Science.gov

Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and other biomedical products. Several studies report on ZnO nanoparticle mediated cytotoxicity. However, there are no reports on the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (1–5 mg/ml) on C2C12 cell viability at 48 and 72 h. ZnO nanoparticles increased ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme mRNA expression and their activities in C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased these enzyme activities and its mRNA expression in C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26586993

  2. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and other biomedical products. Several studies report on ZnO nanoparticle mediated cytotoxicity. However, there are no reports on the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (1-5mg/ml) on C2C12 cell viability at 48 and 72h. ZnO nanoparticles increased ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme mRNA expression and their activities in C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased these enzyme activities and its mRNA expression in C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26586993

  3. Rangelia vitalii: changes in the enzymes ALT, CK and AST during the acute phase of experimental infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mrcio Machado; Frana, Raqueli Teresinha; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Paim, Carlos Breno; Paim, Francine; do Amaral, Carlos Henrique; Dornelles, Guilherme Lopes; da Cunha, Joo Paulo Monteiro Carvalho Mori; Soares, Joo Fabio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Mazzanti, Cinthia Melazzo Andrade; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha Dos Anjos

    2012-01-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a protozoon that causes diseases in dogs, and anemia is the most common laboratory finding. However, few studies on the biochemical changes in dogs infected with this protozoon exist. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the biochemical changes in dogs experimentally infected with R. vitalii, during the acute phase of the infection. For this study, 12 female dogs (aged 6-12 months and weighing between 4 and 7 kg) were used, divided in two groups. Group A was composed of healthy dogs (n = 5); and group B consisted of infected animals (n = 7). Blood samples were collected on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after infection, using tubes without anticoagulant to obtain serum and analyze the biochemical parameters. An increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on day 20 (P < 0.05) was observed. Also, increased creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were observed throughout the experimental period (P < 0.05). No changes in the serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea and creatinine levels were observed. Thus, is possible to conclude that experimental infection with R. vitalii in dogs causes changes to the biochemical profile, with increased ALT, AST and CK enzyme levels. PMID:23070434

  4. Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-Gonzlez, Mnica; Gutirrez, Norma G; Martnez, Ubaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-??8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-??30.2). AST/ALT ratio <1 also increased linearly, as did the prevalence of MetS (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group to 40.3% for the obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-??65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-??31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio <1. WC was the best predictor of elevated ALT (AOR = 7.13). Pearson correlation showed that MetS components were significantly correlated with elevated ALT. Therefore elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and strongly associated with MetS in Mexican children, it should be screened in overweight and obese children. PMID:24548580

  5. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  6. AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

    2014-04-01

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

  7. Modeling of asteroid spectra - M4AST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Birlan, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The interpretation of asteroid spectra provides the basis for determining the chemical composition and physical process that modified the surface of the asteroids. The increasing number of asteroid spectral measurements has lead to well-developed methods for analyzing asteroid spectra. There is however no centralized database for all the published data and a set of standard routines is also required. Aims: We present a public software tool that combines both data archives and analyses of asteroid spectra. Methods: Our project M4AST (Modeling for asteroids) consists of an asteroid spectral database and a set of applications for analyzing asteroid spectra. These applications cover aspects related to taxonomy, curve matching with laboratory spectra, space weathering models, and mineralogical diagnosis. Results: M4AST project is fully available via a web interface. The database contains around 2700 spectra that can be either processed in M4AST and/or downloaded. The paper presents the algorithms we developed for spectral analyses based on existing methods. The robustness of routines is proven by the solutions found for spectra of three different asteroids: (9147) Kourakuen, (99 942) Apophis, and (175 706) 1996 FG3. The available results confirm those in the literature. M4AST applications can also be used to characterize any new asteroid spectra. Conclusions: M4AST is a robust and reliable tool dedicated to asteroid spectra. M4AST is available via the web interface: http://cardamine.imcce.fr/m4ast/

  8. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  9. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  10. PhAST: pharmacophore alignment search tool.

    PubMed

    Hhnke, Volker; Hofmann, Bettina; Grgat, Tomislav; Proschak, Ewgenij; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schneider, Gisbert

    2009-04-15

    We present a ligand-based virtual screening technique (PhAST) for rapid hit and lead structure searching in large compound databases. Molecules are represented as strings encoding the distribution of pharmacophoric features on the molecular graph. In contrast to other text-based methods using SMILES strings, we introduce a new form of text representation that describes the pharmacophore of molecules. This string representation opens the opportunity for revealing functional similarity between molecules by sequence alignment techniques in analogy to homology searching in protein or nucleic acid sequence databases. We favorably compared PhAST with other current ligand-based virtual screening methods in a retrospective analysis using the BEDROC metric. In a prospective application, PhAST identified two novel inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase product formation with minimal experimental effort. This outcome demonstrates the applicability of PhAST to drug discovery projects and provides an innovative concept of sequence-based compound screening with substantial scaffold hopping potential. PMID:18727161

  11. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vzquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  12. Bridging the UST/AST gap

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Choosing between underground and aboveground storage tank options can be a daunting--and risky--enterprise. Although USTs are conveniently out of sight, they cannot remain out of mind, and must be monitored continuously for possible unseen leaks or structural damage. ASTs provide easy access for monitoring and maintenance, but this benefit makes them open targets for vandalism, accidents and long-term effects of exposure to the elements. CON/SPAN{reg_sign} Bridge Systems, Dayton, Ohio, in association with the Dayton-based engineering firm LJB Inc., developed a unique solution to the AST/UST dilemma by adapting the company`s modular-concrete bridge construction technology to storage tank installation.

  13. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  14. An innovative alt-alt telescope for small observatories and amateur astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghigo, M.; Landoni, M.; Pareschi, G.; Span, P.; Tomelleri, R.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper want to show an innovative amateur oriented telescope with an unconventional alt-alt conguration. The goal is to make a telescope with good optical quality reducing production costs by adopting a gimbal based mounting to develop an alt-alt conguration suitable for a telescope. Reduce costs while preserving the optical quality is a necessary condition to allow small groups of amateur astronomers, schools and cultural clubs, with reduced economic resources, to acquire an astronomical instrument that encourages learning and advancing astrophysical knowledge. This unconventional mechanism for the realization of a telescope alt-alt provides signicant advantages. The traditional rotary motors coupled with expensive precision bearings are replaced with two simple linear actuators coupled to a properly preloaded gimbal joint and the cell becomes the primary structure of the telescope. A second advantage would be secured by mechanical simplicity evident in the easy portability of the instrument. The frame alt-alt has some limitations on the horizon pointing but does not show the zenith blind spot of the alt-az mount. A dedicated alt-alt pointing and tracking model is under development to be compatible with commercial telescope softwares and with the proposed new mounting.

  15. The Antarctic Survey Telescopes AST3 and the AST3-NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Wang, Lifan; Gu, Bozhong; Du, Fujia; Li, Zhengyang; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haiping; Wen, Haikun; Gong, Xuefei; Shang, Zhaohui; Ashley, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Antarctic Survey Telescopes consists of three different filtered telescopes with 680mm primary mirror and 8 square degree field of view, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is anticipated to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the recent years site testing works jointly by CCAA and UNSW. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically runned for two months from March 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the AST3-1, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et. al were done for the second one. After the Mohe winterization test, the AST3-2 was deployed on Dome A successfully in Jan. 2015 and now the telescope is ready for remote observations. The blind tracking accuracy is about 0.2arcsecond. For the third one, a fold mirror was added to guide the focal plane outside the main optical tube which makes the CCD onsite assembly and maintenance easier and better tube seeing. By changing different correctors and detector, the third telescope can also work in near infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging in K band. The staylight analysis and thermal emission analysis will be given in this paper. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  16. The ALTE mysteries: who's to blame?

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. A recent paper on apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in newborn babies brought to mind an experience from practice, the cause of which remains a mystery. As many similar events are unexplained, is it acceptable that there is a tendency in the literature to claim that skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are risk factors for ALTEs? PMID:27008761

  17. Testing and application of AST linings

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    AST linings are employed for three reasons: (1) to eliminate corrosion; (2) for product purity; or (3) for both 1 and 2. Test methods employed most often to determine if a lining would be acceptable is a modified Atlas Test Cell Test per NACE standard TM-01-74. This test is utilized for both thick and thin film coatings, respectively. Data gathered from this test procedure is then compared to past performance data along with any other existing data and then recorded. Before a decision is finalized and a recommendation given, other factors need to be addressed such as: design requirements; application methods; application to be used and, last but not least, inspection steps. Before lining work begins, a pre-award meeting should be held with the applicator, inspector, engineering, purchasing, safety, and appropriate plant personnel in attendance. All items of the contract should be reviewed and responsibilities of all parties agreed to. Notes should be taken and distributed to all in attendance. Application methods will be dictated by the lining system chosen. Typical methods include: spray-up; lay-up and hand-troweling. Correct inspection procedures employed before, during, and after application will enhance longevity of the life of the lining. With a sound testing program in place, utilizing a quality applicator, employing sound inspection procedures and follow up with yearly inspection of the lining, one should be able to have many years of trouble-free linings for above ground storage tanks.

  18. Fusarium sambucinum astA gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans astA.

    PubMed

    Pi?syk, Sebastian; Natorff, Renata; Gawi?ska-Urbanowicz, Hanna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. Orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (AstA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens Fusarium sambucinum and Fusarium graminearum. By physiological and biochemical analyses, the AstA orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. Similarly to astA in A. nidulans, the FsastA gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (SMR) in a sulfur-dependent manner. In contrast, the FgastA transcript was undetectable, however, when the FgastA gene was expressed heterologously in A. nidulans, the translated FgAstA protein acted as a sulfate transporter. Interestingly, F. sambucinum astA expression was remarkably augmented in infected potato tubers, despite the presence abundant sulfate and was found not to be correlated with plant resistance. PMID:25986548

  19. Surface profiles for ALT-II tiles

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    The Advanced Limiter Test-II, ALT-II, is a full toroidal belt limiter that will be installed on TEXTOR in September 1986. The experiment will investigate the effects of a full toroidal belt on particle confinement and on particle exhaust from the system. ALT-II is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of plasma heating for three second discharges. For design purposes it is assumed that as much as 4 MW is deposited on the limiters. In this report the design conditions are coupled with a detailed description of the tokamak plasma edge region to determine the shapes of the graphite tiles that will be mounted on the ALT-II blades. The front faces of these tiles, that surface adjacent to the plasma boundary, are profiled poloidally so that when the energy scrape-off length, lambdae, is 1.0cm the active surfaces experience a heat flux of 270 W/cm/sup 2/. The ALT-II belt consists of eight individually movable blades with a 12.0cm gap, for diagnostic access, between adjacent blades. Power flow through these gaps produces hot spots on the toroidal ends of each blade. Heat flux loads associated with these hot spots are minimized by providing toroidal shaping to the end tiles in addition to the poloidal, front face profiling described above. The profiling is such that a single blade protruding 3mm further into the plasma than the next nearest blade experiences 1 kW/cm/sup 2/ on its toroidal edge during full power operation.

  20. The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  1. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  2. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  3. SMARCAL1 Resolves Replication Stress at ALT Telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kelli E; Marchal, Alexandre; Flynn, Rachel Litman

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells overcome replicative senescence by exploiting mechanisms of telomere elongation, a process often accomplished by reactivation of the enzyme telomerase. However, a subset of cancer cells lack telomerase activity and rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway, a recombination-based mechanism of telomere elongation. Although the mechanisms regulating ALT are not fully defined, chronic replication stress at telomeres might prime these fragile regions for recombination. Here, we demonstrate that the replication stress response protein SMARCAL1 is a critical regulator of ALT activity. SMARCAL1 associates with ALT telomeres to resolve replication stress andensure telomere stability. In the absence of SMARCAL1, persistently stalled replication forks at ALT telomeres deteriorate into DNA double-strand breaks promoting the formation of chromosome fusions. Our studies not only define a role for SMARCAL1 in ALT telomere maintenance, but also demonstrate that resolution of replication stress is a crucial step in the ALT mechanism. PMID:26832416

  4. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Wolf, G.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Hsu, W.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.

  5. Effects of an AST program on US titanium story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The singular importance of titanium as the primary structural material for an efficient advanced supersonic transport (AST) is outlined. The advantages of titanium over other metals are shown to apply to future subsonic aircraft as well as for supersonic designs. The cost problem of titanium is addressed and shown to be markedly reduced by the emerging technologies of superplastic forming/diffusion bonding sandwich, hot isostatic pressing of titanium powders, and isothermal forgings if demonstration programs should validate preliminary findings. The impact of a U.S. AST program on the United States titanium supply and demand picture is postulated.

  6. Circulating alanine transaminase (ALT) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), but not fetuin-A, is associated with metabolic risk factors, at baseline and at two-year follow-up: the prospective Cyprus Metabolism Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Chamberland, John P; Petrou, Michael; Gong, Huizhi; Christophi, Costas A; Christiani, David C; Kales, Stefanos N; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To comparatively evaluate traditional liver tests and fetuin A as predictors of cardiometabolic risk, we studied associations between serum alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and fetuin-A and anthropometric, metabolic, and cardiovascular parameters cross-sectionally at baseline, and prospectively, after 2-years of follow-up. Research Design and Methods 616 randomly enrolled young healthy participants in the Cyprus Metabolism Study, including all 93 subjects who participated in the follow-up study 2 years after baseline assessment, were included in this study. Results In the cross-sectional study, serum ALT and GGT were strongly correlated with anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables, while serum AST was only correlated with waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. Fetuin-A was correlated with anthropometric variables, systolic blood pressure (SBP), insulin, and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the unadjusted model. In the fully adjusted model, both serum ALT and GGT levels remained positively correlated with total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. GGT levels also remained correlated with triglycerides. ALT levels remained strongly positively correlated with insulin (r=0.17, p<.0001) and HOMA-IR (r=0.16, p=0.0001). Serum fetuin-A levels were no longer significantly correlated with any variables. Prospectively, ALT and GGT were predictors of anthropometric variables and LDL cholesterol, while baseline levels of AST and fetuin-A were not predictors of any variables at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions We confirmed associations of ALT and GGT levels but failed to demonstrate an independent association between fetuin-A and cardiometabolic risk factors in young healthy men. Traditional liver tests (LFTs) are thus better than fetuin-A predictors of metabolic risk factors cross-sectionally and prospectively in young healthy adults. PMID:24726813

  7. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  8. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  9. Identification of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus casei AST18.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Wenming; Lv, Jiaping

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus casei AST18 was screened as an antifungal lactic acid bacteria which we have reported before. In this research, the antifungal properties of cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from L. casei AST18 were detected, and the antifungal compounds of CCF were prepared by ultrafiltration, and semi-preparative HPLC, and then determined by GC-MS. CCF was sensitive to pH and heat treatment but it was not affected by the treatment of trypsin and pepsin. Through the treatment of ultrafiltration and semi-preparative HPLC there were two parts of CCF which showed antifungal activities: part 1 and part 4. Lactic acid was identified as the main antifungal compound in part 1. In part 4, three small molecular substances were detected with GC-MS. The three potential antifungal substances were cyclo-(Leu-Pro), 2,6-diphenyl-piperidine, and 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a;1',2'-d]pyrazine. The antifungal activity of L. casei AST18 was a synergistic effect of lactic acid and cyclopeptides. PMID:22580887

  10. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  11. Expression and purification of a functional recombinant aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lihui; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Daguang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Xiao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST; E.C. 2.6.1.1), a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, preferentially promotes the mutual transformation of aspartate and ?-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. It plays a key role in amino acid metabolism and has been widely recommended as a biomarker of liver and heart damage. Our study aimed to evaluate the extensive preparation of AST and its application in quality control in clinical laboratories. We describe a scheme to express and purify the 6His-AST fusion protein. An optimized sequence coding AST was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression. Ideally, the fusion protein has a volumetric productivity achieving 900 mg/l cultures. After affinity chromatography, the enzyme activity of purified AST reached 150,000 U/L. Commutability assessment between the engineered AST and standard AST from Roche suggested that the engineered AST was the better candidate for the reference material. Moreover, the AST showed high stability during long-term storage at -20C. In conclusion, the highly soluble 6His-tagged AST can become a convenient tool for supplying a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for the clinical laboratory. PMID:24722375

  12. ASTE Surveys of Galactic Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro

    2008-05-01

    We report some recent highlights on the observational studies of Galactic star formation based on surveys using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), a new 10 m telescope in the Atacama desert in northern Chile (Kohno et al., 2008, ApSS, 313, 279). The highlights will include (1) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Galactic Center, unveiling the presence of numerous compact high velocity clouds with high CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios as a "fossil of the recent burst of star formation in the Galactic Center region (Oka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 15; Nagai et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 25; Tanaka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 323), (2) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Sgr arm and inter-am regions, revealing the distinct difference on the morphology and physical property of molecular gas between the arm and inter-arm regions for the first time (Sawada, Koda, et al., in prep.), and (3) a wide area 1.1 mm imaging survey of Southern low mass star-forming regions such as Chamaeleon and Lupus molecular clouds using the bolometer camera AzTEC (Wilson et al., 2008, MNRAS, in press) mounted on ASTE, yielding detections of starless cores with a very low mass detection limist down to 0.1 solar masses (Hiramatsu, Tsukagoshi, Kawabe et al., in prep.). Related topics on the massive star-forming regions in very nearby galaxies such as LMC (Minamidani et al., 2008, ApJS, in press) and M 33 (Tosaki et al., 2007, ApJ, 664, L27; Onodera et al., in prep.; Komugi et al., in prep.) will also be reviewed.

  13. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.; Noda, N.

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  14. ALT-2 armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberry, B. L.; McGrath, R. T.; Watson, R. D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K. H.

    1994-06-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test-2 (ALT-2) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-2 by abo ut 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-2 had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-2 armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-2 pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-2 armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  15. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time.

  16. AFLP MARKERS TIGHTLY LINKED TO THE ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE ALT3 IN RYE (SECALE CEREALE L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is considered to be the most aluminum (Al) tolerant species among the Triticeae. It has been suggested that aluminum tolerance in rye is controlled by three major genes (Alt genes) located on rye chromosome arms 6RS (Alt1), 3RL (Alt2), and 4RL (Alt3). Screening of an F6 rye...

  17. Orbiter 'Enterprise' turns and banks during second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' makes a turn and bank maneuver during the second free flight of the Shuttle Apporach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. The 'Enterprise' separated form the NASA 747 carrier aircraft and after a five-minute, 28-second unpowered flight landed on a runway below. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the 'Enterprise.' The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  18. The Toroidal Pump Limiter ALT-II in TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, K.H.; Reiter, D.; Denner, T.

    2005-02-15

    The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT) project is the focus of a fruitful and intense International Energy Agreement collaboration on TEXTOR. The pump limiter is a mechanical boundary that is laid out for taking the full heat load of TEXTOR, namely 8 MW (assuming 2 MW radiated power) for 10 s, and provides a pumping efficiency of at least 5% of the working gas. This layout is adopted from the requirements of a fusion reactor: It is mandatory to remove both the full power that is convected to the limiter or divertor and the helium ash that is generated in the fusion process. In order to obtain pumping for all gases, the ALT-II is equipped with turbomolecular pumps. A short description of ALT-II is given, and the power and particle fluxes to the limiter surface and into the exhaust scoops are discussed. Requirements of the helium removal rate for a reactor and relevant measurements are discussed, and particle removal and the power distribution to the limiters are treated. Related topics of the ALT-II program were hydrogen recycling and the measurement of turbulence-induced anomalous particle transport in the plasma edge.

  19. Astronauts Engle and Truly at breakfast priot to second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Astronauts Joe H. Engle, center, commander and Richard H. Truly, left, pilot, enjoy breakfast prior to the second free flight of the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), on September 13, 1977, in Trailer 69 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. Joining the crew at breakfast is training officer Rich Nygren.

  20. Interchromosomal Homology Searches Drive Directional ALT Telomere Movement and Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam Woo; Dilley, Robert L.; Lampson, Michael A.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, approximately 10-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multi-telomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break (DSB) response at ALT telomeres triggers long-range movement and clustering between chromosome termini, resulting in homology-directed telomere synthesis. Damaged telomeres initiate increased random surveillance of nuclear space before displaying rapid directional movement and association with recipient telomeres over micron-range distances. This phenomenon required Rad51 and the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer, which are essential for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. These findings implicate a specialized homology searching mechanism in ALT dependent telomere maintenance and provide a molecular basis underlying the preference for recombination between non- sister telomeres during ALT. PMID:25259924

  1. AstR-AstS, a new two-component signal transduction system, mediates swarming, adaptation to stationary phase and phenotypic variation in Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Ngo, Saravuth; Turlin, Evelyne; Duchaud, Eric; Namane, Abdelkader; Kunst, Frank; Danchin, Antoine; Bertin, Philippe; Charles, Jean-Franois

    2004-04-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens is an insect-pathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiosis with specific entomopathogenic nematodes. In this bacterium, a symbiosis-'deficient' phenotypic variant (known as the secondary variant or form II) arises at a low frequency during prolonged incubation. A knock-out mutant was generated of the regulator of a newly identified two-component regulatory system, designated AstR-AstS. Interestingly, this mutation altered the timing of phenotypic switching. Variant cells arose in the mutant strain several days before they did in the wild-type population, suggesting that AstRS is directly or indirectly involved in the genetic mechanism underlying variant cell formation. This mutation also affected motility and antibiotic synthesis. To identify AstRS-regulated genes, a comparative analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed. Seventeen proteins with modified synthesis in stationary phase were identified by mass spectrometry and shown to be involved in electron-transport systems, energy metabolism, iron acquisition and stress responses. The results imply that AstRS is involved in the adaptation of cells to the stationary phase, whilst negatively affecting the competitive advantage of form I cells. The link between AstRS-dependent stationary-phase adaptation and phenotypic variation is discussed. PMID:15073299

  2. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  3. ALT-II program progress report for FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-26

    In FY92, the ALT-II program is concentrating on three main physics areas: pumped limiter experiments, which include He exhaust and high density high power operation; limiter bias experiments focused on modifying edge transport and particle removal; and and edge transport and flow studies, which examine the equilibrium edge flows and transport physics during Ohmic, L-mode, Supershot, and H-mode confinement regimes. In support of these physics objectives, a CCD diagnostic system has been delivered to TEXTOR and is being used to supplement the previous ALT-II diagnostic system. A second fast-scanning Langmuir probe was constructed at UCLA and has been delivered to TEXTOR for use in studies of edge plasma flows, turbulent transport, and poloidal asymmetries. A brief synopsis of each topic is given below. Work will continue on these physics topics during the balance of FY92.

  4. Shuttle Orbiter 'Enterprise' lands at Edwards AFB after second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' stirs up a cloud of desert sand and dust as it lands at Edwards Air Force Base to conclude a five-minute, 28-second unpowered flight during the second free-flight of the Shuttle Approach and and Landing Test (ALT) series, on September 13, 1977. On the right a T-38 chase plane comes in for a landing, also. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, commander, and Richard H. Truly, pilot, were the crewmen for the flight.

  5. Shuttle Orbiter 'Enterprise' lands at Edwards AFB after third ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' approaches touchdown on the runnway at Edwards Air Force Base to conclude a five-minute, 34-second unpowered flight during the third free-flight of the Shuttle Approach and and Landing Test (ALT) series, on September 23, 1977. Three T-38 chase planes follow close by. Astronauts Fred W. Haise,Jr., commander, and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot, were the crewmen for the flight.

  6. Shuttle Orbiter 'Enterprise' lands at Edwards AFB after second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' lands on the desert at Edwards Air Force Base to conclude a five-minute, 31-second unpowered flight during the second free-flight of the Shuttle Approach and and Landing Test (ALT) series, on September 13, 1977. Two T-38 chase planes remain with the 'Enterprise' for the landing. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, commander, and Richard H. Truly, pilot, were the crewmen for the flight.

  7. Shuttle Orbiter 'Enterprise' lands at Edwards AFB after second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' stirs up a cloud of desert sand and dust as it lands at Edwards Air Force Base to conclude a five-minute, 31-second unpowered flight during the second free-flight of the Shuttle Approach and and Landing Test (ALT) series, on September 13, 1977. On the right a T-38 chase plane comes in for a landing, also. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, commander, and Richard H. Truly, pilot, were the crewmen for the flight.

  8. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications associated with each assumption as well as the implications for bottom line economics, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Two crews for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two crews for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are, left to right, Astronauts C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew; Fred W. Haise Jr., commander of the first crew; Joe H. Engle, commander of the second crew; and Richard H. Truly, pilot of the second crew. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  10. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  11. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  12. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  13. Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1 - a unique, ?-barrel protein dimer exclusively found in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Poms, Anna; Minor, Wladek

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique ?-barrel comprising 11 ?-strands and forms a butterfly-like dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (13452) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric ?-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients. PMID:22664167

  14. ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Textor Team; Icrh Team; Goebel, D. M.; Conn, R. W.; Corbett, W. J.; Dippel, K. H.; Finken, K. H.; Gauster, W. B.; Hardtke, A.; Koski, J. A.; Kohlhaas, W.; McGrath, R. T.; Malinowski, M. E.; Miyahara, A.; Moyer, R.; Sagara, A.; Watkins, J. G.; Wolf, G.

    1989-04-01

    The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-II) is a toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. ALT-II is composed of 8 blade segments which form an axisymmetric toroidal belt of 3.4 m 2 exposed surface area, located on the outside of the torus at 45 below the horizontal midplane. Ohmic plasma operation with ALT-II as the main limiter is characterized by a line-averaged density range of 5 10 12 to 5.5 10 13cm -3 at B T = 2 T and I P = 340 kA, Z eff = 1.1 to 2 and typically 40 to 95% of the power radiated depending on the plasma density. ICRH heating of the plasma with up to 2.6 MW of incident power has been achieved, which modifies the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the pump limiter performance. The recycling coefficient in TEXTOR is normally close to one, but helium RG conditioning and baking of the limiter at 400 C is found to lower the recycling coefficient to 0.8 for the order of 10 shots. Measurements by arrays of probes in the SOL and thermocouples in the limiter tiles indicate the flow to the limiter is toroidally symmetric (taking field ripple into account) and poloidally asymmetric. The asymmetries result in different power and particle fluxes to the ion and electron drift sides of the limiter. The density and power scrape-off lengths are on the order of 1 cm and significantly longer on the outside of the torus (electron drift side). In spite of the flow asymmetry favoring the ion drift side near the tangency point, the longer e-folding lengths on the electron side in the SOL result in equal or higher particle collection by the electron side. The probe arrays indicate that during ohmic heating a total of 15 to 20% of the core efflux is incident on the neutralizer plates located in scoops beneath the blades. More particles are collected during ICRH auxiliary heating due to changes in the SOL profiles and shorter particle confinement times. Based on particle re moval experiments with pumping on one blade, the total exhaust efficiency of the limiter if pumped at all eight blades is 5 to 10%.

  15. A pre-marketing ALT signal predicts post-marketing liver safety.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Cynthia A; Suzuki, Ayako; Papay, Julie I; Yuen, Nancy A; Ames, Michael; Hunt, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Drug induced liver injury during drug development is evidenced by a higher incidence of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations in treated versus placebo populations and termed an "ALT signal". We sought to quantify whether an ALT signal in pre-marketing clinical trials predicted post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Incidence of ALT elevations (ALT ? 3 times upper limits normal [ ULN]) for drug and placebo of new chemical entities and approved drugs associated with hepatotoxicity was calculated using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Post-marketing liver safety events were identified using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). The association of FDA AERS signal score (EB05 ? 2) and excess risk of pre-marketing ALT elevation (difference in incidence of ALT ? 3 ULN in treated versus placebo) was examined. An ALT signal of ? 1.2% was significantly associated with a post-marketing liver safety signal (p ? 0.013) and a 71.4% positive predictive value. An absent ALT signal was associated with a high likelihood of post-marketing liver safety; negative predictive value of 89.7%. Daily drug dose information improved the prediction of post-marketing liver safety. A cut-off of 1.2% increase in ALT ? 3 ULN in treated versus placebo groups provides an easily calculated method for predicting post-marketing liver safety. PMID:22668747

  16. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  17. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  18. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  19. An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

    2008-05-01

    A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

  20. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  1. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  2. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  3. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  4. Cloning and sequencing of the Klebsiella K-36 astA gene, encoding an arylsulfate sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Baek, M C; Kim, S K; Kim, D H; Kim, B K; Choi, E C

    1996-01-01

    A gene-encoding arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) was cloned from a Klebsiella K-36 genomic library. ASST transfers a sulfate group from phenolic sulfate esters to a phenolic acceptor substrate. The gene, designated astA, was subcloned into vector pGEM3Zf(-) and sequenced. Recombinant clone-harbouring astA was directly identified using a fluorescent product. The nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,082 bp encoding a protein of 694 amino acids with a secretory signal sequence. A protein of similar size was visualized after in vitro transcription and translation using a plasmid carrying the cloned 3.1-kb fragment as a template. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified processed protein was found to be identical to that predicted from the gene sequence. When searching the database for astA nucleotide or its deduced amino acid sequence, no significant homology to any sequence was found. PMID:8887346

  5. Decay {B to K^ast(to Kπ)ℓ+ ℓ-} in Covariant Quark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubnička, S.; Dubničková, A. Z.; Habyl, N.; Ivanov, M. A.; Liptaj, A.; Nurbakova, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    Our article is devoted to the study of the rare {B to K^ast ℓ^+ℓ^-} decay where {ℓ=e,μ,τ}. We compute the relevant form factors in the framework of the covariant quark model with infrared confinement in the full kinematical momentum transfer region. The calculated form factors are used to evaluate branching fractions and polarization observables in the cascade decay {B to K^ast(to Kπ)ℓ^+ℓ^-}. We compare the obtained results with available experimental data and the results from other theoretical approaches.

  6. Report of the second joint meeting of ESOT and AST: current pipelines in biotech and pharma.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Teun; Baan, Carla; Vincenti, Flavio; Mannon, Roslyn B

    2013-09-01

    Following the first joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and American (AST) Societies of Transplantation in 2010, a second joint meeting was held in Nice, France, on October 12-14, 2012 at the Palais de la Mediterannee. Co-chairs of the scientific advisory committee were Dr. Flavio Vincenti (AST) and Dr. Teun Van Gelder (ESOT). The goal was to discuss the key unmet needs in solid organ transplantation with the opportunity to interrelate current basic research efforts with clinical translation. Thus, the topic of this second meeting "Transformational therapies and diagnostics in transplantation" was devised and a summary of this meeting follows. PMID:23822608

  7. Prodrug AST-003 Improves the Therapeutic Index of the Multi-Targeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang; Zhou, Changhua; Chen, Xiao; Dong, Bing; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yawei; Li, Anrong; Yao, Meicun; Miao, Ji; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Patients have responded well to the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Sunitinib in the clinic. But the severe toxic side effects associated with Sunitinib limit its therapeutic index. To improve the therapeutic index of Sunitinib, a prodrug strategy was employed to modify Sunitinib. The inactive prodrug AST-003 can be converted to Sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. Compared with Sunitinib, AST-003 has unique biochemical, cellular and pharmacokinetic properties with improved tolerability in mice and yield higher efficacy in tumor xenograft models. This prodrug strategy may constitute a novel paradigm to improve the therapeutic index of Sunitinib and other TKI or anti-angiogenesis drugs in general. PMID:26513662

  8. Holographic Wilson loops in symmetric representations in {N} = {2}^{ast } super-Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Lin, Xinyi; Dekel, Amit; Zarembo, Konstantin

    2016-02-01

    We construct the D3-brane solution in the holographic dual of the {N} = {2}^{ast } theory that describes Wilson lines in symmetric representations of the gauge group. The results perfectly agree with the direct field-theory predictions based on localization.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... from Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX). Under the Proposed Action, the FAA would... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY:...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    2012-12-01

    We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  17. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczy?ska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; St?pie?, ?ukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  18. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II.

  19. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.05.0 mg/dl for men and 1.55.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  20. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-07-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE 1.1mm survey of SSA22 (Umehata+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We used the AzTEC camera operating at 1.1mm mounted on the ASTE 10-m submillimetre telescope located at Pampa la Bola, near Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. All of the AzTEC/ASTE observations of SSA22 were carried out at night during 2007 August-September and 2008 August-September. (4 data files).

  2. Electrostatic biasing of the ALT-II pump limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, R. P.; Boedo, J. A.; Conn, R. W.; Gray, D. S.; Tynan, G. R.; Baek, W. Y.; Dippel, K. H.; Finken, K. H.; Moyer, R. A.

    1994-07-01

    Electrostatic biasing experiments using the Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-II) pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak have been carried out with the dual goals of: (a) improving the core plasma confinement in the tokamak and (b) enhancing the performance of the pump limiter. The fully toroidal belt limiter has been biased during both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges. Both polarities of bias have been applied up to a maximum of +or-500 V with no evidence of impurity accumulation in the central plasma, although applying either polarity of bias to the limiter increases recycling from both the limiter face and the vacuum vessel liner. This in turn results in an increase of the central density. The application of a negative bias to the limiter produces a barrier to radial particle transport in the region between the limiter and the wall. This barrier is not observed in either the no bias or the positive bias case. Neither polarity of limiter bias affects the central plasma energy confinement, apparently because the electric field structure producing the radial barrier is outside the limiter tangency radius. The enhanced recycling, coupled with high edge density, increases the radiated power from the plasma edge and may lower the power flux to the plasma facing surface of the limiter blade. In the case of positive limiter biasing, the pressure in the pumped plasma collection scoops of the limiter increases by approximately 20%, corresponding to a similar increase in the particle removal rare of the pump limiter. The increase in the particle removal rate appears to result from a lower edge electron temperature. This is consistent with the observation of an increase in edge radiated power

  3. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(1); 49-60. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26511282

  4. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  5. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

    2013-01-01

    Back ground CKD impairs intestinal barrier function which by allowing influx of noxious products causes systemic inflammation. We have recently shown that intestinal barrier dysfunction in CKD is due to degradation of epithelial tight junction (TJ) which is, in part, mediated by influx of urea and its conversion to ammonia by microbial urease. We hypothesized that by adsorbing urea and urea-derived ammonia, oral activated charcoal (AST-120) may ameliorate CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and systemic inflammation. Methods Rats were randomized to the CKD or control groups. The CKD group was fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks. They were then randomized to receive a chow with or without AST-120 (4 g/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Rats consuming regular diet served as controls. Animals were then euthanized, colons were removed and processed for Western blot and immunohistology and plasma was used to measure endotoxin, and oxidative and inflammatory markers. Results Compared with the controls the untreated CKD rats showed elevated plasma endotoxin, IL-6, TNF?, MCP-1, CINC-3, L-selectin, ICAM-1, and malondialdehyde, and depletions of colonic epithelial TJ proteins; claudin-1, occludin, and ZO1. Administration of AST-120 resulted in partial restoration of the epithelial TJ proteins and reduction in plasma endotoxin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions CKD animals exhibited depletion of the key protein constituents of the colonic epithelial TJ which was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and endotoxemia. Administration of AST-120 attenuated uremia-induced disruption of colonic epithelial TJ and the associated endotoxemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:23689670

  6. European landscape in astrobiology, results of the AstRoMap consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Walter, Nicolas; Gomez, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field of research, which encompasses scientists ranging from cosmology, astronomy, planetary sciences, physics, chemistry, geology, paleontology to biology. In order to map the existing astrobiological expertise in Europe a comprehensive community consultation has been performed within the AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping) project that is supported by the European Commission FP7 framework. From this information a data base of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see:

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE source catalogue (Aretxaga+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Aguilar, E.; Alberts, S.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.; Austermann, J.; Downes, T. P.; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Tamura, Y.; Zeballos, M.

