardio-renal fibrotic processes in the post-MI kidney. KIM-1 appears to be a sensitive renal injury biomarker in this setting and is correlated with serum IS levels. PMID:24349545

  16. Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2014-07-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

  17. RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M.; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, ‘Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres’ (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA–DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA–DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

  18. t healthier l into HeAltHy eAting

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    t healthier l put youR into HeAltHy eAting Heart disease is the #1 killer of American women. Risk personal risk of developing heart disease. A healthy diet can help lower or control these risk factors. So put your heart into healthy eating. Here are 5 ways to do that. p l A n t o e At H e A R t H e A lt H

  19. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore »capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  20. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  1. European landscape in astrobiology, results of the AstRoMap consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Walter, Nicolas; Gomez, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field of research, which encompasses scientists ranging from cosmology, astronomy, planetary sciences, physics, chemistry, geology, paleontology to biology. In order to map the existing astrobiological expertise in Europe a comprehensive community consultation has been performed within the AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping) project that is supported by the European Commission FP7 framework. From this information a data base of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see:

  2. Quantum-field theories as representations of a single $^\\ast$-algebra

    E-print Network

    Andreas Raab

    2013-10-19

    We show that many well-known quantum field theories emerge as representations of a single $^\\ast$-algebra. These include free quantum field theories in flat and curved space-times, lattice quantum field theories, Wightman quantum field theories, and string theories. We prove that such theories can be approximated on lattices, and we give a rigorous definition of the continuum limit of lattice quantum field theories.

  3. $D_{s0}^{\\ast\\pm}(2317)$ and $KD$ scattering from $B^0_s$ decay

    E-print Network

    Miguel Albaladejo; Marina Nielsen; Eulogio Oset

    2015-01-22

    We study the $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D_s^-(DK)^+$ weak decay, and look at the $DK$ invariant mass distribution with the aim of obtaining relevant information on the nature of the $D_{s0}^{\\ast+}(2317)$ resonance. We make a simulation of the experiment using the actual mass of the $D_{s0}^{\\ast+}(2317)$ resonance and recent lattice QCD relevant parameters of the $KD$ scattering amplitude. We then solve the inverse problem of obtaining the $KD$ amplitude from these synthetic data, to which we have added a 5\\% or 10\\% error. We prove that one can obtain from these "data" the existence of a bound $KD$ state, the $KD$ scattering length and effective range, and most importantly, the $KD$ probability in the wave function of the bound state obtained, which was found to be largely dominant from the lattice QCD results. This means that one can obtain information on the nature of the $D_{s0}^{\\ast+}(2317)$ resonance from the implementation of this experiment, in the line of finding the structure of resonances, which is one of the main aims in hadron spectroscopy.

  4. Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

  5. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09?mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  6. ELEFUNT test results under AST Fortran V1. 8. 0 on the Sequent Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses testing of the floating-point arithmetic and of the elementary function libraries under AST Fortran on a 24-processor Sequent Symmetry computer. The programs MACHAR and PARANOIA were used to check the quality of arithmetic, and the ELEFUNT suite of programs from the book Software Manual for the Elementary Functions by Cody and Waite was used to check function performance. Two complete sets of tests were run, one for each type of floating-point processor, Intel 80387 and Weitek 1167, on the machine. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Detection of Carbapenemases in Clinical Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the VITEK AST-N202 Card

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Jang, In-Ho; Lee, Woonhyoung; Kim, Keonhan; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in clinical microbiology laboratories is essential for the treatment and control of infections caused by these microorganisms. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the VITEK AST-N202 card to detect CPE isolates. Materials and Methods A total of 43 (Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 37; Escherichia coli, n = 3; and Enterobacter cloacae, n = 3) CPE isolates and 79 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CNE) isolates were included in this study. The CPE isolates harbored KPC-2 (n = 11), KPC-3 (n = 20), GES-5 (n = 5), VIM-2 (n = 2), IMP-1 (n = 1), NDM-1 (n = 2), or OXA-232 (n = 2). Of the 79 CNE isolates, eight K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem, while the remaining 71 isolates were susceptible to the carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the VITEK AST-N202 card, and the results were interpreted as positive when the isolates showed resistant or intermediate results. Modified-Hodge tests (MHTs) were performed using ertapenem or meropenem disks for the screening of carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to identify ?-lactamase genes. Results Sensitivity of MHT with ertapenem and meropenem disks for the detection of carbapenemase was 81.4% (35/43) and 81.4% (35/43), respectively, and a combination with both antibiotic disks increased the sensitivity to 88.4% (38/43). Specificity of the MHT was 100% (79/79) for the CNE isolates. Sensitivity of ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem as assessed by the VITEK AST-N202 card was 100% (43/43), 93% (40/43), and 95.3% (41/43), respectively. Specificity (89.8%, 71/79) of the test with each carbapenem was improved to 100% (71/71) when eight carbapenem-resistant CNE isolates were excluded from the testing. Conclusion The VITEK AST-N202 card showed high sensitivity for the detection of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae strains. PCR and sequencing experiments for the detection of carbapenemases are recommended when clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates show non-susceptibility to carbapenems. PMID:26483990

  8. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  9. The role of AST-120 and protein-bound uremic toxins in irritable bowel syndrome: a therapeutic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mosi?ska, Paula; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    AST-120 (kremezin) exhibits its favourable effects in reducing the levels of renal toxins by selective adsorption of low molecular weight substances from the intestinal lumen. So far, a vast majority of studies were focused on the role of AST-120 in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases and cardiovascular disorders, and positive therapeutic effects of the agent have already been confirmed in clinical conditions. Up to the present, there are only a few studies regarding the role of AST-120 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Compelling data suggest the ability of the compound to adsorb protein-bound uremic toxins and mast cell derived mediators and to modulate the farnesoid X receptor, which is a bile acid sensor indispensable for maintaining homeostasis in the intestine. In this review we focus on the actions of AST-120 on intestinal permeability, reduction of visceral sensitivity and alteration of gut motility. We also discuss whether AST-120 can mitigate common IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating and malfunction of the colonic transit and thus improve the quality of life of patients with IBS. PMID:26327918

  10. Electroproduction of the $N^\\ast(1535)$ nucleon resonance in QCD

    E-print Network

    I. V. Anikin; V. M. Braun; N. Offen

    2015-05-26

    Following the 12 GeV upgrade, a dedicated experiment is planned with the Hall B CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab, with the aim to study electroproduction of nucleon resonances at high photon virtualities up to $Q^2 = 12$ GeV$^2$. In this work we present a QCD-based approach to the theoretical interpretation of these upcoming results in the framework of light-cone sum rules that combine perturbative calculations with dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of $N^\\ast(1535)$ light-front wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes. The distribution amplitudes can therefore be determined from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations. The results of the corresponding next-to-leading order calculation are presented and compared with the existing data. We find that the form factors are dominated by the twist-four distribution amplitudes that are related to the $P$-wave three-quark wave functions of the $N^\\ast(1535)$, i.e. to contributions of orbital angular momentum.

  11. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  12. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  13. Progress report on pump limiter developments for the TEXTOR tokamak: ALT-I

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Finken, F.H.; Gauster, W.B.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    A collaborative program is underway to field a comprehensive pump limiter experimental program on TEXTOR: Advanced Limiter Test-I (ALT-I). Either of two interchangeable limiter modules may be attached to an insertion/rotation mechanism to direct particles to the about1 m/sup 3/ pumping chamber. Pumping is provided primarily by a solid getter assembly at about20,000 1/sec. Variation of geometric dimensions and gas puffing in the modules will allow the study of plasma and neutral interaction in differing recycle regimes. Multiple diagnostic systems are incorporated into the pump limiter design for use in conjunction with TEXTOR plasma diagnostics. Initial experiments are scheduled for December 1983.

  14. Next challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS data processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    NEODyS and AstDyS are systems that provide asteroid dynamical data through dedicated web services. In particular, NEODyS is devoted to the Near Earth Objects orbital data computations and impact monitoring activities on a hourly basis, while AstDyS computes orbits and dynamical information (such as the asteroid family membership) of all numbered and multi-opposition asteroids on a monthly basis. Both systems are operational for more than 15 years.During the last years the major NEO surveys such as CSS, Pan-STARRS and so on and so forth increased the rate of discovery of new NEOs passing the threshold of 1000 discoveries/year. In particular, in 2014 there was a relative increase of about 42% wtrt 2013, mostly thanks to the full availability of the Pan-STARRS telescope for the NEO survey.In this framework is important to notice that the NEO population characterization is near to be complete for objects brighter that 18th, while the big majority of new discoveries are smaller and smaller objects.The major consequence is that we should expect a higher and higher number of discoveries of the so-called possible imminent impactors, that is small objects (from the Tunguska class and less) which are going to impact the Earth within the next days or hours.It is foreseen that in the next decade new dedicated surveys such as the American ATLAS and the European Fly-Eye telescopes will scan the sky just with the purpose of detecting such possible imminent impactors. The amount of data from the already operative surveys and the new ones will increase dramatically, while the time for processing such amount of data must be necessary shorten than in the past. Moreover, this huge quantity of astrometric data will increase also the knowledge of the dynamics of all known asteroids of the Solar System.In this panel we discuss the next decades new challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS systems and for the NEO system as a whole. The major players of the NEO system will be the observers (surveys), the data centers (MPC, NEODyS-NEOCC, JPL,...), the amateurs (follow-up) and the decision makers.

  15. Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. )

    1991-03-11

    Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

  16. High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)

    E-print Network

    High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly November 1999; accepted 5 November 1999 Abstract High-energy mechanical milling has been performed on poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) at cryogenic conditions only. Milling conducted at ambient temperature has a substantially

  17. Perspectives on English Education in the Japanese Public School System: The Views of Foreign Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaki, Yuki

    2008-01-01

    Public school students in Japan must take English as a required subject for three years in junior high school and for three more years in senior high school. In spite of the amount of classroom time invested, and in spite of the available learning support services, the foreign Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) system included, the English…

  18. IntroAst1 (Petrovay) Our Place in the Universe SHAPE, SIZE AND ROTATION OF THE EARTH

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntroAst1 (Petrovay) Our Place in the Universe SHAPE, SIZE AND ROTATION OF THE EARTH Shape of the Earth Sky rotates world axis. Its angle depends on place Earth's surface is curved. Double distance - double change The Earth is spherical.. Further evidence: ­ Sail of a boat is seen first on the horizon

  19. From one cell to the whole froth: A dynamical map T. Aste,* D. Boose, and N. Rivier

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    From one cell to the whole froth: A dynamical map T. Aste,* D. Boose´, and N. Rivier Laboratoire de-structured-inflatable froths, which can be constructed by a recursion procedure adding successive layers of cells around a germ cell. We prove that any froth can be reduced into a system of concentric shells. There is only

  20. The Vaccum Science Group at the Science and Technology Facilities Council's (STFC) Accelerator Science and Technology Centre (ASTeC)

    E-print Network

    The Vaccum Science Group at the Science and Technology Facilities Council's (STFC) Accelerator and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) keeps the UK at the forefront of international science and tackles some Science and Technology Centre (ASTeC) has assisted vacuum component provider SS Scientific in gaining

  1. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  2. Continuous Reduction of Protein-Bound Uraemic Toxins with Improved Oxidative Stress by Using the Oral Charcoal Adsorbent AST-120 in Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Kazama, Junichiro J; Omori, Kentaro; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Kazuko; Matsuto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs) is one of the reasons for the development of uraemia-related complications including cardiovascular disease; however, conventional haemodialysis is limited in its ability to remove PBUTs. We aimed to examine whether the oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 has an additive effect on PBUT removal in haemodialysis patients. During the 4-week study, anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis received AST-120 (6?g/day) in the last 2 weeks (n?=?10) or the first 2 weeks (n?=?10). Serum levels of total and free PBUTs such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate at the pre- and postdialysis sessions were measured before and after AST-120 use and after discontinuation. Levels of the oxidative stress markers oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane were also measured. AST-120 use induced dramatic reduction of indoxyl sulfate (total, 45.7% [33.2-50.5%]; free, 70.4% [44.8-79.8%]), p-cresyl sulfate (total, 31.1% [25.0-48.0%]; free, 63.5% [49.3-70.9%]), and phenyl sulfate (free, 50.6% [32.3-71.2%]) levels; however, this effect disappeared after the discontinuation of AST-120. AST-120 use also induced substantial reduction of the oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane levels. In conclusion, oral administration of AST-120 had additive effects on the continuous reduction of some PBUTs in anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis. PMID:26395517

  3. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

  4. Simple synthesis of P(Cbz-alt-TBT) and PCDTBT by combining direct arylation with suzuki polycondensation of heteroaryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Lombeck, Florian; Matsidik, Rukiya; Komber, Hartmut; Sommer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Direct arylation (DA) of 2-chlorothiophene and 2-chloro-3-hexylthiophene with 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole is used to synthesize 4,7-bis(5-chloro-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTCl2) and 4,7-bis(5-chloro-4-hexyl-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DH-TBTCl2) in one step. Suitable conditions of the Suzuki polycondensations (SPC) of TBTCl2 and DH-TBTCl2 with the carbazole comonomer CbzPBE2 are established, furnishing PCDTBT and P(Cbz-alt-TBT) with high molecular weight and yield. Compared with control samples made from the corresponding dibromides, high-temperature NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate similar properties for PCDTBT but an increased content of Cbz-Cbz homocouplings for P(Cbz-alt-TBT). PMID:25333795

  5. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  6. Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

    2013-01-01

    The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

  7. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  8. Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

  9. First name ast name atri ati n n m er Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points)

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    trees n ntainin a es in t e inner n es data Tree a = Leaf | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a) nsi er t e tree 3 nsi er t e in ata t e e arati n r nat ra n m ers data Nats = Zero | Succ Nats ra i a re resentati ea Node # # # # #12; First name ast name atri ati n n m er 4 Exercise 2 (2+3 points) nsi er t e

  10. The production of hidden charm baryon \\text{N}^{\\ast}(4261) from \\pi^{-}\\text{p} \\rightarrow\\eta_\\text{c}\\text{n} reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Xu-Rong

    2015-02-01

    With an effective Lagrangian approach and the isobar model, we explore the discovery potential of the N\\ast(4261) production via ?-p scattering. Moreover, the background from the ?-p? ? cn reaction through s-channel and u-channel by exchanging a nucleon pole is also considered. It is found that the center-of-mass energy W?4.1\\text-4.4 \\text{GeV} is the best energy window for searching the N\\ast(4261) resonance, where the N\\ast(4261) signal can be easily distinguished from background. The relevant calculations will be conductive to search for the N\\ast (4261) resonance in further experiment and have a more comprehensive understanding of hidden charm baryons.

  11. Peak Serum AST Is a Better Predictor of Acute Liver Graft Injury after Liver Transplantation When Adjusted for Donor/Recipient BSA Size Mismatch (ASTi).

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite the marked advances in the perioperative management of the liver transplant recipient, an assessment of clinically significant graft injury following preservation and reperfusion remains difficult. In this study, we hypothesized that size-adjusted AST could better approximate real AST values and consequently provide a better reflection of the extent of graft damage, with better sensitivity and specificity than current criteria. Methods. We reviewed data on 930 orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Size-adjusted AST (ASTi) was calculated by dividing peak AST by our previously reported index for donor-recipient size mismatch, the BSAi. The predictive value of ASTi of primary nonfunction (PNF) and graft survival was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results. Size-adjusted peak AST (ASTi) was significantly associated with subsequent occurrence of PNF and graft failure. In our study cohort, the prediction of PNF by the combination of ASTi and PT-INR had a higher sensitivity and specificity compared to current UNOS criteria. Conclusions. We conclude that size-adjusted AST (ASTi) is a simple, reproducible, and sensitive marker of clinically significant graft damage. PMID:25009741

  12. Immunomodulation of ALT-2 and TLR may collude in antigen specific T cell hyporesponsiveness: proposed mechanism for elevated IL-10 levels in Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-03-01

    ALT-2, a novel antigen belonging to the chromadorea ALT-2 family of the filarial nematode is proved to clear filarial parasites in Jirds. In order to increase the protection efficacy by stimulating the cell mediated immunity, MPLA a detoxified derivative of LPS known to induce the cellular response, was used in this study as an adjuvant on mice models. ALT-2+MPLA formulation elicited a high titer of total IgG antibody, with profoundly increased levels of IgG2b. Reduced splenocyte proliferation was observed in immunized group when compared to control groups which could be attributed to many in vivo factors. The levels of IFN-? were high in unstimulated MPLA group compared to ALT-2 stimulated MPLA group, suggesting that the ALT-2 antigen suppressed the IFN-? levels. A high level of IL-10 was induced by the ALT-2+MPLA formulation, which inhibited the production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and also reduced the Th1 cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2) levels which are not in vogue with the classical MPLA adjuvant formulation. We propose a mechanism for this immunomodulation which involves a diminished expression of TLR-4, by which the filarial parasites have evolved to evade host immune mechanism. PMID:24570047

  13. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB.

    PubMed

    Caniato, Fernanda F; Hamblin, Martha T; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Passive Smoking on Lactoferrin and AST on 12 - 15 Years Old Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Pouramir, Mahdi; Motallebnejad, Mina; Bamdadian, Jale; Rahimi-Rad, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Passive smokers are involuntarily exposed to cigarette or tobacco smoke and as known, inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke is a serious threat. There is little information about the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers and periodontal indices. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of passive smoking on lactoferrin and AST in 12 - 15 years old children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: This case-control analytic correlation type study with no-convenience random sampling method was performed on 160 children aged 12 - 15 who had smokers in their families. The eligible children were divided into two equal groups; 80 cot+ children as case group and 80 cot– children as control group, matched according to age, sex and plaque index. Plaque index was obtained from all subjects. 2 cc unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method. The collected specimens were tested by lactoferrin and AST kits in biochemistry were measured on the day of sampling laboratory. Gingival index Loe and Silness (GI) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Results: Mean and Standard Deviation of PPD and GI was 2.01 ± 0.077 and 1.53 ± 0.055 in experimental group and 1.93 ± 0.073 and 1.49 ± 0.046 in control group respectively (P < 0.001). The Mean and Standard Deviation parameters of lactoferrin and AST, in the experimental group was 38.66 ± 25.15 and 13.45 ± 6.33 and in the control group 10.18 ± 6.82 and 6.53 ± 2.65 group, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Passive smoking can be effective on inflammatory process of periodontal and salivary biomarkers related to inflammation. Lactoferrin was 11 - 104 in case group and 0.5 - 38 in control group. Aspartat aminotransferase in case group was 2.64 - 30.43 and in control group it was 2.16 - 12.02. PMID:26495095

  15. R\\^ole of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the $\\Delta(1232) \\to \\gamma^\\ast N$ timelike transition

    E-print Network

    Ramalho, G; Weil, J; van Hees, H; Mosel, U

    2015-01-01

    The $\\Delta(1232) \\to \\gamma^\\ast N$ magnetic dipole form factor ($G_M^\\ast$) is described here within a new covariant model that combines the valence quark core together with the pion cloud contributions. The pion cloud term is parameterized by two terms: one connected to the pion electromagnetic form factor, the other to the photon interaction with intermediate baryon states. The model can be used in studies of pp and heavy ion collisions. In the timelike region this new model improves the results obtained with a constant form factor model fixed at its value at zero momentum transfer. At the same time, and in contrast to the Iachello model, this new model predicts a peak for the transition form factor at the expected position, i.e. at the $\\rho$ mass pole. We calculate the decay of the $\\Delta \\to \\gamma N$ transition, the Dalitz decay ($\\Delta \\to e^+ e^- N$), and the $\\Delta$ mass distribution function. The impact of the model on dilepton spectra in pp collisions is also discussed.

  16. Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection for $\\Pra\\ \\simeq 0.8$ and $4\\times 10^{11} \\alt \\Ra\\ \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$: Ultimate-state transition for aspect ratio $?= 1.00$

    E-print Network

    Xiaozhou He; Denis Funfschilling; Eberhard Bodenschatz; Guenter Ahlers

    2012-05-26

    We report experimental results for heat-transport measurements by turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio $\\Gamma \\equiv D/L = 1.00$ ($D = 1.12$ m is the diameter and $L = 1.12$ m the height). They are for the Rayleigh-number range $4\\times10^{11} \\alt \\Ra \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$ and for Prandtl numbers \\Pra\\ between 0.79 and 0.86. For $\\Ra convection in a system with laminar boundary layers below the top and above the bottom plate and with the prediction of Grossmann and Lohse. For $\\Ra > \\Ra_1^*$ the data rise above the classical-state power-law and show greater scatter. In analogy to similar behavior observed for $\\Gamma = 0.50$, we interpret this observation as the onset of the transition to the ultimate state. Within our resolution this onset occurs at nearly the same value of $\\Ra_1^*$ as it does for $\\Gamma = 0.50$. This differs from an earlier estimate by Roche {\\it et al.} which yielded a transition at $\\Ra_U \\simeq 1.3\\times 10^{11} \\Gamma^{-2.5\\pm 0.5}$. A $\\Gamma$-independent $\\Ra^*_1$ would suggest that the boundary-layer shear transition is induced by fluctuations on a scale less than the sample dimensions rather than by a global $\\Gamma$-dependent flow mode. Within the resolution of the measurements the heat transport above $\\Ra_1^*$ is equal for the two $\\Gamma$ values, suggesting a universal aspect of the ultimate-state transition and properties. The enhanced scatter of \\Nu\\ in the transition region, which exceeds the experimental resolution, indicates an intrinsic irreproducibility of the state of the system.

  17. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  18. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15R?Su-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-? production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  19. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model

    PubMed Central

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D.; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R.; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Lim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15R?Su-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereo-tactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-? production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  20. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-?1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  1. The MOA 1.8-metre alt-az wide-field survey telescope and the MOA project

    E-print Network

    J. B. Hearnshaw; F. Abe; I. A. Bond; A. C. Gilmore; Y. Itow; K. Kamiya; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; Y. Muraki; C. Okada; N. J. Rattenbury; T. Sako; M. Sasaki; D. J. Sullivan; P. C. M. Yock

    2005-09-15

    A new 1.8-m wide-field alt-az survey telescope was installed at Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand in October 2004. The telescope will be dedicated to the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project. The instrument is equipped with a large 10-chip mosaic CCD camera with 80 Mpixels covering about 2 square degrees of sky. It is mounted at the f/3 prime focus. The telescope will be used for finding and following microlensing events in the galactic bulge and elsewhere, with an emphasis on the analysis of microlensing light curves for the detection of extrasolar planets. The MOA project is a Japan-New Zealand collaboration, with the participation of Nagoya University and four universities in New Zealand.

  2. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  3. Bortezomib and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma: higher AST and LDH levels associated with a worse prognosis on overall survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bortezomib offers a novel approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma producing rapid control. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of bortezomib and dexamethasone-treated patients with multiple myeloma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 44 consecutively-treated multiple myeloma patients with bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle or 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously 1, 8, 15, and 22 of every 35-day cycle) and dexamethasone. Results The median time to progression, progression free survival time, and overall survival time in the treatment groups was 14.9, 14.9, and 38.3 months, respectively. The present study also suggests the possibility that the prognosis of patients with high levels of AST and LDH might be worse. Conclusions Our results indicate that the treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone is feasible. PMID:24952705

  4. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies

    E-print Network

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, Thushara A.; Takata, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950-arcmin^(2) field down to a 1? sensitivity of 0.7–1.3 mJy beam^(?1) to find 125 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) with a signal-to-noise ratio ?3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed...

  5. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  6. J.Willard Ma~riottLibrary 295 South 150d~astSaltLakeCity, Utah84112-0860 (801)581-8558

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    uTHE OF UTAH J.Willard Ma~riottLibrary 295 South 150d~astSaltLakeCity, Utah84112-0860 (801 to the Universityof Utah Libraries all mylour right, title, interest, and literary property rights, including any and all of my rights under the copyright laws of the United States and the State of Utah

  7. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  8. AltMV TGB1 nucleolar localization requires homologous interaction and correlates with cell wall localization associated with cell-to-cell movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...

  9. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the ?-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  10. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  11. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  12. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 (L(Dip)=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, L(Et)=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum-tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 equilibrates with dimeric {(L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  13. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  14. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  15. Crystal Structure of N-succinylarginine Dihydrolase AstB, Bound to Substrate and Product, an Enzyme from the Arginine Catabolic Pathway of Escherichia Coli

    SciTech Connect

    Tocilj,A.; Schrag, J.; Li, Y.; Schneider, B.; Reitzer, L.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ammonia-producing arginine succinyltransferase pathway is the major pathway in Escherichia coli and related bacteria for arginine catabolism as a sole nitrogen source. This pathway consists of five steps, each catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, the second enzyme of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway, providing the first structural insight into enzymes from this pathway. The enzyme exhibits a pseudo 5-fold symmetric {alpha}/{beta} propeller fold of circularly arranged {beta}{beta}{alpha}{beta} modules enclosing the active site. The crystal structure indicates clearly that this enzyme belongs to the amidinotransferase (AT) superfamily and that the active site contains a Cys-His-Glu triad characteristic of the AT superfamily. Structures of the complexes of AstB with the reaction product and a C365S mutant with bound the N-succinylarginine substrate suggest a catalytic mechanism that consists of two cycles of hydrolysis and ammonia release, with each cycle utilizing a mechanism similar to that proposed for arginine deiminases. Like other members of the AT superfamily of enzymes, AstB possesses a flexible loop that is disordered in the absence of substrate and assumes an ordered conformation upon substrate binding, shielding the ligand from the bulk solvent, thereby controlling substrate access and product release.

  16. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  17. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  18. The ASTE Galactic Center CO J=3-2 Survey: Probing Shocked Molecular Gas in the CMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Nagai, M.; Kamegai, K.; Hasegawa, T.

    2011-05-01

    Large-scale CO surveys have revealed that the central molecular zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy is characterized by a number of expanding shells/arcs, and by a peculiar population of compact clouds with large velocity widths — high-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs). We have performed a large-scale CO J=3-2 survey of the CMZ from 2005 to 2008 with the Atacama Submillimeter-wave Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The data cover almost the full extent of the CMZ and the Clump 2 with a 34? grid spacing. The CO J=3-2 data were compared with the CO J=1-0 data taken with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. Molecular gas in the CMZ exhibits higher J=3-2/J=1-0 intensity ratios (R3-2/1-0 ˜ 0.7) than that in the Galactic disk (R3-2/1-0 ˜ 0.4). We extracted highly excited, optically thin gas by the criterion, R3-2/1-0 ? 1.5. Clumps of high R3-2/1-0 gas were found in the Sgr A and Sgr C regions, near SNR G 0.9+0.1, and three regions with energetic HVCCs; CO 1.27+0.01, CO -0.41-0.23, and CO -1.21-0.12. We also found a number of small spots of high R3-2/1-0 gas over the CMZ. Many of these high R3-2/1-0 clumps and spots have large velocity widths, and some apparently coincides with HVCCs, suggesting that they are spots of shocked molecular gas. Their origin should be local explosive events, possibly supernova explosions. These suggest that the energetic HVCCs are associated with massive compact clusters, which have been formed by microbursts of star formation. Rough estimates of the energy flow from large to small scale suggest that the supernova shocks can make a significant contribution to turbulence activation and gas heating in the CMZ.

  19. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  20. Evidence for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the WW$^{\\ast}$ decay mode using the data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Jovicevic, Jelena; Strandberg, Jonas

    2015-11-20

    The $H \\rightarrow WW^{\\ast}$ channel was one of the three search channels contributing in the observation of the Higgs boson at the ATLAS experiment in July 2012. Nowadays, this channel represents an important ingredient in the determination of the couplings and properties of the newly discovered particle. This thesis reports the search for and observation of the Higgs boson in the $H \\rightarrow WW^{\\ast}$ decay mode using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The analysis of events in which the Higgs boson is produced in the gluon-gluon fusion process and is associated with no more than one jet, is outlined in detail. The datasets used are the proton-proton collisions collected with the ATLAS detector at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV during 2012 and 7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 25 fb$^{-1}$. An excess over the predicted number of background events is observed in the data. The significance of the excess is estimated to be 6.1 standard deviations, ...