    2013-02-01

    We imaged a 2800 arcmin2 field centred at right ascension RA(J2000.0)=10:00:30.00 and declination DE(J2000.0)=2:14.00 with AzTEC mounted on the 10-m ASTE, located at 4800m in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The survey was carried out from 2008 October 20 to November 30. (1 data file).

  8. On the N={1}^{ast } gauge theory on a circle and elliptic integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of the N={1}^{ast } supersymmetric gauge theory on R^{2,1}× {S}^1 and its relation to elliptic integrable systems. Upon compactification on a circle, we show that the semi-classical analysis of the massless and massive vacua depends on the classification of nilpotent orbits, as well as on the conjugacy classes of the component group of their centralizer. We demonstrate that semi-classically massless vacua can be lifted by Wilson lines in unbroken discrete gauge groups. The pseudo-Levi subalgebras that play a classifying role in the nilpotent orbit theory are also key in defining generalized Inozemtsev limits of (twisted) elliptic integrable systems. We illustrate our analysis in the N={1}^{ast } theories with gauge algebras su(3), su(4), so(5) and for the exceptional gauge algebra G 2. We map out modular duality diagrams of the massive and massless vacua. Moreover, we provide an analytic description of the branches of massless vacua in the case of the su(3) and the so(5) theory. The description of these branches in terms of the complexified Wilson lines on the circle invokes the Eichler-Zagier technique for inverting the elliptic Weierstrass function. After fine-tuning the coupling to elliptic points of order three, we identify the Argyres-Douglas singularities of the su(3) N={1}^{ast } theory.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the astA gene encoding arylsulfate sulfotransferase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kang, J W; Kwon, A R; Kim, D H; Choi, E C

    2001-05-01

    Arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) transfers a sulfate group from a phenolic sulfate ester to a phenolic acceptor substrate. In the present study, the gene encoding ASST was cloned from a genomic library of Salmonella typhimurium. The gene was subcloned into the vector pKF3 and was sequenced. A recombinant clone harboring the gene was directly identified using a fluorescent assay. Sequencing revealed two contiguous open reading frames (ORFs) on the same strand. Based on amino acid sequence homology, ORF1 and ORF2 are designated as astA and dsbA, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of astA from S. typhimurium was highly similar to those of the Enterobacter amnigenus, Klebsiella, and Campylobacter jejuni ASSTs, encoded by the astA genes. However, an ASST activity assay revealed a different acceptor specificity. Using p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNS) as a donor substrate, phenol is the best acceptor substrate, followed by alpha-naphthol, resorcinol, tyramine, acetaminophen, and tyrosine. PMID:11379783

  10. Synthesis and Electro-Optical Properties of Blue Emitting POLY(BP-alt-BCV) Conjugated Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jeong Ju; Jeong, Young Chul; Park, Lee Soon; Lee, Jung Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo; Kwon, Younghwan

    A new blue electroluminescent conjugated polymer, poly(BP-alt-BCV), was prepared by Hornor-Emmons polycondensation of [5-carbazol-9-yl-3-(diethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)-2-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-benzyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester (PHBP) and 4,4?-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde (BPCA) in the presence of tert-BuOK in THF. UV-visible absorption maximum (?max,UV, ?-?* transition) of poly(BP-alt-BCV) was measured at 340 nm. PL maximum (?max,PL) values of poly(BP-alt-BCV) were obtained at 406 and 430 nm, when excited at its own ?max,UV. It was found that double layer [ITO/poly(BP-alt-BCV)/Alq3 (50 )/Al] PLED exhibited maximum EL peak at 440 nm and blue emission (x = 0.1794, y = 0.1878), similar to the NTSC standard blue (x = 0.14, y = 0.08).

  11. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (?) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ? values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by ?2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0.01) deviations from a normal distribution for both W. bancrofti and L. loa. The relationship between evolvability and selection in L. loa followed a second order polynomial distribution (R2 = 0.89), indicating that the two factors relate to one another in accordance with an additional unknown factor. Taken together, these findings indicate discrete evolutionary drivers acting on ALT-2 of the four organisms examined, and the described variation has implications for design of novel vaccines and diagnostic reagents. Additionally, this represents the first mathematical description of evolvability in a naturally occurring setting. PMID:26890364

  12. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0.01) deviations from a normal distribution for both W. bancrofti and L. loa. The relationship between evolvability and selection in L. loa followed a second order polynomial distribution (R2 = 0.89), indicating that the two factors relate to one another in accordance with an additional unknown factor. Taken together, these findings indicate discrete evolutionary drivers acting on ALT-2 of the four organisms examined, and the described variation has implications for design of novel vaccines and diagnostic reagents. Additionally, this represents the first mathematical description of evolvability in a naturally occurring setting. PMID:26890364

  13. Boeing 747 jet aircraft modified for use during Space Shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Boeing 747 jet aircraft, modified for use by NASA for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is seen in flight. Note the added structural supports atop the huge aircraft. The Shuttle Orbiter will ride 'piggy-back' atop the NASA 747 for the ALTs. Also, the NASA 747 will be used to transport Orbiters to the Space Shuttle Launch sites. Three much smaller T-38 jet trainer planes follow behind the big plane.

  14. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  15. Detection of the astA (EAST1) gene in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli from ruminants.

    PubMed

    Yuste, M; De La Fuente, R; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J A; Cid, D; Orden, J A

    2006-03-01

    A total of 206 attaching and effacing Escherichia coli strains from ruminants were analysed for the presence of the astA (EAST1) and bfpA genes. None of these strains was bfpA-positive. The percentage of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains astA-positive found in healthy cattle (15.6%) suggests that this animal species may be a significant reservoir of atypical EPEC potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:16626403

  16. Ethnic Differences in the Link Between Insulin Resistance and Elevated ALT

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Wiener, R. Constance; Barnes, Barrett H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) exhibits tight links with insulin resistance (IR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic black adolescents have more IR but a lower prevalence of NAFLD and MetS. Our hypothesis was that IR would be a better predictor of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations than is MetS among non-Hispanic blacks. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4124 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in the 1999 to 2010 NHANES, using unexplained elevations in ALT (>30 U/L) to characterize presumed NAFLD and using a pediatric adaptation of the Adult Treatment Panel III definition of MetS. RESULTS: Prevalence of elevated ALT varied by race/ethnicity (Hispanics 13.7%, non-Hispanic white 8.6%, non-Hispanic blacks 5.4%, P < .0001). Among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, a classification of MetS performed well in identifying adolescents with elevated ALT (odds ratios [ORs] 9.53 and 5.56, respectively), as did MetS-related indices. However, among non-Hispanic blacks, the association between MetS and ALT elevations was smaller in magnitude and technically nonsignificant (OR = 3.24, P = .051). Furthermore, among non-Hispanic blacks, the presence of IR and elevated waist circumference performed more poorly at identifying ALT elevations (ORs 3.93 and 2.28, respectively: significantly smaller than ORs for non-Hispanic whites, P < .05), with triglyceride elevations being a better predictor (OR = 4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Non-Hispanic black adolescents exhibit a lower relationship between IR and elevated ALT, supporting racial/ethnic differences in the link between MetS and NAFLD. These data may have implications regarding triggers for screening for NAFLD among non-Hispanic black adolescents, focusing particularly on those with triglyceride elevations. PMID:23940240

  17. Detection of Carbapenemases in Clinical Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the VITEK AST-N202 Card

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Jang, In-Ho; Lee, Woonhyoung; Kim, Keonhan; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in clinical microbiology laboratories is essential for the treatment and control of infections caused by these microorganisms. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the VITEK AST-N202 card to detect CPE isolates. Materials and Methods A total of 43 (Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 37; Escherichia coli, n = 3; and Enterobacter cloacae, n = 3) CPE isolates and 79 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CNE) isolates were included in this study. The CPE isolates harbored KPC-2 (n = 11), KPC-3 (n = 20), GES-5 (n = 5), VIM-2 (n = 2), IMP-1 (n = 1), NDM-1 (n = 2), or OXA-232 (n = 2). Of the 79 CNE isolates, eight K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem, while the remaining 71 isolates were susceptible to the carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the VITEK AST-N202 card, and the results were interpreted as positive when the isolates showed resistant or intermediate results. Modified-Hodge tests (MHTs) were performed using ertapenem or meropenem disks for the screening of carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to identify β-lactamase genes. Results Sensitivity of MHT with ertapenem and meropenem disks for the detection of carbapenemase was 81.4% (35/43) and 81.4% (35/43), respectively, and a combination with both antibiotic disks increased the sensitivity to 88.4% (38/43). Specificity of the MHT was 100% (79/79) for the CNE isolates. Sensitivity of ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem as assessed by the VITEK AST-N202 card was 100% (43/43), 93% (40/43), and 95.3% (41/43), respectively. Specificity (89.8%, 71/79) of the test with each carbapenem was improved to 100% (71/71) when eight carbapenem-resistant CNE isolates were excluded from the testing. Conclusion The VITEK AST-N202 card showed high sensitivity for the detection of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae strains. PCR and sequencing experiments for the detection of carbapenemases are recommended when clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates show non-susceptibility to carbapenems. PMID:26483990

  18. ELEFUNT test results under AST Fortran V1. 8. 0 on the Sequent Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses testing of the floating-point arithmetic and of the elementary function libraries under AST Fortran on a 24-processor Sequent Symmetry computer. The programs MACHAR and PARANOIA were used to check the quality of arithmetic, and the ELEFUNT suite of programs from the book Software Manual for the Elementary Functions by Cody and Waite was used to check function performance. Two complete sets of tests were run, one for each type of floating-point processor, Intel 80387 and Weitek 1167, on the machine. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Tailcone on orbiter altitude attainable at the maximum ALT interface airspeed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A preflight analysis performed for verification of the ALT mated vehicle incidence angle which maximizes the post separation altitude attainment by the orbiter at the maximum approach and landing test (ALT) interface airspeed (300 KEAS) is discussed. In the analysis, altitude versus airspeed profiles are generated for each of the three incidence angles that include and bound the recommended incidence angle for both the forward and the aft cg tailcone on orbiter configurations. Results show that the recommended incidence angles maximize the orbiter post separation altitude attainable within an acceptable tradeoff between separation clearance capability and orbiter structural constraints. Within constraints, the incidence angle that maximizes the orbiter altitude at the maximum ALT interface airspeed for both the forward and aft cg orbiter tailcone on configurations is 6.0 deg. The requirement for a parametric analysis of orbiter altitude attainable at the maximum ALT interface airspeed is stated along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to determine orbiter altitude attainable at the maximum ALT interface airspeed.

  20. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  1. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in cancer stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bojovic, Bojana; Booth, Ryan E.; Jin, Yi; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Crowe, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome ends are protected by telomeres which prevent DNA damage response and degradation. Telomerase expression extends telomeres and inhibits DNA damage response. Telomeres are also maintained by the recombination based alternative lengthening pathway. Telomerase is believed to be the sole mechanism for telomere maintenance in epidermis. We show that basal cells in epidermis maintain telomeres both by telomerase and ALT mechanisms in vivo. ALT was detected in epidermal stem cells in Terc−/− mice, and normal human epidermal keratinocytes are also ALT positive. ALT pathway is suppressed in primary but not metastatic epidermal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in Terc+/+ mice. ALT pathway is expressed in stem and basal cells in epidermal SCC in Terc−/− mice, and some telomerase positive human SCC lines. Telomeres shorten dramatically in stem and basal cells in epidermal SCC in vivo. Telomere shortening is associated with telomeric DNA damage response and apoptosis in stem and basal cells. Stem cells were transformed in both primary and metastatic epidermal SCC. Genetic ablation of this small cell population resulted in significant tumor regression in vivo. We concluded that alternative lengthening of telomeres is important in epidermal homeostasis and tumorigenesis in vivo. PMID:24531712

  2. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents' interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  3. Partition function of N={2}^{ast } SYM on a large four-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Kumar, S. Prem

    2015-12-01

    We examine the partition function of N={2}^{ast } supersymmetric SU( N) Yang-Mills theory on the four-sphere in the large radius limit. We point out that the large radius partition function, at fixed N, is computed by saddle-points lying on walls of marginal stability on the Coulomb branch of the theory on {R}^4 . For N an even (odd) integer and θ YM = 0( π), these include a point of maximal degeneration of the Donagi-Witten curve to a torus where BPS dyons with electric charge [N/2] become massless. We argue that the dyon singularity is the lone saddle-point in the SU(2) theory, while for SU( N) with N > 2, we characterize potentially competing saddle-points by obtaining the relations between the Seiberg-Witten periods at such points. Using Nekrasov's instanton partition function, we solve for the maximally degenerate saddle-point and obtain its free energy as a function of g YM and N, and show that the results are "large- N exact". In the large- N theory our results provide analytical expressions for the periods/eigenvalues at the maximally degenerate saddle-point, precisely matching previously known formulae following from the correspondence between N={2}^{ast } theory and the elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable model. The maximally singular point ceases to be a saddle-point of the partition function above a critical value of the coupling, in agreement with the recent findings of Russo and Zarembo.

  4. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-02-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes.

  5. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120

    PubMed Central

    Velenosi, Thomas J.; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A.; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S.; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E.; Nevison, Stephanie E.; Kerr, Michael A.; Urquhart, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  6. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  7. Engineering design of the ALT-II pump limiter for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.W.; Koski, J.A.; Watson, R.D.

    1985-07-01

    Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II) is an axisymmetric toroidal belt pump limiter scheduled for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak in 1986. ALT-II consists of eight blade segments mounted on adjustable supports located 45/sup 0/ down from the outboard midplane of the torus. The passively cooled pump limiter is designed to remove 5-10% of the plasma efflux and can withstand heat loads on its leading edges up to 300 W/cm/sup 2/ for 3 second pulse durations. Engineering analyses for ALT-II include calculations of Lorentz forces that could arise during disruptions and predictions of thermal stresses in the blades. The blades are designed to withstand these conditions without compromising pumping efficiency. Support and drive mechanisms are being designed to operate reliably in TEXTOR with minimum introduction of impurities.

  8. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p? p ? ? h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a nave T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p? p ? ? h X. However, there are indications that the nave T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p? p ? h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  9. Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

    1986-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90/sup 0/ toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary.

  10. Relationship between body surface area and ALT normalization after long-term lamivudine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuta, Makoto; Morizono, Shusuke; Tanabe, Yuichi; Kajiwara, Eiji; Shimono, Junya; Masumoto, Akihide; Maruyama, Toshihiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Nomura, Hideyuki; Sakai, Hironori; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Koichi; Shimoda, Shinji; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika; Group, Jun Hayashi: Kyushu University liver Disease Study

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To further evaluate the relationship between BSA and the effects of lamivudine in a greater number of cases and over a longer period of observation than in our previous evaluation. METHODS: We evaluated 249 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The effects of treatment for one year (n = 249), two years (n = 147), and three years (n = 72) were evaluated from the levels of serum ALT and HBV-DNA, as biological and virological effects (undetectable levels by PCR), respectively. Moreover, several variables that could influence the response to treatment, including ALT, albumin, bilirubin, platelet counts, BSA, HBV-DNA, and HBeAg were analyzed. RESULTS: For 1-year treatment, multivariate analysis revealed that BSA (P = 0.0002) was the only factor for the biological effect, and that ALT (P = 0.0017), HBV-DNA (P = 0.0004), and HBeAg (P = 0.0021) were independent factors for the virological effect. For 2-year treatment, multivariate analysis again showed that BSA (P = 0.0147) was the only factor for the biological effect, and that ALT (P = 0.0192) and HBeAg (P = 0.0428) were independent factors for the virological effect. For 3-year treatment, multivariate analysis, however, could not reveal BSA (P = 0.0730) as a factor for the normalization of ALT levels. CONCLUSION: BSA is a significant predictor for the normalizing the effect of lamivudine therapy on ALT for an initial 2-year period, suggesting that lamivudine dosage should be based on the individual BSA. PMID:16437598

  11. A metabolomic approach to clarifying the effect of AST-120 on 5/6 nephrectomized rats by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CE-MS).

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Koichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Chitose; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2012-11-01

    The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations) in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, ?-guanidinobutyrate, N-?-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:23202318

  12. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  13. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT)

    PubMed Central

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Franoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoo-Vallejo, Arturo; Sgal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Herv; Boussin, Franois D

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2R? (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. What's new? All cancerous cells share the need to maintain and elongate their telomeres. In approximately 30% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed ALT, making specific therapeutic strategies potentially interesting. Here, the authors showed that intracerebral grafts of an ALT glioma cell line called TG20 in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme, which could aid the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. This model could also support the development of specific therapies, with the study revealing G-quadruplex ligands as a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  14. The role of AST-120 and protein-bound uremic toxins in irritable bowel syndrome: a therapeutic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mosi?ska, Paula; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    AST-120 (kremezin) exhibits its favourable effects in reducing the levels of renal toxins by selective adsorption of low molecular weight substances from the intestinal lumen. So far, a vast majority of studies were focused on the role of AST-120 in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases and cardiovascular disorders, and positive therapeutic effects of the agent have already been confirmed in clinical conditions. Up to the present, there are only a few studies regarding the role of AST-120 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Compelling data suggest the ability of the compound to adsorb protein-bound uremic toxins and mast cell derived mediators and to modulate the farnesoid X receptor, which is a bile acid sensor indispensable for maintaining homeostasis in the intestine. In this review we focus on the actions of AST-120 on intestinal permeability, reduction of visceral sensitivity and alteration of gut motility. We also discuss whether AST-120 can mitigate common IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating and malfunction of the colonic transit and thus improve the quality of life of patients with IBS. PMID:26327918

  15. Next challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS data processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    NEODyS and AstDyS are systems that provide asteroid dynamical data through dedicated web services. In particular, NEODyS is devoted to the Near Earth Objects orbital data computations and impact monitoring activities on a hourly basis, while AstDyS computes orbits and dynamical information (such as the asteroid family membership) of all numbered and multi-opposition asteroids on a monthly basis. Both systems are operational for more than 15 years.During the last years the major NEO surveys such as CSS, Pan-STARRS and so on and so forth increased the rate of discovery of new NEOs passing the threshold of 1000 discoveries/year. In particular, in 2014 there was a relative increase of about 42% wtrt 2013, mostly thanks to the full availability of the Pan-STARRS telescope for the NEO survey.In this framework is important to notice that the NEO population characterization is near to be complete for objects brighter that 18th, while the big majority of new discoveries are smaller and smaller objects.The major consequence is that we should expect a higher and higher number of discoveries of the so-called possible imminent impactors, that is small objects (from the Tunguska class and less) which are going to impact the Earth within the next days or hours.It is foreseen that in the next decade new dedicated surveys such as the American ATLAS and the European Fly-Eye telescopes will scan the sky just with the purpose of detecting such possible imminent impactors. The amount of data from the already operative surveys and the new ones will increase dramatically, while the time for processing such amount of data must be necessary shorten than in the past. Moreover, this huge quantity of astrometric data will increase also the knowledge of the dynamics of all known asteroids of the Solar System.In this panel we discuss the next decades new challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS systems and for the NEO system as a whole. The major players of the NEO system will be the observers (surveys), the data centers (MPC, NEODyS-NEOCC, JPL,...), the amateurs (follow-up) and the decision makers.

  16. Cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of the astA gene encoding an arylsulfate sulfotransferase from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Kang, J W; Jeong, Y J; Kwon, A R; Yun, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, E C

    2001-08-01

    Arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) transfers a sulfate group from a phenolic sulfate ester to a phenolic acceptor substrate. In the present study, the gene encoding ASST was cloned from a genomic library copy of Citrobacter freundii, subcloned into the vector pGEM3Zf(-) and sequenced. Sequencing revealed two contiguous open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) on the same strand and based on amino acid sequence homology, they were designated as astA and dsbA, respectively. The amino acid sequence of astA deduced from C. freundii was highly similar to that of the Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter amnigenus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas putida, and Campylobacter jejuni, encoded by the astA genes. However, the ASST activity assay revealed different acceptor specificities. Using p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNS) as a donor substrate, alpha-naphthol was found to be the best acceptor substrate, followed by phenol, resorcinol, p-acetaminophen, tyramine and tyrosine. PMID:11534764

  17. The test of the 10k x 10k CCD for Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Wang, Lifan; Boggs, Kasey; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Song, Qian; Xue, Suijian

    2012-09-01

    A 10k x 10k single-chip CCD camera was installed on the first Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1) at Dome A, Antarctica in January 2012. The pixel size is 9 ?m, corresponding to 1 arcsec on the focal plane. The CCD runs without shutter but in frame transfer mode, and is cooled by thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to take advantage of the low air temperature at Dome A. We tested the performance of the camera in detail, including the gain, linearity, readout noise, dark current, charge transfer efficiency, etc. As this camera is designed to work at Dome A, where the lowest air temperature could go down to -80C in winter, we tested to cool not only the CCD chip but also the controller which usually is operated at normal temperatures for ground-based telescopes. We found that the performance of the camera changes a little when the controller is cooled.

  18. Astronauts Haise and Fullerton in cockpit of Orbiter 101 prior to fifth ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr., commander, left, and C. Gordon Fullerton in the cockpit of the Space shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' prior to the fifth and final free flight in the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) series, from Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC).

  19. Astronauts Engle and Truly egress Shuttle Orbiter 101 after fourth ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, commander and Richard H. Truly, pilot, egress the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' following completion of the fourth Approach and Landing Test (ALT) free flight at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) in Southern California. The landed the craft in the desert at Edwards Air Force Base following a two-minute, 34-second unpowered mission.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  4. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the worlds arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  6. On the Trajectories of the Predetermined ALT Model: What Are We Really Modeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongerling, Joran; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows that the mean and covariance structure of the predetermined autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model are very flexible. As a result, the shape of the modeled growth curve can be quite different from what one might expect at first glance. This is illustrated with several numerical examples that show that, for example, a

  7. Cloning, characterisation and heterologous expression of an astacin metalloprotease, Sc-AST, from the entomoparasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yingjun; Toubarro, Duarte; Hao, Youjin; Simes, Nelson

    2010-12-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is a parasitic nematode that is high virulent to insects. The parasitic juvenile reaches the insect haemocoelium by passing through mid-gut barriers and develops there. During invasion, the nematode was predicted to express a large set of proteases, including metalloproteases, one of which was sequenced and expressed in this work. A 1583-nucleotide cDNA encoding a putative metalloprotease containing a 28-aa signal peptide, a 79-aa propeptide and a 311-aa mature protease with a predicted molecular mass of 35.2 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.9 was cloned from the parasitic stage of the nematode. Sequence analyses predicted signature sequences of the astacin metalloprotease family, an astacin domain, a zinc-binding motif and a methionine turn motif; therefore, this protein was identified as an astacin and designated as Sc-AST. The astacin domain of Sc-AST has an amino acid sequence homology of 46% to prototypical astacin from Astacus astacus and 82% to Caenorhabditis elegans NAS-8. Like NAS-8 of C. elegans, Sc-AST has a C-terminal ShK toxin domain. Recombinant Sc-AST was produced in an Escherichia coli system and was purified by affinity chromatography. Maldi-MS/MS analysis of purified recombinant protein matched the Sc-AST sequence with a significance score of 499. Sc-AST was produced in the correct folding conformation, showed activities against gelatin and azocasein substrates and was inhibited by divalent metal-chelating agents. Sc-AST presented an optimum pH of 7.5 and temperature of 37C and K(m), V(max) and k(cat) values of 1.86 mM, 0.281 ?M/min and 27.9 s(-1), respectively. Expression analyses indicated that Sc-AST is up-regulated in the parasitic stage and is strongly induced in vitro by insect tissues, thus suggesting that it plays a role in the parasitic process. PMID:20670659

  8. Prevalence of the set-1B and astA genes encoding enterotoxins in uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Soto, S M; Guiral, E; Bosch, J; Vila, J

    2009-12-01

    One hundred seventy human uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) clinical isolates were compared with 35 E. coli strains isolated from feces of a control group to determine the presence of the set1, sen and astA genes encoding the ShET-1, ShET-2, and EAST toxins, respectively. Overall, 27 (16%), 8 (8%) and 0 UPEC isolates presented the set1B, the astA, and the sen genes, respectively. This is the first time the set gene has been found in UPEC clinical isolates. PMID:19755142

  9. A prospective study on the causes of notably raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Helgi Kristinn; Olafsson, Sigurdur; Bergmann, Ottar M; Björnsson, Einar S

    2016-05-01

    Objective High levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) can be a marker of severe liver disease with variable aetiologies and prognosis. Very few prospective studies have been undertaken on the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT levels. No population-based prospective study has systematically evaluated drug-induced liver injury (DILI) among these patients. The objective was to determine the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT. Materials and methods In a catchment area of 160,000 inhabitants, a population-based prospective study identified all adult patients with serum level of ALT >500 U/L during a 12-month period. All underwent thorough diagnostic work-up and follow-up. In suspected DILI, causality was assessed with Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method. Results A total of 155 patients were identified with ALT >500 U/L, 12 children and one with ALT of non-liver-related origin, leaving 142 patients for the analysis: 73 (51%) males, median age 52 (IQR 36-68, range 19-89 years). The most common causes were choledocholithiasis 48/142 (34%), ischaemic hepatitis 26 (18%), viral hepatitis 16 (11%) and DILI 15 (11%), hepatobiliary malignancy (n = 6), surgery/interventions (n = 8) and other aetiologies (n = 23). No specific aetiology was found in 6% of cases. In the total study cohort 99 (70%) required hospitalisation, 78 (55%) had jaundice and 22 (16%) died, liver-related death in 10%, 35% in IH and 7% in DILI. Conclusions The most common cause of notably high ALT was choledocholithiasis. Ischaemic hepatitis was a common aetiology with approximately 35% liver-related mortality. Viral hepatitis and DILI were important aetiologies among these patients. PMID:26653080

  10. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K.; Lue, Neal F.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and “trapped” the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  11. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Prez-Martn, Jos; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  12. Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. )

    1991-03-11

    Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

  13. Two members of the first crew of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two members of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr. (left), commander; and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  14. Pole STAR: An 810 GHz Array Receiver for AST/RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, C.; Walker, C.; Hungerford, A.; Kulesa, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kooi, J.

    We are constructing a 4-channel receiver at 810 GHz for use on the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory located at the South Pole (AST/RO). The 810 GHz mixers and junctions for the array are being provided by KOSMA. The mixers are housed in a hybrid cryostat located in a warm Coude' room just below the 1.7 m telescope. A pair of parabolic mirrors will be used to reimage the telescope's focal plane through a Martin-Puplett LO diplexer onto a 2x2 array of lenses. The lenses efficiently couple the telescope to each mixer's corrugated feedhorn. The SIS junction is matched to the waveguide by an on-chip tuner and a single, fixed backshort. The 1-2 GHz IF output of each mixer is fed into a low-noise, balanced, HEMT amplifier. All bias signals are provided by a computer controlled bias system, which is fully optically isolated from the control computer. This system provides automated adjustment and optimization of bias levels with web based monitoring. The IF outputs are further processed at room temperature and fed into a 4-channel array AOS constructed by KOSMA. A Gunn oscillator (J. Carlstrom) and multiplier (Erickson & Narayanan) are used to drive the array.

  15. Spectroscopic Imaging Study of Nearby Spiral Galaxies: Introduction of Observations with AKARI, NRO and ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this research is to reveal the spatial distribution of the star formation activity toward nearby galaxies by comparing CO molecular emission lines with the large area observation in FIR lines. We report the imaging observations of far-Infrared (FIR) forbidden lines via FIS-FTS and CO molecular lines from low to high excitation levels with ASTE, which are good tracer of star forming regions or photo-dissociation regions, especially spiral galaxies, in order to derive the information of the physical conditions of the ambient interstellar radiation fields. The information tells us not only the difference of current star forming activity between the arm and the interarm of these galaxies but also star forming history and evolution of spiral galaxies with systematic and statistical study. Furthermore the dust properties can be referred by combining far-infrared photometric data and submillimeter observation. This observation program is a proposal which presents a tool for investigation of physical properties of nearby galaxies.

  16. Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

    2013-01-01

    The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (8022', 7721'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

  17. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  18. ALT-II progress report and proposal, December 1989--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-11) is a joint international program among the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan to investigate the performance of a toroidal belt pump limiter in a tokamak, to investigate the behavior of the plasma edge, and to relate edge behavior to overall core energy and particle confinement. The experiments are carried out in the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany. The ALT-II experiment was installed in TEXTOR in 1987 with the objectives of optimizing plasma performance in a limiter tokamak, and of studying the physics of particle removal, density and impurity control, and confinement enhancement by a toroidal belt pump limiter. The ALT-II program addresses large area limiter tokamak operation issues by providing a program specifically directed toward plasma optimization and particle and impurity control by a toroidal belt limiter in a machine dedicated to the investigation of plasma-wall interactions. TEXTOR features the most advanced set of edge plasma diagnostics of any tokamak for the task of diagnosing and understanding the impact of the limiter on the plasma confinement and performance. With the addition of 3.4 MW of neutral beam injection heating (NBI) to the existing 4 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), TEXTOR also provides power densities equivalent to larger tokamaks.

  19. ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

  20. ALT-II progress report and proposal, December 1989--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-11) is a joint international program among the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan to investigate the performance of a toroidal belt pump limiter in a tokamak, to investigate the behavior of the plasma edge, and to relate edge behavior to overall core energy and particle confinement. The experiments are carried out in the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany. The ALT-II experiment was installed in TEXTOR in 1987 with the objectives of optimizing plasma performance in a limiter tokamak, and of studying the physics of particle removal, density and impurity control, and confinement enhancement by a toroidal belt pump limiter. The ALT-II program addresses large area limiter tokamak operation issues by providing a program specifically directed toward plasma optimization and particle and impurity control by a toroidal belt limiter in a machine dedicated to the investigation of plasma-wall interactions. TEXTOR features the most advanced set of edge plasma diagnostics of any tokamak for the task of diagnosing and understanding the impact of the limiter on the plasma confinement and performance. With the addition of 3.4 MW of neutral beam injection heating (NBI) to the existing 4 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), TEXTOR also provides power densities equivalent to larger tokamaks.

  1. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Wang, Haijun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18–1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7–17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom’s MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:26717317

  2. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  3. AltPSM contact hole application at DRAM 4xnm nodes with dry 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noelscher, Christoph; Henkel, Thomas; Jauzion-Graverolle, Franck; Hennig, Mario; Morgana, Nicolo; Schlief, Ralph; Moukara, Molela; Koehle, Roderick; Neubauer, Ralf

    2008-03-01

    To avoid expensive immersion lithography and to further use existing dry tools for critical contact layer lithography at 4Xnm DRAM nodes the application of altPSM is investigated and compared to attPSM. Simulations and experiments with several test masks showed that by use of altPSM with suitable 0/180 coloring and assist placement 30nm smaller contacts can be resolved through pitch with sufficient process windows (PW). This holds for arrays of contacts with variable lengths through short and long side pitches. A further benefit is the lower mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). Nevertheless 3D mask errors (ME) consume benefits in the PW and the assist placement and coloring of the main features (MF) put some constraints on the chip design. An altPSM compatible 4Xnm full-chip layout was realized without loss of chip area. Mask making showed very convincing results with respect to CDU, etch depth uniformity and defectiveness. The printed intra-field CD uniformity was comparable to attPSM despite the smaller target CDs. Room for improvement is identified in OPC accuracy and in automatic assist placement and sizing.

  4. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.

  5. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  6. Accelerated life testing (ALT) in microelectronics and photonics: its role, attributes, challenges, pitfalls, and interaction with qualification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2002-06-01

    Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are aimed at the revealing and understanding the physics of the expected or occurred failures, i.e. are able to detect the possible failure modes and mechanisms. Another objective of the ALTs is to accumulate representative failure statistics. Adequately designed, carefully conducted, and properly interpreted ALTs provide a consistent basis for obtaining the ultimate information of the reliability of a product - the predicted probability of failure after the given time of service. Such tests can dramatically facilitate the solution to the cost effectiveness and time-to-market problems. ALTs should play an important role in the evaluation, prediction and assurance of the reliability of microelectronics and optoelectronics devices and systems. In the majority of cases, ALTs should be conducted in addition to the qualification tests, which are required by the existing standards. There might be also situations, when ALTs can be (and, probably, should be) used as an effective substitution for such standards, or, at least, as the basis for the improvement of the existing qualification specifications. We describe different types (categories) of accelerated tests, with an emphasis on the role that ALTs should play in the development, design, qualification and manufacturing of microelectronics and photonics products. We discuss the challenges associated with the implementation and use of the ALTs, potential pitfalls (primarily those associated with possible shifts in the mechanisms and modes of failure), and the interaction of the ALTs with other types of accelerated tests. The role of the nondestructive evaluations is also briefly outlined. The case of a laser welded optoelectronic package assembly is used to illustrate the concepts addressed.