  1. A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800 mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500 mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200 mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000 mg BID (n?=?1), 1500 mg BID (n?=?1), 800 mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200 mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6 months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000 mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended. PMID:24612546

  2. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol. PMID:26381639

  3. Deep 1.1 mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by AzTEC/ASTE – I. Source catalogue and number counts

    E-print Network

    Scott, K. S.; Yun, M. S.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Austermann, J. E.; Aguilar, E.; Aretxaga, I.; Ezawa, H.; Ferrusca, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Iono, D.; Giavalisco, M.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Oshima, T.; Perera, Thushara A.; Rand, J.; Tamura, Y.; Tosaki, T.; Velazquez, M.; Williams, C. C.; Zeballos, M.

    2010-07-11

    . Aguilar,4 I. Aretxaga,4 H. Ezawa,5 D. Ferrusca,4 B. Hatsukade,6 D. H. Hughes,4 D. Iono,5,6 M. Giavalisco,1 R. Kawabe,5 K. Kohno,6,7 P. D. Mauskopf,8 T. Oshima,5 T. A. Perera,9 J. Rand,1,10 Y. Tamura,5,11,12 T. Tosaki,13 M. Velazquez,4 C. C. Williams1 and M.... Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, 2260–2278 (2010) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16644.x Deep 1.1mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by AzTEC/ASTE – I. Source catalogue and number counts K. S. Scott,1,2? M. S. Yun,1 G. W. Wilson,1 J. E. Austermann,3 E...

  4. 24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research 1-888-777-NAAR ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism,

    E-print Network

    24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 · Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research · 1-888-777-NAAR L ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism, resumed a project of building his own article sets me to musing about cures and treatments for autism - Alex is never far from my mind. Indeed

  5. Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/0... 1 of 2 06/09/2007 20:38

    E-print Network

    Claeys, Philippe

    Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http REAL ESTATE CARS SFGate Web by Sign In | Register (45) Scientists say they know where dinosaur into the Earth some 65 million years ago and drove all the dinosaurs to extinction, the story has taken on a life

  6. Measurement of ${?(H?_e\\bar{?_e})\\times BR(H\\rightarrow ZZ^\\ast)}$ and Higgs production in $ZZ$ fusion at a 1.4 TeV CLIC collider

    E-print Network

    G. Milutinovi?-Dumbelovi?; I. Božovi?-Jelisav?i?; A. Robson; P. Roloff

    2015-07-19

    This paper presents the potential measurement at 1.4 TeV CLIC of the cross-section (times branching ratio) of the Higgs production via $WW$ fusion with the Higgs subsequently decaying in $ZZ^\\ast$, ${\\sigma(H\

  7. Synthesis, Biophysical, and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Melanocortin Agonist AST3-88: Modifications of Peptide Backbone at Trp 7 Position Lead to a Potent, Selective, and Stable Ligand of the Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (?-, ?-, ?-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp7 residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a ?-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ?5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII ?-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the ?-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  8. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloísa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2010-03-01

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion ® films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H 2 and O 2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 °C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion ® membranes.

  9. Nanohybrids from direct chemical self-assembly of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhua; Yi, Chenglin; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Donghua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-12-16

    The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers based on poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) were facilely prepared via the direct chemical self-assembly triggered by the aminolysis of SMA with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and the in situ polycondensation of APTES under refluxing in acetone. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the spherical-like morphology of the nanohybrids. Dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis revealed the structure transition of the nanohybrids in response to pH change. The emulsification study showed that the nanohybrids were effective particulate emulsifiers when homogenized with various oils including toluene, paraffin oil, silicone oil, isooctyl palmitate, dicaprylyl carbonate, and propylheptyl caprylate. The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers exhibited pH-sensitivity, and the diameter of paraffin oil droplets remarkably increased with pH of the nanohybrid aqueous dispersion decrease. Also, the reduced dynamic interfacial tension predicted the thermodynamically unstable state of the emulsions prepared at high pH values. Most interesting, the paraffin oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with a high oil volume fraction of 83.3% were formed when the nanohybrids were heavily flocculated by adding HCl. The HIPEs were pH-responsive and capable of demulsification with the addition of an alkaline solution showing a potential application in the oil industry. PMID:25423487

  10. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2014-04-01

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process.

  11. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2?-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  12. AST IV inhibits H?O?-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by suppressing Nox4 expression through the TGF-?1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhong; Li, Weizu; Yin, Yanyan; Li, Weiping

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) aggregation is the main cause of vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. The transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smad2 signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis of several types of cells. However, the association between vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and Nox4, and the involvement of the TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Nox4-dependent ROS production and to determine the involvement of the TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway in endothelial cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress which causes vascular injury in DM. We demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased Nox4-dependent-ROS aggregation, as well as the expression of TGF-?1, Smad2, Bax and caspase-3, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with diphenyliodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of Nox4 or astragaloside IV (AST IV), a monomer located in an extract of astragaloside, decreased Nox4 expression and the levels of ROS, decreased TGF-?1 and Smad2 expression, altered the expression of apoptosis-related genes and decreased the apoptosis of HUVECs. Treatment with LY2109761, a selective inhibitor of the TGF-?1/Smad2 pathway, produced results similar to those of DPI; however, LY2109761 had no effect on Nox4 expression and ROS levels. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that H2O2 contributes to HUVEC apoptosis by inducing Nox4-dependent ROS aggregation and activating the TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway. Our data indicate that the protective effects of AST IV against vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in DM are mainly associated with the decrease in Nox4 expression through the TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of the activation of the TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway may be another potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of DM. PMID:25891879

  13. Implication of the Fourth Generation Standard Model to the Lepton Polarization asymmetries in the $B\\rightarrow K^{\\ast}\\ell^{+}\\ell^{-}$ Decay

    E-print Network

    Ishtiaq Ahmed

    2012-08-11

    In this work we study the implication of the fourth generation standard model (SM4) to the single and double lepton polarization asymmetries in the $B\\rightarrow K^{\\ast}\\ell^{+}\\ell^{-}$, $(l=\\mu,\\tau)$ decay. To see the variation in the values of lepton polarization asymmetries from the standard model values, we have taken lower bound values of CMS and ATLAS for $m_{t^\\prime}=404$GeV and 552GeV respectively whereas $\\phi_{sb}$ is vary in two allowed regions $75^\\circ-115^\\circ$ and $240^\\circ-290^\\circ$ while for the numerical values of these asymmetries $|\\lambda_{t^\\prime}|$ is set to be $6\\times10^{-3}$. It is found that both single and double lepton polarization asymmetries are sensitive to the SM4 parameters. Therefore, the measurements of the lepton polarization asymmetries for the above mentioned decay at current colliders can be helpful to clear the smog on the status of the existence of the fourth generation.

  14. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  15. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT) Albumin Alkaline phosphatase Amylase Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) Bilirubin, total...10%. Alkaline phosphatase Target value ±30%. Amylase Target value ±30%. Aspartate aminotransferase...

  16. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT) Albumin Alkaline phosphatase Amylase Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) Bilirubin, total...10%. Alkaline phosphatase Target value ±30%. Amylase Target value ±30%. Aspartate aminotransferase...

  17. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT) Albumin Alkaline phosphatase Amylase Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) Bilirubin, total...10%. Alkaline phosphatase Target value ±30%. Amylase Target value ±30%. Aspartate aminotransferase...

  18. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4Q22.7 GeV2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production on 3Hemore »and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  19. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  20. ALTE News, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALTE News, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The two issues of volume 5 and one issue of volume 6 of the newsletter contain articles on conferences and programs concerning language testing in Europe. Articles topics include: description of proficiency levels for a Council of Europe testing program; adult education and language testing in Germany; tests of Norwegian as a foreign language; the…

  1. Chain dynamics of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) melts by means of coarse-grained simulations based on atomistic molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, R.; Colmenero, J.; Alvarez, F.; Padding, J. T.; Briels, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) melts, ranging in chain length from about Ne (the entanglement length) to N =6Ne. The coarse-grained parameters, potential of mean force and bare friction, were determined from fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations carried out on a PEP cell containing 12 chains of 80 monomers each and subjected to periodic boundary conditions. These atomistic simulations were previously validated by means of extensive neutron scattering measurements. Uncrossability constrains were also introduced in the coarse-grained model to prevent unphysical bond crossing. The coarse-grained simulations were carried out at 492 K and focus on chain dynamics. The results obtained were analyzed in terms of Rouse coordinates and Rouse correlators. We observe deviations from Rouse behavior for all chain lengths investigated, even when the chain stiffness is incorporated in the Rouse model. These deviations become more important as the chain length increases. The general scenario emerging from the results obtained is that the deviations from Rouse-like behavior are due to correlations among the forces acting upon a chain bead, which seem to be related with the constraint of uncrossability among the chains. As consequence, nonexponentiality of the Rouse correlators and mode- and time-dependent friction are observed. It seems that, in the molecular weight explored, these effects still give not raise to reptation behavior but to a crossover regime between Rouse and reptation. On the other hand, the results obtained are in qualitative agreement with those expected from the so-called generalized Rouse models, based on memory function formalisms.

  2. Effects of packing structure on the optoelectronic and charge transport properties in poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole).

    PubMed

    Donley, Carrie L; Zaumseil, Jana; Andreasen, Jens W; Nielsen, Martin M; Sirringhaus, Henning; Friend, Richard H; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2005-09-21

    Spin-coated poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) films of different molecular weights (Mn= 9-255 kg/mol), both in the pristine and annealed state, were studied in an effort to elucidate changes in the polymer packing structure and the effects this structure has on the optoelectronic and charge transport properties of these films. A model based on quantum chemical calculations, wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electron mobility measurements was developed to describe the restructuring of the polymer film as a function of polymer chain length and annealing. In pristine high molecular weight films, the polymer chains exhibit a significant torsion angle between the F8 and BT units, and the BT units in neighboring chains are close to one another. Annealing films to sufficiently high transition temperatures allows the polymers to adopt a lower energy configuration in which the BT units in one polymer chain are adjacent to F8 units in a neighboring chain ("alternating structure"), and the torsion angle between F8 and BT units is reduced. This restructuring, dictated by the strong dipole on the BT unit, subsequently affects the efficiencies of interchain electron transfer and exciton migration. Films exhibiting the alternating structure show significantly lower electron mobilities than those of the pristine high molecular weight films, due to a decrease in the efficiency of interchain electron transport in this structure. In addition, interchain exciton migration to low energy weakly emissive states is also reduced for these alternating structure films, as observed in their photoluminescence spectra and efficiencies. PMID:16159283

  3. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  4. Akademischer Stammbaum Andreas Walter Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Andreas

    'Alembert Simeon Denis Poisson Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier rr rrr ¨¨ ¨¨¨ Joseph Louis Lagrange (Giuseppe Lodovico mathematischen Physik Universit¨at K¨onigsberg (1891) Peter Joseph Wilhelm Debye Der Lichtdruck auf Kugeln von and Fourier vor der R¨uckkehr nach Deutschland Honorar der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universit¨at Bonn

  5. Energy level alignments at poly[N-9??-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4?,7?-di-2-thienyl-2?,1?,3?-benzothiadiazole)] on metal and polymer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Cho, Shinuk; Leclerc, Mario; Heeger, Alan J.

    2011-02-01

    Energy level alignments of poly[N-9??-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4?,7?-di-2-thienyl-2?,1?,3?-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) cast on top of Au and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) were investigated using ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS) as a function of the concentration of PCDTBT solutions. Although UPS data show similar work functions for Au and PEDOT:PSS, the hole transport barrier (?h) at the PCDTBT/PEDOT:PSS interface is clearly smaller than that at the PCDTBT/Au interface. The XPS spectra show that energy level relaxation occurs at the interface between PCDTBT and electrodes.

  6. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  7. Mobile Public Display Systems Florian Alt

    E-print Network

    and advertisements for local shops. The images stored for the campaigns were displayed on the screen once the group distance, coupons, etc. Yet most of them would not walk different or longer routes but considered

  8. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  9. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  10. Mobile Contextual Display Systems Florian Alt1

    E-print Network

    - plays hence enabling novel forms of advertising and information dissemination. This includes mainly a person moves into one of the defined areas, the tool automatically selects a previously created;3 Prototype System for Contextual Advertising In order to explore the potential of contextual advertising we

  11. 12/17/07 11:02 AMPresence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets Page 1 of 4http://www.air-space.us/alt.sci.planetary/15/Presence-of-Essential-Molecule-in-Space-Could-Support-Life-on-Other-Planets-article6156-.htm

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    On Other PlanetsLife On Other Planets Looking for Life On Other Planets? Find exactly what you want today12/17/07 11:02 AMPresence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets Page 1 of 4http://www.air-space.us/alt.sci.planetary/15/Presence-of-Essential-Molecule-in-Space-Could-Support-Life-on-Other-Planets

  12. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; ... may be done to determine the cause. A GGT test and/or a test for 5'-nucleotidase ...

  13. Liver Panel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Liver Panel Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Liver Function Tests; LFTs Formal name: Hepatic Function Panel Related tests: ALT , ALP , AST , Bilirubin , Albumin , Total ...

  14. AST Model In Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This model is an early design for a supersonic transport plane. Although the plane is designed to travel at high speeds, the model was tested at low speeds here at the 30 by 60 foot tunnel in the mid-1970s at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton,VA. he 30 by 60 foot tunnel remains one of NASA's largest wind tunnels and is recognized as a National Historic Landmark. Originally built in the early 1930's to test full-scale aircraft, the 30 by 60 foot tunnel tested many of the bombers and fighter planes used in World War II, Recently a large percentage of the tests have been free flight tests. One of the unique test techniques used in the 30 by 60 foot tunnel is free-flight of a dynamically scaled model in the test section.

  15. Studying Role Relationships. AST Research Bulletin 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Dean; Garland, Colden

    Relationships among the positions operating in the student teaching situation can be viewed as an interaction system. Role conflicts, or contradictory role expectations that are held by the student teacher, supervising teacher, college supervisor, and school administrator tend to interfere in their interactive relationships in student teaching…

  16. AST 250 Spring 2010 HOMEWORK #5

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    up Teff and L. Understand the ordering based on spectral type. There could be a similar question is usually plotted in logarithmic coordinates (log L vs. log Teff with temperature increasing to the left

  17. REGIONAL SUMMARIES: SOUTHE AST REGION HABITAT AREAS

    E-print Network

    , estuarine, shallow marine (including barrier islands, coral reefs, and the Continental Shelf), and oceanic Islands, and Navassa Island (located in the Caribbean Wildlife Refuge). Puerto Rico is located about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) southeast of Florida in the eastern Antilles. It includes the main island, measuring 64

  18. AST 250 Spring 2010 HOMEWORK #8

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    type Ia supernova explosion was reported in a host galaxy with a redshift z = 0.0736. If the maximum of years? (4) Prove that the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background is warmer by a factor of (1+z

  19. AST 250 Spring 2010 HOMEWORK #2

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    the Earth's atmosphere is 1370 Watts per square meter. (a) What is the average Solar flux density measured magnitude (mV) of the Sun? Would the Sun be a bright star in the planet's night sky? (5) The first exoplanet larger is the incident flux density on the planet's atmosphere than the solar flux density for the Earth

  20. Elevations in markers of liver injury and risk of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Anthony J G; Williams, Ken; Festa, Andreas; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Kempf, Judy; Zinman, Bernard; Haffner, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    A limited number of studies have reported associations of markers of liver injury, including elevated concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), with prospective risk of type 2 diabetes. However, only one study has adjusted for a detailed measure of insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [S(i)]), which is important given associations of obesity and S(i) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our objective was to investigate the associations of elevated AST and ALT with incident type 2 diabetes among 906 participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study who were nondiabetic at baseline. S(i) and acute insulin response (AIR) were measured directly from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test among black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white participants aged 40-69 years. After 5.2 years, 148 individuals had developed type 2 diabetes. Baseline AST and ALT were positively correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.22 and r = 0.35, respectively), waist circumference (r = 0.18 and r = 0.34), and fasting glucose (r = 0.13 and r = 0.29) and inversely with S(i) (r = -0.18 and r = -0.30; all P < 0.0001). In separate logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, clinical center, and alcohol consumption, participants in the highest quartiles (Q4) of AST and ALT were at significantly increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with those in the lowest three quartiles (Q1-Q3): AST: odds ratio (OR) 1.73 (95% CI 1.17-2.57); ALT: OR 2.32 (1.36-3.75). After further adjustment for smoking, waist circumference, triglyceride, HDL, impaired glucose tolerance, S(i), and AIR, both AST and ALT remained significantly associated with incident type 2 diabetes: AST, Q4 vs. Q1-Q3: OR 1.98 (1.23-3.17); ALT, Q4 vs. Q1-Q3: OR 2.00 (1.22-3.28). There were no interactions of sex, ethnicity, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, or S(i) with AST or ALT in the prediction of type 2 diabetes. When entered into the same model with adjustment for demographic variables, both C-reactive protein and ALT independently predicted type 2 diabetes. In addition, AST and ALT were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes after excluding former and moderate to heavy drinkers. In conclusion, AST and ALT independently predict type 2 diabetes. Baseline elevations of these markers may reflect NAFLD or related pathologies. PMID:15448093

  1. Lack of Correlation Between Liver Tests Abnormalities and Trabectedin Efficacy in the Treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Stumbo, Luciano; Maltese, Giuseppina; Cerbone, Linda; Spalato Ceruso, Mariella; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Frezza, Anna Maria; De Lisi, Delia; Silletta, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Elevation in liver transaminases is common in patients treated with the marine antitumor agent trabectedin. However, the impact of trabectedin-related transaminase elevations on treatment outcomes is unclear. This retrospective study investigated the correlation between liver tests abnormalities and treatment outcomes in patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS) treated with trabectedin 1.5?mg/m2 once every 3 weeks at three reference centers in Italy. The effect of grade 3/4 elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during the first two cycles and at any time during trabectedin treatment on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Liver tests abnormalities during the first two cycles of chemotherapy or at any time during trabectedin treatment did not significantly affect PFS or OS. Nor were survival outcomes significantly different in the subgroups of patients with or without ALT/AST increases or with ALT/AST elevations ?15?×?the upper limit of normal (ULN) versus those with ALT/AST elevation <15?×?ULN. Although liver tests abnormalities are common in patients treated with trabectedin, elevations in ALT and AST are usually transient, occur during the first two cycles of treatment, and do not appear to affect survival. PMID:26235506

  2. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  3. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  4. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  5. Serum Fetuin-A Associated With Fatty Liver Index, Early Indicator of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Strobe-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Huang, Xiaolin; Ding, Lin; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Chen, Ying; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Di; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing

    2015-09-01

    Increased fetuin-A has been reported in association with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, the large population data concerning fetuin-A and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum fetuin-A with fatty liver index (FLI), the indicator of NAFLD. A population-based cross-sectional analysis was performed in 5219 middle-aged and elderly participants who were recruited from 2 nearby urban communities in Shanghai, China. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fourth quartiles of FLI, alanine aminotransferance (ALT), aspartate aminotransferance (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT) were defined as elevated FLI, ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. Fetuin-A was positively associated with log-transformed-FLI, -ALT, -AST, and -GGT after adjustment for the confounding factors (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that each one-standard deviation increase in serum fetuin-A (120.1 mg/L) was associated with 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.25, P = 0.04), 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.21, P < 0.001), and 10% (95% CI 1.03-1.17, P = 0.005) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. Categorical analysis showed that as compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of serum fetuin-A associated with a 35% (95% CI 0.98-1.86), 50% (95% CI 1.24-1.83), and 33% (95% CI 1.10-1.60) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. No significant association was found with GGT. In Chinese adults, serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly associated with elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, the early indicators of NAFLD. PMID:26426614

  6. Serum Fetuin-A Associated With Fatty Liver Index, Early Indicator of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya; Huang, Xiaolin; Ding, Lin; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Chen, Ying; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Di; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased fetuin-A has been reported in association with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, the large population data concerning fetuin-A and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum fetuin-A with fatty liver index (FLI), the indicator of NAFLD. A population-based cross-sectional analysis was performed in 5219 middle-aged and elderly participants who were recruited from 2 nearby urban communities in Shanghai, China. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fourth quartiles of FLI, alanine aminotransferance (ALT), aspartate aminotransferance (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT) were defined as elevated FLI, ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. Fetuin-A was positively associated with log-transformed-FLI, -ALT, -AST, and -GGT after adjustment for the confounding factors (all P?ALT, and AST, respectively. Categorical analysis showed that as compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of serum fetuin-A associated with a 35% (95% CI 0.98–1.86), 50% (95% CI 1.24–1.83), and 33% (95% CI 1.10–1.60) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. No significant association was found with GGT. In Chinese adults, serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly associated with elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, the early indicators of NAFLD. PMID:26426614

  7. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  8. Der ,alte` Patient: Wie die MHH den besonderen

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    set and by further extending it to low-cost clusters built using the Sony PlayStation 3 (PS3). The paper describes the modeled brain circuitry, derived algorithms, implementation in the PS3, and initial that a parallel implementation can achieve about 140x performance improvement on a cluster of 3 PS3 consoles. More

  9. Dr. Susan M. Alt Assistant Professor of Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Scheiber, Laura L.

    Award in Illinois Archaeology, University of Illinois 2001 Cahokia Mounds Society Grant for Grossmann Site excavations 2000 Cahokia Mounds Society Grant for radiocarbon dates, upland Mississippian sites

  10. A Quortarlypublirhcdby cALtFORNTAA{AIACOZOOLOGICALSOCIETY,tNC.

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Helene

    THE VELIGER Paec -15 Observationson the Food and Feeding of someVermivorousConuson the Great Barrier Reef on the diet of Conus on the Great Barrier Reef Details of the feeding, food, and degree of dietary) Rosnnr R. T,lr,u.locE Observations on the Fmd and Feedine of some Vermivorotrs Conus on the Great Barrier

  11. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  12. The Student Teacher and Human Relations. AST Bulletin Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Irvin L.

    The student teacher must develop and incorporate into his behavior human relations skills to enable him to relate effectively to members of his classroom and of the school community. Serving as a basis for evaluation, a method of gaining the fullest satisfaction from teaching, and a prerequisite to more effective teaching, these skills are…

  13. The Student Teacher and Professional Activities. AST Bulletin Number 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftis, Helen A.

    A student teacher, whose success may depend in part upon his acceptance of professional obligations as well as opportunities, may gain insight into his professional role through participation in professional organizations (which expose him to teacher models other than his own supervising teacher and permit professional identification and enhanced…

  14. Gillian Fisher-Reid AST 389 Paper #3: Short Story

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ! Impossible I tell you!" Dr. Malachite shouted. "Erin, I know it may seem that way but the evidence is right found at the deepest part of the ocean proves it." Dr. Erin Malachite was a young woman of 30 minerals, malachite. Although Erin was mostly raised in upstate New York, as geologists her parents would

  15. Dylan DiStefano AST389 Infinity and Eternity

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    of stars and gas, the deep red star came close to the center. The enormous black hole acted as a slingshot the incredible force and fall into a bottomless well. With so much energy, the black hole and the galaxy itself of the single elliptical galaxy, but still had enough speed to cause noticeable effects of time dilation

  16. "...My God, it's full of stars!" AST 248 Lecture 5

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Color is indicative of temperature Red indicates cool Blue indicates hot #12;Bandpasses Human response, spectral type · Y axis: absolute magnitude, luminosity Reveals giants, dwarfs, and the main sequence (distances from parallax) #12;Luminosity Classes · I: supergiants · II: bright giants · III: giants · IV

  17. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) ISM INTERSTELLAR MATTER

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    composition ( Sun): 73 % H, 25 % He, 2 % metals. 50 % of metals are in the dust. ­ Mean density wide limits (0.001 ­ 105 /cm3), but dust/gas ratio is constant. dense, cold clouds -- warm intercloud star clusters 1864 Huggins: first spectra of stars and nebulae + Kirchhoff's laws some nebulae

  18. Curvature and Frustration in Cellular Systems Nicolas Rivier; Tomaso Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    and Engineering Sciences is currently published by The Royal Society. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your'Unzverszte'. 67084 Strasbourg. France A cellular structure is a compromise between best local packing and filling steadily disordered, demonstrates that this compromise is essential. Two alternative methods are presented

  19. That Was The Week That Was AST 105

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    is Occam's Razor, and why is it useful? 21. Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motions are empirical. Newton's 3 are empirical. Newton's 3 laws of motion are physical. Explain what this means. Hint: it may help to consider, and is at a distance of 1 AU from the star. Using Kepler's or Newton's laws, what is the mass of the planet? 3 18

  20. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets ROCKY PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ­ a few % ­ Ar, SO2, CO in traces Much CO2 greenhouse effect, hot surface. Covered by an opaque layer greenhouse effect, H2O oxidised hot surface rocks O now in rocks, H2 escaped. On Earth: liquid water, life an atmosphere volcanic activity varies. Factors: Impacts, ancient Sun, radioactive decay internal heat Initial

  1. AST 101 Our Corner of the Universe Fall 2014 Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Plourde, Britton L. T.