  7. Targeting the aluminum tolerance gene Alt3 region in rye, using rice/rye micro-colinearity.

    PubMed

    Miftahudin; Chikmawati, T; Ross, K; Scoles, G J; Gustafson, J P

    2005-03-01

    Characterization and manipulation of aluminum (Al) tolerance genes offers a solution to Al toxicity problems in crop cultivation on acid soil, which composes approximately 40% of all arable land. By exploiting the rice (Oryza sativa L.)/rye (Secale cereale L.) syntenic relationship, the potential for map-based cloning of genes controlling Al tolerance in rye (the most Al-tolerant cereal) was explored. An attempt to clone an Al tolerance gene (Alt3) from rye was initiated by using DNA markers flanking the rye Alt3 gene, from many cereals. Two rice-derived, PCR-based markers flanking the Alt3 gene, B1 and B4, were used to screen 1,123 plants of a rye F2 population segregating for Alt3. Fifteen recombinant plants were identified. Four additional RFLP markers developed from rice genes/putative genes, spanning 10 kb of a 160-kb rice BAC, were mapped to the Alt3 region. Two rice markers flanked the Alt3 locus at a distance of 0.05 cM, while two others co-segregated with it. The rice/rye micro-colinearity worked very well to delineate and map the Alt3 gene region in rye. A rye fragment suspected to be part of the Alt3 candidate gene was identified, but at this level, the rye/rice microsynteny relationship broke down. Because of sequence differences between rice and rye and the complexity of the rye sequence, we have been unable to clone a full-length candidate gene in rye. Further attempts to clone a full-length rye Alt3 candidate gene will necessitate the creation of a rye large-insert library. PMID:15688201

  8. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

  9. H/sub. cap alpha. / monitors for the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, T.

    1988-05-01

    The H/sub ..cap alpha../ monitor system installed on TEXTOR in conjunction with the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) toroidal belt pump limiter is introduced. The monitors are used to study edge particle fluxes and recycling, correlations to confinement properties of core and edge plasma with ALT-II, and also high-power auxiliary heating (/approximately/5 MW) during long-pulse (/approximately/4-s) operation of TEXTOR. A model of the edge particle flux based on the H/sub ..cap alpha../ measurements is presented. The ALT-II experiments are to be carried out in various phases. Here we discuss the results obtained from the monitor system during the initial phase of operations following the installation of the ALT-II limiter, with ohmic heating only. 15 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Continuous Reduction of Protein-Bound Uraemic Toxins with Improved Oxidative Stress by Using the Oral Charcoal Adsorbent AST-120 in Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Kazama, Junichiro J; Omori, Kentaro; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Kazuko; Matsuto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs) is one of the reasons for the development of uraemia-related complications including cardiovascular disease; however, conventional haemodialysis is limited in its ability to remove PBUTs. We aimed to examine whether the oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 has an additive effect on PBUT removal in haemodialysis patients. During the 4-week study, anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis received AST-120 (6?g/day) in the last 2 weeks (n?=?10) or the first 2 weeks (n?=?10). Serum levels of total and free PBUTs such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate at the pre- and postdialysis sessions were measured before and after AST-120 use and after discontinuation. Levels of the oxidative stress markers oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane were also measured. AST-120 use induced dramatic reduction of indoxyl sulfate (total, 45.7% [33.2-50.5%]; free, 70.4% [44.8-79.8%]), p-cresyl sulfate (total, 31.1% [25.0-48.0%]; free, 63.5% [49.3-70.9%]), and phenyl sulfate (free, 50.6% [32.3-71.2%]) levels; however, this effect disappeared after the discontinuation of AST-120. AST-120 use also induced substantial reduction of the oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane levels. In conclusion, oral administration of AST-120 had additive effects on the continuous reduction of some PBUTs in anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis. PMID:26395517

  11. Distribution and expression of the astA gene (EAST1 toxin) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Paiva de Sousa, C; Dubreuil, J D

    2001-04-01

    The distribution and expression of the astA gene (EAST1 toxin) among 358 strains of Enterobacteriaceae were studied. The gene was found in 32.6% and 11.9% of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains, respectively. The majority of E. coli EAST1-positive strains were found among EHEC (88.0%), EAggEC (86.6%), and A-EPEC (58.3%). The gene was present in 16.6% of E. coli strains without known virulence genes. There was no significant variation among the different serotypes of E. coli tested regarding the presence of the gene. For EPEC, 13.7% of the tested strains were astA-positive. Among atypical EPEC (eae+, bfp-, EAF-) and (eae+, bfp+, EAF-) 46.2 and 72.7%, respectively, were positive. The majority of the A-EPEC (87%) and EaggEC (83%) strains expressed the EAST-1 toxin as judged from Ussing chamber experiments. Of 32 EIEC strains studied, 2 possessed and expressed the gene as determined in Ussing chamber experiments. Among the Salmonella strains studied, five strains isolated from food were positive for astA and one strain of S. agona showed biological activity in Ussing chamber experiments. PMID:11403406

  12. ECLSS consumables analysis: ALT captive/active 1 and captive/active 3. [space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    A consumables analysis of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) was performed for approach and landing test (ALT) captive/active missions 1 through 3 and is also applicable to missions 4 and 5. The ECLSS configuration analyzed and the guidelines and assumptions used in performing the analysis are presented. A projection of ammonia temperatures and pressures during the captive/active 1 mission is also included. The resulting consumables, budgets are presented in tabular and graphic form. Adequate margins were obtained for all systems.

  13. H ? measurements and modeling of plasma confinement in TEXTOR with the ALT-II pump limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, L. W.; Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P. K.; Pospieszczyk, A.

    1990-12-01

    H ? emission in TEXTOR is measured at several locations in order to study recycling and global particle confinement with the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) pump limiter. The measurements are modeled with the neutral transport code DEGAS for ohmic density scans in deuterium plasmas with carbonized vacuum vessel walls. The core efflux, particle confinement time, diffusion coefficient D?, boundary flow asymmetry, and profiles of the core fueling rate by particle recycling are determined for line-averaged densities n=(1.4-3.7)1013cm. Measured distributions of core plasma density and temperature, together with scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma parameters from the scanning probe, the neutral lithium beam diagnostic, and the Langmuir probes in the ALT-II scoops, describe the plasma environment for the DEGAS H ? simulations. In particular, it is found that radial profiles of ion flux in the SOL, derived from scoop Langmuir probe measurements, give excellent fits to the H ? data. A tangency point particle flux asymmetry favoring the ion drift side of the blade of 2.25 to 1.24 for the density range (1.4-3.7) 10 13 cm -3 is indicated by both the H ? simulations and the edge plasma diagnostics. The particle confinement time varies from approximately 50 to 80 ms for this ohmic density scan.

  14. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Gyrgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Gyrgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Gyrgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine. PMID:26843073

  15. The production of hidden charm baryon \\text{N}^{\\ast}(4261) from \\pi^{-}\\text{p} \\rightarrow\\eta_\\text{c}\\text{n} reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Xu-Rong

    2015-02-01

    With an effective Lagrangian approach and the isobar model, we explore the discovery potential of the N\\ast(4261) production via ?-p scattering. Moreover, the background from the ?-p? ? cn reaction through s-channel and u-channel by exchanging a nucleon pole is also considered. It is found that the center-of-mass energy W?4.1\\text-4.4 \\text{GeV} is the best energy window for searching the N\\ast(4261) resonance, where the N\\ast(4261) signal can be easily distinguished from background. The relevant calculations will be conductive to search for the N\\ast (4261) resonance in further experiment and have a more comprehensive understanding of hidden charm baryons.

  16. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Mnch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09?mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE 1.1mm observations in the ADF-S (Hatsukade+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2011-09-01

    The centre region of the ADF-S was observed with AzTEC on the ASTE. The observations were made from 2007 September 16 to October 14 and from 2008 August 4 to December 21. The operations were carried out remotely from the ASTE operation rooms in San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, and in Mitaka, Japan, through the network observation system N-COSMOS3 developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). (1 data file).

  18. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 20082010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  19. Cleaning of metal-contaminated graphite tiles of the TEXTOR ALT-II pump limiter blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippel, K. H.; Kohlhaas, W.; Stickelmann, C.; Wallura, E.

    1989-11-01

    Graphite is the preferred material for plasma facing components in today's fusion experiments and it is a prime candidate material also for coming fusion devices. At least in the existing tokamaks it cannot be excluded that the graphite surface will become contaminated, e.g. with metals, which leads to undesired effects on the plasma. Instead of an expensive exchange for new graphite parts, an appropriate cleaning method should be applied. This paper describes comparative tests of different mechanical cleaning methods applied to metal contaminated graphite tiles of the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. Scanning electron microscope techniques have been used to characterize the cleaning efficiency. Best results have been obtained by sandblasting the graphite surface with boron carbide grains, which proves to be a very effective, inexpensive and fast cleaning method. After reassembly of the tiles, in-situ tests by exposure to tokamak discharges showed undetectably low (?10 -5) metal concentrations in the TEXTOR plasma.

  20. Erosion and deposition at the ALT-II limiter of TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Wienhold, P.; Hildebrandt, D.; Schneider, W.

    2003-03-01

    A new method for the determination of massive erosion and deposition on plasma facing components has been developed and was tested successfully on a graphite tile of the ALT-II limiter of TEXTOR. The surface profile of the tile was measured before and after exposure to plasma discharges with an optical profiler, erosion or deposition is determined from the difference of the two profiles. The profiles were determined relative to specially machined holes, which provide stable reference points. An accuracy of about 1 ?m can be achieved. After exposure for 7625 plasma seconds a maximum erosion of 28 ?m carbon is observed in erosion dominated areas, while a maximum deposition of about 40 ?m is observed in net redeposition areas. The composition and structure of the redeposited layers were investigated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Particle exhaust during neutral injection by the ALT-II pump limiter in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Textor Team; NI Team; Gray, D. S.; Dippel, K. H.; Finken, K. H.; Moyer, R. A.; Ciotti, M.; Conn, R. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Mioduszewski, P.; Reiter, D.; Sengoku, S.; Wolf, G. H.

    1990-12-01

    The ALT-II (Advanced Limiter Test) toroidal belt pump limiter has been used for particle exhaust during discharges heated by neutral beam injection (NI) in the TEXTOR tokamak. Pumping is now available at all eight blades, whereas previously only two blades have been pumped. Results from discharges with co- and with counter-injection are presented in this paper. Large rises (~ 3 over ohmic conditions) in collected flux are observed in the collection scoops with NI, but the electron temperature rise is modest. The plasma density near the neutralizes is substantially higher than at the scoop entrances. Total collected fluxes at the neutralizers have reached 16 10 20 ions/s (260 A), and removal rates of nearly 7 10 20 atoms/s (15 mbarl/s) have been measured, compared to 1.6 10 20 atoms/s injected in a neutral beam.

  2. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  3. Nuclear-receptor-mediated telomere insertion leads to genome instability in ALT cancers.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Paulina; Armenise, Claudia; Prot, Galle; Roumelioti, Fani-Marlen; Basyuk, Eugenia; Gagos, Sarantis; Chibon, Frdric; Djardin, Jrme

    2015-02-26

    The breakage-fusion-bridge cycle is a classical mechanism of telomere-driven genome instability in which dysfunctional telomeres are fused to other chromosomal extremities, creating dicentric chromosomes that eventually break at mitosis. Here, we uncover a distinct pathway of telomere-driven genome instability, specifically occurring in cells that maintain telomeres with the alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism. We show that, in these cells, telomeric DNA is added to multiple discrete sites throughout the genome, corresponding to regions regulated by NR2C/F transcription factors. These proteins drive local telomere DNA addition by recruiting telomeric chromatin. This mechanism, which we name targeted telomere insertion (TTI), generates potential common fragile sites that destabilize the genome. We propose that TTI driven by NR2C/F proteins contributes to the formation of complex karyotypes in ALT tumors. PMID:25723166

  4. Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in the Production of Photons, Hadrons, and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    We calculate the double spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT in proton-proton (pp) collisions for the production of photons, hadrons, and jets in the collinear twist-3 framework. These processes allows us for the first time to access a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions. We also give numerical estimates for the asymmetries of which photon production shows the most promise of a measurable effect. Furthermore, we comment on how these asymmetries would allow us to probe the gluon helicity down to as of yet unexplored x values, remark on the importance of these effects in determining the evolution of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x, x), and discuss their usefulness in resolving the true mechanism behind the large transverse single spin asymmetries (SSAs) measured in pp collisions.

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. Annealing improves tribological property of poly(octadecene- alt -maleic anhydride) self-assembled film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shiyong; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Junyan

    2011-09-01

    A poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) (POMA) film was covalently immobilized on N-[3-(trimethoxylsilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine self-assembled monolayer modified silicon surface. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the chemical bonding. Water contact angles and ellipsometric thicknesses were measured before and after annealing treatment. Atomic force microscopy was applied for top morphology, surface adhesion force and friction force. Anti-wear properties of the films were also evaluated on a ball-on-plate tribometer. It was found that annealing treatment which would evoke a conformation transform thermodynamically, was a critical step in the preparation of anti-wear films, especially for polymer ones. The correlation between structure and tribological property was revealed, which has profound meaning in designing excellent anti-wear nano-coatings used in microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS).

  7. Different expression of alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT)-associated proteins/mRNAs in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Cai, Lin; Wei, Ren-Xiong; Hu, Hao; Jin, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Bin

    2011-11-01

    Tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS), are capable of evading senescence and cell death, which is caused by telomere loss with cell division. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is considered as the main telomere maintenance mechanism in OS. In this study, we investigated the expression of ALT-associated proteins and mRNAs in human OS cell lines. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression in OS cell lines, while the expression of mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Whole-genome expression arrays were used to analyze the expression of all the mRNAs involved in telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) including human telomerase reverse transcriptase, promyelocytic leukemia proteins and other related proteins. OS and normal cell lines do not express telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) as a key subunit of telomerase, although they show varying levels of ALT-associated proteins and mRNAs such as PML, Rad52, MRE11 and FEN1 by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. A number of mRNAs that play essential roles in ALT are expressed more in OS cell lines than in the osteoblast cell line, as shown by whole-genome expression arrays. In conclusion, OS cell lines maintain their telomere length primarily through the ALT mechanism. There are numerous other proteins that regulate this process in OS; therefore, anti-ALT therapy may be a more effective method to treat OS than anti-telomerase therapy. PMID:22848311

  8. Efficacy of telbivudine in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with high baseline ALT levels

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Guo-Cai; Ma, Wen-Jiang; Ying, Lin-Jung; Jin, Xi; Zheng, Lin; Yang, Yi-Da

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine (LDT) in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have high baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels between 10 and 20 times the upper limit of normal. METHODS: Forty HBeAg-positive CHB patients with high baseline ALT levels between 10 and 20 times the upper limit of normal were enrolled and received LDT monotherapy for 52 wk. Another forty patients with baseline ALT levels between 2 and 10 times the upper limit of normal were included as controls. We compared the virological, biochemical, serological and side effect profiles between the two groups at 52 wk. RESULTS: By week 52, the mean decrease in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level compared with baseline was 7.03 log10 copies/mL in the high baseline ALT group and 6.17 log10 copies/mL in the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). The proportion of patients in whom serum HBV DNA levels were undetectable by polymerase chain reaction assay was 72.5% in the high baseline ALT group and 60% in the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). In addition, 45.0% of patients in the high baseline ALT group and 27.5% of controls became HBeAg-negative, and 37.5% of those in the high baseline group and 22.5% of controls, respectively, had HBeAg seroconversion (P < 0.05) at week 52. Moreover, in the high baseline group, 4 out of 40 patients (10%) became hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative and 3 (7.5%) of them seroconverted (became HBsAg-positive). Only 1 patient in the control group became HBsAg-negative, but had no seroconversion. The ALT normalization rate, viral breakthrough, genotypic resistance to LDT, and elevations in creatine kinase levels were similar in the two groups over the 52 wk. CONCLUSION: High baseline ALT level is a strong predictor for optimal results during LDT treatment. PMID:20731026

  9. ALT1, a Snf2 Family Chromatin Remodeling ATPase, Negatively Regulates Alkaline Tolerance through Enhanced Defense against Oxidative Stress in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  10. The effect of IFN-based therapies on the short-term dynamics of alt in HCV-infected patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, R. M.; Talal, A. H.; Layden, J. E.; Powers, K. A.; Layden, T. J.; Perelson, Alan S.,

    2002-01-01

    IFN therapy of HCV-infection has been shown to reduce production of virus from infected cells, but its effect on hepatocytes is less well understood. One indicator of liver damage is ALT, which has been used as an associated diagnostic for HCV infection.

  11. Synthesis of monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.; Qian, X.F.; Yuan, J.Y.; Yin, J.; He, R.; Zhu, Z.K

    2003-07-14

    Nanocomposite of CdSe/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSM) was successfully prepared via an in situ reaction process at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that CdSe nanoparticles with a small size and narrow size distribution were obtained. The obtained nanocomposite was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  12. Perspectives on English Education in the Japanese Public School System: The Views of Foreign Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaki, Yuki

    2008-01-01

    Public school students in Japan must take English as a required subject for three years in junior high school and for three more years in senior high school. In spite of the amount of classroom time invested, and in spite of the available learning support services, the foreign Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) system included, the English

  13. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  14. Geophysical investigation of a landslide: The Alt?nda? landslide site, ?zmir (western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gktrkler, Gkhan; Balkaya, a?layan; Erhan, Zlfikar

    2008-06-01

    A geophysical survey including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) was carried out to study a landslide site in the Alt?nda? district of ?zmir city, western Turkey. In the city, landslide is one of the causes of natural hazard, and one of the most important landslide sites is located in the Alt?nda? district. The ERT studies were performed along four profiles over the landslide body in the directions of N-S and E-W. A Wenner-Schlumberger configuration was used during the resistivity measurements. The SRT survey was carried out using vertical geophones along a profile coincident with one of N-S trending resistivity profiles. Both the resistivity and the seismic data sets were processed by least-squares inversion techniques. In the first-arrival traveltime inversion of the surface refraction data, a method which is not based on ray tracing was used. Instead, the method used the functional description of traveltimes to generate the Jacobian and this matrix was calculated by using a finite-difference approximation based on the perturbation of the cell slownesses. Traveltime calculations were performed by an eikonal solver. Each technique produced useful results on the internal structure of the landslide, physical properties of the landslide material and sliding surface geometry. The landslide material was characterized by low resistivity and low seismic velocity. The resistivity results also indicated the zones associated with the high water and clay contents within the landslide mass. A layer of consolidated clastic rocks was considered to be the landslide bedrock, and it was represented by relatively high (moderate) resistivity and high velocity. Integrated interpretation of the resistivity and the seismic refraction data along one of N-S trending profiles helped us identify the geometry of the failure surface and the changes in the thickness of the landslide material. An undulating sliding surface is present along that profile and the landslide material gets thicker in the middle and the northern parts (the toe area) of the profile. Moreover, the water content is thought to have a key role in the mass movement in the landslide site.

  15. Bortezomib and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma: higher AST and LDH levels associated with a worse prognosis on overall survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bortezomib offers a novel approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma producing rapid control. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of bortezomib and dexamethasone-treated patients with multiple myeloma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 44 consecutively-treated multiple myeloma patients with bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle or 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously 1, 8, 15, and 22 of every 35-day cycle) and dexamethasone. Results The median time to progression, progression free survival time, and overall survival time in the treatment groups was 14.9, 14.9, and 38.3 months, respectively. The present study also suggests the possibility that the prognosis of patients with high levels of AST and LDH might be worse. Conclusions Our results indicate that the treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone is feasible. PMID:24952705

  16. pH-responsive poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) alkylamide copolymers for intracellular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Scott M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E H; Pirie, Christopher M; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S

    2006-08-01

    Many macromolecular therapeutics such as peptides, proteins, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN), and short interfering RNA (siRNA) are active only in the cytoplasm or nucleus of targeted cells. Endocytosis is the primary route for cellular uptake of these molecules, which results in their accumulation in the endosomal-lysosomal trafficking pathway and loss of therapeutic activity. In this article, we describe the synthesis and pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity of a new "smart" polymer family that can be utilized to enhance the intracellular delivery of therapeutic macromolecules through the endosomal membrane barrier into the cytoplasm of targeted cells. These polymers are propylamine, butylamine, and pentylamine derivatives of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) copolymers. The PSMA-alkylamide derivatives are hydrophilic and membrane-inactive at physiological pH; however, they become hydrophobic and membrane-disruptive in response to endosomal pH values as measured by their hemolytic activity. Results show that the pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity of PSMA derivatives can be controlled by varying the length of the alkylamine group, the degree of modification of the copolymer, and the molecular weight of the PSMA copolymer backbone. Butylamine and pentylamine derivatives of PSMA copolymers exhibited more than 80% hemolysis at endosomal pH values, which suggests their potential as a platform of "smart" polymeric carriers for enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of a variety of therapeutic macromolecules. PMID:16903689

  17. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  18. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations. PMID:26007633

  19. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  20. Study on the azimuth bearing scheme of a large Alt-azimuth telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huai; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Shuang

    2010-05-01

    The azimuth bearing schemes in typical large Alt-azimuth telescopes, especially the 3.5-m APO telescope and the 4.1-m SOAR telescope were analyzed. A scheme of high-angular contacted thrust ball bearing integrated with a radial ball bearing was put forward. According to the Hertz contact theory, the corresponding parameters were designed for engineering application. The static performance parameters, within the range of 60 ~ 85 original contact angle were calculated. Compared with the traditional plane thrust ball bearing, the results shows that the high-angular (?>80) contact thrust ball bearing has more benefits at bearing strength and rigidity for large telescope. The ?1500mm diameter prototyping bearing shows good performance, including the axial jitter is 0.009mm, the radial jitter is 0.006mm, the maximum starting torque without load is 30Nm, and the load capacity is more than 30t, which offers advanced technique path for the buildup of the high precision azimuth shafting and the whole telescope system.

  1. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  2. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  3. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  4. Characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains harboring the astA gene that were associated with a waterborne outbreak of diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Saito, Shioko; Miyajima, Yoshimichi; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Enomoto, Katsuhiko

    2003-05-01

    The virulence traits of the Escherichia coli strain associated with a waterborne diarrhea outbreak were examined. Forty-one of 75 students (ages 12 to 15) in Akita Prefecture, Japan, showed clinical symptoms. Seven E. coli Ouk:K-:H45 isolates were isolated from the patients as the causative agent of this outbreak. One isolate (EC-3605) showed the presence of E. coli attaching-and-effacing (eaeA) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) genes and the absence of Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) genes. A polymorphic enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) adherence factor plasmid was detected in EC-3605 with a major structural gene deletion and a regulatory gene frameshift mutation, revealing that EC-3605 represents an atypical EPEC strain harboring the astA gene. The role that atypical EPEC strains harboring the astA gene play in human disease is unclear. Our results, along with those of others, present a possibility that these strains comprise a distinct category of diarrheagenic E. coli and that astA affects the age distribution of atypical-EPEC infection. PMID:12734245

  5. Characterization of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Harboring the astA Gene That Were Associated with a Waterborne Outbreak of Diarrhea in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Saito, Shioko; Miyajima, Yoshimichi; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Enomoto, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The virulence traits of the Escherichia coli strain associated with a waterborne diarrhea outbreak were examined. Forty-one of 75 students (ages 12 to 15) in Akita Prefecture, Japan, showed clinical symptoms. Seven E. coli Ouk:K-:H45 isolates were isolated from the patients as the causative agent of this outbreak. One isolate (EC-3605) showed the presence of E. coli attaching-and-effacing (eaeA) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) genes and the absence of Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) genes. A polymorphic enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) adherence factor plasmid was detected in EC-3605 with a major structural gene deletion and a regulatory gene frameshift mutation, revealing that EC-3605 represents an atypical EPEC strain harboring the astA gene. The role that atypical EPEC strains harboring the astA gene play in human disease is unclear. Our results, along with those of others, present a possibility that these strains comprise a distinct category of diarrheagenic E. coli and that astA affects the age distribution of atypical-EPEC infection. PMID:12734245

  6. Blood transcript immune signatures distinguish a subset of people with elevated serum ALT from others given acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Sieber, S O; Bushel, P R; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury is hindered by the limited utility of clinical chemistries. We have shown that hepatotoxicants can produce peripheral blood transcriptome "signatures" (PBTS) in rodents and humans. In this study, 42 adults were treated with acetaminophen (APAP; 1 g every 6 hours) for seven days, followed by three days of placebo. Eleven subjects received only placebo. After five days, 12 subjects (30%) had increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ("responders"). PBTS of 707 and 760 genes, respectively, could distinguish responders and nonresponders from placebos. Functional analysis of the responder PBTS revealed increased expression of genes involved in TH2-mediated and innate immune responses, whereas the nonresponders demonstrated increased gene expression consistent with a tolerogenic immune response. Taken together, these observations suggest that the clinical subjects with transient increases in serum ALT failed to maintain or intensify a hepatic tolerogenic immune response. PMID:26690555

  7. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of the AKARI Deep Field South: source catalogue and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2011-02-01

    We present results of a 1.1-mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25-deg2 area with an rms noise level of 0.32-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest and widest maps thus far at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We uncovered 198 sources with a significance of 3.5?-15.6?, providing the largest catalogue of 1.1-mm sources in a contiguous region. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z? 1.5 given the detection limits. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts in the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field and the SSA 22 field surveyed by AzTEC/ASTE, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fitting number counts in the ADF-S finds that the contribution of 1.1-mm sources with fluxes of ?1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16 per cent, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star formation rate density contributed by 1.1-mm sources with ?1 mJy using the best-fitting number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically selected galaxies at z 2-3. The fraction of stellar mass of the present-day universe produced by 1.1-mm sources with ?1 mJy at z? 1 is 20 per cent, calculated by the time integration of the star formation rate density. If we consider the recycled fraction of >0.4, which is the fraction of materials forming stars returned to the interstellar medium, the fraction of stellar mass produced by 1.1-mm sources decreases to ?10 per cent.

  8. Astakine LvAST binds to the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-β) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-β as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

  9. AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will ...

  10. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  11. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  12. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    We present number counts and clustering properties of millimeter-bright galaxies uncovered by the AzTEC camera mounted on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We surveyed the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA22 fields with an area of ~0.25 deg2 each with an rms noise level of ~0.4-1.0 mJy. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z~2-3. The average mass of dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources was calculated to be 1013-1014 Msolar. Comparison of correlation lengths of 1.1 mm sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the 1.1 mm sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

  13. AST to platelet ratio index as a prospective predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma risk in patients with chronic HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yinzhi; Hann, Richard S.; Myers, Ronald E.; Patel, Fenil; Zhang, Kejin; Ye, Zhong; Wang, Chun; Yang, Hushan

    2015-01-01

    Background APRI (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] to platelet ratio index) is widely used to assess fibrosis and cirrhosis risk, especially in HCV-infected patients. Few studies have evaluated APRI and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. Prospective evidence is needed to assess whether APRI predicts HCC risk in HBV patients. Method In a prospectively enrolled clinical cohort of 855 HBV patients with a 1-year exclusion window (followed for >1 year and did not develop HCC within 1 year), the predictive value of APRI in HCC risk was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards model using univariate and multivariate analyses and longitudinal analysis. Results Higher APRI prospectively conferred a significantly increased risk of HCC in univariate analysis (quartile analysis, P trend=2.910?7). This effect remained highly significant after adjusting for common host characteristics but not cirrhosis (P trend=7.110?5), and attenuated when cirrhosis is adjusted (P trend=0.021). The effect remained prominent when the analysis was restricted to patients with a more stringent 2-year exclusion window (P trend=0.008 in quartile analysis adjusting all characteristics including cirrhosis), indicating that the association was unlikely due to including undetected HCC patients in the cohort, thus minimizing the reverse-causation limitation in most retrospective studies. Longitudinal comparison demonstrated a persistently higher APRI value in HBV patients who developed HCC during follow-up than those remaining cancer-free. Conclusion APRI might be a marker of HCC risk in HBV patients in cirrhosis-dependent and independent manners. Further studies are warranted to validate this finding and test its clinical applicability in HCC prevention. PMID:24995497

  14. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB.

    PubMed

    Caniato, Fernanda F; Hamblin, Martha T; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity. PMID:24498106

  15. [Botulinum toxin A after microvascular ALT flap in a patient with (corrected) squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue].

    PubMed

    Ihler, F; Laskawi, R; Matthias, C; Rustenbeck, H H; Canis, M

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of a 23-year-old man presenting with a cT4cN1M0squamous cell carcinoma of the right tongue. After tumor resection and covering of the defect with a microvascular anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, the patient showed distinct drooling without any substantial regression after anticholinergic therapy. For this reason 75 units of Botox were injected into the submandibular and parotid glands. After the intraglandular injections, good reduction of saliva secretion was achieved. The treatment improved flap healing, aspiration and patient satisfaction. Injection of botulinum toxinA into the salivary glands is a sufficient therapy for postoperative hypersalivation. PMID:22534678

  16. overline{B}to {D}^{(ast )}? overline{?} excesses in ALRSM constrained from B, D decays and {D}^0-{overline{D}}^0 mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hati, Chandan; Kumar, Girish; Mahajan, Namit

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHCb, BaBar and Belle collaborations on the semitauonic decays of B meson, overline{B}to {D}^{(ast )}? overline{?} , showing a significant deviation from the Standard Model (SM), hint towards a new physics scenario beyond the SM. In this work, we show that these enhanced decay rates can be explained within the framework of E 6 motivated Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Model (ALRSM), which has been successful in explaining the recent CMS excesses and has the feature of accommodating high scale leptogenesis. The R-parity conserving couplings in ALRSM can contribute universally to both overline{B}to D? overline{?} and overline{B}to {D}^{ast}? overline{?} via the exchange of scalar leptoquarks. We study the leptonic decays {D}_s+to {?}+overline{?} , {B}+to {?}+overline{?} , {D}+to {?}+overline{?} and {D}^0-{overline{D}}^0 mixing to constrain the couplings involved in explaining the enhanced B decay rates and we find that ALRSM can explain the current experimental data on {R}({D}^{(ast )}) quite well while satisfying these constraints.

  17. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  18. The Arabidopsis cell cycle checkpoint regulators TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR mediate the active process of aluminum-dependent root growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nezames, Cynthia D; Sjogren, Caroline A; Barajas, Jesus F; Larsen, Paul B

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a global issue that severely limits root growth in acidic soils. Isolation of suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana Al-hypersensitive mutant, als3-1, resulted in identification of a cell cycle checkpoint factor, ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2), which monitors and responds to DNA damage. ALT2 is required for active stoppage of root growth after Al exposure, because alt2 loss-of-function mutants fail to halt root growth after Al exposure, do not accumulate CyclinB1;1 in the root tip, and fail to force differentiation of the quiescent center. Thus, alt2-1 mutants are highly tolerant of Al levels that are severely inhibitory to the wild type. The alt2-1 allele is a loss-of-function mutation in a protein containing a putative DDB1-binding WD40 motif, previously identified as TANMEI, which is required for assessment of DNA integrity, including monitoring of DNA crosslinks. alt2-1 and atr loss-of-function mutants, the latter of which affects the cell cycle checkpoint ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA-MUTATED AND RAD3-RELATED, are severely sensitive to DNA crosslinking agents and have increased Al tolerance. These results suggest that Al likely acts as a DNA-damaging agent in vivo and that Al-dependent root growth inhibition, in part, arises from detection of and response to this damage by TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR, both of which actively halt cell cycle progression and force differentiation of the quiescent center. PMID:22345493

  19. The AGE-Breaker ALT-711 Restores High Blood FlowDependent Remodeling in Mesenteric Resistance Arteries in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Freidja, Mohamed L.; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Cline; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxidedependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes. PMID:22415880

  20. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fiona T. M.; Chan, F. Lyn; R. McGhie, James D.; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  1. Extraction of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulating fullerenes by poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tange, Masayoshi; Kwon, Jin Kyoung; Okazaki, Toshiya; Iijima, Sumio

    2014-04-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating fullerenes, the so-called nanopeapods (NPDs), are expected as building blocks in future nanoelectronics because the mechanical and electronic properties of SWCNTs frequently undergo considerable modification with the encapsulation of molecules at a nanometer scale. The separation of semiconducting species from metallic counterparts is the next step in the application of NPDs in electronics and photonics. Here, semiconducting NPDs are successfully extracted in toluene using a fluorene-based polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT). Although F8BT shows a high extraction selectivity for (15, 4) SWCNTs, such a high selectivity disappears in the obtained photoluminescence excitation (PLE) map of NPDs. The change in electronic energy level by the encapsulation of C60 may induce the loss of the selectivity.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-?1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  3. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  4. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  5. Shape evolution of SrCO{sub 3} particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jiaguo . E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Guo Hua; Cheng Bei

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO{sub 3} particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO{sub 3} particles.

  6. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  7. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15R?Su-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-? production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  8. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model

    PubMed Central

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D.; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R.; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Lim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereo-tactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  9. Lower baseline ALT cut-off values and HBV DNA levels better differentiate HBeAg(-) chronic hepatitis B patients from inactive chronic carriers

    PubMed Central

    Assy, Nimer; Beniashvili, Zaza; Djibre, Agness; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria; Nseir, William

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether new cut-off values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels better differentiate HBeAg(-) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients from inactive chronic carriers. METHODS: Ninety-one patients [32 HBeAg(+) CHB, 19 inactive carriers and 40 HBeAg(-) CHB] were followed up for 2 years and were tested for HBV DNA levels by a PCR-based assay. ALT was tested twice during the last 6 mo using new cut-off values: ULN (upper limit of normal) 30 IU/L for males, 19 IU/L for females. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated by discriminant analysis. RESULTS: When using the revised ALT cut-off values, the lowest optimal HBV DNA level that differentiated HBeAg(-) CHB patients from inactive carriers was 50?000 copies/mL. The diagnostic accuracy of HBV DNA to determine inactive carriers with a cut-off of 50?000 copies/mL was similar to the previously recommended cut-off of 100?000 copies/mL (91%). HBV DNA levels were lower than the cut-off value in 95% of inactive carriers and in 28% of HBeAg(-) CHB patients. With ALT < 30 IU/L in men and < 19 IU/L in women and HBV DNA levels < 100?000 copies/mL, the risk of CHB is 5%. On the other hand, if ALT values were > 30 IU in men and > 19 IU in women and baseline HBV DNA levels were > 100?000 copies/mL, the risk is 86%. CONCLUSION: New cut-off values for ALT together with HBV DNA levels proposed by AASLD (American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases) and NIH (National Institute of Health) consensus seem appropriate to characterize inactive carriers. PMID:19554656

  10. Orbiter altitude at ALT interface based on ALSES (Approach and Landing Shuttle Engineering Simulation) analyses. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    The details of the orbiter altitude attainable at the approach and landing tests (ALT) interface determined by the approach and landing shuttle engineering simulation (manned) were documented. The analysis culminated in the verification of the trends observed in a similar analysis performed previously on the space vehicle dynamics simulation (unmanned). Altitude variations attributable to pilot steering variability ranged between 492 ft higher to 383 ft lower. The requirement for this parametric analysis is first elaborated. The specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to determine the orbiter altitude at the ALT interface are then presented, followed by the results of the analytical approach and the conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles suppressed colon carcinoma established subcutaneously in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Kyu; Kim, Kyung Keun; Cho, Sang-Hee; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Jere, Dhananjay; Cho, Chong-Su; Chung, Ik-Joo

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable gene carrier, termed as PEI-alt-PEG, has been synthesized based on Michael addition reaction between lower Mw PEI and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate and tested its potential of anti-metastatic cancer gene therapy by using anti-KITENIN short hairpin RNA. KITENIN is known to promote invasion of mouse colon adenocarcinoma in vivo. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles has shown suppressed proliferlation and enhanced apoptosis signal in tumor compared to commercial available liposome, leading to delayed tumor growth. PMID:20358939

  12. Candidate gene identification of an aluminum-activated organic acid transporter gene at the Alt4 locus for aluminum tolerance in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    PubMed

    Fontecha, G; Silva-Navas, J; Benito, C; Mestres, M A; Espino, F J; Hernández-Riquer, M V; Gallego, F J

    2007-01-01

    Among cereal crops, rye is one of the most tolerant species to aluminum. A candidate gene approach was used to determine the likely molecular identity of an Al tolerance locus (Alt4). Using PCR primers designed from a wheat aluminum tolerance gene encoding an aluminum-activated malate transporter (TaALMT1), a rye gene (ScALMT1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Subsequently, the ScALMT1 gene of rye was found to be located on 7RS by PCR amplification using the wheat-rye addition lines. SNP polymorphisms for this gene were detected among the parents of three F(2) populations that segregate for the Alt4 locus. A map of the rye chromosome 7R, including the Alt4 locus ScALMT1 and several molecular markers, was constructed showing a complete co-segregation between Alt4 and ScALMT1. Furthermore, expression experiments were carried out to clarify the function of this candidate gene. Briefly, the ScALMT1 gene was found to be primarily expressed in the root apex and upregulated when aluminum was present in the medium. Five-fold differences in the expression were found between the Al tolerant and the Al non-tolerant genotypes. Additionally, much higher expression was detected in the rye genotypes than the moderately tolerant "Chinese Spring" wheat cultivar. These results suggest that the Alt4 locus encodes an aluminum-activated organic acid transporter gene that could be utilized to increase Al tolerance in Al sensitive plant species. Finally, TaALMT1 homologous sequences were identified in different grasses and in the dicotyledonous plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Our data support the hypothesis of the existence of a common mechanism of Al tolerance encoded by a gene located in the homoeologous group four of cereals. PMID:17063338

  13. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from Rhinocerophis alternatus snake venom promotes positive inotropism and chronotropism in fish heart.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, D A; Kalinin, A L; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S; Vasconcelos, E S; Rantin, F T

    2016-02-01

    Alternagin-C (ALT-C) is a disintegrin-like protein purified from the venom of the snake, Rhinocerophis alternatus. Recent studies showed that ALT-C is able to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, angiogenesis and to increase myoblast viability. This peptide, therefore, can play a crucial role in tissue regeneration mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single dose of alternagin-C (0.5mgkg(-1), via intra-arterial) on invitro cardiac function of the freshwater fish trara, Hoplias malabaricus, after 7 days. ALT-C treatment increased the cardiac performance promoting: 1) significant increases in the contraction force and in the rates of contraction and relaxation with concomitant decreases in the values of time to the peak tension and time to half- and 90% relaxation; 2) improvement in the cardiac pumping capacity and maximal electrical stimulation frequency, shifting the optimum frequency curve upward and to the right; 3) increases in myocardial VEGF levels and expression of key Ca(2+)-cycling proteins such as SERCA (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase), PLB (phospholamban), and NCX (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger); 4) abolishment of the typical negative force-frequency relationship of fish myocardium. In conclusion, this study indicates that ALT-C improves cardiac function, by increasing Ca(2+) handling efficiency leading to a positive inotropism and chronotropism. The results suggest that ALT-C may lead to better cardiac output regulation indicating its potential application in therapies for cardiac contractile dysfunction. PMID:26615089

  14. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  15. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  16. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  17. Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: A system with starlike morphology and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Laurati, M.; Stellbrink, J.; Lund, R.; Willner, L.; Richter, D.; Zaccarelli, E.

    2007-10-15

    We report on an experimental study of single particle properties and interactions of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) starlike micelles. The starlike regime is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20) and the number of arms (functionality) is changed by varying the composition of the solvent (the interfacial tension). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data in the dilute regime can be modeled by assuming a constant density profile in the micellar core (compact core) and a starlike density profile in the corona (starlike shell). The starlike morphology of the corona is confirmed by a direct comparison with SANS measurements of dilute poly butadiene star solutions. Comparison of structure factors obtained by SANS measurements in the concentrated regime shows in addition that the interactions in the two systems are equivalent. Micellar structure factors at several packing fractions can be modeled by using the ultrasoft potential recently proposed for star polymers [Likos et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4450 (1998)]. The experimental phase diagram of PEP-PEO micelles is quantitatively compared to theoretical expectations, finding good agreement for the location of the liquid-solid boundary and excellent agreement for the critical packing fraction where the liquid-to-bcc crystal transition takes place for f<70. The functionality, i.e., the coronal density, strongly influences the nature of the solid phase: for f<70 the system crystallizes into a bcc phase, high f>70 formation of amorphous arrested states prevents crystallization.

  18. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  19. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the π-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  20. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvsi, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 (L(Dip)=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, L(Et)=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum-tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 equilibrates with dimeric {(L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (L(Dip)N)AlTe(L(Et))2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  1. A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000mg BID (n?=?1), 1500mg BID (n?=?1), 800mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended. PMID:24612546

  2. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will ...

  3. Measurement of CP violation parameters and polarisation fractions in {B}s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast 0} decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-11-01

    The first measurement of CP asymmetries in the decay {B}_s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast }{(892)}^0 and an updated measurement of its branching fraction and polarisation fractions are presented. The results are obtained using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 .0 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions recorded with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Together with constraints from B 0 → J/ψ ρ 0, the results are used to constrain additional contributions due to penguin diagrams in the CP -violating phase ϕ s , measured through B s 0 decays to charmonium. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be addressed by application of a correction factor to fingerstick values. Remote reading of this device is feasible. PMID:26020244

  5. Elevated telomere-telomere recombination in WRN-deficient, telomere dysfunctional cells promotes escape from senescence and engagement of the ALT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Laud, Purnima R.; Multani, Asha S.; Bailey, Susan M.; Wu, Ling; Ma, Jin; Kingsley, Charles; Lebel, Michel; Pathak, Sen; DePinho, Ronald A.; Chang, Sandy

    2005-01-01

    Werner Syndrome (WS) is characterized by premature aging, genomic instability, and cancer. The combined impact of WRN helicase deficiency and limiting telomere reserves is central to disease pathogenesis. Here, we report that cells doubly deficient for telomerase and WRN helicase show chromosomal aberrations and elevated recombination rates between telomeres of sister chromatids. Somatic reconstitution of WRN function, but not a WRN helicase-deficient mutant, abolished telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), indicating that WRN normally represses T-SCEs. Elevated T-SCE was associated with greater immortalization potential and resultant tumors maintained telomeres via the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway. We propose that the increased incidence of chromosomal instability and cancer in WS relates in part to aberrant recombinations between sister chromatids at telomeres, which facilitates the activation of ALT and engenders cancer-relevant chromosomal aberrations and tumor formation. PMID:16264192

  6. Elevated telomere-telomere recombination in WRN-deficient, telomere dysfunctional cells promotes escape from senescence and engagement of the ALT pathway.

    PubMed

    Laud, Purnima R; Multani, Asha S; Bailey, Susan M; Wu, Ling; Ma, Jin; Kingsley, Charles; Lebel, Michel; Pathak, Sen; DePinho, Ronald A; Chang, Sandy

    2005-11-01

    Werner Syndrome (WS) is characterized by premature aging, genomic instability, and cancer. The combined impact of WRN helicase deficiency and limiting telomere reserves is central to disease pathogenesis. Here, we report that cells doubly deficient for telomerase and WRN helicase show chromosomal aberrations and elevated recombination rates between telomeres of sister chromatids. Somatic reconstitution of WRN function, but not a WRN helicase-deficient mutant, abolished telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), indicating that WRN normally represses T-SCEs. Elevated T-SCE was associated with greater immortalization potential and resultant tumors maintained telomeres via the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway. We propose that the increased incidence of chromosomal instability and cancer in WS relates in part to aberrant recombinations between sister chromatids at telomeres, which facilitates the activation of ALT and engenders cancer-relevant chromosomal aberrations and tumor formation. PMID:16264192

  7. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained. PMID:25599262

  8. An ADP-ribosyltransferase Alt of bacteriophage T4 negatively regulates the Escherichia coli?MazF toxin of a toxin-antitoxin module.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, Abdulraheem M; Qi, Dan; Yonesaki, Tetsuro; Otsuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are linked to many roles in cell physiology, such as plasmid maintenance, stress response, persistence and protection from phage infection, and the activities of toxins are tightly regulated. Here, we describe a novel regulatory mechanism for a toxin of Escherichia coli?TA systems. The MazF toxin of MazE-MazF, which is one of the best characterized type II TA systems, was modified immediately after infection with bacteriophage T4. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that the molecular weight of this modification was 542?Da, corresponding to a mono-ADP-ribosylation. This modification disappeared in cells infected with T4 phage lacking Alt, which is one of three ADP-ribosyltransferases encoded by T4 phage and is injected together with phage DNA upon infection. In vivo and in vitro analyses confirmed that T4 Alt ADP-ribosylated MazF at an arginine residue at position 4. Finally, the ADP-ribosylation of MazF by Alt resulted in the reduction of MazF RNA cleavage activity in vitro, suggesting that it may function to inactivate MazF during T4 infection. This is the first example of the chemical modification of an E.?coli toxin in TA systems to regulate activity. PMID:26395283

  9. Effect of Segregation of Secondary Phase Particles and "S" Line on Tensile Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded 2024Al-T351 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2013-09-01

    A 5-mm-thick 2024Al-T351 plate was friction stir welded (FSWed) at welding speeds of 100, 200, and 400 mm min-1 with a constant rotation rate of 800 rpm, and the microstructure and tensile fracture behavior of the joints were investigated in detail. FSW resulted in the redistribution of secondary phase particles along the recrystallized grain boundaries at the nugget zone (NZ), forming linear segregation bands consisting of secondary phase particles. The segregation bands, mainly present in the shoulder-driven zone, were believed to result from periodic material flow, with the average band spacing on the longitudinal and horizontal cross sections equal to the tool advancement per revolution. At a low welding speed of 100 mm min-1, in spite of the highest density of segregation bands, the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joint fractured along the low hardness zone (LHZ) of the heat-affected zone because of large hardness gap between NZ and LHZ. Increasing the welding speed to 200 and 400 mm min-1 reduced both the hardness gap between NZ and LHZ and the density of segregation bands. In this case, the segregation bands played a role, resulting in unusual fracture of the joints along the segregation bands. The "S" line originated from the oxide film on the initial butting surfaces and did not affect the fracture behavior of the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joints.

  10. Synthesis, biophysical, and pharmacological evaluation of the melanocortin agonist AST3-88: modifications of peptide backbone at Trp 7 position lead to a potent, selective, and stable ligand of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2014-10-15

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (?-, ?-, ?-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a ?-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ?5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII ?-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the ?-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  11. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  12. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    We present the results from a 1.1-mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z = 3.1 Lyman ? emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the astronomical thermal emission camera (AzTEC) on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950-arcmin2 field down to a 1? sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy beam-1 to find 125 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) with a signal-to-noise ratio ?3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data and the median value is found to be z = 2.4. By combining these estimations with estimates from the literature, we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z = 3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z = 3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high-redshift Universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.

  13. YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> dc SQUID array for multichannel magnetometry and multichannel flip-chip current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Zakosarenko, V.; IJsselsteijn, R.; Stolz, R.; Schultze, V.; Chwala, A.; Hoenig, H. E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    1999-09-01

    We have prepared arrays of single-layer washer-type dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) on 10 mm 10 mm bicrystal substrates. Each SQUID in the array is equipped with its own modulation loop, which makes a separate operation of them possible. Arrays containing nine or 11 dc SQUIDs have been tested and the crosstalk between neighbouring channels has been found to be 5%. The field sensitivity of the SQUIDs is 85 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 and 105 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 for the nine- and 11-device array, respectively. The equivalent flux noise is typically icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> 20 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 Hz-1/2 down to 1 Hz with ac bias reversal. A field resolution of less than 2.1 pT Hz-1/2 has been obtained for at least eight channels on a chip. By using multiturn YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> input coils and mounting them in a flip-chip configuration together with the single-layer dc SQUIDs we have been able to build three-channel current sensors. The current sensitivity equals 3-3.5 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>A icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 depending on the alignment of the flip-chip configuration. The current resolution of the devices is < 70 pA Hz-1/2. We show the possibility of building sensitive magnetometers by connecting the input coil of these current sensors to a normal-conducting pickup antenna.

  14. Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    M'Kada, Helmi; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ramanujam, Nittia; Fautrel, Bruno; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Ratziu, Vlad; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Leblond, Véronique; Delattre, Jean Yves; Samson, Yves; Caen, Olivier Lyon; Bricaire, François; Khayat, David; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Herson, Serge; Amoura, Zahir; Tilleul, Patrick; Deckmyn, Olivier; Coriat, Pierre; Delpech, Vincent Nicolas; Boulogne, Philippe; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening. Design We prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care strategy for 24-week period based on referral cases to the hepatology unit. In the centralized strategy, a designated study biochemist identified patients with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal values (ULN) and notified the designated hepatologists, who then went to the patients' wards, analyzed the charts, and if necessary, interviewed the identified patients. During these two periods, patients with possible DILI were included after signing an informed consent in an ongoing European diagnostic study (SAFE-T consortium). Results During the 24-week period of the standard strategy, 12 (0.04%) patients out of a total of 28,145 were identified as having possible DILI, and 11 of these accepted to be included in the protocol. During the one-week proactive period, 7 patients out of a total of 1407 inpatients (0.498%) [odds ratio vs. standard = 12.1 (95% CI, 3.9–32.3); P<0.0001] were identified with possible DILI, and 5 were included in the protocol. Conclusion A simple strategy based on the daily analysis of cases with ALT >3 ULN by designated biochemists and hepatologists identified 12 times more acute cases of drug-induced liver disease than the standard strategy. This pilot cohort is registered on the number AP-HP P110201/1/08-03-2011 and AFSSAPS B110346-70. PMID:22905129

  15. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your ... Swollen and inflamed liver ( hepatitis ) Lack of blood flow to the liver (liver ischemia) Liver cancer or ...

  16. Brominated VSLSs in and over the East Pacific During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific Cruise (HalocAST-P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Smith, R. W.; Shen, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.

    2010-12-01

    Brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2), and dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) can potentially supply a significant amount of inorganic bromine (Bry) to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Bromine radicals are 50 - 100 times more efficient in depleting ozone (O3) than chlorine radicals; therefore, these compounds are important to the ozone chemistry in the atmosphere. CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2 and CHBrCl2 are thought to be produced mainly by phytoplankton in the open ocean. During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific (HalocAST - P) cruise we examined the distributions of halocarbons in the East Pacific Ocean and in the overlying atmosphere. The cruise started from Punta Arenas, Chile on March 29, and finished at Seattle, WA, United States on April 29 2010. Continuous underway measurements of the atmospheric and surface seawater concentrations along with depth profiles of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and a suite of other halogenated compounds were measured over a large cross latitudinal transect. The brominated VSLS measured during this cruise generally exhibit a correlation with chlorophyll a, supporting biogenic production as the predominate source for these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we will be discussing air and seawater concentrations, saturation anomalies, fluxes, and depth profiles for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2. Cyanobacteria counts, pigment compositions, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the water column were also measured and serve as useful tools for understanding the biological production of these brominated VSLSs.

  17. Transposition of the Heat-Stable Toxin astA Gene into a Gifsy-2-Related Prophage of Salmonella enterica Serovar Abortusovis

    PubMed Central

    Bacciu, Donatella; Falchi, Giovanni; Spazziani, Alessandra; Bossi, Lionello; Marogna, Gavino; Leori, Guido Sisinnio; Rubino, Salvatore; Uzzau, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The horizontal transfer and acquisition of virulence genes via mobile genetic elements have been a major driving force in the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity. Serovars of Salmonella enterica carry variable assortments of phage-encoded virulence genes, suggesting that temperate phages play a pivotal role in this process. Epidemic isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium are consistently lysogenic for two lambdoid phages, Gifsy-1 and Gifsy-2, carrying known virulence genes. Other serovars of S. enterica, including serovars Dublin, Gallinarum, Enteritidis, and Hadar, carry distinct prophages with similarity to the Gifsy phages. In this study, we analyzed Gifsy-related loci from S. enterica serovar Abortusovis, a pathogen associated exclusively with ovine infection. A cryptic prophage, closely related to serovar Typhimurium phage Gifsy-2, was identified. This element, named Gifsy-2AO, was shown to contribute to serovar Abortusovis systemic infection in lambs. Sequence analysis of the prophage b region showed a large deletion which covers genes encoding phage tail fiber proteins and putative virulence factors, including type III secreted effector protein SseI (GtgB, SrfH). This deletion was identified in most of the serovar Abortusovis isolates tested and might be dependent on the replicative transposition of an adjacent insertion sequence, IS1414, previously identified in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. IS1414 encodes heat-stable toxin EAST1 (astA) and showed multiple genomic copies in isolates of serovar Abortusovis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of intergeneric transfer of virulence genes via insertion sequence elements in Salmonella. The acquisition of IS1414 (EAST1) and its frequent transposition within the chromosome might improve the fitness of serovar Abortusovis within its narrow ecological niche. PMID:15231789

  18. Transposition of the heat-stable toxin astA gene into a gifsy-2-related prophage of Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusovis.

    PubMed

    Bacciu, Donatella; Falchi, Giovanni; Spazziani, Alessandra; Bossi, Lionello; Marogna, Gavino; Leori, Guido Sisinnio; Rubino, Salvatore; Uzzau, Sergio

    2004-07-01

    The horizontal transfer and acquisition of virulence genes via mobile genetic elements have been a major driving force in the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity. Serovars of Salmonella enterica carry variable assortments of phage-encoded virulence genes, suggesting that temperate phages play a pivotal role in this process. Epidemic isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium are consistently lysogenic for two lambdoid phages, Gifsy-1 and Gifsy-2, carrying known virulence genes. Other serovars of S. enterica, including serovars Dublin, Gallinarum, Enteritidis, and Hadar, carry distinct prophages with similarity to the Gifsy phages. In this study, we analyzed Gifsy-related loci from S. enterica serovar Abortusovis, a pathogen associated exclusively with ovine infection. A cryptic prophage, closely related to serovar Typhimurium phage Gifsy-2, was identified. This element, named Gifsy-2AO, was shown to contribute to serovar Abortusovis systemic infection in lambs. Sequence analysis of the prophage b region showed a large deletion which covers genes encoding phage tail fiber proteins and putative virulence factors, including type III secreted effector protein SseI (GtgB, SrfH). This deletion was identified in most of the serovar Abortusovis isolates tested and might be dependent on the replicative transposition of an adjacent insertion sequence, IS1414, previously identified in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. IS1414 encodes heat-stable toxin EAST1 (astA) and showed multiple genomic copies in isolates of serovar Abortusovis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of intergeneric transfer of virulence genes via insertion sequence elements in Salmonella. The acquisition of IS1414 (EAST1) and its frequent transposition within the chromosome might improve the fitness of serovar Abortusovis within its narrow ecological niche. PMID:15231789

  19. A Hypothetical Protein of Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 (amad1_06475) Predicted to be a Cold-Shock Protein with RNA Chaperone Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Kibria, KM Kaderi; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

    2014-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 is a deep sea protobacteria that is distinct from the surface isolates of the same species. This study was designed to elucidate the biological function of amad1_06475, a hypothetical protein of A. macleodii AltDE1. The 70 residues protein sequence showed considerable homology with cold-shock proteins (CSPs) and RNA chaperones from different organisms. Multiple sequence alignment further supported the presence of conserved csp domain on the protein sequence. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was also determined, and verified by PROCHECK, Verify3D, and QMEAN programs. The predicted structure contained five anti-parallel ?-strands and RNA-binding motifs, which are characteristic features of prokaryotic CSPs. Finally, the binding of a thymidine-rich oligonucleotide and a single uracil molecule in the active site of the protein further strengthens our prediction about the function of amad1_06475 as a CSP and thereby acting as a RNA chaperone. The binding was performed by molecular docking tools and was compared with similar binding of 3PF5 (PDB) and 2HAX (PDB), major CSPs of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus caldolyticus, respectively. PMID:25574135

  20. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  1. [The prevalence of virulence-related genes, eaeA, aggR and astA, of localized and aggregative-adherent Escherichia coli (EPEC and EAggEC) in healthy children and age-matched patients with diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Moriya, K; Sumi, N; Nakao, M; Yamazaki, M; Saito, M; Ito, K

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of virulence-related genes of localized- and aggregated-adherent Escherichia coli (EPEC and EAggEC), such as eaeA, aggR and astA was compared between E. coli isolated from 0 to 5 year old children with and without diarrhea in Saga Prefecture. In the case of eaeA, 233 cases in Aichi Prefecture were included. The subjects were 74 diarrheal patients from which no diarrheagenic bacteria were detected besides E. coli. The control subjects were 304 nursery school children without diarrhea, and E. coli was isolated from 278 children in which 105 strains were of 0-serotype. EaeA-positive E. coli was isolated from nine (12.2%) Saga cases, 19 (8.2%) Aichi cases and 6 (5.7%) control subjects; aggR-positive E. coli was isolated from 10 (13.5%) cases and 6 (5.7%) control subjects and astA-positive E. coli from 10 (13.5%) cases and 14 (13.3%) control subjects. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the prevalence of eaeA, aggR and astA between healthy and diarrheal children, even in age-matched and 0-serotypable E. coli limited comparisons. The pathogenicity of EPEC and EAggEC should be investigated, considering other known or unidentified factors. PMID:10741004

  2. Detection of virulence factors of Escherichia coli focused on prevalence of EAST1 toxin in stool of diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets and presence of adhesion involving virulence factors in astA positive strains.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Konstantinova, Lucie; Alexa, Pavel

    2012-01-27

    Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 800 Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea were tested for the presence of enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin EAST1, heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) and shigatoxin (Stx2e) by PCR with the purpose of investigating the present distribution of virulence factors on swine farms in the Czech Republic. The isolates were analyzed for their O-serogroup, fimbrial (K88, K99, 987P, F41, F18) and nonfimbrial adhesins (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence AIDA and porcine attaching and effacing-associated factor PAA). The detection rates of ETEC and STEC isolates were 36.5% and 7.75%, respectively, which implies that ETEC play the major role in E. coli infections in Czech herds. Generally, the most common serotype was O149:K88 which possessed genetic determinants for LT and EAST1. None of the tested E. coli isolates was positive for genes K99, 987P and F41. It was shown that out of 800 E. coli strains isolated from pigs, 277 were EAST1 positive and 74% from the latter were identified as ETEC. Of the fimbrial adhesins, K88 and F18 were commonly detected. Over 80% of K88/EAST1 positive strains possessed the gene for paa. We detected no EAE isolate positive for fimbrial adhesins or PAA and AIDA. The AIDA was more often associated with F18 than with K88. The gene astA was also identified among E. coli isolates of non-diarrheic piglets. We tested rectal swab samples collected from apparently healthy piglets on three farms. On all farms, E. coli astA positive strains (26.66%, 90.00% and 46.66% astA positive animals) were isolated. Our results showed a significantly higher prevalence of astA positive E. coli isolates among apparently healthy piglets in comparison with diarrheic piglets. The question remains as to what is the role of the astA gene in the pathogenesis of porcine colibacillosis and as a virulence factor. PMID:21864997

  3. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  4. Surface grafting of octylamine onto poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) gate insulators for low-voltage DNTT thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yun-Seo; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Ji-Heung; Kim, Yun Ho; Jang, Kwang-Suk

    2016-03-16

    This study investigates a spin-coating method for modifying the surface properties of a poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) gate insulator. The 60 nm-thick PEMA thin film exhibits excellent electrical insulating properties, and its surface properties could be easily modified by surface grafting of octylamine. Due to surface treatment via spin-coating, the surface energy of the PEMA gate insulator decreased, the crystal quality of the organic semiconductor improved, and consequently the performance of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) was enhanced. Our results suggest that the surface treatment of the PEMA gate insulator could be a simple and effective method for enhancing the performance of organic TFTs. PMID:26940136

  5. Optical and Transport Anisotropy in Poly(9,9'-dioctyl-fluorene-alt-bithiophene) Films Prepared by Floating Film Transfer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauendorffer, Arnaud; Nagamatsu, Shuichi; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrated the fabrication of self-aligned poly(9,9'-dioctyl-fluorene-alt-bithiophene) copolymer (F8T2) thin films at ambient temperature with a new solution-process technique named floating film transfer method (FTM). Atomic force microscope topography and polarized absorption spectroscopy showed that the polymer main chains aligned perpendicularly to the film propagation direction during the fabrication process. FTM films presented absorption dichroic ratios slightly below 3. Top-contact/bottom-gate field effect transistors made with FTM films exhibited anisotropic transport properties with a hole mobility along the aligned direction of F8T2 main chains of 2.2×10-3 cm2/(V·s), which was around 2.5 times greater than that along the perpendicular direction. Dichroic and transport anisotropy ratios were further enhanced up to 7-8 by thermal annealing, although the mobility improvement remained limited due to possible trapping effect at domain boundaries.

  6. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol. PMID:26381639

  7. Scaling of thermally activated dissipation in epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. H.

    1999-07-01

    We have measured the resistive transition of an epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> thin film in the case of applied field parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis up to 8 T, respectively. When the peak temperature Tp where dR/dT has a peak is defined as the critical temperature, we find that the dissipative resistivity can be well fitted by thermally activated flux motion below Tp in the presence of a magnetic field. Meanwhile, the field dependence of the peak temperature Tp follows the clean limit Ginzburg-Landau formula. The temperature T and field H dependences of the activation energy U can be described as the formula U = U0(1 - T/Tp)nH-icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>, where n = 1.5 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.57 for H || ab and n = 1.4 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.62 for H || c, showing a 3D behaviour.

  8. Screening the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli activity and detection of the aggA, aafA, and astA genes with novel PCR primers for the Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea cases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Shu-Yu; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2003-07-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) are emerging enteropathogens associated with human diarrhea diseases and food poisoning cases. They show distinctive aggregative pattern of adherence to cultured human epithelial cells. However, EAggEC strains are diverse and not all of them have the aggregative adherence fimbria I (AAF/I), AAF/II and heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) genes. We attempted to determine the incidence of EAggEC in E. coli isolates from diarrhea patients in Taiwan and to characterize these EAggEC strains. We used three activity assays including HeLa cell adhesion, human blood hemagglutination and bacterial clumping tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed from an aggregative adherence pattern associated plasmid (pCVD432) to screen the EAggEC strains in 403 E. coli isolates including 63 laboratory isolates and 340 clinical isolates obtained from diarrheal disease cases. All these 403 E. coli strains were also assayed with novel PCR primers designed from AAF/I (aggA), AAF/II (aafA) and EAST1 (astA) genes. Results showed that except for the three EAggEC reference strains, only three clinical isolates were identified as EAggEC strains. Including the reference strains, all the E. coli strains with EAggEC activity generated positive PCR results to the aggA gene based primers, but not to the aafA and astA gene targeted primers. PMID:12867090

  9. Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, C?t?lina Ani?oara; Chailan, Jean-Franois; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules. PMID:23862416

  10. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Helosa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugo, Ademar B.

    2010-03-01

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H 2 and O 2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion membranes.

  11. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2?-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  12. Nanohybrids from direct chemical self-assembly of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhua; Yi, Chenglin; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Donghua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-12-16

    The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers based on poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) were facilely prepared via the direct chemical self-assembly triggered by the aminolysis of SMA with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and the in situ polycondensation of APTES under refluxing in acetone. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the spherical-like morphology of the nanohybrids. Dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis revealed the structure transition of the nanohybrids in response to pH change. The emulsification study showed that the nanohybrids were effective particulate emulsifiers when homogenized with various oils including toluene, paraffin oil, silicone oil, isooctyl palmitate, dicaprylyl carbonate, and propylheptyl caprylate. The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers exhibited pH-sensitivity, and the diameter of paraffin oil droplets remarkably increased with pH of the nanohybrid aqueous dispersion decrease. Also, the reduced dynamic interfacial tension predicted the thermodynamically unstable state of the emulsions prepared at high pH values. Most interesting, the paraffin oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with a high oil volume fraction of 83.3% were formed when the nanohybrids were heavily flocculated by adding HCl. The HIPEs were pH-responsive and capable of demulsification with the addition of an alkaline solution showing a potential application in the oil industry. PMID:25423487

  13. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2014-04-01

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process.

  14. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  15. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body ( hemochromatosis ) Too much fat in the liver (fatty liver) Lack of blood flow to the liver (liver ... Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  16. Effects of packing structure on the optoelectronic and charge transport properties in poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole).

    PubMed

    Donley, Carrie L; Zaumseil, Jana; Andreasen, Jens W; Nielsen, Martin M; Sirringhaus, Henning; Friend, Richard H; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2005-09-21

    Spin-coated poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) films of different molecular weights (Mn= 9-255 kg/mol), both in the pristine and annealed state, were studied in an effort to elucidate changes in the polymer packing structure and the effects this structure has on the optoelectronic and charge transport properties of these films. A model based on quantum chemical calculations, wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electron mobility measurements was developed to describe the restructuring of the polymer film as a function of polymer chain length and annealing. In pristine high molecular weight films, the polymer chains exhibit a significant torsion angle between the F8 and BT units, and the BT units in neighboring chains are close to one another. Annealing films to sufficiently high transition temperatures allows the polymers to adopt a lower energy configuration in which the BT units in one polymer chain are adjacent to F8 units in a neighboring chain ("alternating structure"), and the torsion angle between F8 and BT units is reduced. This restructuring, dictated by the strong dipole on the BT unit, subsequently affects the efficiencies of interchain electron transfer and exciton migration. Films exhibiting the alternating structure show significantly lower electron mobilities than those of the pristine high molecular weight films, due to a decrease in the efficiency of interchain electron transport in this structure. In addition, interchain exciton migration to low energy weakly emissive states is also reduced for these alternating structure films, as observed in their photoluminescence spectra and efficiencies. PMID:16159283

  17. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4Q22.7 GeV2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore »and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  18. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  19. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. Methods This was a randomized double-blind trial. Subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without mild/moderate asthma sensitized to A alternata and who also had a positive skin prick test to Alt a1 were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 18) or purified natural Alt a1 (n = 22) subcutaneously for 12 months. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and methacholine, exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and serum Alt a1-specific IgG4 antibodies were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Local and systemic adverse events were also registered. Results The mean (95% CI) allergen-specific IgG4 value for the active treatment group increased from 0.07 μg/mL (0.03-0.11) at baseline to 1.21 μg/mL (0.69-1.73, P < 0.001) at 6 months and to 1.62 μg/mL (1.02-2.22, P < 0.001) at 12 months of treatment. In the placebo group, IgG4 value increased nonsignificantly from 0.09 μg/mL (0.06-0.12) at baseline to 0.13 μg/mL (0.07-0.18) at 6 months and to 0.11 μg/mL (0.07-0.15) at 12 months of treatment. Changes in the active treatment group were significantly higher than in the placebo group both at 6 months (P < 0.001) and at 12 months of treatment (P < 0.0001). However, changes in AMP and methacholine responsiveness, ENO and EBC pH levels were not significantly different between treatment groups. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusion Although allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 is well tolerated and induces an allergen-specific IgG4 response, treatment is not associated with changes in AMP or methacholine responsiveness or with significant improvements in markers of inflammation in exhaled air. These findings suggest dissociation between the immunotherapy-induced increase in IgG4 levels and its effect on airway responsiveness and inflammation. PMID:20846390

  20. AzTEC/ASTE Deep and Wide Submillimeter Galaxy Survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field: Identification of VLA, Spitzer and Herschel Counterparts to 1100-?m-Selected Galaxies and Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Caputi, K.; Dunlop, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D.; Iono, D.; Ivison, R.; Kawabe, R.; Motohara, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Ohta, K.; Suzuki, K.; Tamura, Y.; Umehata, H.; Wilson, G.; Yabe, K.; Yun, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present results of our AzTEC/ASTE submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and VLA (21 cm), Spitzer (3.6-8 ?m and 24 ?m) and Herschel (100 and 160 ?m) counterpart identifications for 1100-?m-selected SMGs. We obtained a 1100-?m map of 1200 arcmin2 with the rms noise level of 0.5 mJy (1 ?). Our AzTEC map achieved new detections of 281 sources (S/N ? 3.5 ?). For 221 of 281 AzTEC sources, we searched counterparts in order to obtain multi-wavelength data. Deep Herschel PACS 100-?m and 160-?m images cover the whole of the AzTEC map, and 34 of 221 (= 15 %) and 54 of 221 (= 24 %)AzTEC sources have PACS 100-?m and 160-?m counterparts, respectively. We found VLA radio and/or MIPS 24-?m robust (with a significance of ? 95 %) counterparts to 102 of 221 the AzTEC SMGs. In addition to this, we have developed an improved identification method using IRAC data (3.6-8 ?m) and their colors, in order to cover the AzTEC SMGs located at higher redshift such as z > 3, which is inaccessible with the existing VLA, MIPS and Herschel data alone. With this method, we have achieved another robust detections of 20 IRAC counterparts to AzTEC sources. 131 of 221 AzTEC sources have at least one robust counterparts, and 23 of 221 have more than two robust counterparts. Including tentative identifications (with a significance of ? 90 %), 171 of 221 (= 78 %) 1100-?m-selected SMGs have counterparts. We estimated photometric redshifts of the counterparts using deep near-, and med-infrared and optical data, providing zmedian of 2.2. Among them, we found that there were some 1100-?m sources faint in multi-bands data suggesting the extremely high redshift.

  1. AST/RO 13CO(J = 2-->1) and 12CO(J = 4-->3) Mapping of Southern Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhr, A.; Bourke, T. L.; Lane, A. P.; Myers, P. C.; Parshley, S. C.; Stark, A. A.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2007-08-01

    Forty molecular cloud cores in the southern hemisphere from the initial Spitzer Space Telescope Cores-to-Disks (c2d) Legacy program source list have been surveyed in 13CO(2-->1), 12CO(4-->3), and 12CO(7-->6) with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The cores, 10 of which contain embedded sources, are located mostly in the Vela, Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Musca, and Scorpius complexes. 12CO(7-->6) emission was undetected in all 40 clouds. We present data of 40 sources in 13CO(2-->1) and 12CO(4-->3), significant upper limits of 12CO(7-->6), as well as a statistical analysis of the observed properties of the clouds. We find the typical 13CO(2-->1) line width to be 2.0 km s-1 for cores with embedded stars and 1.8 km s-1 for all others. The typical 12CO(4-->3) line width is 2.6-3.7 km s-1 for cores with known embedded sources, and 1.6-2.3 km s-1 for all others. The average 13CO column density derived from the line intensities was found to be 1.91015 cm-2 for cores with embedded stars and 1.51015 cm-2 for all others. The average kinetic temperature in the molecular cores, determined through a large velocity gradient analysis of a set of nine cores, has an average lower limit of 16 K and an average upper limit of 26 K. The average molecular hydrogen density has an average lower limit of 10 2.9 cm-3 and an average upper limit of 103.3 cm-3 for all cores. For a different subset of nine cores, we have derived masses. They range from 4 to 255 Msolar. Overall, our c2d sample of southern molecular cores has a range of properties (line width, column density, size, mass, embedded stars) similar to those of past studies.