    , such as atoms and electrons. 3. an understanding of how we measure the mass, temperature, and composition and appearance of the moon, Sun and stars 5. an understanding of the struggle to understand our solar system

  2. AST 101 Our Corner of the Universe Fall 2012 Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Plourde, Britton L. T.

    the mass, temperature, and composition, of planets and stars and other celestial objects . 4. an understanding of the night sky and motion and appearance of the moon, Sun and stars 5. an understanding

  3. Curriculum Vitae PD Dr. phil. Andreas Walter Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Andreas

    in Basel. 1980-1988 Besuch des Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gymnasium in Basel. M¨arz 1988 Matura-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gymnasium in Basel. 1992-1993 Diplomarbeit bei Prof. Dr. Dirk Trautmann mit dem Titel "Elektron-Alsace. Teilpensum als Physiklehrer am Gymnasium am M¨unsterplatz in Basel. Okt. 2010 ­ Hauptamlicher Dozent f

  4. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  5. Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

  6. : Hepatitis B virus infection, its sequelae, and prevention by vaccination : Li-Min Huang, Chun-YiLu, and Ding-Shinn Chen

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    : Hepatitis B virus infection, its sequelae, and prevention by vaccination : Li-Min Huang, Chun 10 MIU/ B B 20 Keywords: Hepatitis B, HBV, ALT, AST, Vaccination B HB B HBV B B B HBe Pre-S1 Pre-S2 B B B B #12; 1. World Health Organization.Hepatitis B. World Health

  7. [The activity of transaminases in the tissues of the Black-Sea mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, A D; Soldatov, A A; Andreenko, T I

    2015-01-01

    The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, E. C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, E. C. 2.6.1.2) were studied in the tissues of the bivalve mollusks differing in shell color. Shell color patterns were assessed by photographing and computer processing in Adobe Photoshop CS-3. The activity of transaminases was determined by the Reitman-Frankel procedure. Four color groups of mollusks were singled out: black, intermediate, dark- and light brown. The AST and ALT activities were found to increase as shells lose color probably reflecting different tolerance of mollusks to habitats with different concentration of oxygen. The ALT distribution pattern differs appreciably in the foot of M. galloprovincialis where the highest values were found in the black-colored mussels, evidently due to the change of the predominant enzyme function. In this tissue, the reaction of transamination replenishes the pool of free amino acids required for the synthesis of byssus threads. PMID:25859602

  8. Serum Aminotransferases in Thai Children With Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prommalikit, Olarn; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatic manifestations are one of the unusual manifestations of dengue infection. Objectives: We conducted this study in order to study the pattern of serum aminotransferases and sequential changes before and after shock in Thai children with dengue infection. Patients and Methods: Children who were clinically and serologically diagnosed as dengue infection and were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during a peroid of one year were enrolled. They were clinically classified into a non-shock group and a shock group. The majority of serum aminotransferases including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were obtained within a week after the onset of fever and until 3 days after shock in the shock group. Student t-test and median in boxplot form were used for statistical analysis. Results: We enrolled 127 children with a mean age of 7.6 ± 3.6 years. The incidence of abnormal AST and ALT levels was 97.4% and 50.0% in the shock group, and 91.8% and 44.9% in the non-shock group respectively. 29% and 15.4% of the patients in shock group and only 10.2% and 4.1% in non-shock group had the respective AST and ALT levels > 200 U/L. Serum aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the shock group when compared to the non-shock group. AST tended to increase starting from one day before shock and continued to increase within a few days whereas ALT was less likely to be affected. Conclusions: Elevated serum aminotransferases are a common finding in children with dengue infection and the levels of AST are higher than those of ALT. Patients with shock have significantly higher aminotransferase levels that increase up to 3 days after shock. PMID:26635947

  9. Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

  10. The value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cardiovascular disease risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephen F; Kai, Joe; Guha, Indra Neil; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, reflecting liver disease severity, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the AST/ALT ratio improves established risk prediction tools in a primary care population. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cohort of 29?316 UK primary care patients, aged 25–84?years with no history of CVD at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to derive 10-year multivariate risk models for the first occurrence of CVD based on two established risk prediction tools (Framingham and QRISK2), with and without including the AST/ALT ratio. Overall, model performance was assessed by discriminatory accuracy (AUC c-statistic). Results During a total follow-up of 120?462 person-years, 782 patients (59% men) experienced their first CVD event. Multivariate models showed that elevated AST/ALT ratios were significantly associated with CVD in men (Framingham: HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.79; QRISK2: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.89) but not in women (Framingham: HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.43; QRISK2: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.35). Including the AST/ALT ratio with all Framingham risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) or QRISK2 risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.73, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) resulted in no change in discrimination from the established risk prediction tools. Limiting analysis to those individuals with raised ALT showed that discrimination could improve by 5% and 4% with Framingham and QRISK2 risk factors, respectively. Conclusions Elevated AST/ALT ratio is significantly associated with increased risk of developing CVD in men but not women. However, the ratio does not confer any additional benefits over established CVD risk prediction tools in the general population, but may have clinical utility in certain subgroups. PMID:26322236

  11. Metadoxine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Kotacherry T.; Balakumaran, Leena K.; Mathew, Philip; Prasad, Mohan; Prabhakar, Boddu; Sood, Ajit; Singh, Shivaram P.; Rao, Nagaraj P.; Zargar, Shoukat A.; Bignamini, Angelo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective and design The study aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy and safety of metadoxine versus placebo on the ultrasonographic and histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Subjects 134 subjects with biopsy-confirmed NASH were randomized to receive metadoxine 500 mg two times daily (n = 75) or placebo (n = 59) added to the standard of care, over 16 weeks. Efficacy endpoints Originally, the primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of: reduction in the steatosis by ?1 grade, reduction in hepatic necro-inflammation by ?1 grade and ALT normalization. Since >50% of patients refused the second biopsy, it was decided to analyze only the individual parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the treatment and the placebo groups in either liver histology or ALT or AST. Overall, as expected both groups showed reduction in serum ALT and AST compared to baseline. Compared to placebo (9 out 54), patients on metadoxine (34 out of 75) had significantly higher rates of improvement in 1-point in steatosis grade on ultrasound (P-value <0.001). Safety and tolerability did not differ between treatments. Conclusion Metadoxine is not effective in improvement of liver histology or serum ALT or AST in patients with NASH. However, there was significant improvement of steatosis assessed by ultrasound. To properly estimate the effects on histology and transaminases, further studies of longer duration and at higher doses are needed. PMID:25755546

  12. Short- and Long-Term Soy Diet Versus Casein Protects Liver Steatosis Independent of the Arginine Content.

    PubMed

    Hakkak, Reza; Zeng, Huawei; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Korourian, Soheila

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a major cause of abnormal liver function, is often associated with obesity. Arginine (ARG) plays a role in modulating body weight/fat, but limited data exist as to the role of ARG in soy protein's ability to protect from liver steatosis. We investigated the role of native ARG in the soy protein isolate (SPI) in reducing liver steatosis in male obese Zucker rats. Rats (N=48; 6 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of three diets for 8 or 16 weeks: the casein (CAS) diet as control (0.6% ARG), CAS diet supplemented to contain 1.3% ARG, or an SPI diet containing isoflavones (1.3% ARG). SPI and ARG rats gained significantly more weight (P<.05) than CAS rats after 16 weeks only. The SPI rats had lower liver steatosis scores after 8 and 16 weeks (P<.05 and P<.001, respectively) compared to CAS and ARG rats. SPI rats had lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (P<.05) compared to CAS after 16 weeks, and AST was lower (P<.05) compared to ARG rats. After 16 weeks, the SPI rats had lower (P<.05) serum ALT and AST levels than at 8 weeks. Our results suggest that a longer period of SPI feeding results in lower liver steatosis and serum ALT and AST levels, while the ARG diet had no effect on steatosis or ALT and AST levels. We found that the SPI diet reduced (P<.001) serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) compared to CAS and ARG diets after 8 and 16 weeks. The SPI diet significantly reduced (P<.001) interleukin-6 (IL-6) when compared to the CAS diet at 8 weeks, but there was no significant difference at 16 weeks. Based on the findings of our study, the protective effect of SPI in reducing liver steatosis is not modulated by its native arginine content. PMID:26186426

  13. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Agmy, Sherif M; Gaur, Rajiv L; Fernando, Augusta; Raj, Madhwa HG; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19305642

  14. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2015-08-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  15. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  16. Clinical Features of Drug-induced Liver Injury According to Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Moo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Ahn, Pyoung; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Jeong, Soung Won; Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an increasingly common cause of acute hepatitis. We examined clinical features and types of liver injury of 65 affected patients who underwent liver biopsy according DILI etiology. The major causes of DILI were the use of herbal medications (43.2%), prescribed medications (21.6%), and traditional therapeutic preparations and dietary supplements (35%). DILI from herbal medications, traditional therapeutic preparations, and dietary supplements was associated with higher elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels than was DILI from prescription medications. The types of liver injury based on the R ratio were hepatocellular (67.7%), mixed (10.8%), and cholestatic (21.5%). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations were more commonly associated with hepatocellular liver injury than were prescription medications (P = 0.002). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations induce more hepatocellular DILI and increased elevations in AST and ALT than prescribed medications. PMID:26713057

  17. TISSUE ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN KEMP'S RIDLEY TURTLES (LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII).

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Keiko Y; Knoll, Joyce S; Innis, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the tissue distribution and activities of eight enzymes in 13 juvenile Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died after stranding. Samples from the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, pancreas, lung, small intestine, and spleen were evaluated for activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipase. AST, CK, and LDH activities were highest in cardiac and skeletal muscle but were also found in all other tissues. Amylase and lipase activities were highest in the pancreas and low in all other tissues. ALP activity was highest in the lung. ALT activity was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle, and GGT activity was highest in the kidney, but activities of these enzymes were low in all tissues. These data may assist clinicians in interpretation of plasma enzyme activities of Kemp's ridley turtles. PMID:26352978

  18. Efficacy of MK615 for the treatment of patients with liver disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hokari, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Matsuda, Takahide; Ishii, Osamu; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Zeniya, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of MK615, a Japanese apricot extract, in an animal model, and its clinical therapeutic effect. METHODS: Wistar rats were administered physiological saline (4 mL/kg) or MK615 solution (4 mL/kg) for 7 d. On the sixth d, acute hepatic injury was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection (ip) of D-galactosamine hydrochloride (D-GalN) (600 mg/kg). Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined, and liver tissues were used for histopathological analysis. Fifty-eight patients with liver disorders [hepatitis C (n = 40), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 15), and autoimmune liver disease (n = 3)] were orally administered commercially available Misatol ME-containing MK615 (13 g/d) daily for 12 wk. Blood and urine were sampled immediately before and 6 wk, 12 wk, and 16 wk after the start of intake to measure various biochemical parameters. The percentage change in ALT and AST levels after 12 wk from the pre-intake baseline served as a primary endpoint. RESULTS: D-GalN effectively induced acute hepatic injury in the rats. At 48 h after the ip injection of D-GalN, the plasma levels of ALT (475.6 ± 191.5 IU/L vs 225.3 ± 194.2 IU/L, P < 0.05) and AST (1253.9 ± 223.4 IU/L vs 621.9 ± 478.2 IU/L, P < 0.05) in the MK615 group were significantly lower than the control group. Scattered single cell necrosis, loss of hepatocytes, and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in hepatic tissue samples collected from the control group. However, these findings were less pronounced in the group receiving MK615. At the end of the clinical study, serum ALT and AST levels were significantly decreased compared with pre-intake baseline levels from 103.5 ± 58.8 IU/L to 71.8 ± 39.3 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 93.5 ± 55.6 IU/L to 65.5 ± 34.8 IU/L (P < 0.05), respectively. A reduction of ? 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 26 (45%) of the 58 patients, while 25 (43%) patients exhibited similar AST level reductions. The chronic hepatitis C group exhibited significant ALT and AST level reductions from 93.4 ± 51.1 IU/L to 64.6 ± 35.1 IU/L (P < 0.05) and from 94.2 ± 55.5 IU/L to 67.2 ± 35.6 IU/L (P < 0.05), respectively. A reduction of ? 30% from the pre-study baseline ALT level was observed in 20 (50%) of the 40 patients. ALT levels in both the combined ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment and the UDCA uncombined groups were significantly lower after Misatol ME administration. MK615 protected hepatocytes from D-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in rats. Misatol ME decreased elevated ALT and AST levels in patients with liver disorders. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MK615 and Misatol ME are promising hepatoprotective agents for patients with liver disorders. PMID:22919243

  19. Serum Fibronectin Levels in Acute and Chronic Viral Hepatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    ERTURK, Ayse; CURE, Erkan; OZKURT, Zulal; PARLAK, Emine; CURE, Medine Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum fibronectin (FN) levels and liver enzyme activities in patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C) and chronic viral hepatitis (B, C); determine whether the virus types correlated with disease severity; and assess whether FN could be used as a marker of virus type or disease severity in patients. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 20 patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C), 20 with chronic hepatitis (B, C), and 20 healthy controls. Serum fibronectin (FN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and albumin were measured in all patients from blood samples. Results: Serum FN levels were significantly lower in acute (122.9 ?g/mL (SD 43.1), P < 0.001) and chronic hepatitis patients (135.7 ?g/mL (SD 46.0), P < 0 .001) compared to controls 221.4 ?g/mL (SD 32.5). A negative correlation was found between serum FN and AST (r2 = 0.528, P < 0.001), ALT (r2 = 0.425, P < 0.001), and GGT (r2 = 0.339, P < 0.001). Additionally, high serum GGT levels (? = –0.375, P = 0.010), and low serum albumin levels (? = –0.305, P = 0.008) were associated with low serum FN levels. Conclusion: Serum FN levels were lower in both acute and chronic hepatitis patients, and an inverse relationship between serum FN and serum AST, ALT, and GGT levels was found. A decrease in serum FN levels may indicate hepatitis severity as AST and ALT represent hepatocyte damage. PMID:24639609

  20. Ethnicity and elevated liver transaminases among newly diagnosed children with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females) newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy. Results Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 ± 3.4 vs. 107.8 ± 20.3, p=0.002) and AST (17.7 ± 2.5 vs. 71.1 ± 15.7, p<0.001) and were significantly more likely to have ALT values above the upper limit of normal (20% vs. 71%, p=0.005) and twice the upper limit of normal (0% vs. 39%, p=0.05) as well as AST values above the upper limit of normal (0% vs. 53%, p=0.002). No differences in ALT or AST were found between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites or between African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that Hispanic children with T2DM may be at higher risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and indicate that a comprehensive hepatic evaluation is warranted in this population. Future studies that incorporate more precise and proximal measures of liver health are warranted in this population. PMID:23134937

  1. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol - a cluster randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    E-print Network

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Williams, Kate M.; Barling, Roslyn S.; Prevost, A. Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Griffin, Simon J.

    2009-05-12

    ). Plasma creatinine is analysed with kinetic colorimetric methods, urine albu- min by rate nephelemetry (Dade Behring Nephelometer II, Newark, USA). Plasma levels of urea and electrolytes, bilirubin, alanine aminotansferase (ALT), aspartate ami... - notransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and urine levels of creatinine are assayed by means of the Dade Behring Dimension analyser. Plasma vitamin C level was measured with a Fluoroskan Ascent FL fluorometer. The albumin...

  2. Effects of cumin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: A double blind, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Torki, Masoumeh; Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Shavakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cumin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in compare to placebo. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with histopathological diagnosis NASH in two groups of case and control received oral cumin capsule or placebo thrice daily for 6 months. Clinical and laboratory data were body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS), steatosis grade, and side-effects and were measured at baseline and after treatment period using standard clinical chemistry techniques. The grade of steatosis was assessed by liver sonography in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe). Results: Of 100 eligible patients during follow-up 10/50 cases and 9/50 controls were excluded. At baseline and after treatment BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST, HDL, LDL, and FBS were not statistically significant between groups (P ? 0.5). BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST, LDL, and FBS after treatment decreased compare to baseline but were not statistically significant (P ? 0.5). The mean of changes in the level of BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, LDL and FBS were not statistically significant (P ? 0.5). The mean of changes in AST and HDL between groups was significant (P < 0.05). The grade of steatosis before and after treatment between studied groups was not statistically significant (P ? 0.5). Side-effects were not statistically significant among the two groups. Conclusion: Findings show that there the effect of cumin in in the treatment of NASH was not significantly different in compare to placebo. PMID:26605241

  3. Estimation of Specific Salivary Enzymatic Biomarkers in Individuals with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Roji; Khan, S Nubesh; Iqbal, P Safar; Soman, Rino Roopak; Chakkarayan, Jithesh; Krishnan, V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host response to periodontal disease includes the release of different enzymes from stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. The enzymes which are produced from these cells are associated with cell injury and cell death like: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Normal enzymatic activity of these enzymes is necessary for healthy functioning of gingiva and periodontium. The aim of the study is to estimate the levels of enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and BUN and to correlate the level of estimated enzymes with that of clinical parameters in the saliva of Healthy subjects, Gingivitis patients and patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: The study included a total of 40 male subjects within the age group of 21 to 50 years, and examined the activity of enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and BUN in saliva spectrophotometrically and compared their values between healthy subjects, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients. Clinical parameters like OHI – S (Oral hygiene index - Simplified, SBI (Sulcus Bleeding Index), PPD (Probing Pocket Depth), CAL (Clinical Attachment Level), and PI (Periodontal Index) were recorded. Results: Obtained results showed statistically significant increases of activity of AST, ALT, ALP, and BUN in saliva from patients with periodontal disease (p<0.001) in relation to gingivitis and control groups. There was also an increase in periodontal parameters with an increase in salivary enzymes. Conclusion: The present study shows that the salivary enzyme activity can be used as biomarkers to determine periodontal tissue damage, which may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of post therapy effects in periodontal disease. PMID:26435618

  4. Vitamin E reduces liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Aiko; Kawabe, Naoto; Hashimoto, Senju; Murao, Michihito; Nakano, Takuji; Shimazaki, Hiroaki; Kan, Toshiki; Nakaoka, Kazunori; Ohki, Masashi; Takagawa, Yuka; Takamura, Tomoki; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E treatment on liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-eight NAFLD patients were administered vitamin E for > 1 year. The doses of vitamin E were 150, 300, or 600 mg; three times per day after each meal. Responses were assessed by liver enzyme levels [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotranferease (ALT), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP)], noninvasive scoring systems of hepatic fibrosis-4 [FIB-4 index and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index (APRI)], and liver stiffness [velocity of shear wave (Vs)] measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. Vs measurements were performed at baseline and 12 mo after baseline. The patients were genotyped for the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms and then divided into either the CC/CG or GG group to examine each group’s responses to vitamin E treatment. RESULTS: We found marked differences in the platelet count, serum albumin levels, alkaline phosphatase levels, FIB-4 index, APRI, and Vs at baseline depending on the PNPLA3 polymorphism. AST, ALT, and ?-GTP levels (all P < 0.001); FIB-4 index (P = 0.035); APRI (P < 0.001); and Vs (P < 0.001) significantly decreased from baseline to 12 mo in the analysis of all patients. In the subset analyses of PNPLA3 genotypes, AST levels (P = 0.011), ALT levels (P < 0.001), ?-GTP levels (P = 0.005), APRI (P = 0.036), and Vs (P = 0.029) in genotype GG patients significantly improved, and AST and ALT levels (both P < 0.001), ?-GTP levels (P = 0.003), FIB-4 index (P = 0.017), and APRI (P < 0.001) in genotype CC/CG patients. CONCLUSION: One year of vitamin E treatment improved noninvasive fibrosis scores and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients. The responses were similar between different PNPLA3 genotypes. PMID:26644818

  5. Cytochrome c: a non-invasive biomarker of drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J; Knapton, A; Adeyemo, O; Noory, L; Weaver, J; Hanig, J P

    2008-10-01

    Limitations of existing biomarkers to detect liver injury in experimental animals highlight the need for additional tools to predict human toxicity. The utility of cytochrome c (cyt c) as a biomarker in serum and urine was evaluated in two rodent liver injury models. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with acetaminophen or D-galactosamine (GalN) showed dose- and time-dependent histomorphological changes and TUNEL staining in liver consistent with hepatocellular necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation up to 72 h. Matching changes in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and cyt c peaked at 24 h for either drug at the highest dose, cyt c falling rapidly at 48 hours with ALT and AST remained high. Intracellular transit of cyt c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm in damaged hepatocytes, and then to peripheral circulation, was observed by immunohistochemistry. Correlation coefficients between cyt c and serum diagnostic tests indicate the liver to be the primary source of cyt c. Urinary analysis for cyt c revealed time-dependent increase at 6 h, peaking at 24 h in GalN-treated rats in contrast with irregular patterns of urinary ALT and AST activity. Histological changes detected at 6 h preceded altered ALT, AST and cyt c at 12 and 18 h, respectively, in GalN-treated rats. These studies demonstrate cyt c to be a useful indicator of hepatic injury in rodents and support its utility as a non-invasive predictor of drug-induced hepatotoxicity, when utilized as a potential urinary biomarker. PMID:18418843

  6. Hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride: protective effect of Gongronema latifolium.

    PubMed

    Etim, O E; Akpan, E J; Usoh, I F

    2008-07-01

    The protective effect of the ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium (GLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatic toxicity was studied. Liver enzymes studied included alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotraferase (AST), and alkaline phosphates (ALP). Hepatic injuries involved with possible necrosis which may have contributed to its possible pathogenesis was explored. Administration of toxicant only showed that the ALT level was significantly (P<0.05) increased to 345.83% when compared to control. Pretreatment with Gongronema latifolium extract (GLE) non-significantly (P<0.05) decreased to 13.08% when compared to those treated with toxicant only. Also under experimental conditions, increasing the concentration of Gongronema latifoluim extract (GLE) non-significantly (P<0.05) decreased dose-dependently the level of ALT to 18.20%. The AST level was non-significantly (P<0.05) increased to 41.55% on treatment with toxicant only. Pretreatment with GLE decreased the AST level non-significantly (P<0.05) to 25.76%. No evident increase or decrease in the level of ALP was observed. Treatments with toxicant showed liver cells filled with uniformly distributed dense small fat droplets, large nuclei, inflamed cells and evidence of necrosis and fibrosis. Pretreatment with 100mg/kg of the extract showed microvesicular fatty change with no evidence of inflammation, necrosis or fibrosis. The protective effect of the GLE was more pronounced in ALT and AST. However, the GLE has a strong modulatory effect against the hepatocellular damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. PMID:18614423

  7. Circulating microRNA 122 in the methionine and choline-deficient mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John D; Sharapova, Tatiana; Lake, April D; Blomme, Eric; Maher, Jonathan; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-06-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The methionine choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a frequently used hepatotoxicity animal model of NASH that induces hepatic transaminase (ALT, AST) elevations and hepatobiliary histological changes similar to those observed in human NASH. Liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown as a key regulator of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in adult liver, and has recently been proposed as a sensitive and specific circulating biomarker of hepatic injury. The purpose of this study was to assess miR-122 serum levels in mice receiving an MCD diet for 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days and compare the performance vs. routine clinical chemistry when benchmarked against the histopathological liver findings. MiR-122 levels were quantified in serum using RT-qPCR. Both miR-122 and ALT/AST levels were significantly elevated in serum at all timepoints. MiR-122 levels increased on average by 40-fold after 3 days of initiating the MCD diet, whereas ALT and AST changes were 4.8- and 3.3-fold, respectively. In general, miR-122 levels remained elevated across all time points, whereas the ALT/AST increases were less robust but correlated with the progressive severity of NASH as assessed by histopathology. In conclusion, serum levels of miR-122 can potentially be used as a sensitive biomarker for the early detection of hepatotoxicity and can aid in monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury in mouse efficacy models. PMID:24217942

  8. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3?g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, ?-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, ?-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25821491

  9. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  10. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in broilers and broiler hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingchen; Yu, Zezhong; Hou, Jiafa; Deng, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhenlei; Zhao, Zhiyong; Cui, Jun

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins belong to mycotoxins which are found in human foods and animal chow. We investigated the toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2/HT-2 in broilers and chicken hepatocytes. Maize cultures of Fusarium poae was fed to broilers for 42 d, and the physiological index, biochemical index and expression of mRNAs related to oxidative stress were analyzed. Chicken hepatocytes were treated with different levels of T-2/HT-2, and the following parameters were detected: cell viability, GSH and MDA concentration, LDH leakage, activities of ALT/AST, ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. In vivo, high levels of mycotoxins (4 mg/kg T-2 and 0.667 mg/kg HT-2) in feed caused significant reductions in body weight, weight gain, and serum total protein, and significant increases in feed conversion ratio, ALP, ALT/AST activities, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. In vitro, cells treated with T-2/HT-2 showed reductions of GSH concentration and significant increases in LDH leakage, ALT/AST ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT activities, MDA concentration, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. Consequently, F. poae culture material and T-2/HT-2 induced toxicity and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro, respectively. PMID:26683309

  11. The hepatoprotective effects of Hypericum perforatum L. on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Engur, Selin; Senturk, Hakan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Colak, Suat

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effective role of Hypericum perforatum on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Hence, albino rats were subjected to 45 min of hepatic ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion period. Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (HPE50) was intraperitonally injected as a single dose, 15 min prior to ischemia. Rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion period and then, biochemical investigations were made in serum and liver tissue. Liver tissue homogenates were used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. At the same time alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in serum samples and compared statistically. While the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels were significantly increased, CAT and GPx activities significantly decreased in only I/R-induced control rats compared to normal control rats (p < 0.05). Treatment with HPE50 significantly decreased the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels, and markedly increased activities of CAT and GPx in tissue homogenates compared to I/R-induced rats without treatment-control group (p < 0.05). In oxidative stress generated by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, H. perforatum L. as an antioxidant agent contributes an alteration in the delicate balance between the scavenging capacity of antioxidant defence systems and free radicals in favour of the antioxidant defence systems in the body. PMID:23794084

  12. Protective effect of allicin against glycidamide-induced toxicity in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Ting; Chen, Dong-Yan; Liu, Huang-You; Yan, Hai-Yang; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide is known to be a neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic compound. Glycidamide has a close relationship to the toxic mechanism of acrylamide. In order to explore the toxic mechanism of acrylamide, we further discussed the effects of oral administration of allicin on glycidamide-induced toxicity by determining the hematological parameters like AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, creatinine, ROS, and 8-OHdG, and biochemical parameters such as MDA, MPO, SOD, GST and GSH in the kidney, liver, brain and lung of male and female mice for the first time. We found that the same dose of glycidamide had more toxic effects and damage effects to the mice compared to the previous study of acrylamide. It could markedly increase the level of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, MPO while decrease the SOD, GST and GSH. However, our data showed the oral administered allicin with a concentration of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w./day could significantly decrease the damage indexes of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, and MPO, while increase the antioxidant indicators of SOD, GST and GSH. Thus allicin could be used as an effective dietary supplement for the chemoprevention of glycidamide genotoxicity internally, and to prevent the tissue damage and toxicity induced by glycidamide. PMID:25730897

  13. Drug-induced liver disease--a review of 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K; Liu, J D; Lin, S Y; Liao, L Y; Cheng, N Y; Wang, C S; Siauw, C P; Chen, P H

    1995-04-01

    The clinical and pathological features of 14 cases of acute drug-induced liver disease (DILD) were analyzed using the French group method for drug reaction assessment. Among them, 8 were of the cytotoxic type, 4 were of the cholestatic type and 2 were of the mixed type. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of the cytotoxic type DILD were all < 1.8 times the normal value, while those of the cholestatic type DILD > 1.8 times (P < 0.05). The alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase (ALT and AST) levels of the cholestatic type were all < 13.1 times the normal value, while those of the cytotoxic type varied from 2.2 to 118 times the normal value. We found that steatosis was the major feature in the cytotoxic type with ALT and AST < 2.5 times the normal value. Piecemeal necrosis was noted only in all the cases with ALT and AST > 20 times the normal value. In the cholestatic type, the pathological features of the oral contraceptive-related DILD showed mainly cholestasis, whereas chlorpromazine-related DILD revealed additional portal inflammation. Meticulous taking of patient history and clinical assessment are mandatory for the diagnosis of DILD. The ALP levels were helpful in distinguishing different types of DILD. There are some correlations between biochemical changes and pathological features, and both are helpful in distinguishing different etiologies of DILD when the inciting drug is in doubt. PMID:7602656

  14. Influence of nandrolone decanoate administration on serum lipids and liver enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Samieinasab, Mohammad Reza; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samieinasab, Fatemah; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroids have been associated with several side effects range. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND, an anabolic steroid) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats in Iran. METHODS Forty adult male and female of Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 animals each: male control, female control, ND-male treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day), and ND-female treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in all studied groups. RESULTS Treating rats with ND (case group) resulted in a significant elevation of TC (69.4 ± 8.7), TG (101.6 ± 32.9) and ALT (72.2 ± 13.8) and significant reduction of LDL (6.4 ± 2.6) and AST (138.7 ± 19.4) as compared to control group in female rats. ND supplementation (case group) significantly increased TC (64.4 ± 6.2), AST (255.0 ± 32.0), and ALT (84.3 ± 3.8) in comparison with the control group in male rats. CONCLUSION Overall, our result indicated that the ND use can cause a negative effect on lipid profile and liver enzyme in rats. PMID:26478734

  15. Role of Elevated Aminotransferases in ICU Patients with Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Raurich, Joan M; Llompart-Pou, Juan A; Rodríguez-Yago, Miguel; Ferreruela, Mireia; Royo, Cristina; Ayestarán, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether patients with rhabdomyolysis and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) higher than 1000 IU/L had higher mortality that patients with low aminotransferases. Retrospective analysis of intensive care unit patients with rhabdomyolysis [creatine kinase (CK) higher than 5000 IU/L]. Patients were classified in two groups: low aminotransferases group, when AST and ALT were equal or lower to 1000 IU/L, and elevated aminotransferases group, when AST or ALT was above 1000 IU/L. Forty-six out of 189 patients included in the analysis (24.3%) had elevated aminotransferases. The mortality of patients with rhabdomyolysis was 25.9 per cent, being higher in patients with elevated aminotransferases compared with patients with low aminotransferases (60.9% vs 14.7%; P < 0.001). Mortality stratified by quartiles of CK in patients with low aminotransferases was independent of the level of CK (P = 0.67). Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables associated with mortality were Simplified Acute Physiology Score II [1.11 (1.07-1.16) for each point of increase, P < 0.001], the international normalized ratio value [4.2 (1.6-10.7) for each point of increase, P = 0.003], and the need of renal replacement therapy [5.4 (1.7-17.2), P = 0.004]. Patients with rhabdomyolysis with elevated serum aminotransferases had higher mortality than patients with low serum aminotransferase levels. PMID:26736155

  16. Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability Ke Cao, Jiang Hu, Mosong Cheng

    E-print Network

    Hu, Jiang

    and a sharper image is printed. The 180° light region is called phase shifter. It is common that two features, but it intensifies the mask complexity. In a cell based design, a specific cell may be utilized several times

  17. telomeric DNA (17). It is possible that the extra telomeric sequences in ALT cells are titrating

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    , 193 (1992). 8. C. N. Sprung, L. Sabatier, J. P. Murnane, Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 4336 (1996). 9. R is influenced by telomere length in order to determine whether TPE actually influences the physiology of aging is available on Science Online at www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/292/ 5524/2075/DC1 12. J. P. Hanish, J. L

  18. Fundamental studies of dissolution inhibition in poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlihan, F. M.; Dabbagh, G.; Rushkin, I.; Hutton, R.; Bolan, K.; Reichmanis, E.; Nalamasu, O.; Yan, Z.; Reiser, A.