  2. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  3. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  4. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  5. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an

  6. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  7. Investigation of magnetic properties and electronic structure of layered-structure borides AlT2B2 (T=Fe, Mn, Cr) and AlFe2-xMnxB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Ping; Stoian, Sebastian A.; Tan, Xiaoyan; Dube, Paul A.; Shatruk, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The ternary phases AlT2B2 (T=Fe, Mn, Cr) and quaternary phases AlFe2-xMnxB2 have been synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, Mssbauer spectroscopy, and electronic band structure calculations. All the compounds adopt the AlFe2B2-type structure, in which infinite zigzag chains of B atoms are connected by Fe atoms into [Fe2B2] slabs that alternate with layers of Al atoms along the b axis. The magnetic measurements reveal that AlFe2B2 is a ferromagnet with TC=282 K while AlMn2B2 and AlCr2B2 do not show magnetic ordering in the studied temperature range of 1.8-400 K. A systematic investigation of solid solutions AlFe2-xMnxB2 showed a non-linear change in the structural and magnetic behavior. The ferromagnetic ordering temperature is gradually decreased as the Mn content (x) increases. The Mssbauer spectra reveal the presence of non-magnetic (NM) and ferromagnetic (FM) spectral components in all Mn-containing samples, with the amount of NM fraction increasing as the Mn content increases. While for the AlFe2-xMnxB2 samples with x=0.0 and 0.4 the hyperfine splitting of the FM spectral component collapses at temperatures close to the Curie temperatures determined from the magnetic measurements, for the x=1.2 and 1.6 samples the FM fraction exhibits a sizable unquenched hyperfine splitting at room temperature, a finding that is inconsistent with the observed magnetic properties. Along with the increase in the amount of the NM fraction, this observation suggests formation of Fe-rich and Mn-rich regions in the structure of the solid solutions. Quantum-chemical calculations and crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis provide a clear explanation of the distinction in properties for this series of compounds and also reveal the importance of electronic factors in modifying the magnetic properties of these materials.

  8. Increased liver markers are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Han, Kyung-Do; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between liver markers and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: A total of 8863 participants (3408 men and 5455 women) over 30 years of age were analyzed from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). The associations of serum liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), AST/ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with T2DM and IFG were analyzed using logistic regression models. Participants were divided into sex-specific quartiles on the basis of liver markers. RESULTS: The prevalence of T2DM and IFG were 11.3% and 18.3%. Increasing quartiles of ALT and GGT were positively and AST/ALT were negatively correlated with T2DM and IFG. Analysis of the liver marker combinations showed that if any two or more markers were in the highest risk quartile, the risks of both T2DM and IFG increased significantly. The risk was greatest when the highest ALT and GGT and lowest AST/ALT quartile were combined, with the risk of T2DM at 3.21 (95%CI: 1.829-5.622, P < 0.001) in men and 4.60 (95%CI: 3.217-6.582, P < 0.001) in women. Men and women with the highest AST and ALT and lowest AST/ALT quartile had a 1.99 and 2.40 times increased risk of IFG. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of GGT and ALT and lower AST/ALT within the physiological range are independent, additive risk factors of T2DM and IFG. PMID:26139993

  9. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver Panel , ALT , AST , ALP , Glucose Tests , Electrolytes , Renal Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ... is associated with an inherited urea cycle enzyme deficiency or defect but may also be seen with ...

  10. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  11. The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Mona; Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    De Ritis described the ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) almost 50 years ago. While initially described as a characteristic of acute viral hepatitis where ALT was usually higher than AST, other authors have subsequently found it useful in alcoholic hepatitis, where AST is usually higher than ALT. These interpretations are far too simplistic however as acute viral hepatitis can have AST greater than ALT, and this can be a sign of fulminant disease, while alcoholic hepatitis can have ALT greater than AST when several days have elapsed since alcohol exposure. The ratio therefore represents the time course and aggressiveness of disease that would be predicted from the relatively short half-life of AST (18 h) compared to ALT (36 h). In chronic viral illnesses such as chronic viral hepatitis and chronic alcoholism as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, an elevated AST/ALT ratio is predictive of long terms complications including fibrosis and cirrhosis. There are methodological issues, particularly whether or not pyridoxal phosphate is used in the transaminase assays, and although this can have specific effects when patient samples are deficient in this vitamin, these method differences generally have mild effects on the usefulness of the assays or the ratio. Ideally laboratories should be using pyridoxal phosphate supplemented assays in alcoholic, elderly and cancer patients who may be pyridoxine deplete. Ideally all laboratories reporting abnormal ALT should also report AST and calculate the De Ritis ratio because it provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:24353357

  12. Observational constraint on Pluto's atmospheric CO with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takahiro; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Hidemori, Takehiro; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Nakajima, Taku; Nakamoto, Satoru; Kato, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    To confirm the previous observational results of Pluto's atmospheric CO in the J = 2-1 rotational transition, we conducted a new observation of CO (J = 3-2) in Pluto's atmosphere in 2014 August with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m single-dish telescope. In contrast to the previous observational result obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2009 and 2010 by using the J = 2-1 transition, no emission structure was observed near the rest frequency in our attempt. Possible explanations for the nondetection result of the J = 3-2 transition are discussed.

  13. The Student Teacher and Human Relations. AST Bulletin Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Irvin L.

    The student teacher must develop and incorporate into his behavior human relations skills to enable him to relate effectively to members of his classroom and of the school community. Serving as a basis for evaluation, a method of gaining the fullest satisfaction from teaching, and a prerequisite to more effective teaching, these skills are

  14. The Student Teacher and Human Relations. AST Bulletin Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Irvin L.

    The student teacher must develop and incorporate into his behavior human relations skills to enable him to relate effectively to members of his classroom and of the school community. Serving as a basis for evaluation, a method of gaining the fullest satisfaction from teaching, and a prerequisite to more effective teaching, these skills are…

  15. Observational constraint on Pluto's atmospheric CO with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takahiro; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Hidemori, Takehiro; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Nakajima, Taku; Nakamoto, Satoru; Kato, Chihaya

    2016-02-01

    To confirm the previous observational results of Pluto's atmospheric CO in the J = 2-1 rotational transition, we conducted a new observation of CO (J = 3-2) in Pluto's atmosphere in 2014 August with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m single-dish telescope. In contrast to the previous observational result obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2009 and 2010 by using the J = 2-1 transition, no emission structure was observed near the rest frequency in our attempt. Possible explanations for the nondetection result of the J = 3-2 transition are discussed.

  16. The Attitude Scale towards Distance Nursing Education (AstDNE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgian; Unsal Barlas, Gul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a measurement is seen as an instrument to measure the attitudes of the nurses towards the distance nursing education was developed. The study population consist of nurses who working in two hospitals of the ministry of health and two special hospitals in Istanbul. The sample of the study consisted of 194 nurses who agreed to…

  17. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4?-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  18. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  19. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices. PMID:26754052

  20. Lack of Correlation Between Liver Tests Abnormalities and Trabectedin Efficacy in the Treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Stumbo, Luciano; Maltese, Giuseppina; Cerbone, Linda; Spalato Ceruso, Mariella; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Frezza, Anna Maria; De Lisi, Delia; Silletta, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Elevation in liver transaminases is common in patients treated with the marine antitumor agent trabectedin. However, the impact of trabectedin-related transaminase elevations on treatment outcomes is unclear. This retrospective study investigated the correlation between liver tests abnormalities and treatment outcomes in patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS) treated with trabectedin 1.5?mg/m2 once every 3 weeks at three reference centers in Italy. The effect of grade 3/4 elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during the first two cycles and at any time during trabectedin treatment on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Liver tests abnormalities during the first two cycles of chemotherapy or at any time during trabectedin treatment did not significantly affect PFS or OS. Nor were survival outcomes significantly different in the subgroups of patients with or without ALT/AST increases or with ALT/AST elevations ?15??the upper limit of normal (ULN) versus those with ALT/AST elevation <15??ULN. Although liver tests abnormalities are common in patients treated with trabectedin, elevations in ALT and AST are usually transient, occur during the first two cycles of treatment, and do not appear to affect survival. PMID:26235506

  1. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise 747 SCA takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video begins with early morning shots of the Space Shuttle and the SCA being moved out of the shuttle mate-demate device, and follows the two vehicles as they taxi and take off from Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California.

  2. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

  3. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  4. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a

  5. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes in the General Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Chinese population. Methods: This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study which was conducted in rural areas of China from the 2012 to 2013 Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study (NCRCHS), and 11,573 adults with complete data were included in our final analysis. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Serum ALT and AST levels within the reference range were divided into quartiles, and their associations with MetS were evaluated by logistic regressions. Results: A total of 7.4% and 3.5% participants had elevated serum ALT and AST levels, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 37.3% in males and 45.8% in females. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found ALT level elevation, even within the reference range, was independently associated with MetS. The odds ratio (OR) values of MetS in the ALT quartiles 2–4 groups within the reference range were 1.113 (95% CI: 1.019–1.280), 1.375 (95% CI: 1.212–1.560), 1.878 (95% CI: 1.650–2.138) compared with the ALT quartile 1 group, and OR in the elevated ALT group was 3.020 (95% CI: 2.496–3.653). Positive relationship for MetS was also observed in elevated AST group (OR: 1.689, 95% CI: 1.314–2.171), but within the reference range, the AST level was not associated with MetS. Conclusions: Serum ALT level, even within the reference range, was significantly associated with MetS. However, only elevated AST levels above 40 U/L was positively associated with MetS. Within the reference range, we did not find a relationship between AST levels and MetS. PMID:26901209

  7. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  8. Serum Fetuin-A Associated With Fatty Liver Index, Early Indicator of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Strobe-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Huang, Xiaolin; Ding, Lin; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Chen, Ying; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Di; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing

    2015-09-01

    Increased fetuin-A has been reported in association with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, the large population data concerning fetuin-A and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum fetuin-A with fatty liver index (FLI), the indicator of NAFLD. A population-based cross-sectional analysis was performed in 5219 middle-aged and elderly participants who were recruited from 2 nearby urban communities in Shanghai, China. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fourth quartiles of FLI, alanine aminotransferance (ALT), aspartate aminotransferance (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT) were defined as elevated FLI, ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. Fetuin-A was positively associated with log-transformed-FLI, -ALT, -AST, and -GGT after adjustment for the confounding factors (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that each one-standard deviation increase in serum fetuin-A (120.1 mg/L) was associated with 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.25, P = 0.04), 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.21, P < 0.001), and 10% (95% CI 1.03-1.17, P = 0.005) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. Categorical analysis showed that as compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of serum fetuin-A associated with a 35% (95% CI 0.98-1.86), 50% (95% CI 1.24-1.83), and 33% (95% CI 1.10-1.60) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. No significant association was found with GGT. In Chinese adults, serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly associated with elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, the early indicators of NAFLD. PMID:26426614

  9. Serum Fetuin-A Associated With Fatty Liver Index, Early Indicator of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya; Huang, Xiaolin; Ding, Lin; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Chen, Ying; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Di; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased fetuin-A has been reported in association with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, the large population data concerning fetuin-A and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum fetuin-A with fatty liver index (FLI), the indicator of NAFLD. A population-based cross-sectional analysis was performed in 5219 middle-aged and elderly participants who were recruited from 2 nearby urban communities in Shanghai, China. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fourth quartiles of FLI, alanine aminotransferance (ALT), aspartate aminotransferance (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT) were defined as elevated FLI, ALT, AST, and GGT, respectively. Fetuin-A was positively associated with log-transformed-FLI, -ALT, -AST, and -GGT after adjustment for the confounding factors (all P?ALT, and AST, respectively. Categorical analysis showed that as compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of serum fetuin-A associated with a 35% (95% CI 0.981.86), 50% (95% CI 1.241.83), and 33% (95% CI 1.101.60) increased risk of elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, respectively. No significant association was found with GGT. In Chinese adults, serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly associated with elevated FLI, ALT, and AST, the early indicators of NAFLD. PMID:26426614

  10. Ethnicity, alcohol drinking and changes in transaminase activity among heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Connors, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality differs by ethnicity in the United States. Some studies suggest alcohol sensitivity may contribute to this finding. This analysis evaluated if alcohol-associated changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) differed by ethnicity among heavy drinkers. METHODS: Subjects included 1691 subjects from Project MATCH, a multicenter alcohol use disorders treatment trial. Changes in AST and ALT over 15 months were modeled as functions of ethnicity, age, gender, time, study site and alcohol use. The main focus was on ethnic differences in changes in transaminase activity occurring with changes in alcohol use. RESULTS: At all levels of alcohol consumption AST was lower in non-Hispanic whites relative to African Americans and Mexican Americans. Changes in AST associated with changes in alcohol use did not vary by ethnicity. ALT significantly differed only between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Similar to AST, alcohol-associated ALT change did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with alcohol use disorders participating in a treatment trial, the effect of alcohol drinking on transaminase activity did not vary by ethnicity. However, in the general population, alcohol may still interact with other factors in mediating ethnic differences in cirrhosis mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17534015

  11. Age-related increase in alanine aminotransferase correlates with elevated levels of plasma amino acids, decanoylcarnitine, Lp-PLA2 Activity, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Jung, Saem; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kim, Minjoo; Song, Juheui; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-07-01

    We investigated plasma metabolite profiles that correlated with age-related serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The study included 602 healthy, nondiabetic subjects (aged 30-65 years); 393 individuals had normal ALT levels at baseline. Fifty-three (13.5%) individuals developed elevated ALT levels after 3 years. The remaining 340 subjects with normal ALT were matched to the elevated-ALT group (n = 53) for age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, and ALT to form the control group (n = 53). At the 3-year follow-up, the elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in waist circumference, serum free fatty acid, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), bilirubin, plasma oxidized LDL, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? (8-epi-PGF2?), and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (ba-PWV) compared to the control group after baseline adjustment. The elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in plasma l-valine (q = 0.036), l-leucine (q = 0.012), l-phenylalanine (q = 0.012), and decanoylcarnitine (q = 0.002). Mean ALT levels positively correlated with changes in these four metabolites, which correlated with changes in AST, GGT, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-PGF2?, and ba-PWV. Mean ALT changes did not significantly correlate with HOMA-insulin resistance. These results suggest that increased plasma levels of l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, and decanoylcarnitine precede insulin resistance during periods of elevated ALT. This metabolic disturbance coincides with enhanced risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24874467

  12. Prediction of the structure and function of AstA and AstB, the first two enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway of arginine catabolism.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2003-12-18

    Arginine succinyltransferase and succinylarginine dihydrolase catalyze the first two steps of arginine catabolism by the arginine succinyltransferase pathway. This route is the only major arginine catabolic pathway in Escherichia coli including its pathogenic strains O157 and CFT073. We have used fold recognition tools and identified novel homologies between each of these two enzymes and proteins of known three-dimensional structure: arginine succinyltransferase belongs to the acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase superfamily and succinylarginine dihydrolase belongs to the amidinotransferase superfamily. These findings shed light on the structures, catalytic mechanisms and evolution of diverse enzymes involved in arginine catabolism. PMID:14675764

  13. Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

  14. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  15. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed. PMID:21056949

  16. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  17. Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-? than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer. PMID:21473769

  18. Serum aminotransferase ratio is independently correlated with hepatosteatosis in patients with HCV: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Huang-Shen; Chung, Chang-Ming; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Po-Han; Hu, Jing-Hong; Chou, Wen-Nan; Huang, Jui-Chu; Huang, Tung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant in hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers due to multiple mechanisms, and this worsens the progression of chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio correlates with the status of hepatosteatosis. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting Community-based annual examination in northern Taiwan. Participants A total of 1354 participants (age 20 years or over) were enrolled after excluding participants with HCV seronegative, laboratory or questionnaires loss, moderate alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis, tumours and postlobectomy. Outcome measures Fatty liver was diagnosed according to echogenic findings. NAFLD included grades 1–3 fatty liver and high-degree NAFLD defined grades 2–3 fatty liver. Results 580 males and 774 females with a mean age of 47.2 (SD=16.1) years were cross-sectionally studied. The participants with NAFLD have significantly higher levels of ALT/AST ratio, fasting glucose, triglyceride and systolic/diastolic blood pressure than non-NAFLD participants. The association between NAFLD and ALT/AST was significant even when adjusting for the metabolic syndrome (aOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.65; p<0.001). In patients with a high degree of NAFLD, the ALT/AST ratio was still a significant predictor for hepatosteatosis (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.58 to 3.77; p<0.001). Conclusions The ALT/AST ratio could be a strong risk of hepatosteatosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:26369802

  19. Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

  20. Serum Aminotransferases in Thai Children With Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prommalikit, Olarn; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatic manifestations are one of the unusual manifestations of dengue infection. Objectives: We conducted this study in order to study the pattern of serum aminotransferases and sequential changes before and after shock in Thai children with dengue infection. Patients and Methods: Children who were clinically and serologically diagnosed as dengue infection and were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during a peroid of one year were enrolled. They were clinically classified into a non-shock group and a shock group. The majority of serum aminotransferases including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were obtained within a week after the onset of fever and until 3 days after shock in the shock group. Student t-test and median in boxplot form were used for statistical analysis. Results: We enrolled 127 children with a mean age of 7.6 ± 3.6 years. The incidence of abnormal AST and ALT levels was 97.4% and 50.0% in the shock group, and 91.8% and 44.9% in the non-shock group respectively. 29% and 15.4% of the patients in shock group and only 10.2% and 4.1% in non-shock group had the respective AST and ALT levels > 200 U/L. Serum aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the shock group when compared to the non-shock group. AST tended to increase starting from one day before shock and continued to increase within a few days whereas ALT was less likely to be affected. Conclusions: Elevated serum aminotransferases are a common finding in children with dengue infection and the levels of AST are higher than those of ALT. Patients with shock have significantly higher aminotransferase levels that increase up to 3 days after shock. PMID:26635947

  1. [The activity of transaminases in the tissues of the Black-Sea mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, A D; Soldatov, A A; Andreenko, T I

    2015-01-01

    The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, E. C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, E. C. 2.6.1.2) were studied in the tissues of the bivalve mollusks differing in shell color. Shell color patterns were assessed by photographing and computer processing in Adobe Photoshop CS-3. The activity of transaminases was determined by the Reitman-Frankel procedure. Four color groups of mollusks were singled out: black, intermediate, dark- and light brown. The AST and ALT activities were found to increase as shells lose color probably reflecting different tolerance of mollusks to habitats with different concentration of oxygen. The ALT distribution pattern differs appreciably in the foot of M. galloprovincialis where the highest values were found in the black-colored mussels, evidently due to the change of the predominant enzyme function. In this tissue, the reaction of transamination replenishes the pool of free amino acids required for the synthesis of byssus threads. PMID:25859602

  2. A Search for the δ^- Wave-Function Component in Light Nuclei,^AST.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Matthews, J. L.; Zelevinsky, V. V.; Morris, C. L.; Zumbro, J. D.; Boudrie, R. L.; Glass, G.; Gram, P. A. M.; Pasyuk, E. A.; Kriss, B. J.

    1996-10-01

    The (π^+,π^± p) reactions in ^3H, ^4He, ^6Li, ^7Li, and ^10B have been studied in quasi-free kinematics. The experiment was performed at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility using two magnetic spectrometers and an incident pion beam energy of 500 MeV. This energy, well above the Δ resonance, and the final-state kinematics were chosen so that the momentum transfer exceeds the calculated^1 Fermi momentum of a Δ component in the nuclear ground state wave function. As in previous measurements,^2 an enhancement was observed in the (π^+, π^-p) cross section which can be attributed to pion double charge exchange occurring in a single step on a pre-existing Δ^- in the nucleus. Probabilities of Δ components have been extracted from the data and are found to be consistent with theoretical expectations.^3 ^*Work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy. skip=-05pt B. L. Friman, V. R. Pandharipande, and R. B. Wiringa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 763 (1983). C. L. Morris, J. M. O'Donnell, and J. D. Zumbro, Acta Phys. Pol. B 24, 1659 (1993). W. Strueve et al., Nucl. Phys. A 465, 651 (1987).

  3. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  4. ASTE Submillimeter Observations of a Young Stellar Object Condensation in Cederblad 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Onishi, Toshikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    2007-08-01

    We present results of submillimeter observations of a low-mass young stellar object (YSO) condensation in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. Our HCO+(J=4-3) map reveals a dense molecular gas with an extent of ~0.1 pc, which is a complex of two envelopes associated with class I sources Ced 110 IRS 4 and IRS 11 and a very young object Cha-MMS 1. The other two class I sources in this region, IRS 6 and NIR 89, are located outside the clump and have no extended HCO+ emission. HCO+ abundance is calculated to be 2.610-10 for MMS 1 and 3.410-9 for IRS 4, which are comparable to the reported value for other young sources. Bipolar outflows from IRS 4 and IRS 6 are detected in our 12CO(J=3-2) map. The outflow from IRS 4 seems to collide with Cha-MMS 1. The outflow has enough momentum to affect gas motion in MMS 1, although no sign has been detected to indicate that a triggered star formation has occurred.

  5. On-The-Fly Observing System of the Nobeyama 45-m and ASTE 10-m Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Ikeda, Norio; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Kuno, Nario; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kurono, Yasutaka; Koura, Norikazu; Abe, Katsumi; Kawase, Sachiko; Maekawa, Jun; Horigome, Osamu; Yanagisawa, Kiyohiko

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a spectral line On-The-Fly (OTF) observing mode for the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10-m telescopes. Sets of digital autocorrelation spectrometers are available for OTF with heterodyne receivers mounted on the telescopes, including the focal-plane 55 array receiver, BEARS, on the 45-m. During OTF observations, the antenna is continuously driven to cover the mapped region rapidly, resulting in a high observing efficiency and accuracy. Pointing of the antenna and readouts from the spectrometer are recorded as fast as 0.1s. In this paper we report on improvements made to the software and instruments, requirements and optimization of observing parameters, the data-reduction process, and verification of the system. It is confirmed that, using optimal parameters, the OTF is about twice as efficient as the conventional position-switch observing method.

  6. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY... at the Mojave Air and Space Port. The Final EA was prepared to analyze the potential environmental... rockets and WhiteKnightTwo carrier aircraft at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California....

  7. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... launch from the California Spaceport is the Athena III, consisting of a two-stage Castor 120 solid... analysis considered operation of variety of vertical launch vehicles, including the Athena III....

  8. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...) Model AH-1G, AH-1S, HH- 1K, TH-1F, TH-1L, UH-1A, UH-1B, UH-1E, UH-1F, UH-1H, UH-1L, and...

  9. The value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cardiovascular disease risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephen F; Kai, Joe; Guha, Indra Neil; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, reflecting liver disease severity, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the AST/ALT ratio improves established risk prediction tools in a primary care population. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cohort of 29?316 UK primary care patients, aged 2584?years with no history of CVD at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to derive 10-year multivariate risk models for the first occurrence of CVD based on two established risk prediction tools (Framingham and QRISK2), with and without including the AST/ALT ratio. Overall, model performance was assessed by discriminatory accuracy (AUC c-statistic). Results During a total follow-up of 120?462 person-years, 782 patients (59% men) experienced their first CVD event. Multivariate models showed that elevated AST/ALT ratios were significantly associated with CVD in men (Framingham: HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.79; QRISK2: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.89) but not in women (Framingham: HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.43; QRISK2: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.35). Including the AST/ALT ratio with all Framingham risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) or QRISK2 risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.73, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) resulted in no change in discrimination from the established risk prediction tools. Limiting analysis to those individuals with raised ALT showed that discrimination could improve by 5% and 4% with Framingham and QRISK2 risk factors, respectively. Conclusions Elevated AST/ALT ratio is significantly associated with increased risk of developing CVD in men but not women. However, the ratio does not confer any additional benefits over established CVD risk prediction tools in the general population, but may have clinical utility in certain subgroups. PMID:26322236

  10. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

  11. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  12. Effects of buprenorphine on balance of oxidant/antioxidant system in the different ages of male rat liver.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Afshari, Reza; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Karimnezhad, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Our knowledge about a link between buprenorphine and hepatotoxicity is controversial. This study evaluated the effects of buprenorphine on the liver of young, adult, and aged rats. For this reason, young, adult, and aged rats received intraperitoneally 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg buprenorphine for 30 days. The present results revealed that the normal aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in the liver lipid peroxidation, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the aged rats. This study also demonstrated that buprenorphine led to a significant increase in the serum activities of ALT, AST, and LDH as well as liver lipid peroxidation content with a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of buprenorphine-treated aged rat versus the aged matched control animals. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that buprenorphine deteriorated oxidative damage in the aged livers. PMID:25683329

  13. Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation. PMID:22736883

  14. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2015-08-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  15. TISSUE ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN KEMP'S RIDLEY TURTLES (LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII).

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Keiko Y; Knoll, Joyce S; Innis, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the tissue distribution and activities of eight enzymes in 13 juvenile Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died after stranding. Samples from the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, pancreas, lung, small intestine, and spleen were evaluated for activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipase. AST, CK, and LDH activities were highest in cardiac and skeletal muscle but were also found in all other tissues. Amylase and lipase activities were highest in the pancreas and low in all other tissues. ALP activity was highest in the lung. ALT activity was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle, and GGT activity was highest in the kidney, but activities of these enzymes were low in all tissues. These data may assist clinicians in interpretation of plasma enzyme activities of Kemp's ridley turtles. PMID:26352978

  16. Clinical Features of Drug-induced Liver Injury According to Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Moo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Ahn, Pyoung; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Jeong, Soung Won; Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an increasingly common cause of acute hepatitis. We examined clinical features and types of liver injury of 65 affected patients who underwent liver biopsy according DILI etiology. The major causes of DILI were the use of herbal medications (43.2%), prescribed medications (21.6%), and traditional therapeutic preparations and dietary supplements (35%). DILI from herbal medications, traditional therapeutic preparations, and dietary supplements was associated with higher elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels than was DILI from prescription medications. The types of liver injury based on the R ratio were hepatocellular (67.7%), mixed (10.8%), and cholestatic (21.5%). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations were more commonly associated with hepatocellular liver injury than were prescription medications (P = 0.002). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations induce more hepatocellular DILI and increased elevations in AST and ALT than prescribed medications. PMID:26713057

  17. Effects of repeated growth-promoting doses of clenbuterol on the hepatic function of female pigs.

    PubMed

    Gojmerac, Tihomira; Pleadin, Jelka; Zuric, Marijan; Mirko, Lojkic; Stipica, Curic

    2002-10-01

    The effect of repeated administration of clenbuterol in a growth-promoting dose on hepatocellular integrity of female pigs was assessed by correlating histopathologic lesions in the livers of dosed pigs with changes in serum ALT, AST, GGT and AP activities. The experiments were carried out in 12 (6 control and 6 treated) female pigs (Fl generation Swedish Landrace and Large Yorkshire) 6-7 mo and 80-100 kg bw. Experimental animals were treated with 10 microg clenbuterol/kg bw iv twice daily for 25 d prior to being sacrificed. Blood and liver samples were collected. Treated animals had increased serum AP and ALT activities (p< 0.02), whereas serum AST and GGT activities did not significantly change. Mild hyperplasia of biliary ducts, interstitial liver inflammation and hydropic and vacuolar hepatocyte degeneration were observed. These findings indicate that repeated administration of growth-promoting doses of clenbuterol to female pigs adversely affect liver function. PMID:12361107

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2009-08-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

  19. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  20. Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30?d (Diab?+?Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property. PMID:23862759

  1. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  2. Helium exhaust and transport studies with the ALT-II pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillis, D. L.; Finken, K. H.; Hogan, J. T.; Dippel, K. H.; Moyer, R. A.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Rusbldt, D.; Akaishi, K.; Conn, R. W.; Euringer, H.; Gray, D. S.; Horton, L. D.; Hulse, R. A.; Isler, R. C.; Klepper, C. C.; Mioduszewski, P. K.; Miyahara, A.; Wolf, G. H.

    1990-11-01

    The first encouraging experiments demonstrating direct, explicit control of the He2+ density in a tokamak plasma have been performed in the TEXTOR tokamak with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. Helium is injected in a short gas puff from the outside of the plasma, is observed to reach the plasma core, and then is readily removed from the plasma. An exhaust efficiency of ~8% is obtained. Active charge-exchange spectroscopy is used to study the exhaust and transport of He2+ within the plasma, and the density evolution is modeled with a diffusive-convective transport code.

  3. Ocean bottom friction study from numerical modelling of sea surface height and SEASAT-ALT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Wooil; Tang, Roger

    1984-03-01

    Tidal dissipation at the ocean floor has long been regarded as an adquated explanation to the behaviour of lunar orbit and Earth's rotation, although the actual mechanism involved is yet a fascinating research subject to date. The most common way to evaluate the dissipation is to find the rate of work done per unit surface by the current on the sea floor (Munk and Mac Donald 1960, Lambeck 1975). The success of this approach rely on the knowledge of the frictional coefficient which links the frictional force at the ocean floor, either quadratically or linearly, with the current velocity. Not only is the frictional coefficient important in this context, a variety of storm surge and tidal modelling problems also require a similar dissipation meachanism (Heaps 1969, Grace 1930, Stock 1976 etc.).

  4. Audit on the appropriateness of integrated COPD management: the “ALT-BPCO” project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non communicable chronic diseases (including respiratory ones) are the leading cause of death and disability. To cope with them we need to redesign the health system, improving primary prevention, screening, and outpatient services, while fully integrating different branches of the health service. The Italian Ministry of Health published extended guidelines on integrated COPD management (COPD-GL) in 2010. In2011 a condensed version was produced. These documents define appropriateness of management regarding both the specialist and the health service. Methods An internal audit on how clinical practice conforms to COPD-GL standards was implemented in one Italian region involving 29 respiratory units (RU) (65.8% of the total regional RU): data were collected from the clinical database at time zero and after 6 months. In the meantime, specialists of RU underwent education on COPD-GL. Results At time zero, significant gaps between current practice and recommendations emerged both in medical practice (mean agreement 25%) and in the health organization (48%). At month 6 the gaps were reduced more in clinical practice (60.7%) than in organization (54.7%). Conclusions It is easier to resolve the gaps in specialist clinical practice than the organizational gaps, changing which is the politicians’ task. Correcting specialists’ inappropriateness may be worthless if this is not accompanied by improvement of the organizational obstacles. The search for appropriateness should not be limited only to specialists or to a strict control of drug prescription but should include all the organizational aspects. Implementation of COPD-GL calls for actions on the part of both specialists and the health system. PMID:25097757

  5. Analysis of the double-spin asymmetry ALT in inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.; Schfer, A.; Zhou, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the collinear twist-3 framework, we analyze the double-spin asymmetry in collisions between longitudinally polarized nucleons and transversely polarized nucleons with focus on hadron and jet production. As was the case in direct photon production, the double-spin dependent cross section for hadron and jet production has the advantage of involving a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions for a transversely polarized nucleon. In addition, we outline further benefits of this observable for a potential future measurement at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which includes insight on the gluon helicity distribution as well as information on the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function TF(x,x) that plays a crucial role in single-spin asymmetries.

  6. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  7. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  8. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Wei, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativittstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangslufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen mglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darber sehr viele Verffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit berlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lsungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmglich machen.

  9. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  10. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top␣performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, A Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils represents a major constraint for crop production as ~ 50% of the potentially arable soils worldwide are acidic. Therefore, understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying plant Al tolerance has been a major focus for a number of laboratories aroun...

  12. Aerobic Conditioning Might Protect Against Liver and Muscle Injury Caused by Short-Term Military Training.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Daleprane, Julio B; Pitaluga-Filho, Mario V; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Gonalves, Mariana C; Passos, Magna C F

    2016-02-01

    Koury, JC, Daleprane, JB, Pitaluga-Filho, MV, de Oliveira, CF, Gonalves, MC, and Passos, MCF. Aerobic conditioning might protect against liver and muscle injury caused by short-term military training. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 454-460, 2016-This study aimed to compare the biochemical markers of muscle and liver injury and total antioxidant capacity in army cadets after a traditional army physical training program and to correlate these effects with aerobic conditioning. Male army cadets (n = 87; age, 20 2 years) were evaluated 12 hours before the start of training (T0), 12 hours after a 30-km march (T1), and 48 hours after military training (T2). Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were measured using an autoanalyzer. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Sc%). Seventy-four percent of army cadets were classified as having excellent aerobic conditioning (53.9 3.0 mlkgmin predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from the Cooper test). The median serum concentration of all enzymes increased 12 hours after marching (T1: CK 675%; ALT 59%; AST 336%; AST/ALT ratio 85%; p = 0.001) and 48 hours after the end of training (T2: CK 878%; ALT 256%; AST 418%; AST/ALT ratio 180%; p = 0.001). Sc% was higher in T2 (31.1 9.8%; p = 0.01) than in T0 (3.4% change). Maximal oxygen consumption (mlkgmin) correlated negatively with CK (r = -0.25; p = 0.009) and ALT (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) serum levels, and positively with the change in Sc% (r = 0.22; p = 0.04) at T2. The results indicate that intense military training can cause liver and muscle injury and that aerobic conditioning can be considered as a protective factor for these injuries. PMID:26813633

  13. Endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner rapidly improves plasma parameters of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Charlotte; Rensen, Sander S; Koek, Ger H; Joosten, Mandy F; Buurman, Wim A; Bouvy, Nicole D; Greve, Jan Willem M

    2013-11-01

    Bariatric surgery reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), nonsurgical bariatric device, on plasma parameters of NAFLD. Seventeen obese subjects with type 2 diabetes received the DJBL for 24 weeks. Before, during, and after DJBL implantation, we determined plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), albumin, caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). At baseline, subjects had increased levels of AST (35 ± 4 IU/L), ALT (54 ± 5 IU/L), and γ-GT (66 ± 14 IU/L), compared with healthy individuals; subjects' mean concentrations of caspase-cleaved CK-18 and L-FABP were 214.4 ± 35.6 U/L and 29.3 ± 2.6 ng/mL, respectively. Three months after implantation of DJBL, all NAFLD-related parameters had decreased from baseline (AST, 28 ± 3 IU/L; ALT, 32 ± 2 IU/L; γ-GT, 44 ±7 IU/L; caspase-cleaved CK-18, 140.6 ± 16.3U/L; and L-FABP, 18.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL; all P < .05). After 6 months, levels of ALT and γ-GT had further decreased (ALT, 28 ± 2 IU/L and γ-GT, 35 ± 5 IU/L), whereas levels of AST, caspase-cleaved CK-18, and L-FABP had stabilized (P = not significant). Six months after DJBLs were removed, levels of ALT (37 ± 3 IU/L), γ-GT (42 ± 5 IU/L), and caspase-cleaved CK-18 (124.5 ± 12.5U/L) were still reduced (P < .05), whereas AST and L-FABP had returned to near baseline levels (P = not significant). Therefore, in obese subjects, DJBL reduces plasma parameters of NAFLD. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00985114. PMID:23920034

  14. Doxorubicine-congestive heart failure-increased big endothelin-1 plasma concentration: reversal by amlodipine, losartan, and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 in rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Lovric-Bencic, Martina; Sikiric, Predrag; Hanzevacki, Jadranka S; Seiwerth, Sven; Rogic, Dunja; Kusec, Vesna; Aralica, Gorana; Konjevoda, Pasko; Batelja, Lovorka; Blagaic, Alenka B

    2004-05-01

    Overall, doxorubicine-congestive heart failure (CHF) (male Wistar rats and NMRI mice; 6 challenges with doxorubicine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout 15 days and then a 4-week-rest period) is consistently deteriorating throughout next 14 days, if not reversed or ameliorated by therapy (/kg per day): a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, promisingly studied for inflammatory bowel disease (Pliva; PL 10, PLD-116, PL 14736)) (10 microg, 10 ng), losartan (0.7 mg), amlodipine (0.07 mg), given intragastrically (i.g.) (once daily, rats) or in drinking water (mice). Assessed were big endothelin-1 (BET-1) and plasma enzyme levels (CK, MBCK, LDH, AST, ALT) before and after 14 days of therapy and clinical status (hypotension, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, and ascites) every 2 days. Controls (distilled water (5 ml/kg, i.g., once daily) or drinking water (2 ml/mouse per day) given throughout 14 days) exhibited additionally increased BET-1 and aggravated clinical status, while enzyme values maintained their initial increase. BPC157 (10 microg/kg) and amlodipine treatment reversed the increased BET-1 (rats, mice), AST, ALT, CK (rats, mice), and LDH (mice) values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) and losartan opposed further increase of BET-1 (rats, mice). Losartan reduces AST, ALT, CK, and LDH serum values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) reduces AST and ALT serum values. Clinical status of CHF-rats and -mice is accordingly improved by the BPC157 regimens and amlodipine. PMID:15153646

  15. Could biochemical liver profile help to assess metabolic response to aerobic effort in athletes?

    PubMed

    Chamera, Tomasz; Spieszny, Micha?; Klocek, Tomasz; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Lachowicz, Milena; Buryta, Rafa?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring and optimizing the effectiveness of training course require wide analyses of athletes' blood parameter changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of biochemical liver profile to assess the metabolic response to semi-long-distance outdoor run in football players. Sixteen football players run outdoor for 60 minutes to achieve aerobic metabolism. Plasma activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and plasma levels of total and direct bilirubin were determined in samples obtained before exercise test (pre-exercise) and immediately after the run (post-exercise). Mean AST plasma activity (UL-1) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 78.3/228.3 in women and 76.5/56.2 in men. Mean ALT plasma activity (UL-1) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 27.5/59.1 in women and 36.2/35.3 in men. Mean GGT plasma activity (UL-1) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 39.3/76.6 in women and 44.7/71.2 in men. Plasma levels of total and direct bilirubin were similar before and after the run regardless of the gender. Statistical significance of the differences between results obtained pre- and post-exercise occurred in women (p = 0.0212 for AST; p = 0.0320 for ALT; p = 0.0067 for GGT, respectively). The training monitoring in athletes should be performed using measurements of performance and biological or physiological parameters. It was found that AST, ALT, and GGT activities could be a valuable tool to assess the metabolic response in high-level fitness female athletes. Therefore, monitoring of those well-known diagnostic markers could prevent the trainee from harmful overtraining. PMID:25057846

  16. Effects of cumin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: A double blind, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Torki, Masoumeh; Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Shavakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cumin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in compare to placebo. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with histopathological diagnosis NASH in two groups of case and control received oral cumin capsule or placebo thrice daily for 6 months. Clinical and laboratory data were body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS), steatosis grade, and side-effects and were measured at baseline and after treatment period using standard clinical chemistry techniques. The grade of steatosis was assessed by liver sonography in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe). Results: Of 100 eligible patients during follow-up 10/50 cases and 9/50 controls were excluded. At baseline and after treatment BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST, HDL, LDL, and FBS were not statistically significant between groups (P ? 0.5). BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST, LDL, and FBS after treatment decreased compare to baseline but were not statistically significant (P ? 0.5). The mean of changes in the level of BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, LDL and FBS were not statistically significant (P ? 0.5). The mean of changes in AST and HDL between groups was significant (P < 0.05). The grade of steatosis before and after treatment between studied groups was not statistically significant (P ? 0.5). Side-effects were not statistically significant among the two groups. Conclusion: Findings show that there the effect of cumin in in the treatment of NASH was not significantly different in compare to placebo. PMID:26605241

  17. Association of Abnormal Liver Function Parameters with HIV Serostatus and CD4 Count in Antiretroviral-Naive Rwandan Women.

    PubMed

    Dusingize, Jean Claude; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Ndacyayisenga, Victorien; Gakindi, Lonard; Mulvihill, Michael; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV(-)) Rwandan women. In 2005, 710 HIV(+) ART-naive and 226 HIV(-) women enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment. Liver enzymes were measured with abnormality defined as either AST or ALT ?1.25 times the upper limit of normal. Low serum albumin level was defined as <3.5?g/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of elevated AST/ALT and low serum albumin. HIV(-) women had the lowest prevalence (6.6%) of abnormal AST/ALT, with the highest prevalence (16.4%) in HIV(+) women with CD4 <200 cells/?l (p=0.01). The odds of having serum albumin <3.5?g/dl was 5.7-fold higher in HIV(+) than HIV(-) women (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 3.32-9.71). The risk of low albumin decreased from low to high CD4 count, with OR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.14 and OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43 in HIV(+) women with a CD4 count <200 and 200-350 cells/?l, respectively vs. HIV(+) with CD4 >350 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for all comparisons). Our findings suggest that HIV-associated liver damage may occur in ART-naive patients. Although liver abnormality prevalences in this cohort of HIV-infected Rwandan women are less than reported in developed countries, caution is needed for risk assessment measures to monitor and screen HIV-infected patients pre- and post-ART initiation in African clinical settings to curtail potential risks associated with HIV infection. PMID:25924728

  18. Association of Abnormal Liver Function Parameters with HIV Serostatus and CD4 Count in Antiretroviral-Naive Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Ndacyayisenga, Victorien; Gakindi, Lonard; Mulvihill, Michael; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV?) Rwandan women. In 2005, 710 HIV+ ART-naive and 226 HIV? women enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment. Liver enzymes were measured with abnormality defined as either AST or ALT ?1.25 times the upper limit of normal. Low serum albumin level was defined as <3.5?g/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of elevated AST/ALT and low serum albumin. HIV? women had the lowest prevalence (6.6%) of abnormal AST/ALT, with the highest prevalence (16.4%) in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/?l (p=0.01). The odds of having serum albumin <3.5?g/dl was 5.7-fold higher in HIV+ than HIV? women (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 3.329.71). The risk of low albumin decreased from low to high CD4 count, with OR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.14 and OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43 in HIV+ women with a CD4 count <200 and 200350 cells/?l, respectively vs. HIV+ with CD4 >350 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for all comparisons). Our findings suggest that HIV-associated liver damage may occur in ART-naive patients. Although liver abnormality prevalences in this cohort of HIV-infected Rwandan women are less than reported in developed countries, caution is needed for risk assessment measures to monitor and screen HIV-infected patients pre- and post-ART initiation in African clinical settings to curtail potential risks associated with HIV infection. PMID:25924728

  19. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100?g/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-? by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-? by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver. PMID:21822758

  20. DPP-4 Inhibitors Improve Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors might have pleiotropic effects because receptors for incretin exist in various tissues, including liver. We examined whether DPP-4 inhibitors affect liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material/Methods A retrospective review of 459 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors was performed. After exclusion of patients with hepatitis B or C, steroid use, and other diseases that might affect liver function and diabetes status, 224 patients were included in the analysis. Results Forty-four patients (19.6%) with liver injury defined by aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) over the normal level of 40 U/L. In the patients with liver injury, AST and ALT were significantly decreased after 6 months from the first date of DPP-4 prescription, with mean changes of ?6.2 U/L [95% confidence interval (CI) ?10.9 to ?1.4, p=0.012] and of ?11.9 U/L (95%CI ?19.5 to ?4.2, p=0.003), respectively. Percent changes in AST were significantly and negatively correlated with baseline AST and ALT (r=?0.27, p<0.001 and r=?0.23, p=0.002, respectively), and percent changes in ALT were also negatively correlated with them (r=?0.23, p=0.001 and r=?0.27, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions DPP-4 inhibitors improved liver dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25228119

  1. Improvement of liver function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaya; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Nojima, Koji; Kawabata, Yumiko; Nishino, Masanori; Taniguchi, Hidenori; Itoi-Babaya, Michiko; Babaya, Naru; Inoue, Kaori; Ogihara, Toshio

    2005-04-01

    To increase our understanding of the effect of thiazolidinediones, a new class of antidiabetic drugs, on liver function as well as glycemic control, we investigated liver function before, during, and after treatment with troglitazone and pioglitazone. A total of 32 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied. Glycemic control and liver function were measured before, during, and after 4 to 12 weeks of treatment with troglitazone or pioglitazone. Glycemic control was assessed by fasting levels of plasma glucose, hemoglobin A 1c , and serum insulin, and liver function was assessed by asparatate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma -glutamyl transpeptidase ( gamma-GTP). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was used as an index of insulin resistance. During treatment with troglitazone, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A 1c levels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance were significantly decreased. Serum AST, ALT, and gamma-GTP levels were significantly decreased during treatment (AST, -17.4%; ALT, -27.2%; gamma-GTP, -47.9%) and returned to pretreatment levels after 4 weeks of withdrawal of the drug. A similar tendency was observed during treatment with pioglitazone (AST, -4.7%; ALT, -16.4%; gamma-GTP, -30.8%). These data suggest that, in contrast to the deterioration of liver function reported in a small subset of patients treated with troglitazone, treatment with thiazolidinediones was associated with a decrease in serum transaminases in most patients. The improvement in liver function parameters known to be associated with fatty liver in the present study, together with an improvement in fatty liver reported for another class of insulin sensitizers, biguanides, suggests that thiazolidinediones may have a beneficial effect on fatty liver. PMID:15798962

  2. Serum Fibronectin Levels in Acute and Chronic Viral Hepatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    ERTURK, Ayse; CURE, Erkan; OZKURT, Zulal; PARLAK, Emine; CURE, Medine Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum fibronectin (FN) levels and liver enzyme activities in patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C) and chronic viral hepatitis (B, C); determine whether the virus types correlated with disease severity; and assess whether FN could be used as a marker of virus type or disease severity in patients. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 20 patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C), 20 with chronic hepatitis (B, C), and 20 healthy controls. Serum fibronectin (FN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and albumin were measured in all patients from blood samples. Results: Serum FN levels were significantly lower in acute (122.9 ?g/mL (SD 43.1), P < 0.001) and chronic hepatitis patients (135.7 ?g/mL (SD 46.0), P < 0 .001) compared to controls 221.4 ?g/mL (SD 32.5). A negative correlation was found between serum FN and AST (r2 = 0.528, P < 0.001), ALT (r2 = 0.425, P < 0.001), and GGT (r2 = 0.339, P < 0.001). Additionally, high serum GGT levels (? = 0.375, P = 0.010), and low serum albumin levels (? = 0.305, P = 0.008) were associated with low serum FN levels. Conclusion: Serum FN levels were lower in both acute and chronic hepatitis patients, and an inverse relationship between serum FN and serum AST, ALT, and GGT levels was found. A decrease in serum FN levels may indicate hepatitis severity as AST and ALT represent hepatocyte damage. PMID:24639609

  3. Salivary enzymes as diagnostic markers for detection of gingival/periodontal disease and their correlation with the severity of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Dabra, Sarita; China, Kamalpreet; Kaushik, Alka

    2012-01-01

    Context: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. Important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death are aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), and gama glutamyl transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in the gingiva and periodontium, in the inflammation. Aims: In this article we examined the activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, before and after periodontal treatment (experimental group 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontitis patients), and in the saliva from healthy subjects (control group 20 samples). Settings and Design: Periodontal disease was determined based on the clinical parameters (gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)). Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods: The stimulated saliva of the patient was collected in a sterile test tube and analyzed using the Automatic Analyzer. Results: The obtained results showed statistically significant increased activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, in relation to the control group. A significant reduction in the enzyme levels was seen after conventional periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Based on these results, it can be assumed that the salivary enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP) can be considered as biochemical markers for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of the functional condition of periodontal tissues in disease and health, and in the evaluation of the therapy effects in periodontal disease. PMID:23162329

  4. Circulating microRNA 122 in the methionine and choline-deficient mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John D; Sharapova, Tatiana; Lake, April D; Blomme, Eric; Maher, Jonathan; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-06-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The methionine choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a frequently used hepatotoxicity animal model of NASH that induces hepatic transaminase (ALT, AST) elevations and hepatobiliary histological changes similar to those observed in human NASH. Liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown as a key regulator of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in adult liver, and has recently been proposed as a sensitive and specific circulating biomarker of hepatic injury. The purpose of this study was to assess miR-122 serum levels in mice receiving an MCD diet for 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days and compare the performance vs. routine clinical chemistry when benchmarked against the histopathological liver findings. MiR-122 levels were quantified in serum using RT-qPCR. Both miR-122 and ALT/AST levels were significantly elevated in serum at all timepoints. MiR-122 levels increased on average by 40-fold after 3 days of initiating the MCD diet, whereas ALT and AST changes were 4.8- and 3.3-fold, respectively. In general, miR-122 levels remained elevated across all time points, whereas the ALT/AST increases were less robust but correlated with the progressive severity of NASH as assessed by histopathology. In conclusion, serum levels of miR-122 can potentially be used as a sensitive biomarker for the early detection of hepatotoxicity and can aid in monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury in mouse efficacy models. PMID:24217942

  5. The Effect of Green Tea Extract Supplementation on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Ali; Safi, Sara; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholamreza; Karami, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is believed to have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, one of which is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study investigated the effects of consumption of green tea in NAFLD patients. Methods: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose fatty liver in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >31 mg/dl and 41 mg/dl and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >31 mg/dl and 47 g/dl in women and men, respectively and without other hepatic diseases. A total of 80 participants (20–50 years) with NAFLD were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either green tea extract (GTE) supplement (500 mg GTE tablet per day) or placebo for 90 days. At baseline and at the end of the intervention weight, serum ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in fasting state, and dietary data were collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Green tea group showed significant reductions in ALT and AST levels after 12 weeks period (P < 0.001). The placebo group showed a reduction in ALT and AST levels at the end of the study, but it was no significant. ALP levels showed significant reductions in both groups after 12 weeks period (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, GTE supplementation decrease liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD. It can be claimed that GTE prescribed can be considered as a treatment to improve serum levels of liver enzymes in NAFLD patients. PMID:26955458

  6. Estimation of Specific Salivary Enzymatic Biomarkers in Individuals with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Roji; Khan, S Nubesh; Iqbal, P Safar; Soman, Rino Roopak; Chakkarayan, Jithesh; Krishnan, V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host response to periodontal disease includes the release of different enzymes from stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. The enzymes which are produced from these cells are associated with cell injury and cell death like: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Normal enzymatic activity of these enzymes is necessary for healthy functioning of gingiva and periodontium. The aim of the study is to estimate the levels of enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and BUN and to correlate the level of estimated enzymes with that of clinical parameters in the saliva of Healthy subjects, Gingivitis patients and patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: The study included a total of 40 male subjects within the age group of 21 to 50 years, and examined the activity of enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and BUN in saliva spectrophotometrically and compared their values between healthy subjects, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients. Clinical parameters like OHI S (Oral hygiene index - Simplified, SBI (Sulcus Bleeding Index), PPD (Probing Pocket Depth), CAL (Clinical Attachment Level), and PI (Periodontal Index) were recorded. Results: Obtained results showed statistically significant increases of activity of AST, ALT, ALP, and BUN in saliva from patients with periodontal disease (p<0.001) in relation to gingivitis and control groups. There was also an increase in periodontal parameters with an increase in salivary enzymes. Conclusion: The present study shows that the salivary enzyme activity can be used as biomarkers to determine periodontal tissue damage, which may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of post therapy effects in periodontal disease. PMID:26435618

  7. The early effects of short-term dexamethasone administration on hepatic and serum alanine aminotransferase in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Elisa R; Kilroy, Carolyn; Joslin, Diane L; Schomaker, Shelli J; Pruimboom-Brees, Ingrid; Amacher, David E

    2008-01-01

    Dexamethasone (DEXA) administration has been associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations that may result from enhanced ALT expression. The aim of our current study was to compare liver vs. serum ALT activity and to examine the onset of any hepatocellular changes. Groups of 4 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of DEXA or corn oil at 12, 16, and 24 h prior to euthanasia or once-daily for 2, 3, or 4 days. All (nonfasted) rats were necropsied together on Day 5. While DEXA incrementally increased liver ALT activity in the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day treatment groups (maximal, 3.7-fold), liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST) never exceeded 1.4-fold over control. Significant hepatic glycogen elevations were detected after DEXA treatment, which correlated with microscopic observations. Serum ALT, AST, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) increased after 2, 3, and 4 days of DEXA dosing (1.3-10.3-fold). DEXA-related necropsy findings included pale livers consistent with glycogen deposition. The relative percent liver to body weight was elevated in all DEXA-treated rats. Hepatocellular necrosis was observed in 1/4 rats at 12 h, 2/4 rats at 2 days, 4/4 rats at 3 days, and 3/4 rats at 4 days. DEXA treatment <2 days failed to produce consistent evidence of hepatic injury, as detected by serum biomarkers and pathology assessment. However, early DEXA treatment did correlate with apparent ALT induction. Ultimately, this may explain some early asymptomatic serum ALT elevations seen clinically. PMID:18850354

  8. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  9. Evaluation of aminotransferase abnormality in dengue patients: A meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Shi-Chen; He, Cheng; Xu, Xiu-Juan; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus is a type of flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The symptoms of infection by this virus range from asymptomatic or mild symptomatic dengue fever (DF) to dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Significant abnormality in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) has been shown in a large number of dengue infection cases and to be indicator for liver injury provided that there are no other combined infections or liver injury. This study aims to assess the abnormal levels of liver aminotransferase in dengue patients. The related literature was searched in multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. The literature was selected through strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quantitative synthesis of the liver aminotransferase abnormality was performed with R software. The fixed or random effects model was employed based on the results of the statistical test for homogeneity. In total, 15 studies were included. The proportion of AST abnormality with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.56-0.92) in DHF patients and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.84) in DF patients; the proportion of ALT abnormality was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.73) in DHF patients and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41-0.63) in DF patients. Serum ALT and AST levels may be indicators for evaluating liver injury in dengue infection and for diagnosis and treatment effect. PMID:26739659

  10. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Serum Levels of Calcium, Iron and Liver Enzymes in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: To reach fetal appropriate growth during the third trimester, the requirements for dietary calcium and iron intakes during the pregnancy increases. This study was carried out to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum calcium and iron levels and liver enzymes among Iranian healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of consuming 200 g/d of conventional (n = 33) or probiotic yogurts (n = 37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yogurt contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. To measure serum calcium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, blood samples were drawn in a fasting state at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention. Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt (P = 0.01). Within-group differences in the conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction of serum calcium levels (−1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on serum iron, AST and ALT levels. Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels. PMID:24049622

  11. A paper-based multiplexed transaminase test for low-cost, point-of-care liver function testing

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nira R.; Rolland, Jason P.; Kumar, Shailendra; Beattie, Patrick D.; Jain, Sidhartha; Noubary, Farzad; Wong, Vicki L.; Pohlmann, Rebecca A.; Ryan, Una S.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In developed nations, monitoring for drug-induced liver injury via serial measurements of serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) in at-risk individuals is the standard of care. Despite the need, monitoring for drug-related hepatotoxicity in resource-limited settings is often limited by expense and logistics, even for patients at highest risk. This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of AST and ALT in a fingerstick specimen. Using 223 clinical specimens obtained by venipuncture and 10 fingerstick specimens from healthy volunteers, we have shown that our assay can, in 15 minutes, provide visual measurements of AST and ALT in whole blood or serum which allow the user to place those values into one of three readout bins (<3x upper limit of normal (ULN), 3-5x ULN, and >5x ULN, corresponding to tuberculosis/HIV treatment guidelines) with >90% accuracy. These data suggest that the ultimate point-of-care fingerstick device will have high impact on patient care in low-resource settings. PMID:22993296

  12. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in broilers and broiler hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingchen; Yu, Zezhong; Hou, Jiafa; Deng, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhenlei; Zhao, Zhiyong; Cui, Jun

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins belong to mycotoxins which are found in human foods and animal chow. We investigated the toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2/HT-2 in broilers and chicken hepatocytes. Maize cultures of Fusarium poae was fed to broilers for 42d, and the physiological index, biochemical index and expression of mRNAs related to oxidative stress were analyzed. Chicken hepatocytes were treated with different levels of T-2/HT-2, and the following parameters were detected: cell viability, GSH and MDA concentration, LDH leakage, activities of ALT/AST, ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. Invivo, high levels of mycotoxins (4mg/kg T-2 and 0.667mg/kg HT-2) in feed caused significant reductions in body weight, weight gain, and serum total protein, and significant increases in feed conversion ratio, ALP, ALT/AST activities, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. Invitro, cells treated with T-2/HT-2 showed reductions of GSH concentration and significant increases in LDH leakage, ALT/AST ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT activities, MDA concentration, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. Consequently, F.poae culture material and T-2/HT-2 induced toxicity and oxidative stress invivo and invitro, respectively. PMID:26683309

  13. Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.

    PubMed

    Nan, J X; Park, E J; Yang, B K; Song, C H; Ko, G; Sohn, D H

    2001-08-01

    The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from mycelial liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL/S) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dramatically increased. The WEC or IPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) in BDL/S rats reduced the serum AST, ALT and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). The EPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) reduced the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde contents in liver treated with WEC, IPC or EPC were significantly reduced (p<0.05). But Liver hydroxyproline content was decreased only in EPC treated BDL/S rats to 55% that of BDL/S control rats (p<0.01). The morphological characteristics and expression of alpha smooth muscle like actin in fibrotic liver, which appeared in BDL/S control group were improved in EPC treated fibrotic liver. These results indicate that EPC (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) has an antifibrotic effect on fibrotic rats induced by BDL/S. PMID:11534766

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrsio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3?g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, ?-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, ?-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25821491

  15. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  16. Influence of nandrolone decanoate administration on serum lipids and liver enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Samieinasab, Mohammad Reza; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samieinasab, Fatemah; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroids have been associated with several side effects range. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND, an anabolic steroid) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats in Iran. METHODS Forty adult male and female of Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 animals each: male control, female control, ND-male treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day), and ND-female treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in all studied groups. RESULTS Treating rats with ND (case group) resulted in a significant elevation of TC (69.4 8.7), TG (101.6 32.9) and ALT (72.2 13.8) and significant reduction of LDL (6.4 2.6) and AST (138.7 19.4) as compared to control group in female rats. ND supplementation (case group) significantly increased TC (64.4 6.2), AST (255.0 32.0), and ALT (84.3 3.8) in comparison with the control group in male rats. CONCLUSION Overall, our result indicated that the ND use can cause a negative effect on lipid profile and liver enzyme in rats. PMID:26478734

  17. The hepatoprotective effects of Hypericum perforatum L. on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Engur, Selin; Senturk, Hakan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Colak, Suat

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effective role of Hypericum perforatum on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Hence, albino rats were subjected to 45min of hepatic ischemia followed by 60min of reperfusion period. Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight (HPE50) was intraperitonally injected as a single dose, 15min prior to ischemia. Rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion period and then, biochemical investigations were made in serum and liver tissue. Liver tissue homogenates were used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. At the same time alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in serum samples and compared statistically. While the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels were significantly increased, CAT and GPx activities significantly decreased in only I/R-induced control rats compared to normal control rats (p<0.05). Treatment with HPE50 significantly decreased the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels, and markedly increased activities of CAT and GPx in tissue homogenates compared to I/R-induced rats without treatment-control group (p<0.05). In oxidative stress generated by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, H. perforatum L. as an antioxidant agent contributes an alteration in the delicate balance between the scavenging capacity of antioxidant defence systems and free radicals in favour of the antioxidant defence systems in the body. PMID:23794084

  18. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  19. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  20. SILVER NANOPARTICLE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT TOXICITY IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Hackett, Diahanna; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their health risk assessment is of great importance. For acute toxicity evaluation of orally administered Ag-NPs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activity of liver function enzymes [(Alanine (ALT/GPT), Aspartate (AST/GOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)], concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), comet assay and histopathology of liver in the rat model were performed. Four groups of five male rats were orally administered Ag-NPs, once a day for five days with doses of 5, 25, 50, 100, mg/Kg, body weight. A control group was also made of five rats. Blood and liver were collected 24 hours after the last treatment following standard protocols. Ag-NPs exposure increased the induction of ROS, activities of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), concentration of Lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), tail migration and morphological alterations of the liver tissue in exposed groups compared to control. The highest two doses, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in ROS induction, ALT, AST, ALP activity, LHP concentration, DNA damage and morphological alterations of liver compared to control. Based on these results, it is suggested that short-term administration of high doses of Ag-NP may cause organ toxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:25355157

  1. Biochemical assessment of oxidative status versus liver enzymes in patients with chronic fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Hanan H; Sarhan, Rania M; Saad, Ghada A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the oxidative status in Egyptian patients suffering chronic fascioliasis. The relationship between serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities was investigated in relation to the level of liver enzymes; ALT and AST compared to healthy controls. Twenty patients versus ten controls were included in the study. Among cases the MDA, CAT, AST and ALT were higher than controls, while SOD and GPX higher values were present among controls. There was a highly significant difference between cases and controls as regard MDA, CAT, SOD, GPX, and AST, and a significant difference regarding ALT. The findings of increased serum lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of chronic fascioliasis patients indicated the presence of persistent inflammation and oxidative stress which confirms the underlying pathogenesis and reflected the stage of infection providing a baseline data for comparison between normal and infected patients guided by the level of liver enzymes in relation to oxidative status. PMID:26688624

  2. Safety evaluation of olive phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Farag, R S; El-Baroty, G S; Basuny, Amany M

    2003-05-01

    Free and total polyphenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits and leaves of the Picual cultivar. The safety limits of these compounds were recognized by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total lipids of rat serum. The free and total phenolic compounds (400, 800, and 1600 ppm) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) (200 ppm) were daily ingested for 7 weeks. The administration of olive total and free phenolic compounds at 400 and 800 ppm did not cause any significant changes on ALT and AST activities and serum total lipids. These compounds at 1600 ppm caused significant increase in ALT and AST activities and the content of total lipids. Both olive phenolic compounds were superior to that of BHT in increasing HDL-cholesterol level. Nutritional experiments demonstrated that BHT at 200 ppm caused an enlargement in the kidney and liver of the rat compared with the administration of total and free olive phenolic compounds at 1200 and 1600 ppm. Microscopical examination of kidney and liver tissues of rats administered free and total phenolic compounds at 1200 ppm had the same histological character as that of control rats, while the administration of BHT (200 ppm) and phenolic compounds (1600 ppm) induced severe damage to the tissues of the rat kidney and liver. PMID:12775365

  3. Protective effect of allicin against glycidamide-induced toxicity in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Ting; Chen, Dong-Yan; Liu, Huang-You; Yan, Hai-Yang; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide is known to be a neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic compound. Glycidamide has a close relationship to the toxic mechanism of acrylamide. In order to explore the toxic mechanism of acrylamide, we further discussed the effects of oral administration of allicin on glycidamide-induced toxicity by determining the hematological parameters like AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, creatinine, ROS, and 8-OHdG, and biochemical parameters such as MDA, MPO, SOD, GST and GSH in the kidney, liver, brain and lung of male and female mice for the first time. We found that the same dose of glycidamide had more toxic effects and damage effects to the mice compared to the previous study of acrylamide. It could markedly increase the level of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, MPO while decrease the SOD, GST and GSH. However, our data showed the oral administered allicin with a concentration of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w./day could significantly decrease the damage indexes of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, and MPO, while increase the antioxidant indicators of SOD, GST and GSH. Thus allicin could be used as an effective dietary supplement for the chemoprevention of glycidamide genotoxicity internally, and to prevent the tissue damage and toxicity induced by glycidamide. PMID:25730897

  4. Drug-induced liver disease--a review of 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K; Liu, J D; Lin, S Y; Liao, L Y; Cheng, N Y; Wang, C S; Siauw, C P; Chen, P H

    1995-04-01

    The clinical and pathological features of 14 cases of acute drug-induced liver disease (DILD) were analyzed using the French group method for drug reaction assessment. Among them, 8 were of the cytotoxic type, 4 were of the cholestatic type and 2 were of the mixed type. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of the cytotoxic type DILD were all < 1.8 times the normal value, while those of the cholestatic type DILD > 1.8 times (P < 0.05). The alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase (ALT and AST) levels of the cholestatic type were all < 13.1 times the normal value, while those of the cytotoxic type varied from 2.2 to 118 times the normal value. We found that steatosis was the major feature in the cytotoxic type with ALT and AST < 2.5 times the normal value. Piecemeal necrosis was noted only in all the cases with ALT and AST > 20 times the normal value. In the cholestatic type, the pathological features of the oral contraceptive-related DILD showed mainly cholestasis, whereas chlorpromazine-related DILD revealed additional portal inflammation. Meticulous taking of patient history and clinical assessment are mandatory for the diagnosis of DILD. The ALP levels were helpful in distinguishing different types of DILD. There are some correlations between biochemical changes and pathological features, and both are helpful in distinguishing different etiologies of DILD when the inciting drug is in doubt. PMID:7602656

  5. Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2013-10-11

    Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system. PMID:24029385

  6. Protective effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice pretreatment in a model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova SV; Popova PB; Galunska BT; Belcheva A

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AMFJ applied as pretreatment in a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: AMFJ was given orally to rats for 2 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 ml/kg either alone or as pretreatment before the oral application of CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg, 2 days). The plasma activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured as markers of the liver cell damage. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, were determined in rat liver and plasma.RESULTS: Administration of CCl4 caused an elevation of plasma AST and ALT activities. It also induced an elevation of MDA levels in rat liver and plasma. AMFJ applied alone in the tested doses did not cause any significant changes in the measured enzyme activities and in MDA levels. AMFJ applied as pretreatment prevented the CCl4-induced increase of AST and ALT activities, and also prevented the elevation of plasma and liver MDA levels.CONCLUSIONS: AMFJ showed a protective effect in a model of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This effect might be due to the antioxidant activity of its active ingredients.

  7. Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Mariappan; Parthasarathi, Kasi; Ranganathan, Lalpet Souri; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of earthworm extract (EE) (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) was evaluated against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar albino rat, in comparison with silymarin, the standard hepatoprotective drug. We observed a reduction in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) and in serum total protein, and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum aspertate aminotranferase (AST), serum alanine aminotranferase (ALT), bilirubin and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) due to liver injury in the paracetamol-administered rats (2 g/kg). On the contrary, increased activities of liver GSH, SOD, GPx, CAT and serum total protein level, and decrease in the contents of serum ALP, AST, ALT, bilirubin and liver TBARS were observed in rats administered with different doses of EE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg), which are similar to the activities of hepatoprotective drug silymarin (150 mg/kg). The mode of action of EE as evidenced by the above parameters may suggest that EE, on the one hand, prevents the formation of the reactive oxygen groups, or scavenges these groups, thereby preventing the damage on the hepatic cells, and, on the other hand, modulates the genes responsible for synthesis of antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, CAT and SOD in liver tissue and decreases the serum enzymatic activities such as ALP, AST and ALT. PMID:18257136

  8. Circulating microRNA-122, -21 and -223 as potential markers of liver injury following warm ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Van Caster, Patrick; Brandenburger, Timo; Strahl, Thorsten; Metzger, Sabine; Bauer, Inge; Pannen, Benedikt; Braun, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    The liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are commonly used but not specific markers to quantify hepatic injury. In this in vivo study it was determined whether hepatic expression and serum levels of the microRNAs (miRNA) miR-122, -21 and -223 are altered and correlated with the release of liver enzymes after warm hepatic ischaemia and reperfusion (IR). Male Wistar rats were subjected to either 45 min of partial (70%) hepatic ischaemia and 240 min of reperfusion (n=7) or sham operation (n=5). Expression levels of miR-122, -21 and -223 were analysed in serum and liver tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and tested for correlation with serum activities of AST, ALT and LDH. The relative expression levels of circulating miR-122 increased after IR and correlated with the serum activity of AST, ALT and LDH. Neither increased serum level of miR-21 nor elevated relative hepatic expression of miR-223 correlated with the serum activity of liver enzymes. The hepatic expression of miR-122 was unaffected by IR. The correlation between circulating miR-122 expression levels and liver enzyme activity qualifies miR-122 as a potential biomarker of warm hepatic IR injury. PMID:25954995

  9. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is A Sensitive Biomarker for Severe Ischemia/reperfusion Injury in Patients with Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dewei; Li, Huating; Wang, Yudong; Jia, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Man, Kwan; Lo, Chungmau; Wong, Chiming; Wang, Yu; Lam, Karen S.L.; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver surgery. Therefore, it is important to identity reliable biomarkers to assist early diagnosis of hepatic I/R injury. This study aimed to investigate the potential of serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as a biomarker for hepatic I/R injury in patients with liver transplantation. Two independent cohorts of liver transplantation patients were recruited for determination of serum levels of FGF21, ALT, and AST. The results demonstrated that serum FGF21 at 2 hours post-reperfusion in cohort-1 exhibited an approximately 20-fold elevation relative to those in healthy subjects. In blood samples dynamically collected in cohort-2, a dramatic increase in serum FGF21 levels (~25-fold) was observed at two hours after surgery, whereas the peak levels of serum ALT and AST were detected only after 24 hours. Temporal correlation analysis demonstrated a significant association of peak serum levels of FGF21 at 2 hours with the magnitude of the increase in both serum ALT and AST levels at 24 hours post transplantation. In conclusion, serum FGF21 may represent a sensitive and specific prognostic biomarker for early detection of I/R injury in patients with liver transplantation. PMID:26806156

  10. Hepatopancreaticobiliary Values after Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Darrell; Coselli, Joseph S.; Johnson, Michael L.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: After thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair, blood tests assessing hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) organs commonly have abnormal results. The clinical significance of such abnormalities is difficult to determine because the expected postoperative levels have not been characterized. Therefore, we sought to establish expected trends in HPB laboratory values after TAAA repair. Methods: This 5-year study comprised 155 patients undergoing elective Crawford extent II TAAA repair. In accordance with a prospective study protocol, all repairs involved left-sided heart bypass, selective visceral perfusion, and cold renal perfusion. Blood levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin, amylase, and lipase were measured before TAAA repair and for 7 days afterward. Ratios between postoperative and baseline levels were compared for each time point with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Temporal patterns for the laboratory values varied greatly. Amylase, lipase, and AST underwent significant early increases before decreasing to preoperative levels. LDH increased immediately and remained significantly elevated, whereas ALT increased more gradually. GGT remained near baseline through postoperative day 4, and then increased to more than twice baseline. Total bilirubin never differed significantly from baseline. After adjusted analysis, the ischemic time predicted the maximum AST, lipase, GGT, and LDH values. Conclusions: Although most HPB laboratory values increase significantly after elective TAAA repair, the temporal trends for different values vary substantially. The ischemic time predicts the maximum AST, lipase, GGT, and LDH levels. These trends should be considered when laboratory values are assessed after TAAA repair.