    2001-07-01

    The dissolution inhibition mechanism for tert-butylcarboxylate (e.g. tert-butyl cholate) dissolution inhibitors and onium salt photoacid generators (PAG's) were examined in terpolymers of poly(norbornene-maleic anhydride-acrylic acid) (P(NB/MA/AA)). For tert-butyl carboxylates, increasing hydrophobicity increased the dissolution inhibition ability. Dissolution promotion tracked with the number of carboxylic acid moieties and the hydrophobicity of carboxylic acids moieties released upon acidolytic cleavage of the tert-butyl carboxylate. For onium salt PAG's, increasing the hydrophobicity and size of fluorinated anions decreased dissolution inhibition.

  19. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  20. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  1. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  2. quivalenzliste Anglistik (HF) I Lehrveranstaltungen WPO (alt) (Teil-)Module GymPO (neu)

    E-print Network

    Reyle, Uwe

    ) Sprachpraktische Übungen: Current Phraseology/Lexicon & Phraseology, Wortschatzarbeit, Business English Lexicon) Sprachpraktische Übungen: Current Phraseology/Lexicon & Phraseology, Wortschatzarbeit, Business English Lexicon Pflichtmodul 8: Textformen Text and Genre Landeskunde/Cultural Studies Wahlmodul 1: Interculturality Oral

  3. 16 MaxPlanckForschung 3 | 09 Der alte Mond und das Meer: Unter der vereisten

    E-print Network

    Falge, Eva

    Wassereis, die zu- sätzlich das Element Natrium enthal- ten. ,,Ihr Fundort ist der E-Ring des Saturn ­ ein, der das CDA-Experiment leitet. IN SATURNS E-RING GELINGT DEM DETEKTOR EINE PREMIERE ,,Enceladus zieht, im E-Ring des Saturn gelang jedoch eine Premiere: nämlich die gefrore

  4. HealtHPolicyFactSHeet UCLA Center For HeALtH

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    . Medical care can prevent as well as cure disease, and offers still other benefits: Early detection Castañeda Cancer Screening Rates Lowest Among Mexican Immigrants Breast cancer is the most common cancer cancer deaths by 20%-39% in women ages 50- 74 and about 17% in women ages 40-49.1 In 2000, Mexican im

  5. S103/025 Altes Hauptgebude Datum Uhrzeit Kurs Kursname Dozent

    E-print Network

    Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

    Digitaltechnik - Ü 22 Sarah Harris; Andreas Koch Mo 16.11.15 16:15 - 17:55 04-00-0128-vu Mathe I (Inf) Übung 12 - gesperrt, bitte nicht anmelden Robert Haller-Dintelmann; Sandra Lang; Francesco Ludovici Mo 16.11.15 18

  6. CME 435.3 (3L 3P alt weeks) Verification of Digital Systems

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    and written English. "Developing and practicing communication skills is an essential experience requirement." ­ Experience Guideline 2 (Updated May 2009) Components of Acceptable Engineering Work Experience, APEGS - Interfaces and Ports - Driver and Monitors - Error Injection - Transaction Records 4. Introduction to System

  7. A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt

    E-print Network

    Darken, Christian J.

    of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

  8. Audit on the appropriateness of integrated COPD management: the “ALT-BPCO” project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non communicable chronic diseases (including respiratory ones) are the leading cause of death and disability. To cope with them we need to redesign the health system, improving primary prevention, screening, and outpatient services, while fully integrating different branches of the health service. The Italian Ministry of Health published extended guidelines on integrated COPD management (COPD-GL) in 2010. In2011 a condensed version was produced. These documents define appropriateness of management regarding both the specialist and the health service. Methods An internal audit on how clinical practice conforms to COPD-GL standards was implemented in one Italian region involving 29 respiratory units (RU) (65.8% of the total regional RU): data were collected from the clinical database at time zero and after 6 months. In the meantime, specialists of RU underwent education on COPD-GL. Results At time zero, significant gaps between current practice and recommendations emerged both in medical practice (mean agreement 25%) and in the health organization (48%). At month 6 the gaps were reduced more in clinical practice (60.7%) than in organization (54.7%). Conclusions It is easier to resolve the gaps in specialist clinical practice than the organizational gaps, changing which is the politicians’ task. Correcting specialists’ inappropriateness may be worthless if this is not accompanied by improvement of the organizational obstacles. The search for appropriateness should not be limited only to specialists or to a strict control of drug prescription but should include all the organizational aspects. Implementation of COPD-GL calls for actions on the part of both specialists and the health system. PMID:25097757

  9. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  14. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  15. "control-Alt-Delete": Rebooting Solutions for the E-Waste Problem

    E-print Network

    Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, M; Ogunseitan, OA; Stevels, A

    2015-01-01

    waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plastics andwaste printed circuit boards (PCBs) to salvage reusable components, and uncontrolled open burning of plastics andplastics, which could be obtained with a substantial disassembling. Previous studies indicates waste

  16. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  17. Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying of Poly(methyl methacrylate) with Polyisoprene and Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)

    E-print Network

    Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying of Poly(methyl methacrylate) with Polyisoprene and Poly, Cincinnati, Ohio 45239 Received August 26, 1999 ABSTRACT: Mechanical alloying is performed at cryogenic,2 Blending techniques, however, typically rely on process- ing polymers as solutions or melts, wherein high

  18. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  19. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  20. Effects of Metformin, Pioglitazone, and Silymarin Treatment on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajiaghamohammadi, Ali Akbar; Ziaee, Amir; Oveisi, Sonia; Masroor, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common reasons of enzyme increase in liver. In About 10 percent of patients with NAFLD, the disease progresses toward Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and about one third of them may progress toward cirrhosis, liver dysfunction, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives According to high prevalence of NAFLD and the fact that there is no consensus on treatment of this disease, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of metformin, pioglitazone, and silymarin on treatment of NAFLD. Patients and Methods Sixty six patients with NAFLD who were presented in the Endocrinology and Metabolism clinic of Boo’ali Hospital, Qazvin, Iran, were assigned randomly into three groups (n = 22). First group was treated by pioglitazone 15 mg/d, second group by metformin 500 mg/d, and third group by silymarin 140 mg/d. All patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluations including weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profiles, body mass index (BMI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum insulin levels in pre- and post-intervention after eight-week follow up. Results Before the treatment there was no significant difference between three groups with respect to average age, BMI and gender, FBS, lipid profile, AST, ALT, serum insulin level, and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance. After the intervention, a significant reduction was observed in average amount of FBS, lipid profile, ALT, AST, serum insulin level and HOMA index in three groups (P < 0.01). The most reduction in average FBS, TG, serum insulin level, and HOMA index was observed in pioglitazone group, the most reduction in average amount of cholesterol was seen in metformin group, and the most decrease in average amount of AST and ALT occurred in silymarin group. Conclusions These results suggest that all drugs are beneficial in improving biochemical indices in patients with NAFLD. Changes in AST and ALT in silymarin group were demonstrated more than that in other groups and the average difference between changes was significant between silymarin and metformin groups. PMID:23087748

  1. Grundy number and lexicographic product of graphs Marie Aste Frederic Havet Claudia Linhares-Sales

    E-print Network

    Bermond, Jean-Claude

    of a graph G = (V,E) is a mapping c :V {1,...,k}, such that for any edge uv E(G), c(u) = c(v). A k-colouring number of a graph G, denoted by (G), is the largest k such that G has a greedy k-colouring, that is a colouring with k colours obtained by applying the greedy algorithm according to some ordering

  2. Grundy number and products of graphs Marie Aste , Frederic Havet and Claudia Linhares-Sales

    E-print Network

    Bermond, Jean-Claude

    ] for example. A (proper) k-colouring of a graph G = (V,E) is a mapping c :V {1,...,k}, such that for any edge a greedy k-colouring, that is a colouring with k colours obtained by applying the greedy algorithm, finite and contain neither loops nor multiple edges (unless stated otherwise). The definitions

  3. Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets

    E-print Network

    Beginning Teachers Experience Scientific Inquiry Fred Martin, Department of Computer Science, University science undergraduate students what they think scientific inquiry is and they will mumble something about as enjoying breakthroughs (Derry, 1999). Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for aspiring science teachers

  4. AST-6/CSM training console operations manual. [Apollo Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R.

    1975-01-01

    The ATS-6/Command Service Module Training Console houses, controls, and cools telecommunication subsystems during support of ASTP test programs. The function of each switch on the power control and mode control panels is described along with the input functions on the stimulus input panel. The switch settings for each mode of operation are presented.

  5. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-200 supersonic transport configuration concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkley, K. B.; Martin, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The design and analysis of a supersonic transport configuration was conducted using linear theory methods in conjunction with appropriate constraints. Wing optimization centered on the determination of the required twist and camber and proper integration of the wing and fuselage. Also included in the design are aerodynamic refinements to the baseline wing thickness distribution and nacelle shape. Analysis to the baseline and revised configurations indicated an improvement in lift-to-drag ratio of 0.36 at the Mach 2.7 cruise condition. Validation of the design is planned through supersonic wing tunnel tests.

  6. The College Supervisor: Standards for Selection and Function. An AST Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Student Teaching, Washington, DC. Commission on Standards for Supervising Teachers and College Supervisors.

    This position paper on the college supervisor of student teaching is divided into three sections. Section one (on the selection of college supervisors) contains an enumeration of the responsibilities of the college supervisor from which general criteria can be derived for selection, assumptions on which the criteria for selection are based, the…

  7. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...-034-AD; Amendment 39-16357; AD 2010-14-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Arrow...

  8. Analysis of recent CLAS data on $\\Sigma ^{\\ast }(1385)$ photoproduction off a neutron target

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiao-Yun; Haberzettl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent experimental data obtained by the CLAS Collaboration, the $\\Sigma(1385)$ photoproduction off a neutron target at laboratory photon energies $E_\\gamma$ up to 2.5\\,GeV is investigated in an effective Lagrangian approach including $s$-, $u$-, and $t$-channel Born-term contributions. The present calculation does not take into account any explicit $s$-channel baryon-resonance contributions, however, in the spirit of duality, we include $t$-channel exchanges of mesonic Regge trajectories. The onset of the Regge regime is controlled by smoothly interpolating between Feynman-type single-meson exchanges and full-fledged Regge-trajectory exchanges. Gauge invariance broken by the Regge treatment is fully restored by introducing contact-type interaction currents that result from the implementation of \\textit{local} gauge invariance in terms of generalized Ward-Takahashi identities. The cross sections for the $\\gamma n\\to K^+\\Sigma^*(1385)^-$ reaction are calculated and compared with experimental results f...

  9. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

    2013-01-01

    and creatinine concentrations, impaired urine concentratingurine protein excretion, and plasma creatinine, and ureacreatinine concentration (Cr), serum urea concentration, hematocrit (Hct), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and urine (

  10. AST 598 'Instrumentation and Data Analysis' course, ASU, Fall 2013 Astronomy with Charged Coupled Devices

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    terminology) per isolated pict ure el ement (pixel ) create potential wells in the silicon. · When a photon is absorbed in silicon, an electron-hole pair is created. The generated photo-electrons migrate to and are confined within the potential well created by the gate kept at the largest positive Voltage. The holes

  11. R.A. Jansen AST 598/494 'The Distant Universe' course, ASU, Fall 2014

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    in MOSFET terminology) per isolated pict ure el ement (pixel ) create potential wells in the silicon. · When a photon is absorbed in silicon, an electron-hole pair is created. The generated photo-electrons migrate. The positive holes are repulsed and diffuse away into the bulk of the silicon, thus preventing recombination. c

  12. AST5-CT-2006-030768 Clearance of Flight Control Laws using Optimisation

    E-print Network

    Schön, Thomas

    the clearance benchmark problem to be solved within the project. 1.2 Starting point of work at beginning in the reported period was to accomplish Task 3.1.1 : Formulation of the clearance benchmark problem. Gather The clearance problem has been divided into two sub-problems: Part1: non-linear benchmark, dealing

  13. Hepatitis B virus infection among medical aste handlers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 medical and non-medical waste handlers working in three Government hospitals of Addis Ababa between May to July, 2010. Predesigned and tested questionnaire was used to collect soiociodemographic information. Blood sample was taken from 252 waste handlers and serum was tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-Hepatitis core antigen (anti-HBcAg) using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. Of the 126 Medical Waste Handlers and 126 Non Medical Waste Handler, HBsAg was detected in 8 (6.3%) and 1 (0.8%), and anti-HBcAg in 60 (47.6%) and 40 (31.7%), respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBsAg (OR: 8, 95% CI: 1.02, 63.02; p = 0.01), Anti-HB c Ag (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1; p = 0.01) and either markers (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.2; p = 0.001) in medical waste handlers compared to non medical waste handlers. 19.8% were trained to handle medical waste and none was immunized against HBV. Conclusion This study shows a high prevalence of HBV infection in medical waste handlers compared to non medical waste handlers. Lack of training on how to handle medical waste among medical waste handlers was high. PMID:22051187

  14. Monitor the Temporal Stability of the Fgs's AST-SV-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferys, William

    1990-12-01

    The goal of these measurements is to monitor the internal positional stability of the FGSs by measuring a few stars in "check fields" repeatedly during the SV period. The results of these measurements are the stability characteristics of the FGS to allow an estimate of the frequency of OFAD re-calibrations. NOW USES WvA positions for PROX and ref frame. 910920 Modified 910920 by F. Benedict to 1) observe Proxima Cen starting 920201 2) do either FGS 1 or FGS 3 THIS IS AN FGS 3 TEST Modified 8 Feb 92 to remove v=16.25 target and change pupil to F583W.

  15. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY: Federal... Test Site, Texas. The Draft EA was prepared in response to an application for an experimental permit... (water lines). Therefore, the Proposed Action analyzed in the Draft EA includes the activities that...

  16. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...vehicle proposed to launch from the California Spaceport is the Athena III, consisting of a two-stage Castor 120 solid-propellant rocket motor with the addition of up to six Castor IVA or Castor IVXL rocket motors strapped to the first stage. The...

  17. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY... availability of the Final EA and FONSI for the Launch and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets... rockets and WhiteKnightTwo carrier aircraft at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California....

  18. AST 301, Introduction to Astronomy Course Description and Syllabus --Fall 2015

    E-print Network

    Jefferys, William

    & McMillan Course Email Address: elr301@astro.as.utexas.edu Course WEB Site: http and supermassive black holes, dark matter. · Cosmology ­ the expansion of the universe, its origin in the Big Bang, dark energy and the future of the universe. The course emphasizes the physical processes at work

  19. Two-dimensional froths and the dynamics of biological tissues B. Dubertret,* T. Aste,

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    the possible cell configurations can be explored by mitosis and disappearance. Cell mitosis and disappearance by mitosis or disappearance, but its averaged value s 6 is fixed throughout the evolu- tion of the tissue

  20. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  1. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE CHROMOSPHERE AND THE SOLAR CORONA

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    : magnetic field can levitate dense plasma due to freezing in. Observed as dark filaments on the solar disk; short lived (minutes­hours) Quiescent prominence: floating persistently (days­weeks) in one place Cause mass ejections (CMEs) : plasma clouds ejected from the corona. Cause: photospheric motions slowly

  2. Summer 09 REU Report Elaboration of a Question Bank For AST2010

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    of topics going from planetary astronomy, stellar evolution, galaxies, cosmology, the Big Bang as well astrophysics and stellar evolution to help me towards my goal (see acknowledgements section). The questions choice, fill in the blank, true or false, matching, and combinations. The following are examples

  3. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Systems International (SSI) for the Continued Operation of the California Spaceport at Vandenberg Air... at VAFB, California. The SEA supplements the U.S. Air Force February 1995 EA for the California... considered in the SEA include air quality; biological resources (fish, wildlife, and plants); noise; land...

  4. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

    2013-01-01

    the results of the present animal study suggest that oralof our original study (14) the CKD animals employed in theanimals have revealed increased intestinal permeability to large molecular weight polyethylene glycols (7,8) and studies

  5. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Brightness and colours THE DIVISION OF ASTRONOMY

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    appears brighter on a photograph. Reason: eye is most sensitive to yellow light while photoemulsion to blue light. For a unique spcification of the magnitude value, the colour sensitivity of the instrument brightest -4.6 Sirius (brightest fixed star) -1.6 Faintest naked eye stars 6.5 Faintest telescopic stars 34

  6. Publications for John Canning Hossain, M., Canning, J., Cook, K., Ast, S., Rutledge, P.,

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    a 3D-printed preform. Optics Letters, 40(17), 3966-3969. ). Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D- printed preform. 24th International Conference of an Er3+/Yb3+ co- doped phosphosilicate optical fibre for lasers, amplifiers and sensors. 24th

  7. Inverse associations of total and decaffeinated coffee with liver enzyme levels in NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I.; Freedman, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coffee may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic markers. However, it is unclear whether decaffeinated coffee is also associated with liver enzymes. Methods The study population included 27,793 participants, age 20 or older, in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010). Coffee intake was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of aminotransferase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT) were measured. We examined the relationship between coffee intake and enzymatic levels using weighted multiple variable logistic (abnormally elevated levels of enzymes) and linear regression (continuous enzymatic levels). Results Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with abnormal levels of all four liver enzymes and continuous levels of AST, ALP and GGT. Compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, participants reporting ?3 cups per day had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)), 0.82 (0.68, 0.98), 0.73 (0.55, 0.95) and 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) for abnormal levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with decaffeinated coffee intake and abnormal levels of ALT (OR?2 vs 0 cup/d: 0.62 (0.41, 0.94)), AST (0.74 (0.49, 1.11)), and GGT (0.70, 0.49–1.00). Conclusion Higher intakes of coffee, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes. PMID:25124935

  8. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were categorized into quintiles. Sub-distribution hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a competing risks regression model in which deaths from other causes were treated as competing risks. Results Of 8808 deaths, 1111 (12.6%) were due to external causes. Injury accounted for 256 deaths, and suicide accounted for 255. After adjusting for covariates, elevated ALT and AST were significantly associated with an increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, as well as suicide and injury. Sub-distribution hazards ratios (95% CIs) of the highest versus the lowest quintiles of serum ALT and AST were, respectively, 1.57 (1.26-1.95) and 1.45 (1.20-1.76) for all external causes, 2.73 (1.68-4.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.66) for suicide, and 1.79 (1.10-2.90) and 1.85 (1.21-2.82) for injury. The risk of external-cause mortality was also significantly higher in the fourth quintile of ALT (21.6-27.5 IU/L) than in its first quintile. Conclusion Elevated aminotransferase levels, even within the normal range, were significantly associated with increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, including suicide, and injury. PMID:26446640

  9. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on the activities of serum enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Manthiri, Rajamohammed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) venom on the activities of liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in the sera of rats. The animals were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of crude Androctonus bicolor venom (200 ?g/kg bodyweight) and were sacrificed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h after venom injection. There was no significant change in ALT activity in rats injected with Androctonus bicolor venom. Although Androctonus bicolor venom did not produce any change in serum AST activity until 1 h post-dosing, it significantly decreased this enzyme activity at 2 h onwards. There were significant decreases in ALP activities throughout the study though mild surges in the enzyme activity were observed at 1 h and 8 h post-dosing. There was a continued significant decrease in serum LDH activity until 8 h after Androctonus bicolor venom injection followed by normalization of LDH activity at 24 h. The activities of serum CK and GGT were significantly decreased at all the time points following Androctonus bicolor envenomation in rats. In conclusion, Androctonus bicolor envenomation in rats significantly reduced the activities of serum enzymes including AST, ALP, LDH, CK and GGT. Androctonus bicolor venom induced hypomagnesemia may account for persistently reduced activities of liver enzymes due to the cofactor role of magnesium in enzyme activities. PMID:26380012

  10. Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. RESULTS: Four RCTs including 338 patients met the prede?ned inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00?001; I2 = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. CONCLUSION: Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections. PMID:21912460

  11. Biochemical parameters in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica infected with coccidia and treated with Toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Sokól, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M; Koziatek, S

    2015-01-01

    The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels were determined in the blood serum of Japanese quails infected with coccidia and treated with Baycox (active ingredient: toltrazuril). Lower levels of AST and ALT activity were noted in treated birds regardless of the applied Baycox dose. The biochemical changes observed in the blood serum of Japanese quails point to coccidia-induced damage of digestive system tissues despite an absence of pronounced clinical symptoms. Significantly lower levels of AST activity and higher levels of LDH activity in treated birds indicate that coccidiosis treatment with toltrazuril contributed to the regeneration of digestive system tissues. An insignificant increase in cholesterol levels was noted, whereas the other serum biochemical parameters remained within the reference ranges. PMID:25928913

  12. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides in controlling ROS-meditated hypoxic injury in cells and can be useful in many hepatic complications. PMID:23833369

  13. Protective Role of Crocin Against Nicotine-induced Damages on Male Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Tabatabaei, Hadis; Kakaberiei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against nicotine on the liver of mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were equally divided into 8 groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus nicotine treated groups. Saline, crocin, nicotine and crocin/nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight (48.37%) and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (239%), central hepatic vein (28.45%), liver enzymes level (ALP 29.43%, AST 21.81%, ALT 21.55%), and blood serum nitric oxide level (57.18%) compared to saline group (P < 0.05). However, crocin and crocin plus nicotine administration significantly boosted liver weight (49.54%) and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (40.48%), central hepatic vein (15.44%), liver enzymes (ALP 22.02%, AST 19.05%, ALT 23.11%), and nitric oxide levels (35.80%) in all groups compared to nicotine group (percentages represent the maximum dose) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Crocin showed its partly protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26442615

  14. Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Bin; Li, Qing; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiu-Ming; Zhou, Qin; Sun, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson's staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

  15. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  17. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress via total antioxidant status, sialic acid, malondialdehyde and RT-PCR findings in sheep affected with bluetongue

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, I.; Aksit, H.; Sait, A.; Kaya, F.; Aksit, D.; Gokmen, M.; Baca, A. Unsal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious infectious disease of ruminants. The disease agent bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified in the Reoviridae family Orbivirus. Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to determine serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative stres (TAS), total sialic acid (TSA), ceruloplasmin, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholesterol, creatinine, albumin, and total protein levels in sheep with and without bluetongue (BT). Materials and Methods The study included 13 Sakiz crossbreed sheep, aged 1–4 years and usually in the last stage of pregnancy, as the BT group and a control group consisting of 10 healthy sheep. All sheep were clinically examined before collecting blood samples. Serum ALT, AST, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, GGT, total protein, creatinine and TAS levels were measured using commercially available kits as per manufacturer's recommendations using a Biochemistry Auto Analyzer (Sinnowa D280, China). Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated through a previously described method in which MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a coloured complex at a maximum absorbance of 535 nm. The TSA value was measured at 549 nm using the method described by Warren (1959): sialic acid was oxidised to formyl-pyruvic acid, which reacts with TBA to form a pink product. The ceruloplasmin concentration was measured according to Sunderman and Nomoto (1970): ceruloplasmin and p-phenylenediamine formed a coloured oxidation product that was proportional to the concentration of serum ceruloplasmin. Real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR were performed as described by Shaw and others (2007). Results Biochemistry analysis of serum showed that in the BT group, TSA, MDA, triglyceride and ALT and AST were higher and that ceruloplasmin and TAS were lower than in the control group. Serum albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and GGT did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Serum triglyceride, ceruloplasmin, TSA, MDA and TAS concentrations may prove beneficial to the diagnosis, prognosis and biochemical analysis of BT. PMID:26392885

  19. Lycium barbarum extract provides effective protection against paracetamol-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Y?lmaz; ?çer, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Kan?c?, Ay?e; Kaplan, ?brahim; Alabal?k, Ula?; Gürbüz, Hüseyin; Gülo?lu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Lycium barbarum (LB) extract against paracetamol-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. The subjects were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the LB group were administered a dose of 100 mg/kg LB extract dissolved in saline via the intraperitoneal route for 7 days. Subsequently, after last dose of LB, PCT was given in a single dose of 1 g/kg diluted in saline via the oral route. Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were drawn from all of the subjects for serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) tests, and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological evaluation. The mean TAS level of the group that was subjected to PCT intoxication was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Additionally, the mean TOS, Oxidative stress index (OSI), ALT and AST values were significantly higher in this group. Though the mean TAS level in the PCT + LB group was significantly higher than that of the PCT group, the TOS, OSI, ALT, and AST levels were significantly lower. When the PCT + LB group and the PCT only group were compared in terms of liver damage during the histopathological evaluation, a statistically significant difference was observed in Grade I and Grade III damage (P=0.013 and P=0.038, respectively). We conclude that Lycium barbarum extract leads to a significant improvement in PCT-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of the histopathological results, serum oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes. PMID:26221346

  20. Temporal changes in hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities after ischemia and reperfusion in a rat liver ischemia model: effect of dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, S A; Abdelkafi, S; Jbahi, S; van Pelt, J; El-Feki, A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that administration of tilapia fish oil diet would attenuate warm liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and whether fish oil modulates prooxidant/antioxidant status. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of approximately 70% hepatic ischemia followed by 1, 12, and 24 h reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (SO), control-warm hepatic ischemia (WI) group, and Oil-WI group given tilapia oil for 3 weeks followed by liver IRI. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured in the plasma. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in liver fractions. In the sham group, there was no enzymatic or histological change. I/R caused significant increase in serum AST, ALT, and tissue TBARS levels. As compared to the control group, animals treated with tilapia oil experienced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in AST and ALT levels in reperfusion periods. Tissue TBARS levels in Oil-WI group were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced as compared to control group at 60 min after reperfusion. After ischemia, 1, 12, and 24 h of reperfusion, CAT, SOD, and GPx values were the lowest in the Oil-WI group and highest in the control group and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Histological analysis also revealed that fish oil provided some protection compared with the control group. Tilapia oil exerts a protective effect during the early phase of reperfusion, and it modulates prooxidant/antioxidant status of rat liver subjected to warm IRI. PMID:24939873

  1. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal A.; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130–190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy. PMID:19918318

  2. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely. PMID:25686027

  3. Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides

    SciTech Connect

    Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

  4. [Comparative characteristics of vanadium-containing compounds, possessing insulin-like effects].