  11. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  12. Limited Utility of Plasma M30 in Discriminating Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis from Steatosis – A Comparison with Routine Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Sthaneshwar, Pavai; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The utility of Cytokeratin-18 fragment, namely CK18Asp396 (M30), for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently uncertain. We aimed to provide further data in this area among multi-ethnic Asian subjects with NAFLD. Materials and Methods The accuracy of M30 for detecting NASH was compared with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels in consecutive adult subjects with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Results Data for 93 NAFLD subjects (mean age 51.0±11.1 years old and 51.6% males) and 20 healthy controls (mean age 50.2±16.4 years old and 33.3% males) were analyzed. There were 39 NASH subjects (41.9%) and 54 non-NASH subjects (58.1%) among the NAFLD subjects. Plasma M30 (349 U/L vs. 162 U/L), and serum ALT (70 IU/L vs. 26 IU/L), AST (41 IU/L vs. 20 IU/L) and GGT (75 IU/L vs. 33 IU/L) were significantly higher in NAFLD subjects than in healthy controls. Serum ALT (86 IU/L vs. 61 IU/L), AST (58 IU/L vs. 34 IU/L) and GGT (97 IU/L vs. 56 IU/L) were significantly higher in NASH subjects compared to non-NASH subjects, but no significant difference was observed with plasma M30 (435 U/L vs. 331 U/L). The accuracy of plasma M30, and serum ALT, AST and GGT was good for predicting NAFLD (AUROC 0.91, 0.95, 0.87 and 0.85, respectively) but less so for NASH (AUROC 0.59, 0.64, 0.75 and 0.68, respectively). Serum ALT and AST, but not plasma M30 showed a significant trend with increasing grades of ballooning and lobular inflammation. Conclusion The utility of M30 in the detection of NASH in clinical practice appears limited, in comparison to routine biochemical markers. PMID:25184298

  13. Improvement in psoriasis with rosiglitazone in a diabetic and a nondiabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Pershadsingh, Harrihar A; Benson, Steven C; Ellis, Charles N

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a prospective, open-label, pilot trial of the effects of the antidiabetic thiazolidinedione (TZD) rosiglitazone in two patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Case 1: A lean, euglycemic 43-year-old nondiabetic man with a 2-year history of plaque psoriasis presented with lesions involving 10% of his body surface (Figures 1A, 1B, 1C). He had no other chronic or acute medical problems. He had previously been managed sporadically with topical triamcinolone acetonide, an intermediate-strength glucocorticoid, and was off antipsoriatic medication for 5 months. He was started on rosiglitazone p.o., 8 mg q.d. After 10 weeks on rosiglitazone, the lesions developed increased erythema, spreading, and shedding of scale (Figures 2A, 2B, 2C). After an additional 26 weeks, the lesions had largely disappeared (Figures 3A, 3B, 3C). The patient remained euglycemic throughout the study. His liver function enzymes (alanine transferase [ALT] and aspartate transferase [AST]) remained normal throughout the study: ALT, 23 IU/L; AST, 47 IU/L before treatment; ALT, 25 IU/L; AST, 33 IU/L after treatment. There were no adverse events. Case 2: An overweight 68-year-old woman (body mass index, 29 kg/m2; with a 12-year history of type 2 diabetes and 5-year history of psoriasis presented with generalized plaque psoriasis over 20% of her body, including two large, thick, silvery plaques with the texture of leather over the lower part of the back (Figure 4A). She was given rosiglitazone p.o., 4 mg b.i.d. for 24 weeks, which resulted in significant improvement in psoriasis (Figure 4B). After an additional 26 weeks on rosiglitazone, the plaques had cleared on her back (Figure 4C) and over her entire body, including scalp, ears, and posterior forearms (not shown). Her glycemic control improved (hemoglobin A1c decreased from 7.7% to 7.2%) and liver function remained normal throughout the study (ALT, 24 IU/L; AST, 14 IU/L before treatment; and ALT, 26 IU/L; AST, 15 IU/L after treatment). There were no adverse events. PMID:16276161

  14. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  15. An Unbiased Spectral Line Survey toward R CrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz Window with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Lindberg, Johan E.; Jrgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH3OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (~85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H2CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  16. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model. APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16–10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality. APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26945406

  17. Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1998-02-25

    This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

  18. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., combined. The 2000 SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket... government. Under the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket...

  19. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: A Comprehensive Look at B Cells and Antibodies in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mengel, Michael; Chong, Anita; Rothstein, David. M.; Zorn, Emanuel; Maltzman, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) represents a significant clinical challenge for solid-organ transplantation. Mechanistic understanding of ABMR is incomplete and diagnostic accuracy for ABMR is limited, and as a result, targeted treatment remains elusive and new treatment modalities are difficult to validate. Three-hundred-twenty-six participants from 15 countries met for the first Cutting Edge of Transplantation (CEOT) symposium organized by the American Society of Transplantation in Chandler, Arizona, February 1416, 2013. During the three-day interactive symposium, presentations, moderated poster sessions, and round table discussions addressed cutting edge knowledge of B and plasma cell biology, mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury, advances and limitations in ABMR diagnostics, as well as current and potential new treatment options for ABMR. The outcome of the meeting identified the following unmet needs for: a) Improved understanding of the regulation of B cell maturation and antibody response to enable targeted therapies; b) More precise diagnostics of ABMR, including molecular pathology, risk stratification by sensitive antibody testing, and monitoring of treatment effects; and c) Innovative multicentre trial designs that enhance observational power, in particular, in assessing synergistic multimodality therapies with reduced toxicities. PMID:24674597

  20. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

  1. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

    1984-01-01

    A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

  2. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jorgensen, Jes K.

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH{sub 3}OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 ({approx}85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H{sub 2}CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  3. MELD at POD 1 as a predictor of outcome in liver allografts with peak AST >5000U/l.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dieter P; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Saner, Fuat H; Treckmann, Jrgen W; Paul, Andreas; Math, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Perioperative liver graft injury is associated with elevation of aminotransferases after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Values above 5000U/l usually are regarded as extreme liver graft injury (ELGI). Some patients and organs recover from this critical condition. The aim of the study was to evaluate factors contributing to graft and patient survival after ELGI. From chart review we identified 64 of 917 OLT adult patients (median age 54.2years; 68.8% males) transplanted between 11/2003 and 02/2012, who presented ELGI after OLT. Donor and recipient factors were analyzed and correlated with the outcome by univariable and multivariable methods. Multivariable cox proportional hazards showed that recipient's BMI (P=0.01), model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score before OLT (P=0.02) and laboratory MELD score 24h after OLT (P=0.01) were independently associated with patient survival. 30-days and 12-months survival in patients with a postoperative laboratory MELD higher than 31 was 21.4%, while patients with a postoperative laboratory MELD lower than 31 displayed 30-days and 12-months survival rates of 80% and 71.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Retransplantation in the setting of ELGI after OLT should be based on all available data. Utilization of the postoperative labMELD enables the transplant physician within 24h after transplantation to identify necessity of retransplantation objectively. PMID:25082387

  4. ASTE observations in the 345 GHz window towards the HII region N113 of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P. A.; Rubio, M.; Fariña, C.; Komugi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: The HII region N113 is located in the central part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with an associated molecular cloud that is very rich in molecular species. Most of the previously observed molecular lines cover the frequency range 85-270 GHz. Thus, a survey and study of lines at the 345 GHz window is required for a more complete understanding of the chemistry and excitation conditions of this region. Methods: We mapped a region of 2.´5 × 2.´5 centred at N113 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 13CO J = 3-2 line with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. In addition, we observed 16 molecular lines as single pointings towards its centre. Results: From the 13CO J = 3-2 map we estimate the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and virial masses in about 1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104M⊙ for the molecular cloud associated with N113. From the dust continuum emission at 500 μm we additionally obtain a mass of gas of 7 × 103M⊙. Towards the cloud centre we detected emission from 12CO, 13CO, C18O (3-2), HCN, HNC, HCO+, C2H (4-3), and CS (7-6); these are the first reported detections of the HCN, HNC, and C2H (4-3) lines from this region. We confirm the detection of CS (7-6), which was previously tentatively detected. From analysing the HCN, HNC, and C2H lines we suggest that they might be emitted from a photodissociation region (PDR). Moreover, we suggest that the chemistry involving the C2H lines in N113 is probably similar to that in Galactic PDRs. We analysed the HCN J = 4-3, J = 3-2, and J = 1-0 lines with the code RADEX and we conclude that we observe very high density gas, between some 105 and 107 cm-3.

  5. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  6. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... To Issue, Renew, or Modify Launch Operator Licenses for Atlas V Launch Vehicles Covered Under the... issue, renew, or modify Launch Operator Licenses for Atlas V launch operations from SLC-3E at VAFB. The... Environmental Assessment for the Atlas V System at SLC-3E (2003 EA). In 1998, the USAF issued the 1998...

  7. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap.A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model.APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16-10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality.APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26945406

  8. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  9. Severe Hepatocellular Injury After Hematopoietic Cell Transplant: Incidence, Etiology, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Miwa; Strasser, Simone I.; Shulman, Howard M.; McDonald, Scott J.; Schoch, H. Gary; McDonald, George B.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic complications of transplant are a common cause of mortality. While mild elevations of serum aminotransferase enzymes (AST, ALT) do not carry an adverse prognosis, this is not the case with severe hepatocellular injury. We reviewed 6,225 consecutive recipients to determine the incidence and outcomes of severe hepatocellular injury (AST >1500 U/L) before day 100, which occurred in 88 patients. Causes were Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (SOS) (n=46), hypoxic hepatitis (n=33), Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) hepatitis (n=4), drug-liver injury (N=2), and Unknown (n=3). The incidence declined from 1.9% in the 1990s to 1.1% recently (due to a 5-fold decline in SOS and disappearance of VZV hepatitis). In hypoxic hepatitis, peak serum AST was 3545 U/L (range 1380-25246) within days of shock or prolonged hypoxemia; case fatality rate was 88%. In SOS, AST increases occurred 2-6 weeks after diagnosis; peak AST was 2252 U/L (range 1437-8281); case fatality rate was 76%, with only serum bilirubin able to distinguish survivors (2.7 mg/dL vs. 11.3 mg/dL, p=0.0009). We conclude that circulatory insults (sinusoidal injury, hypotension, hypoxemia) and not infection are the most common cause of severe hepatocellular injury, whose frequency has declined because of a falling incidence of SOS and VZV hepatitis. PMID:19308033

  10. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement, indicating that separate reference intervals should be established for serum and plasma. Finally, storage of these enzymes at -70 degrees C for 1 mo resulted in up to a 25% decrease in enzymatic activity in manatee plasma. PMID:18634208

  11. Inverse associations of total and decaffeinated coffee with liver enzyme levels in NHANES 19992010

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I.; Freedman, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coffee may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic markers. However, it is unclear whether decaffeinated coffee is also associated with liver enzymes. Methods The study population included 27,793 participants, age 20 or older, in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (19992010). Coffee intake was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of aminotransferase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT) were measured. We examined the relationship between coffee intake and enzymatic levels using weighted multiple variable logistic (abnormally elevated levels of enzymes) and linear regression (continuous enzymatic levels). Results Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with abnormal levels of all four liver enzymes and continuous levels of AST, ALP and GGT. Compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, participants reporting ?3 cups per day had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)), 0.82 (0.68, 0.98), 0.73 (0.55, 0.95) and 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) for abnormal levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with decaffeinated coffee intake and abnormal levels of ALT (OR?2 vs 0 cup/d: 0.62 (0.41, 0.94)), AST (0.74 (0.49, 1.11)), and GGT (0.70, 0.491.00). Conclusion Higher intakes of coffee, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes. PMID:25124935

  12. Biochemical Changes in Patients with Combined Chronic Schistosomiasis and Viral Hepatitis C Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Fawzia A.; Esmat, Amr Y.; Hassan, Gehan K.; Abdel-Bary, Abeer

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes induced in chronic schistosomiasis and/or chronic HCV, as well as to pinpoint the most significant parameters which could be used as dependable indices for the differentiation of single and coupled infections with or without liver cirrhosis. The selected patients were allocated into 2 broad groups: GrII (Schistosomiasis) which was subdivided into 3 subgroups: GrII(a) schistosomal patients with hepatosplenomegaly; GrII(b) hepatosplenic schistosomal patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis; GrII(c) schistosomal patients with no organomegaly. GrIII (Combined) comprised 2 subgroups: GrIII(a) schistosomal-HCV infection with decompensated liver cirrhosis; GrIII(b) schistosomal-HCV infection without liver cirrhosis. For statistical comparison normal healthy subjects were taken as a reference group (Gr I). Results showed that schistosomal patients without organomegaly manifested non significant changes in all studied parameters compared to normal controls. Highly significant elevations in serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities were recorded in all other subgroups but the highest levels are reported in GrIIb. AST/ALT and direct/indirect bilirubin ratios were highest in GrIIIa (1.17 0.26, 1.54 0.37, respectively). Serum total protein and albumin levels showed the highest reduction (33 and 59%) concomitantly with the highest increase in ?-globulin level (75%) in GrIII(a). Blood total iron was significantly reduced in GrII(a,b) (15.6 and 12%) (8.8%) bilirubin, GGT and AST in this order are good discriminators between the different subgroups in GrII. On the other hand, ALT, AST, albumin, ALP, GGT, protein and direct bilirubin are the most significant indices to differentiate chronic schistosomiasis and the combined group with/or without liver cirrhosis. PMID:11381190

  13. Acute Hepatic Phenotype of Wilson Disease: Clinical Features of Acute Episodes and Chronic Lesions Remaining in Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisao; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Yahata, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Hiroki; Momose, Kenji; Isaji, Ryohei; Sasaki, Youji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Wilson disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism, and an international group for the study of WD (IGSW) has proposed three phenotypes for its initial presentation: acute hepatic, chronic hepatic, and neurologic phenotypes. Characterization of the acute hepatic phenotype may improve our understanding of the disease. Methods: Clinical features of 10 WD patients with the acute hepatic phenotype and characteristics of chronic lesions remaining in survivors were assessed by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Results: All six patients younger than 30 years had survived an acute episode of hemolytic anemia with residual liver disease of cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The acute episode was self-limiting in two of the four patients over the age of 30 years and progressed to acute liver failure in the other two patients. One of the two survivors had residual liver disease of chronic hepatitis, while the other had chronic hepatitis and neurologic disease. Neurologic disease remained in a patient who successfully received a liver transplantation. During acute episodes, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) changed rapidly along with anemia. Liver-specific ALT levels were age-dependently correlated with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Enzyme reduction was milder for AST than ALT, which resulted in a high AST/ALT ratio in the anemic stage. The anemic stage in two patients transformed to acute liver failure. Conclusions: All survivors of an acute episode of the acute hepatic phenotype had residual liver disease or both liver and neurologic diseases. The rapid changes in liver enzymes during the acute episode and the liver and neurologic diseases remaining in survivors may provide a better understanding of WD. PMID:26807378

  14. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were categorized into quintiles. Sub-distribution hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a competing risks regression model in which deaths from other causes were treated as competing risks. Results Of 8808 deaths, 1111 (12.6%) were due to external causes. Injury accounted for 256 deaths, and suicide accounted for 255. After adjusting for covariates, elevated ALT and AST were significantly associated with an increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, as well as suicide and injury. Sub-distribution hazards ratios (95% CIs) of the highest versus the lowest quintiles of serum ALT and AST were, respectively, 1.57 (1.26-1.95) and 1.45 (1.20-1.76) for all external causes, 2.73 (1.68-4.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.66) for suicide, and 1.79 (1.10-2.90) and 1.85 (1.21-2.82) for injury. The risk of external-cause mortality was also significantly higher in the fourth quintile of ALT (21.6-27.5 IU/L) than in its first quintile. Conclusion Elevated aminotransferase levels, even within the normal range, were significantly associated with increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, including suicide, and injury. PMID:26446640

  15. Resveratrol and fenofibrate ameliorate fructose-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by modulation of genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Haleim, Enas A; Bahgat, Ashraf K; Saleh, Samira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of resveratrol, alone and in combination with fenofibrate, on fructose-induced metabolic genes abnormalities in rats. METHODS: Giving a fructose-enriched diet (FED) to rats for 12 wk was used as a model for inducing hepatic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Adult male albino rats (150-200 g) were divided into a control group and a FED group which was subdivided into 4 groups, a control FED, fenofibrate (FENO) (100 mg/kg), resveratrol (RES) (70 mg/kg) and combined treatment (FENO + RES) (half the doses). All treatments were given orally from the 9th week till the end of experimental period. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver index, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), serum and liver triglycerides (TGs), oxidative stress (liver MDA, GSH and SOD), serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. Additionally, hepatic gene expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and adipose tissue genes expression of leptin and adiponectin were investigated. Liver sections were taken for histopathological examination and steatosis area were determined. RESULTS: Rats fed FED showed damaged liver, impairment of glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. As for gene expression, there was a change in favor of dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. All treatment regimens showed some benefit in reversing the described deviations. Fructose caused deterioration in hepatic gene expression of SOCS-3, SREBP-1c, FAS, MDA and TGF-β1 and in adipose tissue gene expression of leptin and adiponectin. Fructose showed also an increase in body weight, insulin resistance (OGTT, HOMA), serum and liver TGs, hepatic MDA, serum AST, AST/ALT ratio and TNF-α compared to control. All treatments improved SOCS-3, FAS, MCD, TGF-β1 and leptin genes expression while only RES and FENO + RES groups showed an improvement in SREBP-1c expression. Adiponectin gene expression was improved only by RES. A decrease in body weight, HOMA, liver TGs, AST/ALT ratio and TNF-α were observed in all treatment groups. Liver index was increased in FENO and FENO + RES groups. Serum TGs was improved only by FENO treatment. Liver MDA was improved by RES and FENO + RES treatments. FENO + RES group showed an increase in liver GSH content. CONCLUSION: When resveratrol was given with half the dose of fenofibrate it improved NASH-related fructose-induced disturbances in gene expression similar to a full dose of fenofibrate. PMID:26973390

  16. Biochemical Evaluation of Patients of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Non-alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Torkadi, Prasad P; Apte, I C; Bhute, A K

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is due to excessive alcohol intake for long duration. Distinguishing ALD from non-ALD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatitis of viral origin) is difficult as patient may deny alcohol abuse. Clinical examination, histology and serology may not differentiate these conditions. Accurate diagnosis is important as management of ALD differs from non-ALD patients. The aim of our study was (1) To evaluate the patients of ALD and non-ALD by biochemical parameters compared to controls, (2) To assess whether these parameters can differentiate ALD from non-ALD. Study was carried out on 50 patients of ALD in group I and 35 patients of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and acute viral hepatitis each in group II. Age matched healthy controls n=50. Selection criteria-history of alcohol intake (amount and duration), clinical examination, sonography of abdomen, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin levels. Blood samples were analyzed for bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) by kinetic method. Statistical analysis was done by Student unpaired 't' test. Patients of ALD have raised AST/ALT ratio (De Ritis ratio) (>2), ALP and GGT compared to controls (P<0.01).There is significant difference in AST/ALT ratio, serum GGT and ALP in ALD group compared to that in NASH and acute viral hepatitis (P<0.05). This study suggests that De Ritis ratio>2 in ALD patients may be due to alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial injury and pyridoxine deficiency. High GGT and ALP values may indicate enzyme induction by alcohol and mild cholestasis. Thus ALD patients have severe hepatic damage. De Ritis ratio<1 and normal to mild elevation in GGT level in NASH and acute viral hepatitis suggest mild hepatic injury of non-alcoholic origin. Our study concludes that ALD patients can be differentiated from NASH and acute viral hepatitis with certainty by measuring serum AST/ALT ratio, GGT and ALP. These biochemical parameters may help clinicians to support the diagnosis of ALD and non-ALD. PMID:24478554

  17. In Acute Myocardial Infarction Liver Parameters Are Associated With Stenosis Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Theodor; Neumann, Ursula; Jinawy, Mona; Hendricks, Stefanie; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Kälsch, Julia; Riemenschneider, Mona; Gerken, Guido; Erbel, Raimund; Heider, Dominik; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detection of high-risk subjects in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by noninvasive means would reduce the need for intracardiac catheterization and associated complications. Liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A potential predictive value for liver serum markers for the severity of stenosis in AMI was analyzed. Patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 437) were retrospectively evaluated. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and percent stenosis diameter (SD) were determined from quantitative coronary angiography. Patients were classified according to the severity of stenosis (SD ≥ 50%, n = 357; SD < 50%, n = 80). Routine heart and liver parameters were associated with SD using random forests (RF). A prediction model (M10) was developed based on parameter importance analysis in RF. Age, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and MLD differed significantly between SD ≥ 50 and SD < 50. Age, AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and troponin correlated significantly with SD, whereas MLD correlated inversely with SD. M10 (age, BMI, AP, AST, ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, troponin) reached an AUC of 69.7% (CI 63.8–75.5%, P < 0.0001). Routine liver parameters are associated with SD in AMI. A small set of noninvasively determined parameters can identify SD in AMI, and might avoid unnecessary coronary angiography in patients with low risk. The model can be accessed via http://stenosis.heiderlab.de. PMID:26871849

  18. Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. RESULTS: Four RCTs including 338 patients met the prede?ned inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00?001; I2 = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. CONCLUSION: Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections. PMID:21912460

  19. Cryoprotective therapy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma: a study of 14 patients with a single lesion.

    PubMed

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Niu, Lizhi; Li, Jialiang; Yao, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Jianying; Ye, Jin; Chen, Jibing; Mu, Feng; Xu, Kecheng

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous cryoablation is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study reviewed retrospectively clinical data from 14 patients who underwent cryoablation of huge HCC (long diameter >7 cm). The side effects of cryosurgeries and liver function reverse were recorded and compared everyday. All the patients survived cryosurgery and none died before leaving hospital 2 weeks later. Despite liver-protective treatment before cryosurgery, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were increased significantly, but returned to preoperative levels 2 weeks post-cryosurgery. Before cryosurgery, mean total bilirubin (T.BIL) and direct bilirubin (D.BIL) levels were normal; 8-10 days after cryosurgery, they increased more than two-fold, but returned to the preoperative level 2 weeks post-cryosurgery. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels were compared between hepatitis B positive and negative patients. The hepatitis B negative group's AST level increased significantly 1 day post-cryosurgery (mean, 186 U/L) and decreased to the preoperative level at day 14. In the hepatitis B positive group, means transaminase and bilirubin reached peak values at different days post-cryosurgery. Overall, ALT and AST are valuable indicators of liver function impairment following cryosurgery. In patients with hepatitis B virus, close attention to the serum bilirubin level should be paid 8-10 days after cryosurgery. Liver-protective treatment may alleviate liver function impairment caused by cryosurgery of huge HCC. PMID:25445461

  20. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on the activities of serum enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Manthiri, Rajamohammed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) venom on the activities of liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in the sera of rats. The animals were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of crude Androctonus bicolor venom (200 ?g/kg bodyweight) and were sacrificed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h after venom injection. There was no significant change in ALT activity in rats injected with Androctonus bicolor venom. Although Androctonus bicolor venom did not produce any change in serum AST activity until 1 h post-dosing, it significantly decreased this enzyme activity at 2 h onwards. There were significant decreases in ALP activities throughout the study though mild surges in the enzyme activity were observed at 1 h and 8 h post-dosing. There was a continued significant decrease in serum LDH activity until 8 h after Androctonus bicolor venom injection followed by normalization of LDH activity at 24 h. The activities of serum CK and GGT were significantly decreased at all the time points following Androctonus bicolor envenomation in rats. In conclusion, Androctonus bicolor envenomation in rats significantly reduced the activities of serum enzymes including AST, ALP, LDH, CK and GGT. Androctonus bicolor venom induced hypomagnesemia may account for persistently reduced activities of liver enzymes due to the cofactor role of magnesium in enzyme activities. PMID:26380012

  1. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on the activities of serum enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Manthiri, Rajamohammed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) venom on the activities of liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in the sera of rats. The animals were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of crude Androctonus bicolor venom (200 ?g/kg bodyweight) and were sacrificed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h after venom injection. There was no significant change in ALT activity in rats injected with Androctonus bicolor venom. Although Androctonus bicolor venom did not produce any change in serum AST activity until 1 h post-dosing, it significantly decreased this enzyme activity at 2 h onwards. There were significant decreases in ALP activities throughout the study though mild surges in the enzyme activity were observed at 1 h and 8 h post-dosing. There was a continued significant decrease in serum LDH activity until 8 h after Androctonus bicolor venom injection followed by normalization of LDH activity at 24 h. The activities of serum CK and GGT were significantly decreased at all the time points following Androctonus bicolor envenomation in rats. In conclusion, Androctonus bicolor envenomation in rats significantly reduced the activities of serum enzymes including AST, ALP, LDH, CK and GGT. Androctonus bicolor venom induced hypomagnesemia may account for persistently reduced activities of liver enzymes due to the cofactor role of magnesium in enzyme activities. PMID:26380012

  2. In Acute Myocardial Infarction Liver Parameters Are Associated With Stenosis Diameter.

    PubMed

    Baars, Theodor; Neumann, Ursula; Jinawy, Mona; Hendricks, Stefanie; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Klsch, Julia; Riemenschneider, Mona; Gerken, Guido; Erbel, Raimund; Heider, Dominik; Canbay, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Detection of high-risk subjects in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by noninvasive means would reduce the need for intracardiac catheterization and associated complications. Liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A potential predictive value for liver serum markers for the severity of stenosis in AMI was analyzed.Patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n?=?437) were retrospectively evaluated. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and percent stenosis diameter (SD) were determined from quantitative coronary angiography. Patients were classified according to the severity of stenosis (SD???50%, n?=?357; SD?AST), and MLD differed significantly between SD???50 and SD?AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and troponin correlated significantly with SD, whereas MLD correlated inversely with SD. M10 (age, BMI, AP, AST, ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, troponin) reached an AUC of 69.7% (CI 63.8-75.5%, P?

  3. Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald's formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease. PMID:25120819

  4. Presence of Concurrent Derangements of Liver Function Tests in Type 2 Diabetes and Their Relationship with Glycemic Status: A Retrospective Observational Study from Meghalaya

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Kaustubh; Borah, Meghna; Chutia, Happy; Nath, Chandan Kumar; Das, Dulmoni; Ruram, Alice Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The liver plays a pivotal role in carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, functional state of the liver in patients with diabetes is of interest. The objectives of the current study were to (i) identify co-existent biochemical derangements of liver function tests (LFTs) in type 2 diabetes and (ii) determine the association between liver function parameters and glycemic status in type 2 diabetics from Shillong, Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: Data from 320 type 2 diabetes patients were screened retrospectively for abnormalities in LFTs. Relationship of fasting serum glucose was assessed with the following tests in the LFT panel: Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin. Correlation coefficient was computed between individual LFT and fasting glucose status. These bivariate analyses were supplemented by multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: 71.25% subjects had an abnormality in at least one LFT. Elevated ALT (46.8%) and elevated ALP (48.5%) were the most common abnormality in males and females, respectively. ALP correlated positively with fasting glucose in both sexes. AST, ALT, and ALP were found to be independent determinants of glycemic status. Conclusion: Derangements in liver function are widely co-existent in type 2 diabetics from Shillong. Deranged liver enzymes are associated with glycemic status. Screening for liver dysfunction in diabetics and subsequent workup may lead to the identification of hepatic co-morbidities and better management. PMID:27013810

  5. Cement Dust Exposure and Perturbations in Some Elements and Lung and Liver Functions of Cement Factory Workers

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Egbe Edmund; Augusta Chinyere, Nsonwu-Anyanwu; Jeremaiah, Offor Sunday; Opara, Usoro Chinyere Adanna; Henrieta, Etukudo Maise; Ifunanya, Egbe Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cement dust inhalation is associated with deleterious health effects. The impact of cement dust exposure on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), liver function, and some serum elements in workers and residents near cement factory were assessed. Methods. Two hundred and ten subjects (50 workers, 60 residents, and 100 controls) aged 18–60 years were studied. PEFR, liver function {aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT) and total and conjugated bilirubin (TB and CB)}, and serum elements {lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As)} were determined using peak flow meter, colorimetry, and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA and correlation at p = 0.05. Results. The ALT, TB, CB, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were significantly higher and PEFR, Fe, and Zn lower in workers and residents compared to controls (p < 0.05). Higher levels of ALT, AST, and Fe and lower levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were seen in cement workers compared to residents (p < 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between duration of exposure and PEFR (r = −0.416, p = 0.016) in cement workers. Conclusions. Cement dust inhalation may be associated with alterations in serum elements levels and lung and liver functions while long term exposure lowers peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:26981118

  6. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vincius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antnio Jos; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls. PMID:21074323

  7. Effects of repeat exposure to inhalation anesthetics on liver and renal function

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Tomoki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross hypersensitivity to inhalation anesthetics has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate it by comparing liver and renal function after repeated anesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane retrospectively. Materials and Methods: The adult patients who received general anesthesia twice within the interval of 14 days to 1 year were retrospectively analyzed. Those who received sevoflurane anesthesia twice (SS group, 53 cases), isoflurane anesthesia twice (II group, 31 cases), sevoflurane followed by isoflurane anesthesia (SI group, 29 cases), isoflurane followed by sevoflurane anesthesia (IS group, 35 cases), and propofolfentanyl anesthesia twice (PP group, 58 cases) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (Bil), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) measured 1-3, 5-8, and 12-16 days after surgery were investigated. Results: In the IS group, the number of the patients with abnormal values of ALT and ?-GTP 58 days after surgery were significantly smaller at second anesthesia compared to the first anesthesia. The number of the patients with abnormal values of AST, ALT, and ?-GTP were significantly larger in the II group than the SS and PP groups. The number of patients who had higher values in each parameter at second anesthesia compared to the first anesthesia was not different among the groups. Conclusions: Sevoflurane and isoflurane might have no cross hypersensitivity. Both anesthetics might not have any additional risks to increase liver and renal damage by second anesthesia. PMID:23493664

  8. Unusually high stability of a poly(alkylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) conjugated copolymer in its n and p-doped states.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mikhael D; Fisyuk, Alexander S; Demadrille, Renaud; Markevich, Elena; Gofer, Yossi; Aurbach, Doron; Pron, Adam

    2006-08-21

    Incorporation of electron accepting units (oxadiazole) into the 2,5-thienylene conjugated chain leads to a significant improvement in the n-doping-undoping redox stability of the resulting polymer. PMID:16883416

  9. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  10. Preliminary temperature accelerated life test (ALT) on lattice mismatched triple-junction concentrator solar cells-on-carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Vincenzo; Espinet, Pilar; Nuez, Neftal; Eltermann, Fabian; Contreras, Yedileth; Bautista, Jess; Vzquez, Manuel; Bett, Andreas W.; Algora, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on concentrator lattice mismatched Ga0.37In0.63P/Ga0.83In0.17As/Ge triple-junction solar cells-on-carrier is being carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 125, 145 and 165C and the nominal photo-current condition (500X) is emulated by injecting current in darkness. The final objective of these tests is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of these solar cells in a moderate period of time. Up to now only the test at 165C has finished. Therefore, we cannot provide complete reliability information, but we have carried out preliminary data and failure analysis with the current results.

  11. Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinet-Gonzlez, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Nez, Neftal; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vzquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jess; Araki, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 C.

  12. Relationship between Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) and Skill Concepts Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Vassiliadou, Olga; Tzetzis, George; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between time-related variables of the physical education lesson and skill concepts acquisition and retention. One hundred and four students aged 6.4 to 7.9 years, and their six physical educators participated. The motor behavior of thirty-six selected students was videotaped during a…

  13. Relationship between Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) and Skill Concepts Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Vassiliadou, Olga; Tzetzis, George; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between time-related variables of the physical education lesson and skill concepts acquisition and retention. One hundred and four students aged 6.4 to 7.9 years, and their six physical educators participated. The motor behavior of thirty-six selected students was videotaped during a

  14. Novel approach for high resolution using cycloolefin-alt-maleic acid derivatives polymer for ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Bum; Park, Joo Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Chang-Min; Lim, Young T.; Cho, Seung-duk; Joo, Hyun-Sang; Jeon, Hyun P.; Kim, Seong-Ju

    2002-07-01

    Polyacrylate derivative was first developed as raw material for ArF resist and it was selected the first candidate in spite of some defects. Cycloolefin-maleic anhydride polymer[COMA] and other polymers were therefore given opportunity. The resist based on COMA shows a good dry-etch resistance compared with that based on acrylate polymer. However, the pattern profile of the resist formulated by using COMA has some defects such as taper and low resolution because of transmittance issue of the polymer. In order to solve the issue, we have developed a new polymer [It was named ROMA Resin]. The new polymer has good physical properties such as UV transmittance, stability during storage and moderate glass transition temperature. We also found that the pattern profile of the resist formulated by using the polymer shows good results in terms of pattern profile, CD SEM slimming and PED stability.

  15. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  16. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  17. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  18. Astronomie in Stein. Archäologen und Astronomen enträtseln alte Bauwerke und Kultstätten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drößler, R.

    Contents: 1. Archäoastronomie - eine moderne Wissenschaft. 2. Der Blick zur Sonne. 3. Streit um die Geometrie der Steinzeit. 4. Erdwerke, Henges und steinzeitlicher Sonnenkalender. 5. Fakten und Spekulationen. 6. Von Scharrbildern und Medizinrädern.