    PubMed

    Golubev, M A; Gorodetski?, V K; Anis'kina, A P; Tochilkin, A I; Beliaeva, N F

    2000-01-01

    The serum glucose concentration, HbAc1, fructoseamine, the activity of AST, ALT, amylase, glycogen content and glucokinase activity in rat hepatocytes were examined in streptozotocin-diabetic rats during long-term orthovanadate and vanadyl sulphate treatment. The improvement of this parameters were demonstrated after oral orthovanadate and vanadyl sulphate administration. However, insulin-mimetic properties of vanadyl sulphate were more marked in comparison with orthovanadate. LD-50 and cytotoxicity analysis in isolated hepatocytes showed that vanadyl sulphate was less toxic than orthovanadate. PMID:10885036

  5. [The idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum based on endotoxin model].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-yu; Li, Xiao-fei; Tu, Can; Li, Na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Pang, Jing-yao; Jia, Ge-liu-chang; Cui, He-rong; You, Yun; Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Zhao, Yan-ling; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-01-01

    The liver injury induced by Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) was investigated based on idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model co-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a non-hepatotoxic dose. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intragastrically administered with three doses (18.9, 37.8, 75.6 g crude drug per kg body weight) of 50% alcohol extracts of PM alone or co-treated with non-toxic dose of LPS (2.8 mg·kg(-1)) via tail vein injection. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were assayed and the isolated livers were evaluated for histopathological changes. The dose-toxicity relationships of single treatment of PM or co-treatment of LPS were investigated comparatively to elucidate the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of PM. The results showed that no significant alterations of plasma ALT and AST activities were observed in the groups of solo-administration of LPS (2.8 mg·kg(-1), i.v.) or different dosage (18.9, 37.8 and 75.6 g·kg(-1), i.g.) of PM, compared to normal control group (P > 0.05); while significant elevations were observed in the co-administration groups of PM and LPS. Treatment with LPS alone caused slight infiltration of inflammatory cells in portal area but no evident hepatocytes injury. Co-treatment with LPS and PM (75.6 g·kg(-1), i.g.) caused hepatocyte focal necrosis, loss of central vein intima and a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration in portal areas. When further reduce the dosage of PM, significant increases of plasma ALT and AST activities (P < 0.05) were still observed in co-administration groups of LPS and PM (1.08 or 2.16 g·kg(-1)), but not in LPS or PM solo-administration groups. Nevertheless, the co-treatment of low dosage of PM (0.54 g·kg(-1)) with LPS did not induce any alteration of plasma ALT and AST. In conclusion, intragastric administration with 75.6 g·kg(-1) of PM did not induce liver injury in normal rats model; while the 2 folds of clinical equivalent dose of PM (1.08 g·kg(-1)) could result in liver injury in the LPS-based idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model, which could be used to evaluate the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of PM. PMID:25924471

  6. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ? 6,1 mmol/L, TG ? 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ? 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in increasing the risk of liver injury. PMID:26543313

  8. Hepatic effects of halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Topal, A; Gül, N; Ilçöl, Y; Görgül, O S

    2003-12-01

    The effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia on hepatic function and hepatocellular damage were investigated in dogs, comparing the activity of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin concentration in serum. An experimental study was designed. Twenty-one clinically normal mongrel dogs were divided into three groups and accordingly anaesthetized with halothane (n = 7), isoflurane (n = 7) and sevoflurane (n = 7). The dogs were 1-4 years old, and weighed between 13.5 and 27 kg (18.4 +/- 3.9). Xylazine HCI (1-2 mg/kg) i.m. was used as pre-anaesthetic medication. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg/kg i.v. The trachea was intubated and anaesthesia maintained with halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen at concentrations of 1.35, 2 and 3%, respectively. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (tidal volume, 15 ml/kg; respiration rate, 12-14/min) was started immediately after intubation and the anaesthesia lasted for 60 min. Venous blood samples were collected before pre-medication, 24 and 48 h, and 7 and 14 days after anaesthesia. Serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Serum AST, ALT and GGT activities increased after anaesthesia in all groups. In the halothane group, serum AST and ALT activities significantly increased all the time after anaesthesia compared with baseline activities. But in the isoflurane group AST and ALT activities increased only between 2 and 7 days, and in the sevoflurane group 7 days after anaesthesia. GGT activity was increased in the halothane group between 2 and 7 days, and in the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups 7 days after anaesthesia. All dogs recovered from anaesthesia without complications and none developed clinical signs of hepatic damage within 14 days. The results suggest that the use of halothane anaesthesia induces an elevation of serum activities of liver enzymes more frequently than isoflurane or sevoflurane from 2 to 14 days after anaesthesia in dogs. The effects of isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia on the liver in dogs is safer than halothane anaesthesia in dogs. PMID:15157022

  9. Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Time-course and dose-response studies in rats were conducted to evaluate Cd-induced hepatotoxicty. Morphological and biochemical evidence of liver injury occurred soon after a high dose of Cd and by ten hr severe hepatic necrosis was evident. Plasma enzyme activities of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase paralleled morphological changes. Data indicate the liver is a major target organ of chronic Cd-poisoning and suggest that Cd-induced liver injury may play an important role in the nephrotoxicity observed after chronic exposure to Cd.

  10. Red Mold Rice against Hepatic Inflammatory Damage in Zn-deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of red mold rice (RMR) against liver injury in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks was investigated in this study. Rats were orally administered RMR (151 mg/kg body weight or 755 mg/kg body weight; 1 × dose or 5 × dose, respectively) with or without Zn once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The severity of liver damage was evaluated by measuring the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Zn-deficient rats. RMR significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT levels by Zn-deficient induction. Hepatic antioxidase activity was also significantly increased in the RMR + Zn group (RZ), thereby suppressing the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines in the liver of Zn-deficient rats. These findings suggested that RMR exerted hepatoprotective effects against Zn deficiency-induced liver inflammation. PMID:24716115

  11. Expansion of circulating TFH cells and their associated molecules: involvement in the immune landscape in patients with chronic HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells are defined as circulating T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which is required for effective humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the role of circulating TFH cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection. Methods The frequency and phenotype of circulating TFH cells were monitored by flow cytometry in CHB patients and in healthy controls (HC). The expression of BCL-6, IL-21, IL-4, CXCR5, and IL-6R mRNA was analyzed using real-time PCR. Serum HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBV DNA loads, ALT and AST were determined. The potential association of the frequency of TFH cells and their surface markers with clinical parameters was assessed. Results The frequency of CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was increased in CHB patients and positively correlated with ALT and AST but not with HBV DNA loads. Moreover, an expansion of ICOS-, PD-1-, CD40L-, and IL-21R-expressing TFH cells occurred in CHB patients, but failed to correlate with ALT, AST and HBV DNA loads. Interestingly, the frequency of CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and ICOS+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in HBeAg positive CHB patients than in HC. Additionally, the percentages of CXCR5+CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with AST, and ICOS-expressing CXCR5+CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with HBV DNA loads. No significant differences in the frequency of CXCR5+CD4+ T cells were observed between inactive carrier (IC) patients and healthy controls. However, ICOS-, PD-1-, CD40L-expressing TFH cells were increased in IC patients and positively correlated with AST. Furthermore, the expression of BCL-6, IL-21, IL-4, CXCR5, and IL-6R mRNA in TFH cells was higher in CHB patients than in HC. Conclusions These data demonstrate that circulating TFH cells may participate in HBV-related immune responses. In addition to the frequency of TFH cells, the phenotype of these cells plays an important role in CHB patients. PMID:24655429

  12. REPORT OF NEW AWARDS FUND TYPE AL'T# SCL PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PI AGENCY 1ITLE AMOUNT START END

    E-print Network

    CHILDREN'S CANCER FUND UNfVERSfIY OF CONNECTICUT FOUNDA1 ENDODONTIC PROGRAM SUPPORT FUND UNSPECIFIED MIXED SOURCES STUDENT SUPPORT FOR MIGRANT FARM UNIVERSfIY OF CONNECTICUT FOUNDA1 UNRRSTRICTED CARDl

  13. Unusually high stability of a poly(alkylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) conjugated copolymer in its n and p-doped states.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mikhael D; Fisyuk, Alexander S; Demadrille, Renaud; Markevich, Elena; Gofer, Yossi; Aurbach, Doron; Pron, Adam

    2006-08-21

    Incorporation of electron accepting units (oxadiazole) into the 2,5-thienylene conjugated chain leads to a significant improvement in the n-doping-undoping redox stability of the resulting polymer. PMID:16883416

  14. WEtransport: A Context-based Ride Sharing Platform Alireza Sahami Shirazi, Thomas Kubitza, Florian Alt, Bastian Pfleging, Albrecht Schmidt

    E-print Network

    public transport is inconvenient, e.g., when trying to reach remote locations, or in off-peak hours where services are limited. Another factor are high costs in- volved with using public transport, especially when.pfleging, albrecht.schmidt}@uni-due.de, thomas.kubitza@stud.uni-due.de ABSTRACT In densely populated urban areas high

  15. arXiv:nucl-ex/0405021v35Nov2004 Survey of ALT asymmetries in semi-exclusive electron scattering

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    .J. Klein,35, § A.V. Klimenko,27 M. Klusman,31 M. Kossov,19 L.H. Kramer,10, 35 S.E. Kuhn,27 J. Kuhn,4 J. Taiuti,17 S. Taylor,32 D.J. Tedeschi,34 U. Thoma,13, 35 R. Thompson,29 A. Tkabladze,26 L. Todor,33 C. Tur

  16. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  17. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  18. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  19. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  20. Invitasjon til trriscurling Tror du instituttets ansatte har svar p alt? Tro du studentene begynner bli for nesevise? Proton inviterer

    E-print Network

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    begynner å bli for nesevise? Proton inviterer dere herved til tørriscurling. Her har dere muligheten til å ishøvdingen, eventuelt Proton-leder, og ta en kopp kaffe med dem på et dertil egnet sted. Vinneren er den som! Bildet er fra tørrisculingen 2011 #12;Lagoppsett Påmelding må sendes til proton

  1. Heritability of liver enzyme levels estimated from genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; Lubke, Gitta H; de Moor, Marleen H M; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Walters, Raymond K; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the liver enzyme levels in humans is moderately heritable, as indicated by twin-family studies. At present, genome-wide association studies have traced <2% of the variance back to genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimated the SNP-based heritability of levels of three liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) using genome-wide SNP data in a sample of 5421 unrelated Dutch individuals. Two estimation methods for SNP-based heritability were compared, one based on the distant genetic relatedness among all subjects as summarized in a Genetic Relatedness Matrix (GRM), and the other one based on density estimation (DE). The DE method was also applied to meta-analysis results on GGT and ALT. GRM-derived SNP-based heritability estimates were significant for GGT (16%) and AST (11%), but not for ALT (6%). DE estimates in the same sample varied as a function of pruning and were around 23% for all liver enzymes. Application of the DE approach to meta-analysis results for GGT and ALT gave SNP-based heritability estimates of 6 and 3%. The significant results in the Dutch sample indicate that genome-wide SNP platforms contain substantial information regarding the underlying genetic variation in the liver enzyme levels. A major part of this genetic variation remains however undetected. SNP-based heritability estimates, based on meta-analysis results, may point at substantial heterogeneity among cohorts contributing to the meta-analysis. This type of analysis may provide useful information to guide future gene searches. PMID:25424715

  2. An Unbiased Spectral Line Survey toward R CrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz Window with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Lindberg, Johan E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH3OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (~85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H2CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  3. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  4. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jorgensen, Jes K.

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH{sub 3}OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 ({approx}85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H{sub 2}CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  5. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...) NEPA implementing regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 1500-1508), and FAA Order 1050.1E... Order 1050.1E, Change 1, paragraph 410, the FAA has independently evaluated the information contained in... concerns of the FAA and complies with FAA requirements for implementing NEPA as stated in FAA Order...

  6. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Quality (CEQ) NEPA implementing regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations ), and FAA Order 1050.1E... accordance with the requirements of FAA Order 1050.1E, Change 1, paragraph 515, the FAA has independently... requirements for implementing NEPA as stated in FAA Order 1050.1E, Change 1. The FAA has also determined...

  7. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of the AKARI Deep Field South: source catalogue and number counts

    E-print Network

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, Thushara A.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, M. S.

    2011-02-11

    in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z? 1.5 given the detection limits. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts in the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM–Newton Deep Field and the SSA 22 field surveyed by Az...

  8. AStA Adv Stat Anal (2009) 93: 6171 DOI 10.1007/s10182-008-0092-z

    E-print Network

    Boehning, Dankmar

    2009-01-01

    .a.w.bohning@reading.ac.uk #12;62 R. Kuhnert, D. Böhning Table 1 Data from the Bangkok heroin users capture­recapture study of the n = 7048 heroin users had one treatment episode up to one case with 19 treatment episodes (f19 = 1

  9. First name ast name atri ati n n m er Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points)

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    foldTree n ti n r m a t im ement t e a Tree n ti n i ret rns t e ar est r t > e ement t e tree art r m double = 0 e a t e as e e arati n bot = bot F r ea n # etermine i n ti n is m te f double n bot ere f double n bot re resents t e n a i ati n f double t bot i e it is s rt r f double f double f double # n

  10. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

  11. Annual Progress Report on NSF Award No. AST-0504677: ATI: Searching for Low-Frequency Radio Transients

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    of the explosion of primor- dial black holes, supernovae, and gamma ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs might also produce for a search over a much broader swath of the unexplored parameter space, which is relatively inexpensive ninth month. In this time, we have installed and commissioned the antenna array (Figure 1), front end

  12. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors (SRMs) on the Atlas V medium lift...the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors (SRMs) would be added to the...

  13. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...evaluate the potential environmental impacts of adding up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors to the Atlas V launch vehicle and larger solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors on the Delta IV vehicle. The FAA participated...

  14. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

    1984-01-01

    A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

  15. Choosing a Lab and Applying Successfuly Compiled by Maya Schuldiner, Senior Scientist and Tslil Ast, First year Masters

    E-print Network

    , First year Masters student. Dept. Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science The lab is a place of the research). Think of it as giving yourself a gift, time to work on a project you find fascinating without? FIRST: KNOW YOURSELF. What is your personality and work style? Labs are not one size fits all. Some

  16. Different doses of partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Shi, Changzheng; Cui, Meng; Yang, Zhenhua; Gan, Danhui; Wang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat. Left-half liver of rat was irradiated to 10 Gy, and the Right-half to 0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy, respectively. Then, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were evaluated on 0 day, 15-day, 30-day, 45-day and 60-day after liver irradiation. Next, the serum HGF, NF-?B and TGF-?1 levels were also analyzed on 60-day after liver irradiation. Lastly, the cyclinD1 protein expression was appraised by western blots on 60-day after liver irradiation. ALT, AST and ALP levels were reduced compared with that of controls. The serum HGF, NF-?B and TGF-?1 levels, and the cyclinD1 protein expression in liver irradiation group were increased compared with that of controls group. However, hepatic regeneration of higher dose-irradiated cirrhotic liver was triggered a more enhanced regeneration, compared with that of higher doses group. In summary, these results suggest that different doses of partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat. PMID:26261535

  17. Hepatocellular integrity during sevoflurane anesthesia with induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Maha A; Khafagy, Hanan F; El-Shanawani, Faten M; El-Sabae, Hossam H; Omar, Sohaila H; Allam, Mohamed N; Kamel, Hend H

    2009-08-01

    The effect of sevoflurane anesthesia with or without induced hypotension on hepatocellular integrity was studied. Forty adult consented patients scheduled for various urological procedures were allocated randomly to either NTG group (nitroglycerin-induced hypotension) or a control group of twenty patients each. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by fentanyl, sevoflurane & vecuronium in both groups. In NTG group, nitro-glycerin infusion was adjusted to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 50-65 mm Hg. Specific and sensitive hepatic biomarkers; alpha (alpha) and pi (pi) glutathione S-transferases (GST) and hyaluronic acid (HA), also traditional liver enzymes; aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases were measured at: TO (pre-induction), T1, T2, T3 (15, 30 & 60 minutes after MAP stabilization respectively) and T4 (24 hours after anesthesia end). Plasma alpha-GST significantly increased at T3 in control group (p < 0.05) and in NTG group (p < 0.01) compared to TO in same group. In NTG group, hyaluronic acid con-centrations was significantly increased at T1, T2 (p < 0.05) and T3 (p < 0.01) from T0. Compared to control group, alpha- GST & HA concentrations showed significant increases in NTG group at T3 with p < 0.05 then returned back to normal range at T4. But, pi-GST, AST and ALT showed no significant changes throughout the study in both groups. PMID:19795771

  18. [The catalase inhibitor aminotriazole alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing; Ge, Pu; Dai, Jie; Liang, Tian-Cai; Yang, Qing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the effects of catalase (CAT) inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury were investigated to explore the potential roles of CAT in alcoholic liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and various doses of ATZ (100-400 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 30 min before alcohol exposure. After 24 h of alcohol exposure, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were determined. The degree of hepatic histopathological abnormality was observed by HE staining. The activity of hepatic CAT, hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue were measured by corresponding kits. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that treatment with ATZ dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of ALT, AST and LDH levels induced by alcohol exposure, and that ATZ alleviated alcohol-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, ATZ inhibited the activity of CAT, reduced hepatic levels of H?O?and MDA in alcohol exposed rats. ATZ also decreased the levels of plasma TNF-? and IL-6 in rats with alcohol exposure. These results indicated that ATZ attenuated alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats, suggesting that CAT might play important pathological roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25672632

  19. Determination of hepatoprotective and antioxidant role of walnuts against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Bati, Bedia; Celik, Ismail; Dogan, Abdulahad

    2015-03-01

    The aims of our study were the evaluation of the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of walnuts against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant role of the walnuts supplementation feed against ethanol-induced oxidative stress were evaluated by measuring liver damage serum marker enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and antioxidant defense systems such as reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in various tissues of rats. Rats were divided into six experimental groups: I (control), II (20 % ethanol), III (10 % walnuts), IV (20 % ethanol + 10 % walnuts), V (5 % walnuts), and VI (20 % ethanol + 5 % walnuts). According to the results, the biochemical analysis showed a considerable increase in the serum aspartate AST, ALT, GGT, and LDH in the group II as compared to that of group I, whereas decreased in group IVas compared to that of group II. In addition, administration of walnuts supplementation restored the ethanol-induced imbalance between MDA and fluctuated antioxidant system toward close control group particularly in the tissues. The results indicated that walnuts could be as important as diet-derived antioxidants in preventing oxidative damage in the tissues by reducing the lipid oxidation or inhibiting the production of ethanol-induced free radicals in rats. PMID:25391888

  20. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  1. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1?)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occured when the expression balance of SDF-1? between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1? expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  2. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window. PMID:26081271

  3. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

  4. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

  5. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (?)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats. PMID:26106435

  6. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kowsalya, R.; Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Vaishnavi, M.; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced significant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses significant anticancer properties PMID:25992348

  7. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Babadi, Vahid Yousefi; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210-250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets' diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  8. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite. PMID:25346195

  9. Modification of nanocellulose by poly-lysine can inhibit the effect of fumonisin B1 on mouse liver cells.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Yasini Ardakani, Seyed Ali; Shahdadi, Hossein; Balal Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 is an important mycotoxin, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides. It has toxic effects on liver, brain, and kidney cells. The first aim of this study was to synthesize nanocellulose modified with poly-lysine (NMPL), and the second aim was to evaluate the adsorption of fumonisin B1 by NMPL. As third aim, the function of mouse liver cells was investigated after exposure to fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B1+ NMPL. In this study, NMPL was prepared using cross-linker, and then incubated with fumonisin B1 at controlled conditions. After incubation, the adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were evaluated in each condition. Next, mouse liver cells were separately exposed to fumonisin B1, NMPL, and (fumonisin B1+NMPL). Then, the level of aniline aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was evaluated. It was found that both adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were not affected by temperature and incubation time, but affected by pH and concentration of NMPL. Also, this study showed NMPL could adsorb fumonisin B1 in different foodstuffs. Importantly, although the levels of ALT and AST were increased when the cells were treated with fumonisin B1 alone, they were not affected when exposed to NMPL or (fumonisin B1+NMPL). The authors suggest that NMPL is a good adsorbent to remove and inhibit fumonisin B1. PMID:25601749

  10. The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal K.; Roy, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism. PMID:22626798

  11. Selenium modulates ?-cyfluthrin-induced liver oxidative toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Jebur, Ali B; Nasr, Hoda M; El-Demerdash, Fatma M

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possibility of ?-cyfluthrin to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of selenium in alleviating its toxic effects. Male Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control, group II treated with selenium (200 µg/kg BW), group III received ?-cyfluthrin (15 mg/kg BW, 1/25 LD50 ), and group IV treated with ?-cyfluthrin plus selenium. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. The administration of ?-cyfluthrin caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). A decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were decreased, whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Selenium in ?-cyfluthrin-induced liver oxidative injury of the rats modulated LPO, CAT, SOD, GSH, GST, GPx, and GR. Also, liver AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to selenium treatment. It is concluded that selenium scavenges reactive oxygen species and render a protective effect against ?-cyfluthrin toxicity. PMID:23595963

  12. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. PMID:25261609

  13. Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jinle; Zhu, Wenxue; Li, Zhixi; Ling, Shengbao

    2012-06-01

    The protective effects of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male mice were investigated. Administration of ethanol (50%, v/v, 10 mL kg?¹) to mice for 6 weeks induced liver damage with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of the liver index, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT) in the serum and the hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. In contrast, administration of juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles (10 mL kg?¹ bw) along with alcohol significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of the enzymes (AST, ALT and ?-GT), liver index, concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH) in the serum and the hepatic TG and LPO levels. Mice treated with juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles showed better profiles of the antioxidant systems with relatively higher glutathione (GSH) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that both of the juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles have beneficial effects in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol. PMID:22648047

  14. Antioxidant and protective effects of Phytocee™ against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Radhakrishnan, Uma; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Phytocee™) in the rodent model. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 6) were pretreated with Vitamin C (20 mg/kg) or Phytocee™ (20, 100, and 200 mg/kg), respectively for 10 days. Oxidative stress in rat liver was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 2 ml/kg as a single dose orally to all groups except the vehicle control group. After 24 h of administration of CCl4, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. Results: Phytocee™ administered groups at all the dose levels significantly reduced the hepatic MDA, serum ALT and AST levels with a marked increase in hepatic SOD and catalase as compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Phytocee™ markedly reversed the effects of CCl4 induced oxidative stress and can be used as an antioxidant feed supplement. PMID:25810658

  15. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  16. Protective effects of sugar cane extract on endotoxic shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Motobu, Maki; Amer, Said; Koyama, Yukari; Hikosaka, Kenji; Sameshima, Toshiya; Yamada, Manabu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Koge, Kenji; Kang, Chung-Boo; Hayasidani, Hideki; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2006-05-01

    Sugar cane extract (SCE) has been shown to have an immunostimulating effect in chickens. This study evaluated the effect of SCE on Salmonella Abortusequi lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal shock in d-galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice. Mice were administered intraperitoneally SCE (500 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline before or after injection of LPS and GalN. All the mice injected with LPS and GalN (control group) died of histopathologically congestive and hemorrhagic hepatic insufficiency within 24 h, showing significantly increased activities of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 380 IU/mL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 130 IU/mL). Pretreatment of mice with SCE at 3 h before challenge with LPS and GalN (SCE treated group) resulted in significantly improved survival rates (92.3%) and a decrease in liver injury. These surviving mice in the SCE treated group showed no changes in the mean levels of plasma AST (60 IU/mL) and ALT (18 IU/mL). However, the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the SCE treated group was not significantly different when compared with that in the control group challenged with LPS and GalN. These results suggest that SCE has protective effects on LPS-induced mortality in this mouse model. PMID:16619363

  17. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, Olawale R; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Marnewick, Jeanine L

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH?:?GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  18. The protective effect of intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Aslaner, Arif; Çak?r, Tu?rul; Çelik, Betül; Do?an, U?ur; Akyüz, Cebrail; Ba?türk, Ahmet; Polat, Cemal; Gündüz, Umut; Mayir, Burhan; ?ehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on the methotrexate acute induced hepatotoxicity in rats that has not reports elsewhere. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, Mtx and Mtx with ozone. Hepatotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx to group 2 and group 3 at the fifteenth day. The medical ozone preconditioning was administered intraperitonealy in group 3 for fifteen days and more five days after inducing Mtx. The other rats of the group 1 and 2 received saline injection. At the twentyfirst day the blood and the liver tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST, proinflamatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1?, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. And the histolopatological examination was evaluated for injury score. In our study Mtx administration caused a significant increase on the liver enzymes ALT and AST, the tissue MDA and MPO activity and significant decrease in the tissue GSH. Moreover the both pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the Mtx group. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment reversed all these biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the hepatotoxicity induced by Mtx. We conclude that medical ozone ameliorates Mtx induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:26550257

  19. Protective effects of fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Youssef, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of fish oil (FO), allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in experimental rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as a negative control. Group 2 served as hepatic IR control injury. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received N-acetylcysteine (standard), FO, allopurinol, and verapamil, respectively, for 3 consecutive days prior to ischemia. All animals were fasted for 12 h, anesthetized and underwent midline laparotomy. The portal triads were clamped by mini-artery clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and total nitrate/nitrite levels, in addition to histopathological examination. Results: Fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil reduced hepatic IR injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. FO and verapamil markedly reduced oxidative stress as compared to control IR injury. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers in liver were also reduced after treatment with FO, allopurinol, or verapamil. In accordance, a marked improvement of histopathological findings was observed with all of the three treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study prove the benefits of FO, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic IR-induced liver injury and are promising for further clinical trials. PMID:26283828

  20. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246 against Copper Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Xiao, Yue; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246, which has a relatively strong copper binding capacity and tolerance to copper ions, was obtained by screening from 16 lactic acid bacteria in vitro. The selected strain was then applied to a mouse model to evaluate its protective function against copper intoxication in vivo. The experimental mice were divided into an intervention group and a therapy group; mice in the intervention group received co-administration of CCFM8246 and a copper ion solution by gavage, while mice in the therapy group were treated with CCFM8246 after 4 weeks of copper exposure. In both two groups, mice treated with copper alone and that treated with neither CCFM8246 nor copper served as positive and negative controls, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, the copper content in feces and tissues, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, and oxidation stress indices in liver and kidney tissue were determined. Learning and memory ability was evaluated by Morris water maze experiments. The results indicated that treatment with CCFM8246 significantly increased the copper content in feces to promote copper excretion, reduce the accumulation of copper in tissues, reverse oxidative stress induced by copper exposure, recover the ALT and AST in serum and improve the spatial memory of mice. PMID:26605944

  1. Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Physiological Fatigue and Physical Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Tang, Deh-Wei; Lee, Zon-Min; Wei, Li; Chen, Fu-An; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (CCM) is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 ?g/mL) by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK). CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue. PMID:25647661

  2. Significant Hepatic Involvement in patients with Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of significant liver injury and acute liver failure (ALF) in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), the most common urea cycle defect (UCD). Study design A historical cohort study was performed. Charts were reviewed at two centers to assess the proportion of 71 individuals with OTCD who had evidence of ALF (INR ? 2.0), liver dysfunction (INR 1.5–1.99), or hepatocellular injury (AST/ALT? 250 IU/L). Results 57% of the 49 patients with symptomatic OTCD had liver involvement: 29% met the criteria for ALF, 20% had liver dysfunction, and 8% had isolated hepatocellular injury. The proportion with ALF was greatest in those with more severe OTCD, including neonates with markedly elevated ammonia levels (> 1,000 ?mol/L). Some patients with severe liver involvement (INR ? 2.0 and AST/ALT > 1,000 IU/L) had only moderate hyperammonemia (100 – 400 ?mol/L). ALF was the initial presenting symptom of OTCD in at least 3 of 49 symptomatic OTCD patients. Conclusions Episodes of hepatocellular injury, liver dysfunction, and ALF were identified in a high proportion of individuals with symptomatic OTCD. The more severely affected OTCD patients had a higher likelihood of ALF. The diagnosis of a UCD should be considered in unexplained ALF, liver dysfunction or hepatocellular injury. PMID:24485820

  3. Effect of Chronic Administration of Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera on Some Biochemical Indices in Female Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Omobowale, T O; Oyagbemi, A A; Abiola, J O; Azeez, I O; Adedokun, R A M; Nottidge, H O

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate safety associated with prolonged consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves as beverage. Fourteen rats were used in this study. They were divided into 2 groups each containing 7 rats. Rats in group I received 2ml/kg of corn oil (standard vehicle drug). Animals in groups II were administered with 400mg/kg body of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MEMO) for five weeks respectively. Serum collected was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and AST activity. The activity of ALT decreased but not significant. Similarly, 400mg/kg body of MEMO led to significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum BUN and creatinine. All experimental animals that received 400mg/kb of MEMO had significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight from week to week 4 of the experiment. Taken together, 400mg/kg body of MEMO seemed to be toxic to the liver with apparently no toxicity in the kidney. Hence, prolonged exposure is not advisable as such could portend danger to the liver. PMID:26196575

  4. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

  5. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Haoqin Qingdan Decoction against Liver Injury Induced by a Chemotherapeutic Drug Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Baole; Jia, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    Haoqin Qingdan decoction (HQQD), a modern Chinese formula, has been widely used in Eastern Asia. Our study focuses on the hepatoprotective effect of HQQD against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity. S180, a kind of ascites tumor cells, was used to establish S180-bearing mice, followed by the injection of cyclophosphamide (CP, 80?mg/kg) every other day for 5 times. HQQD was used intragastrically at the dose of 80?g/kg, 40?g/kg, and 20?g/kg twice a day for 12 days. HL-7702 hepatic cell line was incubated with HQQD-medicated serum. Then we detected the effects of HQQD on (i) tumor suppression; (ii) morphological examination; (iii) SOD, MDA, GSH, ALT, and AST; (iv) cleaved caspase-3 expression and (v) cellular viability. CP caused dramatic elevations of AST, ALT, and MDA, while HQQD notably attenuated these elevations. SOD and GSH were notably increased, which were efficiently attenuated by HQQD. CP injection significantly increased apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase-3 expression, which was obviously inhibited by HQQD, accompanied by the improvement of cells viability. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Therefore, HQQD may protect liver tissue through attenuating oxidative stress and the caspase-3-dependent intrinsic apoptosis induced by CP, which suggests the potentially therapeutic effect of HQQD in the use of alkylating agent for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26101538

  6. Evaluation of serum procollagen aminoterminal propeptide III, laminin, and hydroxyproline as predictors of severe fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Attallah, A M; Toson, E A; Shiha, G E; Omran, M M; Abdel-Aziz, M M; El-Dosoky, I

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to identify biochemical analytes that could enhance the discrimination between the patients with severe liver fibrosis (F3-F4) and mild fibrosis (F1-F2) based on absolute values of biochemical markers, we measured 12 analytes, including procollagen III aminoterminal propeptide (PIIINP), laminin, proline, hydroxylproline, glycine, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, total protein, and prothrombin time in 252 individuals with chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC). PIIINP and laminin were determined by radio-immunoassay; the degraded amino acids were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Statistical analyses were performed by logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The best linear combination of blood markers was selected by multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA) for construction of the fibrosis discriminant score (FDS). FDS, an index of five markers (PIIINP, laminin, hydroxyproline, prothrombin activity, and AST/ALT) correctly classified 82% of the patients with severe liver fibrosis at a discriminant cut-off score=-0.5 (i.e., less than -0.5 indicated severe liver fibrosis and greater than -0.5 indicated mild liver fibrosis with sensitivity (76%) and specificity (89%). This result was reproduced in a validation study with no significant difference. In conclusion, FDS is useful for identifying severe liver fibrosis in patients with CHC. PMID:17613667

  7. Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  9. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH?:?GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  10. Anti-obesity effect of HT048, a herbal combination, in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Song, Mikyung; Park, Juyeon; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Nak Hoon; Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of HT048, a combination of C. pinnatifida fruit and C. unshiu peel extracts, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 4-Week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal and high fat diet (HFD) groups. The HFD groups were further divided into five groups treated with distilled water, orlistat (40 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o) and HT048 (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Orlistat, an anti-obesity drug, was used as positive control in the HFD-induced obese rats. We measured the food intake, body weight, epididymal adipose tissue and liver weights, and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The body weight and epididymal adipose tissue and liver weights of the HT048 100 and 300 mg/kg treated groups were significantly lower than that of the HFD control group. Also, serum TC, TG, ALT, and AST levels in the HT048 100 and 300 mg/kg treated groups were significantly decreased. Moreover, the orlistat treated group showed significantly reduced body weight and improved serum lipoprotein, compared with the HFD control group. These results show that HT048 supplements improved obesity-related body weight and serum lipoprotein parameters in a HFD-induced obese rat model. PMID:23519251

  11. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500?mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600??g/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  12. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis after acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yijing; Zou, Zhuolin; Liu, Liyuan; Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Keqing; Xu, Lanman; Chen, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on acute liver injury (ALI) rats. Material and Methods: BMSCs were extracted from rat bone marrow, cultured and expansion in vitro, and identified by flow cytometer. Rat model with acute liver injury was established by employing D-galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide. Male rats were randomly divided into ALI model group and BMSCs transplantation group. Rats were sacrificed 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after BMSCs injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 (GPC3) were performed to analysis proliferation. Terminal deoxynucleontidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to analyze apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent-pathway related factors Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the ALI model group, the BMSCs transplantation group presented the lower levels of ALT, AST, decreased Bax proteins expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. The mRNA levels of AFP and GPC3 and expression of PCNA were significantly higher in BMSCs transplantation group. Conclusions: BMSCs transplantation could significantly restore liver function. These effects were supposed to be mediated by suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis as well as promoting proliferation. Reduction of apoptosis seemed to correlate with mitochondria-dependent-pathway. PMID:25755697

  14. Hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of chromium methionine complexes in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-yan; Xiao, Qing-gui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of chromium methionine (CrMet) in alloxan-induced diabetic (AID) mice was investigated and compared with those of chromium trichloride hexahydrate (CrCl3·6H2O) and chromium nicotinate (CrNic) through a 15-day feeding experiment. The acute oral toxicity of CrMet was also investigated in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice by a single oral gavage. The anti-diabetic activity of CrMet was explored in detail from the aspects of body weight (BW), blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, liver glycogen levels, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. The obtained results showed that CrMet had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and might possess hepatoprotective efficacy for diabetes. Daily treatment with 500 and 1000?g Cr/kg BW of CrMet in AID mice for 15 days indicated that this low-molecular-weight organic chromium complex had better bioavailability and more beneficial effects on diabetics than CrCl3·6H2O. CrMet also had advantage over CrNic in the control of AST and ALT activities. Acute toxicity studies revealed that CrMet had low toxicity potential and relatively high safety margins in mice with the LD50 value higher than 10.0g/kg BW. These findings suggest that CrMet might be of potential value in the therapy and protection of diabetes. PMID:25081494

  15. Normal liver enzymes are correlated with severity of metabolic syndrome in a large population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kälsch, Julia; Bechmann, Lars P.; Heider, Dominik; Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Kälsch, Hagen; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Key features of the metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and diabetes. The liver as central metabolic organ is not only affected by the metabolic syndrome as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but may contribute to insulin resistance and metabolic alterations. We aimed to identify potential associations between liver injury markers and diabetes in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf RECALL Study. Demographic and laboratory data were analyzed in participants (n?=?4814, age 45 to 75y). ALT and AST values were significantly higher in males than in females. Mean BMI was 27.9?kg/m2 and type-2-diabetes (known and unkown) was present in 656 participants (13.7%). Adiponectin and vitamin D both correlated inversely with BMI. ALT, AST, and GGT correlated with BMI, CRP and HbA1c and inversely correlated with adiponectin levels. Logistic regression models using HbA1c and adiponectin or HbA1c and BMI were able to predict diabetes with high accuracy. Transaminase levels within normal ranges were closely associated with the BMI and diabetes risk. Transaminase levels and adiponectin were inversely associated. Re-assessment of current normal range limits should be considered, to provide a more exact indicator for chronic metabolic liver injury, in particular to reflect the situation in diabetic or obese individuals. PMID:26269425

  16. Gender-related difference in liver injury induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L. rhizome in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Liang, Qingning; Ji, Lili; Liu, Hai; Wang, Changhong; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the gender-related liver injury induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DB), a traditional medicinal plant, in mice, and further explored its hepatotoxic chemical compound. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 h, after mice were administrated orally with 640 mg/kg ethyl acetate extracts (EF) isolated from DB. After treatments, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were both significantly elevated. Liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) level increased, while glutathione amounts, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities all decreased in the time-dependent manner. Further analysis demonstrated that ALT and AST activities in female mice were significantly lower than those in male. Meanwhile, liver glutathione amounts and CAT activity in female mice after giving EF for 12 h were both higher than those in male. Further, comparing the liver injury induced by Diosbulbin B isolated from DB with that induced by EF on the basis of chemical analysis for the amounts of Diosbulbin B in EF of DB, we found that Diosbulbin B could be the main hepatotoxic chemical compound in DB. Taken together, our results show that DB can induce gender-related liver oxidative stress injury in mice, and its main hepatotoxic chemical compound is Diosbulbin B, for the first time. PMID:21075805

  17. [Protection of Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi-Bo; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Shun-Chun; Shi, Song-Shan; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to observe the protection of Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide (GFP) against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L in mice and its underlying mechanism. GFP was intragastrically (ig) given to mice at various doses. After 6 days, the mice were treated with ethyl acetate extract of Dioscorea bulbifera L (EF, ig). Serum levels of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) were measured, and liver histological evaluation was conducted. Furthermore, reductions of liver glutathione (GSH) amount and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activity were tested. The expressions of GCL-c, GCL-m, and HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) in liver were observed by Western-blot. The results showed that GFP (600 mg x kg(-1)) decreased EF-induced the increase of serum ALT, AST and TB, and GFP (400, 600 mg x kg(-1)) inhibited EF-induced the increase of serum ALP. Liver histological evaluation showed that the liver injury induced by EF was relieved after treated with GFP. GFP further increased liver GSH amount and reversed EF-induced the decrease of GCL activity. The Western-blot result showed that GFP augmented EF-induced the increase of HO-1, and reversed EF-induced the decrease of GCL-c. In conclusion, GFP can act against the oxidative stress liver injury induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L in mice. PMID:24187832

  18. Inflammatory stress potentiates emodin-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Can; Gao, Dan; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Li, Na; Jia, Ge-Liu-Chang; Pang, Jing-Yao; Cui, He-Rong; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Xiao, Xiao-He; Wang, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines containing emodin, widely used for the treatment of hepatitis in clinic, have been reported with hepatotoxicity in individuals. A modest inflammatory stress potentiating liver injury has been linked to the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with emodin could synergize to cause liver injury in rats. Emodin (ranging from 20, 40, to 80 mg/kg), which is in the range of liver protection, was administered to rats, before LPS (2.8 mg/kg) or saline vehicle treatment. The biochemical tests showed that non-toxic dosage of LPS coupled with emodin caused significant increases of plasma ALT and AST activities as compared to emodin alone treated groups (P < 0.05). In addition, with LPS or emodin alone could not induce any changes in ALT and AST activity, as compared with the control group (0.5% CMC-Na treatment). Meanwhile, the plasma proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 increased significantly in the emodin/LPS groups compared to either emodin groups or the LPS (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that liver damage was only found in emodin/LPS cotreatmented rat livers samples. These results indicate that non-toxic dosage of LPS potentiates the hepatotoxicity of emodin. This discovery raises the possibility that emodin and herbal medicines containing it may induce liver injury in the inflammatory stress even in their therapeutic dosages. PMID:26557087

  19. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott) leaves on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinonyelum, Azubike Nkiruka; Uwadiegwu, Achukwu Peter; Nwachukwu, Okwuosa Chukwugozie; Emmanuel, Oduah

    2015-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of orally administered leaf aqueous extract of Colocasia esculenta (CCLE) in thioacetamide-induced liver toxicity in rats was investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats (weight range: 120-150g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5) and received no treatment (normal control), distilled water (negative control), 50mg/kg silymarin (positive control) and CCLE (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively once daily for 3 consecutive days. Thioacetamide (TAA) (150mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally on the 4th day to rats in all groups except the normal control. Evaluations were made for serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and serum albumin. Histopathological examination was performed on the excised liver tissues. TAA-induced hepatotoxicity increased ALT, AST, ALP and decreased serum albumin. Histopathological results revealed extensive disruption of the liver histoarchitecture when compared to the normal control liver sections. Pre-treatment with CCLE showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers. These results were supported by the histopathological observations. The activity of the CCLE was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug, silymarin (50mg/kg). Overall findings suggest that CCLE possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide in rats. PMID:26687753

  20. Liver enzymes, metabolomics and genome-wide association studies: From systems biology to the personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, serum levels of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases have been regarded as markers of liver injury, including a wide range of etiologies from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. The increasing worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease revealed that transaminases are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherothrombotic risk profile, and overall risk of metabolic disease. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that aminotransferases are surrogate biomarkers of “liver metabolic functioning” beyond the classical concept of liver cellular damage, as their enzymatic activity might actually reflect key aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver function. In this study, we summarize the background information and recent findings on the biological role of ALT and AST, and review the knowledge gained from the application of genome-wide approaches and “omics” technologies that uncovered new concepts on the role of aminotransferases in human diseases and systemic regulation of metabolic functions. Prediction of biomolecular interactions between the candidate genes recently discovered to be associated with plasma concentrations of liver enzymes showed interesting interconnectivity nodes, which suggest that regulation of aminotransferase activity is a complex and highly regulated trait. Finally, links between aminotransferase genes and metabolites are explored to understand the genetic contributions to the metabolic diversity. PMID:25624707

  1. Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury in mice via inhibiting JNK/ERK MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai-Yan; Lian, Li-Hua; Jiang, Ying-Zi; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms of Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in mice. METHODS: GM (200, 150 or 50 mg/kg body weight) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 300 mg/kg body weight) was administrated orally with a single dose 2 h prior to APAP (300 mg/kg body weight) injection in mice. RESULTS: APAP treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal levels, and decreased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, the pretreatment of GM significantly alleviated APAP-induced oxidative stress by increasing GSH content, decreasing serum ALT, AST and MDA, and retaining the activity of GSH-px and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GM pretreatment can inhibit caspase-3 activation and phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal protein kinase 2 (JNK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). GM also remarkably attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method. CONCLUSION: Hepatoprotective effects of GM against APAP-induced acute toxicity are mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or its direct anti-apoptosis capacity. These results support that GM is a potent hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20082487

  2. How useful are clinical liver function tests in in vitro human hepatotoxicity assays?

    PubMed

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chougule, Anil; Singh, Prafull Kumar

    2014-08-01

    In preclinical hepatotoxicity testing cell based assays are frequently employed. However, prediction of clinical drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major challenge. Here we examined the usefulness of frequently employed markers of hepatocellular injury in cultures of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) in response to treatment with either paracetamol, rifampicin, petadolex and/or amiodarone. The changes in the metabolic competency (urea and albumin) and cellular injury (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?GT and succinate dehydrogenase) were determined at therapeutic and above drug concentrations as to evaluate the utility of these markers in in vitro systems. Initially, treatment of PHH with any of the drugs caused a statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities to suggest a switch from basic amino acid metabolism towards induced detoxification. However, treatment for prolonged periods of time caused cytolysis, as evidenced by the significant rise in extracellular LDH and the concomitant increase in ALT and AST activity. Notably, amongst the various endpoints studied, urea was best to demonstrate dose dependent metabolic stress, while other markers of hepatocellular injury were highly variable. Taken collectively, urea measurement proofed to be robust in predicting hepatocellular stress; therefore it should be included in preclinical testing strategies for an improved prediction of DILI. PMID:24685772

  3. Inhibition of oxidative stress and cytokine activity by curcumin in amelioration of endotoxin-induced experimental hepatoxicity in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, G; Tirkey, N; Bharrhan, S; Chanana, V; Rishi, P; Chopra, K

    2006-01-01

    Summary The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of curcumin (CMN) in salvaging endotoxin-induced hepatic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the liver of rodents. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a single dose of 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally to the animals, which were being treated with CMN daily for 7 days. Liver enzymes serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and total protein were estimated in serum. Oxidative stress in liver tissue homogenates was estimated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Serum and tissue nitrite was estimated using Greiss reagent and served as an indicator of NO production. A separate set of experiments was performed to estimate the effect of CMN on cytokine levels in mouse serum after LPS challenge. LPS induced a marked hepatic dysfunction evident by rise in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin (P < 0·05). TBARS levels were significantly increased, whereas GSH and SOD levels decreased in the liver homogenates of LPS-challenged rats. CMN administration attenuated these effects of LPS successfully. Further CMN treatment also regressed various structural changes induced by LPS in the livers of rats and decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 in mouse plasma. In conclusion, these findings suggest that CMN attenuates LPS-induced hepatotoxicity possibly by preventing cytotoxic effects of NO, oxygen free radicals and cytokines. PMID:16879252

  4. Chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gokul Raj, Kathamuthu; Chidambaram, Ranganathan; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Pandi, Mohan

    2015-11-15

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and foremost global public health problem. The present study was designed to appraise the chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. After 90 days of tumor induction, fungal and authentic taxol were given intraperitoneally once in a week for four weeks. Infrared thermal imaging analysis, serum biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), creatinine, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, liver markers tests such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins was analysed. In addition, histopathological observation (breast, kidney and liver), immunohistochemical analysis (p53 and Her2/neu) and western blotting experiments (bcl-2, bax and caspase-9) were performed both in control and experimental animals. In thermal imaging, decreased temperature was observed in rat treated with fungal and authentic taxol when compared to tumor induced rats. The significant decrease in LPO, creatinine, ALT, AST, TC, TG, lipoproteins and increase in enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidants were exemplified in serum of treated groups. Further histopathology, immunohistochemical and western blot analysis (bax, cas-9 and bcl-2) of apoptotic markers in breast tissues clearly showed the anti-carcinogenic property of fungal taxol. Our findings implement that fungal taxol is a potential chemo preventive agent against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis. PMID:26460148

  5. Dynamic Changes, Cut-Off Points, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Laboratory Data to Differentiate Macrophage Activation Syndrome from Active Disease

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Raheleh; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the laboratory data and changes in these data between patients with MAS and patients with flare-up of the autoimmune diseases. Methods. In a prospective study, the static laboratory data and dynamic changes in the selected data in 17 consecutive patients with MAS and 53 patients with active disease of SJIA, PJIA, Kawasaki disease, and SLE were compared. The ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the static and dynamic laboratory data to differentiate between MAS and active disease. Results. In the MAS group, the mean CRP3, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, ferritin, LDH, PT, PTT, and INR were significantly higher and the mean WBC2, PMN2, Lymph2, Hgb1, 2, 3, ESR2, serum albumin, and sodium were significantly lower than in control group. Some of the important cut-off points were PLT2 < 209000/microliter, AST > 38.5, ALT > 38, WBC < 8200 × 103/UL, ferritin > 5277?ng/mL. Conclusion. The dynamic changes in some laboratory data, especially PLT, can differentiate between MAS and active disease. The changes in WBC, PMN, and ESR and the levels of the liver enzymes may also be helpful in the early differentiation. Very high levels of ferritin may also help the diagnosis along with other clinical and laboratory signs. PMID:26063955

  6. Bio-sample detection on paper-based devices with inkjet printer-sprayed reagents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wun-Hong; Chu, Chien-Hung; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2015-12-01

    The reagent required for bio-sample detection on paper-based analytical devices is generally introduced manually using a pipette. Such an approach is time-consuming; particularly if a large number of devices are required. Automated methods provide a far more convenient solution for large-scale production, but incur a substantial cost. Accordingly, the present study proposes a low-cost method for the paper-based analytical devices in which the biochemical reagents are sprayed onto the device directly using a modified commercial inkjet printer. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by performing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) tests using simple two-dimensional (2D) paper-based devices. In both cases, the reaction process is analyzed using an image-processing-based colorimetric method. The experimental results show that for AST detection within the 0-105U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is around four minutes, while for ALT detection in the 0-125U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is approximately one minute. Finally, for both samples, the detection performance of the sprayed-reagent analytical devices is insensitive to the glucose concentration. PMID:26459437

  7. Antagonistic activity of dietary allicin against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, has been evaluated for its' efficacy in preventing deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed on 2 different doses of 0.5 g and 1 g of allicin/kg diet for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated. Moreover, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) was analyzed as a lipid peroxidation marker. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. Results show that deltamethrin subacute intoxication (1.46 µg/L for 28 days) increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA. At the same time, serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue level of GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT were reduced. Allicin supplemented diets enhanced all the altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissues' lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that feeding allicin can ameliorate deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and might have some therapeutic properties to protect Nile tilapia on subacute deltamethrin toxicity. PMID:25450927

  8. Effect of olive leaf extract treatment on doxorubicin-induced cardiac, hepatic and renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumral, Alk?n; Giri?, Murat; Soluk-Tekke?in, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Do?ru-Abbaso?lu, Semra; Türko?lu, Ümit; Uysal, Müjdat

    2015-06-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to increase in oxidative stress in several organs. Olive leaf extract (OLE) has potent antioxidant effects; therefore, we evaluated the ability of OLE to reduce DOX-induced toxicity in the heart, liver, and kidneys of rats. DOX (30mg/kg; i.p.) was administered to rats, which were sacrificed 4 days after DOX. The rats received OLE (6 and 12mL/L in drinking water) for 12 days. Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, urea and creatinine levels, as well as prooxidant and antioxidant status in organs were measured. DOX was found to increase serum markers that indicate tissue injury, malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels, and to decrease glutathione (GSH) levels in organs. Histopathologic changes were also evaluated. OLE, especially OLE 1000, led to decreases in serum cTnI and urea levels, ALT and AST activities, and amelioration in histopathologic findings. Decreases in MDA, DC, and PC, and increases in GSH levels were observed in organs of DOX-treated rats due to OLE. We conclude that OLE treatment may be effective in decreasing DOX-induced cardiac, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and injury. PMID:26002558

  9. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. PMID:26074692

  10. Serum Enzyme Profiles Differentiate Five Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuling; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Yiming; Li, Yaqin; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Wang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background. Differentiation among types of muscular dystrophy (MD) has remained challenging. In this retrospective study, we sought to develop a methodology for differentiation of MD types using analysis of serum enzyme profiles. Methods. The serum levels of enzymes from 232 patients, including 120 with DMD, 36 with BMD, 36 with FSHD, 46 with LGMD, and 11 with EDMD, were evaluated. Results. The characteristic profiles of serum enzymes facilitated differentiation of these five types of MD. DMD was characterized by simultaneous elevation of ALT, AST, LDH, and ALP; BMD and LGMD were characterized by elevation of ALT, AST, and LDH; and FSHD and EDMD were characterized by a lack of abnormal serum enzyme levels. We further developed discriminant functions to distinguish BMD and LGMD. For LGMD, LGMD2B patients had significantly higher ALP levels than non-LGMD2B patients (98 ± 59?U/L versus 45 ± 9?U/L, resp., p < 0.05). Conclusions. Our approach enabled the determination of MD subtypes using serum enzyme profiles prior to genetic testing, which will increase the chance a mutation will be found in the first gene analyzed. PMID:26063958

  11. The Effect of Thiamine and Thiamine Pyrophosphate on Oxidative Liver Damage Induced in Rats with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Mehmet Ibrahim; Siltelioglu Turan, Isil; Mammadov, Renad; Alt?nkaynak, Konca; Kisaoglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on oxidative stress induced with cisplatin in liver tissue. Rats were divided into four groups; thiamine group (TG), TPP + cisplatin group (TPG), healthy animal group (HG), and cisplatin only group (CG). Oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver tissue and AST, ALT, and LDH levels in rat sera were measured in all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the CG, TG, TPG, and HG groups were 11?±?1.4, 9?±?0.5, 3?±?0.5, and 2.2?±?0.48??mol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 2?±?0.7, 2.8?±?0.4, 7?±?0.8, and 9?±?0.6?nmol/g protein, respectively. Levels of 8-OH/Gua, a product of DNA damage, were 2.7?±?0.4?pmol/L, 2.5?±?0.5, 1.1?±?0.3, and 0.9?±?0.3?pmol/L, respectively. A statistically significant difference was determined in oxidant/antioxidant parameters and AST, ALT, and LDH levels between the TPG and CG groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the TG and CG groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin causes oxidative damage in liver tissue. TPP seems to have a preventive effect on oxidative stress in the liver caused by cisplatin. PMID:23841092

  12. Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Grespan, Renata; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Giubilei, Frederico Nunes; Fuso, Rafael Rocco; Damião, Marcio José; Silva, Expedito Leite; Mikcha, Jane Graton; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Bersani Amado, Ciomar; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose is a significant clinical problem and could benefit from new therapeutic strategies. Objective. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO), which is used popularly for various beneficial effects, such as its antiseptic, carminative, and antimicrobial effects. The hepatoprotective activity of TEO was determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in mice. Their livers were then used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity and subjected to histological analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•)-scavenging effects of TEO and TEO-induced lipid peroxidation. TEO reduced the levels of the serum marker enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP and MPO activity. The histopathological analysis indicated that TEO prevented acetaminophen-induced necrosis. The essential oil also exhibited antioxidant activity, reflected by its DPPH radical-scavenging effects and in the lipid peroxidation assay. These results suggest that TEO has hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. PMID:24639884

  13. Effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhong; Sun, Xuehui; Sang, Guifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (group A), chloral hydrate group (group B) and pentobarbital sodium group (group C). Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione s transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level as well as serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) were determined. Liver histopathological examinations were performed at termination. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were also evaluated. The SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT activities significantly decreased but TBARS levels increased in group B and C compared with group A. Hepatic injury was evidenced by a significant increase in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities in group B and C, which also confirmed by the histopathological alterations. Moreover, administration of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium could induce certain hepatic apoptosis accompanied by the upregulated Bax expression, the downregulated Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and the increase of caspase-3 activity. Repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia could produce hepatotoxicity. PMID:26379846

  14. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  15. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246 against Copper Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246, which has a relatively strong copper binding capacity and tolerance to copper ions, was obtained by screening from 16 lactic acid bacteria in vitro. The selected strain was then applied to a mouse model to evaluate its protective function against copper intoxication in vivo. The experimental mice were divided into an intervention group and a therapy group; mice in the intervention group received co-administration of CCFM8246 and a copper ion solution by gavage, while mice in the therapy group were treated with CCFM8246 after 4 weeks of copper exposure. In both two groups, mice treated with copper alone and that treated with neither CCFM8246 nor copper served as positive and negative controls, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, the copper content in feces and tissues, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, and oxidation stress indices in liver and kidney tissue were determined. Learning and memory ability was evaluated by Morris water maze experiments. The results indicated that treatment with CCFM8246 significantly increased the copper content in feces to promote copper excretion, reduce the accumulation of copper in tissues, reverse oxidative stress induced by copper exposure, recover the ALT and AST in serum and improve the spatial memory of mice. PMID:26605944

  16. Progesterone causes metabolic changes involving aminotransferases and creatine kinase in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Silvina; Córdoba, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) is capable of inducing acrosome reaction in many species. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of enzymes involved in metabolism that contribute to the redox state and supply energy for acrosome reaction in cryopreserved bull spermatozoa. To accomplish this aim, acrosome reaction was induced by P4 in capacitated and non-capacitated samples. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT, AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were measured spectrophotometrically at 340nm after acrosome reaction with P4. Oxygen consumption was measured polarographically. ALT and AST activities increased by the addition of P4 capacitated and non-capacitated samples. P4 addition provoked an increase in CK activity in non-capacitated spermatozoa compared to heparin capacitated spermatozoa with or without P4 addition. P4 increased oxygen consumption, the percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa as well as the absence of acrosome integrity in both capacitated and non-capacitated bovine spermatozoa, but oxygen consumption in P4 samples was significantly lower than in heparin capacitated spermatozoa (P<0.05). Acrosome reaction induction by P4 required different creatine kinase activity with the same oxygen consumption and transaminases level to maintain oxidative metabolism and redox state through reducing equivalents transfer between cytosolic and mitochondrial compartment. In conclusion, P4 induces a lower oxidative metabolism during acrosome reaction in bovine cryopreserved spermatozoa, compared to heparin induced capacitation process. PMID:26640247

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of methylsulfonylmethane against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Rehab; El Morsy, Engy M

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl?)-induced acute liver injury in rats. A single injection of CCl? (2 ml/kg, i.p.) increased serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST) activities. In addition, CCl? treatment led to elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) content was suppressed while proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased in liver tissue after CCl4 administration. We showed that acute CCl?-induced damage was accompanied by a rise in Bax/Bcl? ratio indicating apoptosis. Pre-treatment with MSM (400 mg/kg) inhibited the increases of serum ALT and AST activities, decreased hepatic MDA, TNF-?, IL-6 and Bax/Bcl? ratio compared to CCl? treated group. On the other hand, MSM raised SOD and CAT activities as well as CYP2E1 level in liver tissues. The present study shows that MSM possesses a hepatoprotective effect against CCl?-induced liver injury in rats. This protective effect might be through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. PMID:23591777

  18. Effect of Methylsulfonylmethane Pretreatment on Aceta-minophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bohlooli, Shahab; Mohammadi, Sadollah; Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Mirzanejad-asl, Hafez; Yosefi, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Nei, Amir; Chinifroush, Mir Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound found in a wide range of human foods including fruits, vegetables, grains and beverages. In this study the effect of MSM pretreatment on acetaminophen induced liver damage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 100 mg/kg MSM for one week. On day seven rats were received acetaminophen (850 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were taken to determine serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Tissue samples of liver were also taken for the determination of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity together with histopathological observations. Results: High dose of acetaminophen administration caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the liver tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in SOD activity and increases in tissue MDA level and MPO activity. Serum ALT, AST levels were also found elevated in the acetaminophen-treated group. Pretreatment with MSM for one week was significantly attenuated all of these biochemical indices. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MSM pretreatment could alleviate hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen intoxication, may be through its sulfur donating and antioxidant effects. PMID:24106592

  19. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24554039

  20. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1?)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occured when the expression balance of SDF-1? between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1? expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  1. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  2. Butyrylcholinesterase as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Guilherme M; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Bottari, Nathieli B; Machado, Gustavo; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Moresco, Rafael N; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis. Forty-two serum samples of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis were used, of which 24 were from animals with the acute phase of the disease and 18 with subclinical disease. In addition, sera from 17 healthy dogs were used as negative controls. The hematocrit, BChE activity, hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), nitric oxide, and cytokines levels were evaluated. The BChE activity was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in dogs with the acute phase of the disease when compared to healthy animals. However, there was a reduction on BChE activity on dogs with subclinical disease compared to the other two groups. AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the acute phase, as well as the inflammatory mediators (NOx, TNF-?, INF-?, IL-4, IL-6) when compared to the control group. On the other hand, IL-10 levels were lower in the acute phase. Based on these results, we are able to conclude that the acute infection caused by E. canis in dogs leads to an increase on seric BChE activity and some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this enzyme might be used as a marker of acute inflammatory response in dogs naturally infected by this bacterium. PMID:26616656

  3. LPS pretreatment ameliorates D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure in rat

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Sai-Nan; Shi, Ke-Qing; Chen, Shao-Long; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) remains an extremely poor prognosis and high mortality; with no effective treatments. The endotoxin tolerance (ET) phenotype has been reported to exhibit protective activities in several sepsis models. We now investigated the effects and underlying intraperitoneal injection of the same volume of pyrogen-free 0.9% sodium chloride instead of LPS for five consecutive days before D-GalN/LPS injection in rats. The serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL from ET + ALF group and ALF group were measured at different time points. Our results showed that ET + ALF group markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL and histological features in the ET + ALF group were improved significantly. Furthermore, LPS pre-treatment inhibited D-GalN/LPS-induced NF-?B activation, Bax activation, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activities. LPS pre-treatment also significantly enhance the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Our experimental data indicated that ET might alleviate D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inhibiting the inflammatory response, inactivation of STAT1 and STAT3 and up-regulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3. PMID:25550775

  4. Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 18–65?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35?±?6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

  5. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  6. The Effects of Heparins on the Liver: Application of Mechanistic Serum Biomarkers in a Randomized Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Harrill, A H; Roach, J; Fier, I; Eaddy, J S; Kurtz, C L; Antoine, D J; Spencer, D M; Kishimoto, T K; Pisetsky, D S; Park, B K; Watkins, P B

    2012-01-01

    Heparins have been reported to cause elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but have not been associated with clinically significant liver injury. The mechanisms underlying these benign laboratory abnormalities are unknown. Forty-eight healthy men were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections of unfractionated heparin (UFH; 150 U/kg), enoxaparin sodium (1 mg/kg), dalteparin sodium (120 IU/kg), or adomiparin sodium (125 IU/kg; a novel heparin) every 12 h for 4.5 days. Asymptomatic elevations in serum ALT or AST were observed in >90% of the subjects. Elevations were also observed in the levels of serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), miR-122, high-mobility group box-1 protein (including the acetylated form), full-length keratin 18, and DNA. Keratin 18 fragments, which are apoptosis biomarkers, were not detected. Biomarker profiles did not differ significantly across heparin treatments. We conclude that heparins as a class cause self-limited and mild hepatocyte necrosis with secondary activation of an innate immune response. PMID:22739141

  7. Experimental research on TECA-I bioartificial liver support system to treat canines with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Yi-Long; Li, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Zuo-Yun; Li, Yan-Ling; Huang, Zhi-Qiang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TECA-I bioartificial liver support system (BALSS) in treating canines with acute liver failure (ALF). METHODS: Ten canines with ALF induced by 80% liver resection received BALSS treatment (BALSS group). Blood was perfused through a hollow fiber tube containing 1 × 1010 porcine hepatocytes. Four canines with ALF were treated with BALSS without porcine hepatocytes (control group), and five canines with ALF received drug treatment (drug group). Each treatment lasted 6 h. RESULTS: BALSS treatment yielded beneficial effects for partial liver resection-induced ALF canines with survival and decreased plasma ammonia, ALT, AST and BIL. There was an obvious decrease in PT level and increase in PA level, and there were no changes in the count of lymphocytes, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and complement (C3 and C4) levels after BALSS treatment. In contrast, for the canines with ALF in non-hepatocyte BALSS group (control group) and drug group, there were no significant changes in ammonia, ALT, AST, BIL, PT and PA levels. ALF canines in BALSS group, control group and drug group lived respectively an average time of 108.0 h ± 12.0 h, 24.0 h ± 6.0 h and 20.4 h ± 6.4 h, and three canines with ALF survived in BALSS group. CONCLUSION: TECA-I BALSS is efficacious and safe for ALF canines induced by parcial liver resection. PMID:11819859

  8. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

  9. Comprehensive assessment of the long-term safety of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Valeyre, Dominique; Albera, Carlo; Bradford, Williamson Z; Costabel, Ulrich; King, Talmadge E; Leff, Jonathan A; Noble, Paul W; Sahn, Steven A; du Bois, Roland M

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Pirfenidone is an oral antifibrotic agent that is approved in several countries for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We performed a comprehensive analysis of safety across four clinical trials evaluating pirfenidone in patients with IPF. Methods All patients receiving pirfenidone 2403?mg/day in the Phase 3 CAPACITY studies (Studies 004 and 006) and all patients receiving at least one dose of pirfenidone in one of two ongoing open-label studies in patients with IPF (Studies 002 and 012) were selected for inclusion. Safety outcomes were evaluated from baseline until 28 days after the last dose of study drug. Results A total of 789 patients were included in the analysis. The median duration of exposure to pirfenidone was 2.6 years (range, 1 week–7.7 years), and the cumulative total exposure was 2059 person exposure years (PEY). Gastrointestinal and skin-related events were the most commonly reported adverse events; these were almost always mild to moderate in severity, and rarely led to treatment discontinuation. Elevations (>3× upper limit of normal) in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) occurred in 21/789 (2.7%) patients; the adjusted incidence of AST/ALT elevations was 1.7 per 100 PEY. Conclusions This comprehensive analysis of safety in a large cohort of IPF patients receiving pirfenidone for a total of 2059 PEY demonstrates that long-term treatment with pirfenidone is safe and generally well tolerated. PMID:24836849

  10. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  11. Hepatotoxicity in an infant following supratherapeutic dosing of acetaminophen for twenty-four hours.

    PubMed

    Kubic, Arthur; Burda, Anthony M; Bockewitz, Elizabeth; Wahl, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Severe hepatotoxicity in acute acetaminophen overdose in children is uncommon. This apparent protection does not extend to chronic or repeated high dose acetaminophen administration. The Illinois Poison Center (IPC) was consulted on a case involving a 7 month old 17 lb infant, who had presented the day prior to an emergency department with complaint of febrile illness. Patient had been prescribed acetaminophen for symptoms, and the mother called IPC when she realized that she had been incorrectly giving the patient concentrated infant acetaminophen (80 mg per 0.8 mL) totalling 42.3 mg/kg/dose or 234 mg/kg/24 hours instead of children's acetaminophen (160 mg/5 ml). Per recently published national triage guidelines, the patient was referred to an acute care facility for evaluation. The patient presented with significantly elevated aspartate aminotransferrase (AST) and alanine aminotransferrase (ALT) levels of 1339 and 907 U/L respectively, and was initiated on i.v. n-acetylcysteine therapy. The patient responded well to therapy, with AST and ALT declining to 145 and 479 U/L respectively over the next 48 hours. This case represents one of the shortest durations of chronic acetaminophen therapy to cause hepatic injury in an infant. Further, while the level was only slightly above the national triage guideline recommended referral dose per 24 hours, significant hepatotoxicity was observed. PMID:19292023

  12. Hepatoprotective Potential of Prosopis farcta Beans Extracts against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wister Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Akram; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash; Torbati, Mohammad Bagher Montazar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. Prosopis farcta beans extract (PFE) has some antioxidant property and may alleviate hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PFE against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats weighing 220 ± 30 g were distributed into six groups. Two groups were pretreated with PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) for 7 days before administration of acetaminophen (600 mg/kg). Two were given acetaminophen or PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) alone, and the control received normal saline. One day after acetaminophen, administration blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver function enzymes markers; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high, low, and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL). Results: In acetaminophen-treated rat plasma AST (314 ± 18.54 vs. 126.37 ± 4.13), ALT (304 ± 49.24 vs. 187.33 ± 3.71), cholesterol, TG, LDL, and VLDL were increased by 149, 160, 37, 92, 60, and 94%, respectively. PFE at both doses significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the above biochemical indices to near normal. Conclusions: Prosopis farcta beans extract (50 and 75 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against APAP. PMID:25400887

  13. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  14. Effects of horminone on liver mixed function mono-oxygenases and glutathione enzyme activities of Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R; Candeias, F; Simões, F; Nascimento, J; Cruz Morais, J

    1997-09-01

    The present study reports on the effects of horminone on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) contents and on the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NR), mixed function mono-oxygenases (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) of Wistar male rat. Horminone is a diterpenoid quinone (7,12-dihydroxyabiet-8,12-diene-11,14-dione) present in several species of the Labiatae family and used as medicinal plants in folk medicine. In this study, horminone was administered by the intraperitoneal route (i.p.) at a concentration of 1 or 10 mg/kg to each group of six mice, using water as a vehicle. On the one hand, results showed that horminone increased serum ALT and AST levels and cyt b5 content and induced the activities of ethylmorphine N-demethylase (EMD). On the other hand, horminone decreased P450 content and inhibited the activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (ERD), 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD), aniline 4-hydroxylase (AH) and NR. Based on these results, the possibility of toxic effects occurring after administration of plant extracts containing horminone must be considered. PMID:9324001

  15. Amelioration of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity in the male rat by zinc.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D A; Schnell, R C

    1985-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the role of zinc in the prevention of bromobenzene hepatoxicity in male rats. Bromobenzene (BB) (7.5 mmol/kg, ip) produced a marked hepatotoxicity as evidenced by increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and a marked depression in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content 24 hr after administration. The administration of zinc (92 mumol Zn/kg, ip, at 48 and 24 hr prior to the bromobenzene) ameliorated the bromobenzene elevations in plasma AST (25%) and plasma ALT (50%) but did not alter the decreases in hepatic GSH. Following administration of [14C]BB, the radioactive label was distributed primarily in the cytosolic and lipid fractions derived from liver homogenates. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of [14C]BB was not altered by zinc pretreatment. The extent of covalent binding of [14C]BB metabolites to hepatic tissue was significantly depressed in zinc-treated rats. Zinc induced the hepatic levels of metallothionein but [14C]BB did not bind to this sulfhydryl rich protein. Further experiments showed that zinc treatment depressed cytochrome P-450 content, the activity of NADPH cytochrome c reductase, and the metabolism of aniline, but not that of ethylmorphine. These studies suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of zinc against bromobenzene toxicity does not involve altered binding of the reactive toxic metabolite to glutathione or metallothionein, but it may be mediated by the inhibitory effect of zinc on the microsomal cytochrome P-450-dependent drug metabolizing system. PMID:3988000

  16. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  17. Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

  18. Effect of ingested heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) on haematology and serum biochemistry in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bersényi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szöcs, Z; Berta, Erzsébet

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of exposure to possible environmental pollutants such as Cd, Pb and Hg on haematological and serum biochemistry values, New Zealand White female rabbits were treated orally with distilled water solutions of CdSO4 x H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and HgCl2 (n = 4/treatment) in concentrations of 2.3, 4.1, and 30 mg/kg dry matter, respectively, for 28 days. The initial concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg in serum were significantly increased by the treatment. Exposure to Pb significantly decreased the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the haematocrit (Hct) value. The Zn-protoporphyrin concentration did not change as a result of Pb exposure. Pb and Hg loading significantly increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was also increased by both Hg and Cd exposure. Comparing the treated and the control rabbits, all the trace elements studied significantly reduced the activity of enzymes in the pancreatic tissues. The haematological results indicate that hyperchromic macrocytic anaemia developed in rabbits treated with Pb. The increased activities of both AST and ALT indicate pathophysiological changes of the liver parenchyma, which was verified by focal fatty infiltration seen histopathologically. Cd exposure could exert a toxic effect on the kidneys, although the slight tubulonephrosis developed would not possibly affect the renal function. The reduced activities of amylase, trypsin, protease and lipase induced by Cd, Pb and Hg suggest toxicity to the pancreas. PMID:14516158

  19. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats. PMID:26106435

  20. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250?mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model. PMID:23864853

  1. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harr, K.E.; Allison, K.; Bonde, R.K.; Murphy, D.; Harvey, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate amino-transferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 ??mol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement, indicating that separate reference intervals should be established for serum and plasma. Finally, storage of these enzymes at -70??C for 1 mo resulted in up to a 25% decrease in enzymatic activity in manatee plasma. Copyright 2008 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  2. The Relationship of Liver Function Tests to Mixed Exposure to Lead and Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to compare liver function indices (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and gamma glutamyl transferase [GGT]) among males who work with lead, organic solvents, or both lead and organic solvents, under the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Methods A total of 593 (out of 2,218) male workers who agreed to share their personal health information for medical research were selected for this study. Those excluded were hepatitis B carriers, individuals exposed to occupational risk factors other than lead and organic solvents, and individuals without liver function results. The 593 were divided into five groups: a lead-exposed group, an organic solvent-exposed group exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE co-exposed solvent group), an organic solvent-exposed group not exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE non-exposed solvent group), a lead and organic solvent-exposed group (mixed exposure group), and a non-exposed group (control group). We performed a one way-analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) test to compare the geometric means of liver function indices among the groups, using a general linear model (GLM) to adjust for age, work duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. In addition, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis to compare the odds ratios among groups with an abnormal liver function index, according to a cut-off value. Results The ALT and AST of the mixed exposure group were higher than those of the other groups. The GGT of the mixed exposure group was higher than the TCE co-exposed solvent group, but there was no difference among the control group, TCE non-exposed solvent group, lead-exposed group, and mixed exposure group. The same result was evident after adjusting by GLM for age, work duration, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake, except that ALT from the mixed exposure group showed no difference from the TCE co-exposed solvent group. When the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT were 40 IU/L, 42 IU/L, and 63 IU/L, respectively, a logistic regression analysis showed no differences in the odds ratios of those who had an abnormal liver function index among the groups. However, if the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT were 30 IU/L, 30 IU/L, and 40 IU/L, respectively, the odds ratio of the AST in the mixed exposure group was 4.39 (95% CI 1.86-10.40) times higher than the control. Conclusion This study indicates that a mixed exposure to lead and organic solvents is dangerous, even if each single exposure is safe under the permissible exposure limit. Therefore, to ensure occupational health and safety in industry, a continuous efforts to study the effects from exposure to mixed chemicals is needed. PMID:24472152

  3. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Seon-Young; Min, Hyesun

    2013-04-01

    We compared the preventive capacity of high intakes of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats received the low fat (10% of total calories) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group, 36% of total calories) or ethanol in combination with VC (Alc + VC group, 40 mg VC/100 g body weight) or VE (Alc + VE group, 0.8 mg VE/100 g body weight). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with the Alc group. Ethanol administration induced a modest increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), conjugated dienes (CD), and triglycerides but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) in plasma. VE supplementation to alcohol-fed rats restored the plasma levels of AST, CD, and TRAP to control levels. However, VC supplementation did not significantly influence plasma ALT, AST, or CD. In addition, a significant increase in plasma aminothiols such as homocysteine and cysteine was observed in the Alc group, but cysteinylglycine and glutathione (GSH) did not change by ethanol feeding. Supplementing alcohol-fed rats with VC increased plasma GSH and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, but plasma levels of aminothiols, except GSH, were not influenced by either VC or VE supplementation in ethanol-fed rats. These results indicate that a low-fat ethanol diet induces oxidative stress and consequent liver toxicity similar to a high-fat ethanol diet and that VE supplementation has a protective effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver toxicity. PMID:23610603

  4. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  5. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Seon-Young

    2013-01-01

    We compared the preventive capacity of high intakes of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats received the low fat (10% of total calories) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group, 36% of total calories) or ethanol in combination with VC (Alc + VC group, 40 mg VC/100 g body weight) or VE (Alc + VE group, 0.8 mg VE/100 g body weight). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with the Alc group. Ethanol administration induced a modest increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), conjugated dienes (CD), and triglycerides but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) in plasma. VE supplementation to alcohol-fed rats restored the plasma levels of AST, CD, and TRAP to control levels. However, VC supplementation did not significantly influence plasma ALT, AST, or CD. In addition, a significant increase in plasma aminothiols such as homocysteine and cysteine was observed in the Alc group, but cysteinylglycine and glutathione (GSH) did not change by ethanol feeding. Supplementing alcohol-fed rats with VC increased plasma GSH and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, but plasma levels of aminothiols, except GSH, were not influenced by either VC or VE supplementation in ethanol-fed rats. These results indicate that a low-fat ethanol diet induces oxidative stress and consequent liver toxicity similar to a high-fat ethanol diet and that VE supplementation has a protective effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver toxicity. PMID:23610603

  6. Comparative effects of petrol and diesel on enzyme activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after sublethal exposure.

    PubMed

    Edori, O S; Festus, C; Edori, E S

    2014-04-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L(-1) and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p > 0.05) from the control value (137.50 ± 15.10 IU L(-1)). AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L(-1) (227.50 ± 24.75 IU L(-1)). ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p > 0.05) at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel. PMID:25911844

  7. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elmao?ullar?, Selin; Tepe, Derya; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Demirel, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood-onset obesity is associated with increased mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. Dyslipidemia has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of CVD. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and related factors among obese children and adolescents. Methods: Obese patients aged between 2 and 18 years were included in the study. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), fasting glucose levels, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver ultrasound findings were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Among 823 obese patients, 353 (42.9%) met the dyslipidemia criteria: 21.7% had hypertriglyceridemia, 19.7% had low levels of HDL-C, 18.6% had hypercholesterolemia, and 13.7% had high levels of LDL-C. Older age and/or high body mass index (BMI) were related to increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Hepatosteatosis was more common among dyslipidemic patients. The frequency of insulin resistance (IR) and of higher levels of ALT and TSH were also detected in dyslipidemic patients. Patients with both dyslipidemia and grade 2-3 hepatosteatosis had higher levels of ALT, AST and TSH and lower levels of fT4. Conclusion: Prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in obese children, and hypertriglyceridemia is in the foreground. Higher levels of IR and more apparent abnormal liver function test results are observed in the context of dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis coexistence. Metabolic and hormonal alterations related with thyroid functions may also be associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis in obese patients.

  8. Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2008-09-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

  9. Protective effects of medical ozone combined with traditional Chinese medicine against chemically-induced hepatic injury in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jie; Yang, Yun-Gao; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Nie, Sui-Feng; Li, Ze; Li, Feng; Hua, He-Yu; Hu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Shuan; Guo, Ya-Bing

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of medical ozone (O3) combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Yigan Fuzheng Paidu Capsules (YC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in dogs. METHODS: Thirty healthy dogs were divided randomly into five groups (n = 6 in each group), namely control, oleanolic acid tablet (OAT), O3, YC and O3 + YC, given either no particular pre-treatment, oral OAT, medical ozone rectal insulfflation every other day, oral YC, or oral YC plus medical ozone rectal insulfflation every other day, respectively, for 30 consecutive days. After pre-treatment, acute hepatic injury was induced in all dogs with a single-dose intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. General condition and survival time were recorded. The biochemical and hematological indexes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT), serum total bilirubin (TBIL), prothrombin time (PT), blood ammonia (AMMO), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured after CCl4 injection. Hepatic pathological changes were also observed. RESULTS: Compared to the other four groups, the changes of group O3 + YC dogs’ general conditions (motoricity, mental state, eating, urination and defecation) could be better controlled. In group O3 + YC the survival rates were higher (P < 0.05 vs group control). AST/ALT values were kept within a normal level in group O3 + YC. Hepatic histopathology showed that hepatic injury in group O3 + YC was less serious than those in the other four groups. CONCLUSION: Medical ozone combined with TCM YC could exert a protective effect on acute liver injury induced by CCl4. PMID:18023088

  10. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of agaro-oligosaccharides in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhu, Peng; Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Background Agaro-oligosaccharides derived from red seaweed polysaccharide have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. In order to assess the live protective effects of agar-oligosaccharides, we did both in vitro and in vivo studies based on own-made agaro-oligosaccharides, and the structural information of this oligosaccharide was also determined. Method Structure of agaro-oligosaccharides prepared with acid hydrolysis on agar was confirmed by matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and NMR. The antioxidant effect of agaro-oligosaccharides on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Carbon tetrachloride was used to induce liver injury, some index including SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, AST, ALT were examined to determine the hepatoprotective effect of agaro-oligosaccharides. Results Agaro-oligosaccharides we got were composed of odd polymerizations with molecular weights ranged from 500 to 2500. Results from intracellular test indicated that agaro-oligosaccharides could significantly scavenge the level of oxidants in the hepatocytes, more beneficially, also associated with the improvement of cell viability In vivo studies of the antioxidant effects on tissue peroxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat model indicated that agaro-oligosaccharides could elevate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT) significantly. At 400 mg/kg, MDA level reduced 44 % and 21 % in liver and heart, SOD and GSH-Px increased to highest in liver and serum, while ALT level decreased 22.16 % in serum. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present study indicate that agaro-oligosaccharides can exert their in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effect through scavenging oxidative damage induced by ROS. PMID:17140450

  11. Hepatic Enzyme Alterations in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Case-Control Study in a Hospital Setting in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Obirikorang, Christian; Fianu, Vincent; Asare, Isaac; Dakorah, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing hepatic injury in HIV infection can be a herculean task for clinicians as several factors may be involved. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and disease progression on hepatic enzymes in HIV patients. Methods A case-control study conducted from January to May 2014 at the Akwatia Government Hospital, Eastern region, Ghana, The study included 209 HIV patients on ART (designated HIV-ART) and 132 ART-naive HIV patients (designated HIV-Controls). Data gathered included demography, clinical history and results of blood tests for hepatic enzymes. We employed the Fisher’s, Chi-square, unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation in analysis, using GraphPad Prism and SPSS. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Median CD4 lymphocyte count of HIV-ART participants (604.00 cells/mm3) was higher than that of HIV-Controls (491.50 cells/mm3; P = 0.0005). Mean values of ALP, ALT, AST and GGT did not differ between the two groups compared (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between hepatic enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST and GGT) for both groups (p < 0.01 each). Duration of ART correlated positively with ALT (p < 0.05). The effect size of disease progression on hepatic enzymes for both groups was small. Conclusion Antiretroviral therapy amongst this population has minimal effects on hepatic enzymes and does not suggest modifications in therapy. Hepatic injury may occur in HIV, even in the absence of ART and other traditional factors. Monitoring of hepatic enzymes is still important in HIV patients. PMID:26247879

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of curcumin against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kadasa, Naif Mohammed; Abdallah, Haytham; Afifi, Mohamed; Gowayed, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is widely used as a traditional medicine. This work was aimed to investigate its possible protective effect against chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Fifty male albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10, each). The control group received a single dose of normal saline, the diethylnitrosamine (DENA) group received a single intra-peritoneal dose at 200mg/kg body weight, and the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were given DENA and daily administrated curcunine (CUR) via intra-gastric intubation in doses of 300,200 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. respectively for 20 weeks. Serum, and liver samples were used for determination of alpha feto-protein (AFP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukine-6 (IL-6), serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) levels as well the activities and gene expression of glutathione peroxidise (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Curcumin significantly lowered the serum levels of AFP, IL-2 and IL-6, ALT, ALT, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well gene expression of IL-2 and IL-6. In contrast it increased the gene expression and activities of Gpx, GRD, CAT and SOD. The protective effect of CUR against DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in albino rats was proven. PMID:25640336

  13. Kushenin Combined with Nucleos(t)ide Analogues for Chronic Hepatitis B: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Ma, Xiao; Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Yaming; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Lifu; Chen, Chang; Wei, Shizhang; Yang, Zhirui; Gong, Man; Shen, Honghui; Bai, Zhaofang; Guo, Yuming; Niu, Ming; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Kushenin (KS) combined with nucleoside analogues (NAs) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of KS combined with NAs for CHB were identified through 7 databases. Frequencies of loss of serum HBeAg, HBeAg seroconversion, undetectable serum HBV-DNA, ALT normalization, and adverse events at 48 weeks were abstracted by two reviewers. The Cochrane software was performed to assess the risk of bias in the included trials. Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 software. Results. 18 RCTs involving 1684 subjects with CHB were included in the analysis. KS combined with NAs including lamivudine (LAM), entecavir (ETV), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), and telbivudine (TLV) showed different degree of improvement in CHB indices. KS combined with NAs increased the frequency of loss of serum HBeAg, HBeAg seroconversion, undetectable HBV-DNA levels, and ALT normalization compared with single agents. It also decreased serum ALT and AST level after one-year treatment. However, KS combined with TLV did not show a significant difference in CHB indices. The side-effects of KS combined with NAs were light and of low frequency. Conclusion. KS combined with NAs improves the efficacy of NAs in CHB. PMID:26347789

  14. 75 FR 67166 - Unblocking of Two Specially Designated Nationals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...ABDULLAH IMAD; a.k.a. ``HAMZA AL LIBI''), Viale Bligny 42, Milan, Italy; DOB 28 Nov 1980; POB Libya; alt. POB Palestine; alt. POB Jordan; alt. POB Gaza; nationality Libya; alt. nationality Jordan; alt. nationality Palestinian;...

  15. Evaluation of exertion and capture stress in serum of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Sneath, Helen L; Long, Trevor

    2012-03-01

    Seven hundred fifty-one dugongs (Dugong dugon) were pursued, captured, and handled for up to 20 min for population sampling. Fifty of these dugongs were then removed from the water for up to 55 min for comprehensive medical examination. Fifty whole blood and separated serum samples were analyzed for potassium, sodium, chloride, creatinine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, glucose, anion gap, and total blood CO2. Serum biochemical variables of the dugong were compared with those obtained in previous studies of the related West Indian manatee, a mammal that does not appear to experience capture myopathy based on available data. Differences between these species included higher blood sodium and chloride in dugongs, which may reflect differences in salt balance and renal function, and higher blood lactate and CO2. Some biochemical analytes such as CK and AST, which may be indicative of rhabdomyolysis associated with capture stress myopathy (a potentially fatal condition for which dugongs have been thought to be highly susceptible) were high compared with levels previously measured in wild West Indian manatees (Trichechus latirostris). One of the 50 dugongs had marked elevations of CK and AST but showed no other clinical indications of rhabdomyolysis associated with capture myopathy such as hyperthermia. Rather, generally high levels of lactate, CK, and AST most probably reflect metabolic acidosis resulting from the exertion involved in the pursuit prior to capture. Earlier observations suggesting that dugongs were probably susceptible to capture stress myopathy (based on high serum potassium levels) were not supported by this study. Capture and handling methods currently used on dugongs in this research program do not appear to result in acute capture stress. PMID:22448507

  16. Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Silibinin Against Diazinon Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free-Radical Damage in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Beydilli, Halil; Yilmaz, Nigar; Cetin, Esin Sakalli; Topal, Yasar; Celik, Ozgur Ilhan; Sahin, Cem; Topal, Hatice; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Sozen, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diazinon (0,0-Diethyl 0-(1-6-methyl-2-isoprophyl 4 pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate) (DI) is a very effective organophosphate pesticide, used widely in agriculture. Consequently, data on poisoning cases secondary to DI exposure are important. The DI may affect a variety of tissues, including liver. Silibinin is a pharmacologically active constitute of Silybum marianum, with documented antioxidant activity. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate both histopathologically and biochemically whether silibinin is protective in DI induced liver damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group - oral corn oil was given; 2) DI group - rats were administered orally 335 mg/kg in the corn oil solution; 3) Silibinin group - 100 mg/kg/day silibinin was given alone orally, every 24 hours for 7 days; 4) Silibinin + DI group - DI plus silibinin was given. All rats were sacrificed at the end of experiment. Superoxide dismutases (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were investigated in serum and liver tissue. In addition, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities were evaluated. The liver tissue was evaluated histopathologically with Hematoxilin & Eosin dye. Results: Biochemically, ALT, AST, NO, MPO in serum and NO, MPO in liver tissue were found to be significantly higher in DI group, compared to control group (P < 0.001). In Group Silibinin + DI, serum AST, ALT, NO, MPO levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01), and both serum and tissue SOD activities were significantly higher, compared to DI group (P < 0.001). Diazinon induced histopathological changes in liver tissue were: severe sinusoidal dilatation, moderate disruption of the radial alignment of hepatocytes around the central vein, severe vacuolization in the hepatocyte cytoplasm, inflammation around central vein and portal region. In rats receiving both DI and silibinin, the DI induced changes accounted for less sinusoidal dilatation, vacuolization in the hepatocyte cytoplasm and the inflammation around central vein and portal region (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The DI was found to induce liver damage by oxidative stress mechanisms. Silibinin reduced the oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant mechanisms, thereby showing protective effect against DI induced liver damage. Further studies with silibinin should be performed regarding DI toxicity. PMID:26023342

  17. Interaction of occupational manganese exposure and alcohol drinking aggravates the increase of liver enzyme concentrations from a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over exposure to manganese (Mn) can damage the human central nervous system and potentially cause liver toxicity. Alcohol drinking is also one of the well-known harmful factors to hepatic organism. The interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption to liver function was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 1112 on-the-spot workers were included in the cross-sectional survey from a large scale of manganese exposed workers healthy cohort (MEWHC) in a ferro-manganese refinery company. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic information, occupational history, and alcohol drinking habits. Occupational health examination was carried out for each worker. The five key serum indices, including total bilirubin (TBILI), direct bilirubin (DBILI), indirect bilirubin (IBILI), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST), were determined to evaluate the liver function of each subject. Results Workers exposed to high levels of Mn had significantly elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes (DBILI: 3.84±1.20 ?mol/L, ALT: 27.04±19.12 IU/L, and AST: 29.96±16.68 IU/L), when compared to those in the low-exposure group (DBIL: 3.54±0.85 ?mol/L, ALT: 20.38±10.97 IU/L, and AST: 26.39±8.07 IU/L), all P<0.01. These serum indices had a significantly increasing trend with the elevation of Mn exposure level (Ptrend <0.01). In addition, the workers with alcohol drinking also showed higher concentrations of liver enzymes than those non-drinkers, especially, and there was significant interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption in terms of these three indices (P<0.001). Conclusions Occupational exposure to Mn can lead to a dose-dependent increase of liver enzyme concentrations, and interact with alcohol drinking to potentially aggravate the liver damage. It will be important for Mn exposed workers to control drinking and also assess liver function in the occupational health examination. PMID:23587294

  18. Hepatic microcirculatory perfusion failure is a determinant of liver dysfunction in warm ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Vollmar, B.; Glasz, J.; Leiderer, R.; Post, S.; Menger, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by circulatory and metabolic derangements, liver dysfunction, and tissue damage. However, little is known about the causative role of I/R-induced microcirculatory disturbance on the manifestation of postischemic reperfusion injury. Therefore, the intention of the study was to assess changes of hepatic microvascular perfusion (intravital fluorescence microscopy) as related to hepatic morphology (light/electron microscopy), hepatocellular integrity (serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities), and excretory function (bile flow). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 20 minutes (group B, n = 9) and 60 minutes (group C, n = 9) of left hepatic lobar ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Sham-operated animals without ischemia served as controls (group A, n = 10). Lobar ischemia for 20 minutes followed by reperfusion resulted in a significant reduction of sinusoidal perfusion rate (93.9 +/- 1.4%; P < 0.05) and a decrease in erythrocyte flux (90.0 +/- 5.6%) when compared with controls (99.4 +/- 0.2 and 97.9 +/- 2.7%). This was accompanied by a significant increase of serum AST and ALT activities (P < 0.05) and a reduction of bile flow (P < 0.05). Prolongation of lobar ischemia (group C, 60 minutes) aggravated postischemic reperfusion injury (sinusoidal perfusion rate: 87.4 +/- 2.9%; erythrocyte flux: 62.1 +/- 8.4%) and was paralleled by severed hepatocellular damage. Electron microscopy of postischemic tissue demonstrated alteration of nonparenchymal cells (swelling of sinusoidal lining cells and widening of Disse's space) and substantial parenchymal cell damage (swelling of mitochondria, disarrangement of rough endoplasmatic reticulum, vacuolization, complete cytoplasmic degeneration). Initial postischemic increase in serum AST and ALT activities and reduction of bile flow directly correlated with the extent of microcirculatory failure (P < 0.01), ie, impairment of sinusoidal perfusion and decrease of erythrocyte flux, indicating the decisive role of microvascular perfusion failure for the manifestation of hepatic tissue damage and liver dysfunction. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7992845

  19. Effect of polycan, a ?-glucan originating from Aureobasidium, on a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipemic hamster model

    PubMed Central

    LIM, MEE-KYOUNG; KU, SAE-KWANG; CHOI, JAE-SUK; KIM, JOO-WAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of polycan, a ?-glucan originating from Aureobasidium, on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipemia and hepatic damage. A total of 30 hamsters were divided into 6 groups based on their body weight following acclimatization: control, sham, simvastatin (SIMVA) and 3 Polycan groups. In the polycan groups, Polycan, at three concentrations (31.25, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg), was administered orally once a day for 56 days, in addition to the HFD. On the day of sacrifice, changes in the body weight, food consumption, liver weight and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and total cholesterol (T-CHOL) were observed, as well as changes to the liver and aorta (thoracic and abdominal) histopathology and histomorphometry. The results from the polycan groups were compared with a SIMVA 10 mg/kg oral treatment group, in addition to the sham and vehicle control groups. After the HFD-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters were administered Polycan, there was no significant change in their body weight and food consumption when compared with the hamsters in the vehicle control group. However, the serum levels of AST, ALT, triglyceride, T-CHOL and LDL were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the vehicle control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of liver steatosis and arteriosclerosis in the abdominal and thoracic aorta were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). In the SIMVA-treated group, body weight (P<0.05), the serum level of lipids (triglyceride, T-CHOL and LDL; P<0.01) and the level of arteriosclerosis (P<0.01) were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle control group. However, liver weight and the serum levels of AST, ALT, and liver steatosis increased when compared with the vehicle control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that polycan exerts a favorable effect in decreasing HFD-induced hyperlipemia and associated atherosclerosis, with relatively good protective effects on liver damage. PMID:25780437

  20. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and the serum enzymes for liver function tests in the individuals exposed to arsenic: a cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure has been shown to cause liver damage. However, serum hepatic enzyme activity as recognized on liver function tests (LFTs) showing a dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. The aim of our study was to investigate the dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and major serum enzyme marker activity associated with LFTs in the population living in arsenic-endemic areas in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 200 residents living in arsenic-endemic areas in Bangladesh were selected as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study subjects were stratified into quartile groups as follows, based on concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water, as well as in subjects' hair and nails: lowest, low, medium and high. The serum hepatic enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were then assayed. Results Arsenic concentrations in the subjects' hair and nails were positively correlated with arsenic levels in the drinking water. As regards the exposure-response relationship with arsenic in the drinking water, the respective activities of ALP, AST and ALT were found to be significantly increased in the high-exposure groups compared to the lowest-exposure groups before and after adjustments were made for different covariates. With internal exposure markers (arsenic in hair and nails), the ALP, AST and ALT activity profiles assumed a similar shape of dose-response relationship, with very few differences seen in the higher groups compared to the lowest group, most likely due to the temporalities of exposure metrics. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that arsenic concentrations in the drinking water were strongly correlated with arsenic concentrations in the subjects' hair and nails. Further, this study revealed a novel exposure- and dose- response relationship between arsenic exposure metrics and serum hepatic enzyme activity. Elevated serum hepatic enzyme activities in the higher exposure gradients provided new insights into arsenic-induced liver toxicity that might be helpful for the early prognosis of arsenic-induced liver diseases. PMID:21740555

  1. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HUI-NING; CHEN, NI-WEI; SHEN, WEI-LIN; ZHAO, XIANG-YUN; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that endogenous H2S is associated with CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, and may exhibit anti-fibrotic effects. Furthermore, H2S reduced the liver expression levels of AGTR1, which may be associated with the delayed progression of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26034979

  2. Evaluation and comparison of postoperative levels of serum bilirubin, serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase in laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus open cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Rajinder Pal; Sandhu, Karamjot; Singh, Bir; Bhatia, Gaurav; Khatri, Abhishek; Sharma, Bhanu Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) requires the creation of a pneumoperitoneum via insufflations of carbon dioxide; resulting in increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) and intraperitoneal pressure which leads to the changes in pulmonary function and hemodynamic measurements. Hypercarbia leads to visceral organ ischemia including liver and venous stasis/thromboembolism or both due to impaired flow. The present study has been undertaken to see the changes in liver function tests (LFTs) after laparoscopic/open cholecystectomy (OC), the incidences of such change, their relation to age, sex, duration of surgery and to know the clinical significances of such disturbances. Aims and objectives To compare and correlate the serum level of bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in patients who underwent LC to those who underwent OC. Materials and methods The present study was conducted in the Department of Surgery at MMIMSR, MM University, Mullana, Ambala. A total number of 200 patients diagnosed as cholelithiasis were included in the study from May 2012 to May 2014. These cases were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) consisting of 100 cases each. LC was performed in group A patients and OC was done in group B patients. Three blood samples were taken: (I) pre-operatively; (II) after 24 hours of surgery; and (III) after 72 hours of surgery for comparison of the enzyme level alterations. Results In LC patients, there were rise in the levels of serum bilirubin, AST and ALT after 24 hrs of surgery from the preoperative value and then again fall was noted (near to normal value) after 72 hrs of surgery except in that of ALP. ALP levels showed slight fall after 24 hrs of surgery and then slight rise after 72 hrs which was within the normal limit. Whereas in OC patients, there were slight variations in the liver enzymes (which were within the normal range). Conclusions Transient elevation of serum bilirubin, AST and ALT occurs after LC or after OC. The alteration in the liver enzymes can be attributed to CO2 pneumoperitoneum, surgical manipulations, diathermy, patient position, and arterial injury may also other factors. These changes return to normal in 3-4 days after procedure and they have no clinical consequences in patients with normal hepatic function but they may still cause worry to the surgeon regarding the integrity of biliary tree. PMID:26487940

  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, ?-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and ?-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS. PMID:26632395

  4. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  5. 180 Br~ves communications -Brevi comunicazioni [Exe~mE~CTIAVOL. XlI[5] 2, 7, 12 und 17 Tage alte PlasmGcytomzellkulturen

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    oder gegen Polio- myelitisviren gerichtete Antik6rper bilden, kann gegen- w~irtig noch nicht synthesis was tested in relation to all 3 types of polio virus. In both cases the plasmocytoma ceils proved

  6. Success in Accrual and Retention in a Large, Multi-Institutional Cancer Screening Trial: The NCI ALTS Experience | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    This abstract describes efforts to enhance recruitment and retention of minority women to a large, multi-institutional cervical cancer screening trial. Additional funding was made available to select sites to support targeted efforts to recruit and retain minority women. Resulting retention rates were higher than in any previously reported study for this patient population. The authors conclude that planning, adequate funding, and central and site-specific efforts can enhance recruitment and retention for other similar large-scale cancer screening and prevention trials.

  7. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Corte, A.; Corato, V.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Muzzi, L.; Polli, G. M.; Reccia, L.; Turtù, S.; Bruzzone, P.; Salpietro, E.; Vostner, A.

    2010-04-01

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb3Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb3Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  8. Selected Cytokines Serve as Potential Biomarkers for Predicting Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Normal to Mildly Elevated Aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong-Qiong; Zhao, Hong; Ma, An-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Xie, Shi-Bin; Zhang, Xu-Qing; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Guo; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies of small cohorts have implicated several circulating cytokines with progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, to date there have been no reliable biomarkers for assessing histological liver damage in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT).The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating cytokines and histological liver damage in a large cohort. Also, this study was designed to assess the utility of circulating cytokines in diagnosing liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal range (ULN).A total of 227 CHB patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging by Ishak system. Patients with at least moderate inflammation showed significantly higher levels of CXCL-11, CXCL-10, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R) than patients with less than moderate inflammation (P?ALT?ALT?AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 score for significant fibrosis.In conclusion, CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, whereas IL-2R and TGF-? were independent indicators of significant fibrosis in both, total CHB patients and patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT. An IL-2R and TGF-? based score (fib-index) was superior to APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT. PMID:26559292

  9. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate inhibits inflammatory response through STAT3 pathway to protect remnant liver function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guang-Hua; Yang, Hua-Yu; Zhang, Jin-Chun; Ren, Jin-Jun; Sang, Xin-Ting; Lu, Xin; Zhong, Shou-Xian; Mao, Yi-Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) on excessive hepatectomy animal model and its possible mechanism. METHODS: We used the standard 90% hepatectomy model in Sprague-Dawley rats developed using the modified Emond’s method, in which the left, middle, right upper, and right lower lobes of the liver were removed. Rats with 90% liver resection were divided into three groups, and were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mL saline (control group), 30 mg/kg (low-dose group) and 60 mg/kg (high-dose group) of MgIG, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at various time points and blood was drawn from the vena cava. Biochemical tests were performed with an automatic biochemical analyzer for the following items: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamyl endopeptidase, total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), total protein, albumin, blood glucose (Glu), hyper-sensitivity C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). Postoperative survival time was observed hourly until death. Hepatocyte regeneration was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and iNOS) was analyzed by ELISA. STAT3 protein and mRNA were analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The high-dose group demonstrated a significantly prolonged survival time, compared with both the control and the low-dose groups (22.0 ± 4.7 h vs 8.9 ± 2.0 vs 10.3 ± 3.3 h, P = 0.018). There were significant differences among the groups in ALT, Glu and PT levels starting from 6 h after surgery. The ALT levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. Both Glu and PT levels were significantly higher in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. At 12 h, ALT, AST, TBil, DBil and TT levels showed significant differences between the MgIG treated groups and the control group. No significant differences in hepatocyte regeneration were found. Compared to the control group, the high-dose group showed a significantly increase in serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-10, and a decrease in IL-6. Both STAT3 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group at 6 h, 12 h, and 18 h after surgery. CONCLUSION: High-dose MgIG can extend survival time in rats after excessive hepatectomy. This hepatoprotective effect is mediated by inhibiting the inflammatory response through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. PMID:26604644

  10. Hepatic Dysfunction in Asphyxiated Neonates: Prospective Case-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Dabi, Dhanraj; Lamba, Mamta; Pandita, Aakash; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) grading of the neonates. METHOD AND MATERIAL This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control). All biochemical parameters of liver function, ie, serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, serum albumin, bilirubin (total and direct), and international normalized ratio (INR), were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in both study and control groups. RESULTS In group A, 22.8% newborns had severe (Apgar score 0–3), 47.1% had moderate (Apgar score 4–5), and 30% had mild (Apgar score 6–7) birth asphyxia at five minutes. In all, 14.28% babies were in HIE stage I, 25.73% babies were in HIE stage II, and 11.42% babies were in HIE stage III. The rest of the newborns, 48.57%, were normal. The prevalence of liver function impairment was seen in 42.85% of asphyxiated neonates. On day 1, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, PT, and INR were significantly higher, and total protein and serum albumin were significantly lower in group A than in group B. However, ALT and AST correlated well with increasing severity of HIE score. On day 3, there was a rising trend observed in the concentration of mean LDH as HIE staging of neonates progressed from stage 0 to stage III, and among various HIE stages, the difference in LDH was statistically significant. CONCLUSION We concluded that AST, ALT at 24 hours, and LDH at 72 hours of animation can be a utilitarian diagnostic tool to differentiate asphyxiated neonates from non-asphyxiated neonates and to discover the severity of perinatal asphyxia because of easy accessibility and feasibility of tests. The outcomes of this survey would be useful for physicians who receive neonates for whom birth details are not easily documented as most of the time the referred newborn infants lack asphyxia history either because the attendants do not know clearly the whole birth history or it was an unattended delivery, or the referring health-care professional has not been observant because of legal threats. The neurological assessment also becomes difficult and inconclusive as ventilator treatment, sedative drugs, and anticonvulsant therapy would produce an evaluation of severity of hypoxic ischemic brain disease and neurological insult difficult. PMID:25674030

  11. Exploratory study on the effects of treatment with two mistletoe preparations on chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Tusenius, Karel Jan; Spoek, Anne Marie; van Hattum, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with a mistletoe preparation as monotherapy (either Iscador or Abnoba viscum) during one year. The treatment was well tolerated. Patients entering the study with elevated transaminases had a significant improvement, both for AST (aspartate aminotransferase) (p = 0.01) and for ALT (alanine aminotransferase) (p = 0.04). Quality of life significantly improved (p = 0.006) in patients with a low initial quality of life. Although one patient obtained a complete virological response, few effects on viral load were seen in the whole group. These results suggest an effect comparable to glycyrrhicin treatment: improvement of liver inflammation and thus possibly reduction of the long term complications, viz cirrhosis and liver cancer. Mistletoe preparations have the advantage of easy administration and low cost. PMID:16430029

  12. Impact of acute and chronic stress hormone on male albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Li; Chen, Ling; Dong, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of stress (stress hormone) in male albino rat brain. Nor-epinephrine was used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Nor-epinephrine was dissolved in the saline and administered orally to the rats. Following nor-epinephrine administration, the brain was removed surgically at 6 h, 12 h and 45 days. Alanine tansaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly altered in the rats. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), showed altered lipid peroxidation. Hematological markers such as packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly altered compared to controls. Altered serum biochemical and hematological markers, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities leads to adverse effect in the cellular metabolism and physiological activities of rats. PMID:26261571

  13. Safety Evaluation of Artocarpus altilis as Pharmaceutical Agent in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Sudha; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the acute toxicity of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark extracts. In acute toxicity study, no mortality or any toxic reaction was recorded in any group after 14 days of administering the extracts (2000?mg?Kg(-1) BW). The extracts (ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM) did not cause any behavioural or physical changes in experimental rats. There was no significant (P ? 0.05) difference in the biochemical parameters analysed between the groups. Slight elevation in activities of AST and ALT in extract treated groups was observed, but this did not exert any deleterious effect on the normal metabolism which was supported by the histopathology of liver. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable changes after 14 days of oral administration of ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM extracts. The study contributes to establishing the nontoxic quality parameters of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark parts and the results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses. PMID:24803928

  14. Enzyme activities in plasma, kidney, liver, and muscle of five avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Murray, H.C.; Bunck, C.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in plasma, kidney, liver, and muscle from five species of captive birds. Few differences occurred in plasma activities between sexes but considerable differences occurred between species. All five enzymes were detected in each of the tissues sampled. Relative enzyme activities in liver, kidney, and muscle were similar for each species. CPK activity was much higher in muscle than in liver or kidney and, of the five enzymes studied, may be the best indicator of muscle damage. Most of the other enzymes were more evenly distributed among the three tissues, and no organ-specific enzyme could be identified for liver or kidney. Because of interspecific variations in plasma enzyme activities, it is important to establish baseline values for each species to ensure accurate interpretation of results.

  15. Efficacy of intra-tumor injection of Xiao-Zhi-Ling on transplanted hepatoma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yun; Wu, Li-Qun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic effectiveness of intra-tumor injection of Xiao-Zhi-Ling(XZL) on transplanted hepatoma in rats. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into 3 groups (groups S, X and E), 20 in each. Different drugs were injected into the implanted hepatoma (Group S with 0.2 ml saline as control, group X with 0.2 ml XZL, group E with 0.2 ml ethanol). After 3 days and 8 days respectively, we detected the hepatoma volume (HV), the level of albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in hepatoma. RESULTS: The results were obtained after 3 days, the HVs in groups X and E were smaller than those in group S (group X vs S P = 0.010*, group E vs S P = 0.002*, P < 0.05). The levels of ALT and AST in group S and X were lower than those in group E (ALT Group S vs E P = 0.019*, group X vs E P = 0.003*, P < 0.05; AST group X vs E P = 0.002*, P < 0.05). The levels of ALP and PCNA labeling index in group X were lower than those in group S and E (ALP group X vs S P = 0.000*, group X vs E P = 0.000*. P < 0.05; PCNA group X vs S P = 0.008*, group X vs E P = 0.048*, P < 0.05). The levels of creatinine in group S were lower than those in group E (group S vs E P = 0.017, P < 0.05). The degree of tumor necrosis in group S was lower than those in groups X and E (group S vs X P = 0.006*, group S vs E P = 0.006*, P < 0.05). After 8 days, the HVs in groups X and E were smaller than those in group S (group X vs S P = 0.007*, group E vs S P = 0.004*, P < 0.05). The difference of HVs between groups X and E was not significant. The levels of albumin, ALT, AST and creatinine in group X were not higher than those in other groups, the levels of ALP and PCNA in group X were lower than those in groups S and E (ALP group X vs E P = 0.006* P < 0.05; PCNA group X vs S P = 0.044*, group X vs E P = 0.021*, P < 0.05). The degree of tumor necrosis in group S was lower than that in groups X and E (group S vs X P = 0.001*, group S vs E P = 0.002*, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effectiveness of intra-tumor injection of XZL and ethanol on implanted hepatoma is obvious, but the toxicity of XZL on liver function is markedly lower than that of group E, at the same time XZL can inhibit the growth of tumor. XZL is relatively better and safer than ethanol in intra-tumor injection therapy. PMID:12970920

  16. Broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification-related gene expression and attenuates acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Ushida, Yusuke; Ishijima, Tomoko; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of broccoli sprout extract (BSEx) on liver gene expression and acute liver injury in the rat. METHODS: First, the effects of BSEx on liver gene expression were examined. Male rats were divided into two groups. The Control group was fed the AIN-76 diet, and the BSEx group was fed the AIN-76 diet containing BSEx. After a 10-d feeding period, rats were sacrificed and their livers were used for DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Next, the effects of BSEx on acute liver injury were examined. In experiments using acute liver injury models, 1000 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP) or 350 mg/kg D-galactosamine (D-GalN) was used to induce injury. These male rats were divided into four groups: Control, BSEx, Inducer (APAP or D-GalN), and Inducer+BSEx. The feeding regimens were identical for the two analyses. Twenty-four hours following APAP administration via p.o. or D-GalN administration via i.p., rats were sacrificed to determine serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances accumulation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. RESULTS: Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that BSEx upregulated the expression of genes related to detoxification and glutathione synthesis in normal rat liver. The levels of AST (70.91 ± 15.74 IU/mL vs 5614.41 ± 1997.83 IU/mL, P < 0.05) and ALT (11.78 ± 2.08 IU/mL vs 1297.71 ± 447.33 IU/mL, P < 0.05) were significantly suppressed in the APAP + BSEx group compared with the APAP group. The level of GSH (2.61 ± 0.75 nmol/g tissue vs 1.66 ± 0.59 nmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) and liver GST activity (93.19 ± 16.55 U/g tissue vs 51.90 ± 16.85 U/g tissue, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the APAP + BSEx group compared with the APAP group. AST (4820.05 ± 3094.93 IU/mL vs 12465.63 ± 3223.97 IU/mL, P < 0.05) and ALT (1808.95 ± 1014.04 IU/mL vs 3936.46 ± 777.52 IU/mL, P < 0.05) levels were significantly suppressed in the D-GalN + BSEx group compared with the D-GalN group, but the levels of AST and ALT in the D-GalN + BSEx group were higher than those in the APAP + BSEx group. The level of GST activity was significantly increased in the D-GalN + BSEx group compared with the D-GalN group (98.04 ± 15.75 U/g tissue vs 53.15 ± 8.14 U/g tissue, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that BSEx protected the liver from various types of xenobiotic substances through induction of detoxification enzymes and glutathione synthesis. PMID:26401074

  17. Hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in eclamptic woman with HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Chikako; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Furukawa, Mika; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2006-01-01

    We report the first case of an obstructive hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in a woman with HELLP syndrome and eclampsia. A 25-year-old primiparaous woman had severe preeclampsia at 36 weeks of gestation. She complained of epigastric pain and nausea. The levels of AST, ALT, and LDH were 539, 560, and 1051 IU/L, respectively; the platelet count was 101 x 109/L. Cesarean section was promptly performed. Intraoperatively, she had a first convulsion. The CT scan revealed only mild brain edema. The platelet count deteriorated to 30 x 109/L at 5 hour after the operation, and she had a second convulsion with an intraventricular hemorrhage. On the 6th post-cesarean day, she complained severe headache followed by coma. The CT scan revealed the enlargement of both lateral ventricles, indicating the occurrence of obstructive hydrocephalus. Drainage into cerebral ventricle was performed, resulting in the recovery of consciousness to a normal level. PMID:17065045

  18. A 15-day oral dose toxicity study of aspirin eugenol ester in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyong; Yu, Yuanguang; Yang, Yajun; Liu, Xiwang; Zhang, Jiyu; Li, Bing; Zhou, Xuzheng; Niu, Jianrong; Wei, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zhiqi

    2012-06-01

    The subchronic toxicity of aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was evaluated after 15-day intragastrically administration in rats at daily doses of 50, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. AEE at low-dose showed no toxicity to the tested rats. Following repeated exposure to medium- or high-dose of AEE, apparent changes were observed in the levels of blood glucose, AST, ALP, ALT and TB in both male and female rats, and appeared to be dose-independent. There were no significant gender differences in most indexes of subchronic toxicity throughout the experimental period with the exception of food consumption and body weight. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of AEE was considered to be 50 mg/kg/day under the present study conditions. PMID:22516304

  19. An accidental fatal attack on domestic pigeons by honey bees in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Lee, Sei-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Yang, Dong Kwon; Alam, Md Rafiqul; Kim, Shang-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Fatalities among avian species due to multiple bee stings are rare. Sixteen pigeons on a farm in Bangladesh each suffered multiple bee stings. Ten of the pigeons died before treatment, 5 (4-11 stings) died within 12 hr after treatment, and 1 pigeon (only 3 stings) survived. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, MCV, MCH and MCHC decreased significantly after the incident, but leucocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, ALT, AST, LDH, CK, creatinine, BUN and UA increased markedly. Overall, the hematological and biochemical changes in the bee-stung pigeons were similar to those of mammals; however, avian species may be more sensitive to bee stings than mammals. PMID:26028022

  20. Brewers' Rice: A By-Product from Rice Processing Provides Natural Hepatorenal Protection in Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Hazilawati, Hamzah; Roselina, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers' rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers' rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers' rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers' rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers' rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease. PMID:26257841