  19. Biochemical parameters in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica infected with coccidia and treated with Toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Sokl, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M; Koziatek, S

    2015-01-01

    The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels were determined in the blood serum of Japanese quails infected with coccidia and treated with Baycox (active ingredient: toltrazuril). Lower levels of AST and ALT activity were noted in treated birds regardless of the applied Baycox dose. The biochemical changes observed in the blood serum of Japanese quails point to coccidia-induced damage of digestive system tissues despite an absence of pronounced clinical symptoms. Significantly lower levels of AST activity and higher levels of LDH activity in treated birds indicate that coccidiosis treatment with toltrazuril contributed to the regeneration of digestive system tissues. An insignificant increase in cholesterol levels was noted, whereas the other serum biochemical parameters remained within the reference ranges. PMID:25928913

  20. Clinical effects of long-term metreleptin treatment in patients with lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jean L.; Lutz, Karen; Cochran, Elaine; Huang, Wenying; Peters, Yvette; Weyer, Christian; Gorden, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term clinical effect of treatment with metreleptin (an analogue of human leptin) on glycemic and lipid abnormalities and markers of hepatic steatosis in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. Methods Fifty-five patients (36 with generalized lipodystrophy and 19 with partial lipodystrophy) with at least 1 of 3 metabolic abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, fasting triglyceride level ?200 mg/dL, and insulin resistance) and low leptin levels received subcutaneous injections of metreleptin once or twice daily in an ongoing clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. Results At baseline, hemoglobin A1c8.5% 2.1% (mean standard deviation [SD])and triglycerides479 80 mg/dL (geometric mean standard error [SE])were substantially elevated. Robust and sustained reductions in both variables were evident for the observed patient population during a 3-year metreleptin treatment period (?2.1% 0.5% [mean SE] and ?35.4% 13.7% [mean SE], respectively). Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were elevated at baseline (100 120 U/L and 71 77 U/L [mean SD], respectively) and decreased by ?45 19 U/L and ?33 14 U/L (mean SE), respectively, during the 3-year metreleptin treatment period. Improvements in hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, ALT, and AST were more pronounced in the subsets of patients having elevated levels at baseline. The most notable adverse events observed in this patient population were likely attributable to underlying metabolic abnormalities or comorbidities. Conclusion Metreleptin treatment substantially reduced glycemic variables, triglycerides, and liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and demonstrated durability of response throughout a 3-year treatment period. These results support metreleptin as a potential treatment for certain metabolic disorders (for example, diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia) associated with lipodystrophy. PMID:22068254

  1. Influence of Sleeve Gastrectomy on NASH and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, W. K.; Krawczykowski, D.; Kuesters, S.; Marjanovic, G.; Kulemann, B.; Grobe, H.; Karcz-Socha, I.; Hopt, U. T.; Bukhari, W.; Grueneberger, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 85% of adipose patients and may proceed to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). With insulin resistance and obesity being the main risk factors for NASH, the effect of isolated sleeve gastrectomy (ISG) on these parameters was examined. Methods. 236 patients underwent ISG with intraoperative liver biopsy from December 2002 to September 2009. Besides demographic data, pre-operative weight/BMI, HbA1c, AST, ALT, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were determined. Results. A significant correlation of NASH with higher HbA1c, AST and ALT and lower levels for HDL was observed (P < .05, <.0001, <.0001, <.01, resp.). Overall BMI decreased from 45.0 6.8 to 29.7 6.5 and 31.6 4.4 kg/m2 at 1 and 3 years. An impaired weight loss was demonstrated for patients with NASH and patients with elevated HbA1c (plateau 28.08 kg/m2 versus 29.79 kg/m2 and 32.30 kg/m2 versus 28.79 kg/m2, resp.). Regarding NASH, a significant improvement of AST, ALT, triglyceride and HDL levels was shown (P < .0001 for all). A resolution of elevated HbA1c was observed in 21 of 23 patients. Summary. NASH patients showed a significant loss of body weight and amelioration of NASH status. ISG can be successfully performed in these patients and should be recommended for this subgroup. PMID:21274277

  2. [Influence of stir-baked with sand on active ingredients, diarrhea and hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan-juan; Shen, Gang; Yin, Rong-li; Shen, Cheng-ying; Cheng, Ling; Qiu, Ling; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-long

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of stir-baked with sand on active ingredients, diarrhea and hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum, the contents of herperione and herpetin in H. caudigerum before and after stir-baking with sand were analyzed by HPLC. The effect of stir-baked with sand on diarrhea of H. caudigerum TL was evaluated using the mean stool rate (MSR) and mean diarrheal index ( MDI) and the influence of stir-baked with sand on hepatoprotective effect of H. caudigerum TL was examined using a mouse model of CCl4-induced liver injury based on the analysis of serum ALT and AST activities. The results of HPLC analysis showed the content of herperione in H. caudigerum after stir-baking with sand decreased by 40.9% (P < 0.01) and the content of herpetin had no change. Pharmacodynamic results showed that the MSR and MDI of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL after stir-baking with sand were significantly lower than that of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL without stir-baking with sand; The high-dose and middle-dose of H. caudigerum TL with/without stir-baking with sand significantly alleviated liver injury as indicated by the decreased levels of serum ALT and AST, but the ALT and AST levels of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL after stir-baking with sand were higher than that of H. caudigerum TL without stir-baking with sand. The results revealed that the stir-baking with sand could effectively relieve diarrhea effect of H. caudigerum TL, while it also reduces the hepatoprotection of H. caudigerum TL. PMID:26080551

  3. Preconditioning somatothermal stimulation on Qimen (LR14) reduces hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human beings or animals, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the liver may occur in many clinical conditions, such as circulating shock, liver transplantation and surgery and several other pathological conditions. I/R injury has a complex pathophysiology resulting from a number of contributing factors. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve effective treatment or protection by individually targeting the mediators. This study aimed at studying the effects of local somatothermal stimulation preconditioning on the right Qimen (LR14) on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats were preconditioned with thermal tolerance study, which included one dose of local somatothermal stimulation (LSTS) on right Qimen (LR14) at an interval of 12h, followed by hepatic ischemia for 60min and then reperfusion for 60min. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have been used to assess the liver functions, and liver tissues were taken for the measurements such as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Results The results show that the plasma ALT and AST activities were higher in the I/R group than in the control group. In addition, the plasma ALT and AST activities decreased in the groups that received LSTS. The hepatic SOD levels reduced significantly by I/R injury. Moreover, the hepatic MPO activity significantly increased by I/R injury while it decreased in the groups given LSTS. Conclusions Our findings show that LSTS provides a protective effects on the liver from the I/R injury. Therefore, LSTS might offer an easy and inexpensive intervention for patients who have suffered from I/R of the liver especially in the process of hepatotomy and hepatic transplantation. PMID:24417801

  4. Tissue factor and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released by human islets affect islet engraftment in type 1 diabetic recipients.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Marzorati, Simona; Maffi, Paola; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Melzi, Raffaella; de Taddeo, Francesca; Valtolina, Veronica; D'Angelo, Armando; di Carlo, Valerio; Bonifacio, Ezio; Secchi, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Islet survival in the early posttransplantation period is likely to be influenced by inflammatory events in and around islets. Twenty-seven human islet preparations were transplanted by 24 infusions into 14 patients with brittle type 1 diabetes under the Edmonton protocol. Patients were monitored for their coagulation [cross-linked fibrin degradation products (XDPs)] and liver function test [aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT)] as markers of early posttransplant complications, and these were correlated with in vitro islet number, purification, volume, monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and tissue factor (TF) islet release. Consistent with activation of coagulation pathways and hepatic damage, serum XDP values increased early after 11 infusions and transaminase after 13 of 24 infusions. TF and CCL2/MCP-1 were detected in supernatants of 21 and 22 islet preparations, respectively. Serum XDP peak values were correlated with TF/equivalent islets (EI) (r(2)=0.26, P = 0.001) and CCL2/MCP-1/EI (r(2) = 0.42; P < 0.001); serum transaminase areas under the curve in the first week posttransplantation were correlated with CCL2/MCP-1/EI (r(2) = 0.55; P < 0.001 for ALT and r(2) = 0.51; P = 0.001 for AST) and TF/EI (r(2) = 0.31; P = 0.002 for ALT, and r(2) = 0.36; P = 0.002 for AST). These data suggest that reducing the islet proinflammatory state may be a means to reduce the early posttransplant complications and perhaps improve islet engraftment. PMID:15531535

  5. Pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid effect on hepatic biomarkers in Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Jainu, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1). Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers protection to some extent against NASH. PMID:24761121

  6. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation: Role of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Xu, Xihui; Babcock, Sara A.; Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) plays a critical role in the detoxification of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. This study was designed to examine the impact of global ALDH2 overexpression on alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. Methods Wild-type friendly virus B (FVB) and ALDH2 transgenic mice were placed on a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 weeks. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin and cholesterol, hepatic triglyceride, steatosis, fat metabolism-related proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), autophagy and autophagy signaling were examined. The role of autophagy was evaluated in ADH1-transfected human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (VA-13) treated with or without autophagy inducer rapamycin and lysosomal inhibitors. Results Chronic alcohol intake led to elevated AST, ALT, bilirubin, AST/ALT ratio, cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides, hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by H&E and oil Red O staining, associated with disturbed fat metabolism-related proteins (fatty acid synthase, SCD1), upregulated interleukin-6, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase, oxidative stress, and loss of autophagy, the effects of which were attenuated or ablated by ALDH2 transgene. Moreover, ethanol (100 mM) and acetaldehyde (100, 500 μM) increased levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and suppressed autophagy in VA-13 cells, the effects of which were markedly alleviated by rapamycin. In addition, lysosomal inhibitors mimicked ethanol-induced p62 accumulation with little additive effect with ethanol. Ethanol significantly suppressed LC3 conversion in the presence of lysosomal inhibitors. Conclusions In summary, our results revealed that ALDH2 plays a beneficial role in ameliorating chronic alcohol intake-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through regulation of autophagy. PMID:25457208

  7. Lycium barbarum extract provides effective protection against paracetamol-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gndz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Y?lmaz; ?er, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Kan?c?, Ay?e; Kaplan, ?brahim; Alabal?k, Ula?; Grbz, Hseyin; Glo?lu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Lycium barbarum (LB) extract against paracetamol-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. The subjects were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the LB group were administered a dose of 100 mg/kg LB extract dissolved in saline via the intraperitoneal route for 7 days. Subsequently, after last dose of LB, PCT was given in a single dose of 1 g/kg diluted in saline via the oral route. Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were drawn from all of the subjects for serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) tests, and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological evaluation. The mean TAS level of the group that was subjected to PCT intoxication was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Additionally, the mean TOS, Oxidative stress index (OSI), ALT and AST values were significantly higher in this group. Though the mean TAS level in the PCT + LB group was significantly higher than that of the PCT group, the TOS, OSI, ALT, and AST levels were significantly lower. When the PCT + LB group and the PCT only group were compared in terms of liver damage during the histopathological evaluation, a statistically significant difference was observed in Grade I and Grade III damage (P=0.013 and P=0.038, respectively). We conclude that Lycium barbarum extract leads to a significant improvement in PCT-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of the histopathological results, serum oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes. PMID:26221346

  8. Efficacy of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide on cadmium induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francielli W; Zeni, Gilson; Rocha, Joao B T; do Nascimento, Paulo C; Marques, Marieli S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2005-12-01

    The deleterious effect of acute cadmium-intoxication in mice testes was evaluated. Animals received a single dose of CdCl2 (2.5 or 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and a number of toxicological parameters in mice testes were examined, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, hemoglobin and ascorbic acid contents. Furthermore, the parameters that indicate tissue damage such as plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also determined. Thus, a possible protective effect of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 were studied. The results demonstrated an inhibition of delta-ALA-D activity, a reduction of ascorbic acid and an increase of lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium, indicating testes damage. Furthermore, we observed an increase of plasma LDH, AST and ALT activities. DMPS (400 mol/kg) and (PhSe)2 (100 micromol/kg) partially protected from the inhibitory effect of 2.5 mg/kg CdCl2 on delta-ALA-D and from the increase of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive species) levels. (PhSe)2 therapy was effective in ameliorate ascorbic acid content when the cadmium dose was 2.5 mg/kg. Treatment with DMPS and (PhSe)2, individually or combined, was inefficient in reducing cadmium-induced plasma LDH and ALT activity increase. The use of combined therapy (DMPS plus (PhSe)2) proved to be efficient in decreasing cadmium levels in testes and in ameliorating plasma AST activity from animals that received the highest dose of cadmium. PMID:16000234

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress via total antioxidant status, sialic acid, malondialdehyde and RT-PCR findings in sheep affected with bluetongue

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, I.; Aksit, H.; Sait, A.; Kaya, F.; Aksit, D.; Gokmen, M.; Baca, A. Unsal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious infectious disease of ruminants. The disease agent bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified in the Reoviridae family Orbivirus. Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to determine serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative stres (TAS), total sialic acid (TSA), ceruloplasmin, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholesterol, creatinine, albumin, and total protein levels in sheep with and without bluetongue (BT). Materials and Methods The study included 13 Sakiz crossbreed sheep, aged 14 years and usually in the last stage of pregnancy, as the BT group and a control group consisting of 10 healthy sheep. All sheep were clinically examined before collecting blood samples. Serum ALT, AST, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, GGT, total protein, creatinine and TAS levels were measured using commercially available kits as per manufacturer's recommendations using a Biochemistry Auto Analyzer (Sinnowa D280, China). Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated through a previously described method in which MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a coloured complex at a maximum absorbance of 535 nm. The TSA value was measured at 549 nm using the method described by Warren (1959): sialic acid was oxidised to formyl-pyruvic acid, which reacts with TBA to form a pink product. The ceruloplasmin concentration was measured according to Sunderman and Nomoto (1970): ceruloplasmin and p-phenylenediamine formed a coloured oxidation product that was proportional to the concentration of serum ceruloplasmin. Real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR were performed as described by Shaw and others (2007). Results Biochemistry analysis of serum showed that in the BT group, TSA, MDA, triglyceride and ALT and AST were higher and that ceruloplasmin and TAS were lower than in the control group. Serum albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and GGT did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Serum triglyceride, ceruloplasmin, TSA, MDA and TAS concentrations may prove beneficial to the diagnosis, prognosis and biochemical analysis of BT. PMID:26392885

  10. Combinatorial Effects of Thymoquinone on the Anticancer Activity and Hepatotoxicity of the Prodrug CB 1954

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Wamidh H.; AbuKhader, Majed M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. PMID:23833717

  11. Carnosine and taurine treatments decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by D-galactose in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaz, Esra Betl; oban, Jale; Ayd?n, A Fatih; Do?an-Ekici, I??n; Do?ru-Abbaso?lu, Semra; ztezcan, Serdar; Uysal, Mjdat

    2014-03-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of carnosine (CAR) or taurine (TAU), having antioxidant effects, on hepatic injury and oxidative stress in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days/week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days/week) or TAU (2.5 % w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-0050x), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined. Hepatic expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Ki-67 were evaluated. Serum ALT, AST, hepatic MDA, and PC levels were observed to increase in GAL-treated rats. Hepatic Bax expression, but not Bcl-2, increased, Ki-67 expression decreased. GAL treatment caused decreases in GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD, but not GSH-Px, also diminished. CAR or TAU treatments caused significant decreases in serum ALT and AST activities. These treatments decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation and ameliorated histopathological findings in the livers of GAL-treated rats. Both CAR and TAU reduced MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px (non significant in TAU?+?GAL group) activities. These treatments did not alter hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU restored liver prooxidant status together with histopathological amelioration in GAL-induced liver damage. PMID:23872881

  12. Effect of glycyrrhizic acid on titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Fakhredini, Fereshtesadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that most nanoparticles (NPs) have an adverse or toxic action on liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against hepatic injury induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. NTiO2-intoxicated rats received 300 mg/kg of NTiO2 for 14 days by gavage method. Protection group pretreated with GA for 7 days before NTiO2 administration. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected as biomarkers in the blood to indicate hepatic injury. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated for oxidative stress in hepatic injury. Light microscopy for histopathological studies and TUNEL assay was also done. Administration of NTiO2 induced a significant elevation in plasma AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NTiO2 increased oxidative stress through the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in SOD and GPx enzymes. Histopathological studies showed that treatment with NTiO2 caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis, which was accompanied by congestion and accumulation of inflammatory cells. Apoptotic index was also significantly increased in this group. Pretreatment of GA significantly decreased ALT, AST and ALP, attenuated the histopathology of hepatic injury, decreased apoptotic index, ameliorated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue, and increased the activities of SOD and GPx. These findings indicate that GA effectively protects against NTiO2-induced hepatotoxicity. GA has a potent protective effect against the NPs induced hepatotoxicity and might be clinically useful. PMID:25016076

  13. Increased soluble IL-2 receptor levels in serum from a patient with painless thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) has been established as a reliable marker of T-lymphocyte activation. However, there have been no reports describing the relationship between serum sIL-2R and painless thyroiditis. Objective We report a case of a 76-yr-old female with a significant and temporary increase of sIL-2R concomitant with painless thyroiditis. Case illustration The patient was diagnosed with malignant lymphoma at the age of 73. After 6cycles of CHOP-R complete remission was induced and no recurrence was observed up to 3.5years. At 76years of age, she exhibited hyperthyroidism and was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis based upon US examination and 99mTc-Thyroid scintigraphy. Her AST and ALT were mildly elevated, and her serum level of sIL-2R increased up to 2230?U/mL from the approximately 540 U/mL, which had been stable for 3years before. These abnormal data normalized without requiring any treatment. The time-course of the reduction in sIL-2R did not correlate with FT4 or FT3, but was very similar to that of AST and ALT. Conclusion There was no evidence of relapse of the malignant lymphoma. We conclude that the increase of sIL-2R was associated with painless thyroiditis. Considering the similar time-course between the reduction of serum sIL-2R and those of AST and ALT, which are often accompanied by autoimmune processes in painless thyroiditis during the development of hyperthyroidism, it was suggested that the increase of serum sIL-2R in this case resulted from activation of an autoimmune process. PMID:24305463

  14. Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

    of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

  15. Study on changes of clinical indicators and key proteins from fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Wang, Hongmei; Han, Mei; Jiao, Yuguo; Ma, Congli; Zhang, Han; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the biomarker changes of fluoride exposure. In order to explore early and sensitive indicators, animal experiment was designed. Ninety-six healthy SD rats (48 males and 48 females) weighing approximately 60 g were randomly divided into six groups of 16 animals each by gender average. Control animals were supplied with distilled water only as group 1. Exposure groups' animals were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg NaF/kg bw, respectively, as groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Our study found that contents of white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte percentage (LYMPH%), lymphocyte (LYM), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) increased significantly in high-fluoride-exposure groups (p < 0.05), which revealed that immune system may be interfered by high fluoride. Meanwhile, levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and ALT/AST in groups 5 and 6 decreased significantly compared to those in control group (p < 0.05), as well as the concentration of uric acid (UA) in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 exhibited the same trends (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the level of blood B2 microglobulin (BB2MG) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 4, 5, and 6. Changes of ALT, AST, UA, and BB2MG suggested the functions of the liver and kidney be altered by fluoride exposure. At the same time, the ATF4 content decreased gradually with the increase of fluoride concentration; furthermore, a highly significant (r =?-0.586, p < 0.01) negative relationship between ATF4 content and fluoride exposure level was found. Results meant that clinical indicators cannot act as indicators of high fluoride exposure, and it also suggested that protein ATF4 might be the early and sensitive indicator in epidemiologic study of high fluoride exposure. PMID:24907160

  16. Ameliorative effect of butylated hydroxyanisole against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2015-11-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen and has been shown to adversely induce oxidative stress and tissue toxicity after both acute and chronic exposure. Present studies were designed to study the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant used in foods on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain (4-6 weeks old) weighing 125-150 g were used in this study. Animals were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) after a week's treatment with BHA. BHA was administered orally once daily for 7 days at doses of 1 and 2 mg/animal/day. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters as serum transaminases (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST)) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Fe-NTA treatment increased ALT, AST, and LDH levels significantly when compared to the corresponding saline-treated group (p < 0.001). Fe-NTA also depleted the levels of glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-tranferase (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with BHA significantly decreased ALT, AST and LDH levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). BHA also increased antioxidant enzymes level and decreased lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation to 1.3-1.5-fold as compared to Fe-NTA-treated group. The results show the strong hepatoprotective activity of BHA which could be due to its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:26499990

  17. Lycium barbarum extract provides effective protection against paracetamol-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Yılmaz; İçer, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Kanıcı, Ayşe; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alabalık, Ulaş; Gürbüz, Hüseyin; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Lycium barbarum (LB) extract against paracetamol-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. The subjects were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the LB group were administered a dose of 100 mg/kg LB extract dissolved in saline via the intraperitoneal route for 7 days. Subsequently, after last dose of LB, PCT was given in a single dose of 1 g/kg diluted in saline via the oral route. Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were drawn from all of the subjects for serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) tests, and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological evaluation. The mean TAS level of the group that was subjected to PCT intoxication was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Additionally, the mean TOS, Oxidative stress index (OSI), ALT and AST values were significantly higher in this group. Though the mean TAS level in the PCT + LB group was significantly higher than that of the PCT group, the TOS, OSI, ALT, and AST levels were significantly lower. When the PCT + LB group and the PCT only group were compared in terms of liver damage during the histopathological evaluation, a statistically significant difference was observed in Grade I and Grade III damage (P=0.013 and P=0.038, respectively). We conclude that Lycium barbarum extract leads to a significant improvement in PCT-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of the histopathological results, serum oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes. PMID:26221346

  18. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely. PMID:25686027

  19. Elevated Liver Enzymes in Cases of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Dacaj, Ramadan; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Stojkanovic, Goran; Dreshaj, Skender

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical parameters in serum of women with preeclampsia and IUGR. Material and methods: A clinical prospective study was conducted and included 120 pregnant women divided in two groups: non IUGR group included healthy pregnant women (n=60) and IUGR group included pregnant women with preeclampsia and IUGR (n=60). Outcome measures were following values of biochemical parameters in serum of mother and fetuses: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin (indirect and direct) and cholesterol. A blood for analysis was drawn from the cubital vein of mothers and the umbilical vein of the fetuses during delivery period. Results: The mean of maternal age was 30.0±6.1 years in women with preeclampsia and IUGR and 28.1±5.1 years in healthy pregnant women, p > 0.05. The most of women with preeclampsia and IUGR had grade III of placental maturation (48.3%). There is a significant association between the placental maturation and the diagnosis, p < 0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in body mass of newborns between IUGR and non IUGR groups, p < 0.001. There was a significant statistically difference in serum value of AST, ALT, LDH and total cholesterol between women with preeclampsia and IUGR and healthy pregnant women (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurement of AST, ALT, LDH, and total cholesterol in serum of pregnant women and newborns with IUGR allows the differentiation and threatening risk of perinatal complications due to hypoxia. PMID:26980931

  20. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    PubMed

    ?er, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; stnda?, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1g/kg, followed by oral MK 30mg/kg 3h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5g/kg plus oral MK 30mg/kg 3h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats. PMID:26462568

  1. Clinical features and risk factors of patients with fatty liver in Guangzhou area

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Kui; Chen, Hai-Ying; Huang, Kai-Hong; Zhong, Ying-Qiang; Han, Ji-Ao; Zhu, Zhao-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: There is still no accepted conclusion regarding the clinical features and related risk factors of patients with fatty liver. The large-scale clinical studies have not carried out yet in Guangzhou area. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features and related risk factors of patients with fatty liver in Guangzhou area. METHODS: A total of 413 cases with fatty liver were enrolled in the study from January 1998 to May 2002. Retrospective case-control study was used to evaluate the clinical features and related risk factors of fatty liver with logistic regression. RESULTS: Obesity (OR: 21.204), alcohol abuse (OR: 18.601), type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR: 4.461), serum triglyceride (TG) (OR: 3.916), serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR: 1.840) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (OR: 1.535) were positively correlated to the formation of the fatty liver. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) increased mildly in the patients with fatty liver and were often less than 2-fold of the normal limit. The higher abnormalities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (42.9%) with AST/ALT more than 2(17.9%) were found in patients with alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) than those with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) (16.9% and 5.0% respectively). The elevation of serum TG, cholesterol (CHOL), LDL-C was more common in patients with NAFL than with AFL. CONCLUSION: Obesity, alcohol abuse, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia may be independent risk factors of fatty liver. The mildly abnormal hepatic functions can be found in patients with fatty liver. More obvious damages of liver function with AST/ALT usually more than 2 were noted in patients with AFL. PMID:15040041

  2. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

  3. Effects of Copper, Zinc, and Vitamin Complex (Cernevit®) on Hepatic Healing in Rats Experimentally Subjected to Blunt Hepatic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Ayten, Refik; Aygen, Erhan; Cerrahoglu, Yusuf Ziya; Camci, Cemalettin; Ilhan, Yavuz Selim; Girgin, Mustafa; Ilhan, Necip; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi

    2015-12-01

    Solid organ injuries following blunt trauma are frequently encountered. The use of non-operative approach is gradually increasing. Thus, research on the methods that could enhance healing in solid organ injuries is in progress. Agents known to have antioxidant property were used after an experimentally induced blunt hepatic trauma. Thirty-two Wistar albino rats weighing 200 g were dropped from a height of 40 cm on to the right upper abdominal quadrant to produce a grade II-III hepatic injury. Rats were divided into control, Zn-administered, Cu-administered, and vitamin complex-administered groups, with eight rats in each. Aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured in the blood samples. The percentage of cells displaying Ki-67 nuclear staining was estimated. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the degree of inflammation in the samples was semi-quantitatively assessed. Treatment with zinc, copper, and Cernevit® caused varying levels of decrease in AST, ALT, and LDH levels compared to the control group. Ki-67 positivity was significantly lower in group I compared with groups II and III (p = 0.002). Ki-67 positivity was significantly higher in group II compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). A marked improvement was observed in inflammation in group II. Copper and zinc treatment decreased inflammation as well as blood levels of AST and ALT, and enhanced the healing of traumatized hepatic tissue. However, Cernevit® reduced only the degree of inflammation. PMID:27011508

  4. Hautriwaic acid as one of the hepatoprotective constituent of Dodonaea viscosa.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamid; Kabir, Nurul; Muhammad, Akhtar; Shah, Mohammad Raza; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Iqbal, Naveed; Nadeem, Said

    2014-01-15

    It is widely known that hepatitis and its complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma are one of the major health problems of the world especially since no specific treatment is available. In the present study we investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Dodonaea viscosa and its ethyl acetate, aqueous, butanol and n-hexane fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl?) induced hepatoxicity in rats. Hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in serum enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) that occur after CCl? injury, and by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The methanolic extract reduced the serum enzyme level (ALT, AST, and ALP) down to control levels despite CCl? treatment. It also reduced the CCl?-induced damaged area to 0% as assessed by histopathology. The CD68+ macrophages were also reduced in number around the central vein area by the methanolic extract. These hepatoprotective effects were better than the positive control silymarin. Similar hepatoprotective activities were found with the ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the methanolic extract. The butanol and n-hexane fractions showed elevated levels of ALT, AST and ALP as compared to the positive control silymarin. Histopathology showed ?30% damage to the liver cells with the butanol and n-hexane fractions which still showed some protective activity compared to the CCl? treated control. HPLC fingerprinting suggested that hautriwaic acid present in the methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions may be responsible for this hepatoprotective activity of Dodonaea viscosa which was confirmed by in vivo experiments. PMID:24075215

  5. Economic Analysis of Requests for Laboratory Tests in Primary Health Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Operation of the Primary health care center and Medical-biochemical laboratories depends on the number of performed laboratory tests. The number of unnecessary tests significantly affect the operation of health institutions. Material and methods: We analyzed the 1000 requests for laboratory tests at the Primary Health Care Centre in Gracanica from primary care units. Based on the requests for laboratory diagnostics advisable diagnoses from primary health care unit in the Primary Health Care Center (PHC) we made an economic analysis of the total required laboratory tests in the requests for laboratory diagnosis. Incorporating the economic analysis of laboratory tests in requests for laboratory diagnosis by doctors in primary health care (PHC) and the economic analysis of laboratory tests by the disease in primary health care. Results: The economic value of 5333 laboratory tests was 84 312 points (1 point is 0.80 KM). Of the total value of the index score requirements of GPs are 44, 1%, the requirement of family doctors account for 40% and requirements of other specialists make up 15, 9%.. Discussion: In the requests of the PHC units for laboratory tests are required all levels of services: urine, CBC, SE, glucose, bilirubine, ALT, AST, AF, CK, cholesterol, HDL chol., triglicerdes, creatinine, urea, uric acid, CRP, fibrinogen, calcium and phosphorus. The following requests are the most common laboratory tests: urine, CBC, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases, creatinine, urea. The doctors in family practice most often requested: blood glucose, urine, CBC, SE, TGL. , Chol., ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. General practitioners were demanding more cholesterol and triglycerides, and family medicine doctors were demanding less cholesterol and triglycerides and more often CRP, fibrinogen, ALT, AST, what from the level of economic cost analysis rises the issue whether this was justified? PMID:23322950

  6. Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHI-BIN; LI, QING; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; SUN, XIAO-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson’s staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

  7. Protective Role of Crocin Against Nicotine-induced Damages on Male Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Tabatabaei, Hadis; Kakaberiei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against nicotine on the liver of mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were equally divided into 8 groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus nicotine treated groups. Saline, crocin, nicotine and crocin/nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight (48.37%) and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (239%), central hepatic vein (28.45%), liver enzymes level (ALP 29.43%, AST 21.81%, ALT 21.55%), and blood serum nitric oxide level (57.18%) compared to saline group (P < 0.05). However, crocin and crocin plus nicotine administration significantly boosted liver weight (49.54%) and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (40.48%), central hepatic vein (15.44%), liver enzymes (ALP 22.02%, AST 19.05%, ALT 23.11%), and nitric oxide levels (35.80%) in all groups compared to nicotine group (percentages represent the maximum dose) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Crocin showed its partly protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26442615

  8. Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramrez-Faras, Carlett; Madrigal-Santilln, Eduardo; Gutirrez-Salinas, Jos; Rodrguez-Snchez, Nidia; Martnez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martnez, Ingrid; Hernndez-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-Gonzlez, Jos A

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration. PMID:18240347

  9. Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides

    SciTech Connect

    Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

  10. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

  11. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.01) in comparison to a control group. Data of the present study indicate that there might be an effect of acute alcohol intoxication on transaminase levels. The AST/ALT ratio seems to reflect the damage in hepatocytes after intensive alcohol consumption. The present study indicates a sex-specific difference in alcohol metabolism and effects between girls and boys: girls need less alcohol than boys to achieve the same blood alcohol levels than boys, and are more prone to loss of consciousness. PMID:26992701

  12. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of andrographolide derivatives as potent hepatoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlei; Gu, Guolong; Wang, Bin; Deng, Xin; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-03-01

    Poor water solubility limits the clinical use of andrographolide and its derivatives. In an attempt to develop potent hepatoprotective drugs, a strategy was proposed to improve the aqueous solubility of andrographolide. Ten andrographolide derivatives were designed, synthesized, evaluated for aqueous solubility and in vivo hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 -induced liver injury in mice. As expected, the aqueous solubility of synthetic derivatives was effectively improved. All compounds demonstrated the effect of different degrees in improving the liver enzyme (ALT and AST) activity, especially the most promising compound 9d significantly improved liver enzyme activity, with high potency to be a new lead. PMID:24118795

  13. Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Ceiba pentandra in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ladeji, Olusola; Omekarah, Ikechukwu; Solomon, Mariam

    2003-02-01

    The claim by Nigerian traditional herbal medicine practitioners that the silk cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra L. Gaertn (Bombacaceae) barks extract has antidiabetic properties was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and graded doses of the aqueous bark extract were then administered ad libitum in drinking water to the experimentally diabetic rats for 28 days. Administration of the aqueous bark extract caused a statistically significant reduction in plasma glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract appeared non-toxic as evidenced by normal serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin. The data appear to support the hypoglycemic effects of C. pentandra. PMID:12648806

  14. Vitamin E reduces liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Aiko; Kawabe, Naoto; Hashimoto, Senju; Murao, Michihito; Nakano, Takuji; Shimazaki, Hiroaki; Kan, Toshiki; Nakaoka, Kazunori; Ohki, Masashi; Takagawa, Yuka; Takamura, Tomoki; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E treatment on liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-eight NAFLD patients were administered vitamin E for > 1 year. The doses of vitamin E were 150, 300, or 600 mg; three times per day after each meal. Responses were assessed by liver enzyme levels [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotranferease (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP)], noninvasive scoring systems of hepatic fibrosis-4 [FIB-4 index and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index (APRI)], and liver stiffness [velocity of shear wave (Vs)] measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. Vs measurements were performed at baseline and 12 mo after baseline. The patients were genotyped for the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms and then divided into either the CC/CG or GG group to examine each group’s responses to vitamin E treatment. RESULTS: We found marked differences in the platelet count, serum albumin levels, alkaline phosphatase levels, FIB-4 index, APRI, and Vs at baseline depending on the PNPLA3 polymorphism. AST, ALT, and γ-GTP levels (all P < 0.001); FIB-4 index (P = 0.035); APRI (P < 0.001); and Vs (P < 0.001) significantly decreased from baseline to 12 mo in the analysis of all patients. In the subset analyses of PNPLA3 genotypes, AST levels (P = 0.011), ALT levels (P < 0.001), γ-GTP levels (P = 0.005), APRI (P = 0.036), and Vs (P = 0.029) in genotype GG patients significantly improved, and AST and ALT levels (both P < 0.001), γ-GTP levels (P = 0.003), FIB-4 index (P = 0.017), and APRI (P < 0.001) in genotype CC/CG patients. CONCLUSION: One year of vitamin E treatment improved noninvasive fibrosis scores and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients. The responses were similar between different PNPLA3 genotypes. PMID:26644818

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ≥ 6,1 mmol/L, TG ≥ 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in increasing the risk of liver injury. PMID:26543313

  16. AMELIORATIVE ROLE OF Vernonia cinerea IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Gokilaveni, C; Nishadh, A; Selvi, V

    2006-01-01

    The ameliorative activity of herbal powder prepared from Veronia cinerea leaves on CCl(4) (0.2ml/kg body wt. intraperitoneally (ip) and liquid paraffin (0.2 ml / kg body wt:ip) induced hepatotoxicity was studied in rats. The liver marker enzymes namely alanine transmainase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were decreased in 10% w/v liver homogenates of hepatotoxicity induced rats. The results of both post treated and pre treated groups suggest the hepatoprotective activity of Veronia cinerea in CCl(4) induced rats. PMID:22557198

  17. Serum arginino-succinate lyase: observations on the sensitivity and specificity of this test in the detection of minimal hepatocellular damage.

    PubMed

    Sims, F H; Rautanen, P

    1975-06-01

    The serum argino-succinate lyase (ASAL) activity was measured in preoperative and post-operative serum samples, from approximately 500 patients submitted to elective surgery. The results were compared with the determinations of 6 other enzyme activities on the same serum specimens. Serum ASAL elevations correlated highly with increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, and were nearly twice as great. They also correlated well with serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), but were approximately 2.7 times greater. It is confirmed that the serum ASAL activity is a sensitive and specific test for liver cell damage, suitable use in special conditions where high sensitivity is required. PMID:1149220

  18. Red Mold Rice against Hepatic Inflammatory Damage in Zn-deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of red mold rice (RMR) against liver injury in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks was investigated in this study. Rats were orally administered RMR (151 mg/kg body weight or 755 mg/kg body weight; 1 × dose or 5 × dose, respectively) with or without Zn once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The severity of liver damage was evaluated by measuring the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Zn-deficient rats. RMR significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT levels by Zn-deficient induction. Hepatic antioxidase activity was also significantly increased in the RMR + Zn group (RZ), thereby suppressing the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines in the liver of Zn-deficient rats. These findings suggested that RMR exerted hepatoprotective effects against Zn deficiency-induced liver inflammation. PMID:24716115

  19. An in vivo insight to the toxicological profile of various organotellurides.

    PubMed

    Schiar, Viviane Patrcia P; dos Santos, Danbia B; Duarte, Marta M M F; Vargas, Fabrcio; Ribeiro, Marinei C P; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson; Hassan, Waseem; da Rocha, Joo B T

    2013-11-01

    In this study we have examined the in vivo toxic effects of various organochalcogens on hepatic, renal, glycemic and lipid profile. Diorganotellurium dichloride phosphonate (C1) at all tested doses did not modify serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in mice. While, 2-butyltellurium furan (C2) and dinaphthalene ditelluride (C3) at a dose of 0.75 and 0.125 mmol/kg caused an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT activities. Our data showed that C1 caused an increase in urea content at different doses while treatment with C2 and C3 did not modify urea content. Treatment with C2 caused a significant alteration in serum glucose and fructosamine levels which explains the possible toxicity of these compounds. No significant changes were observed for cholesterol and triglycerides levels. These results suggest that organochalcogen compounds presented liver and renal toxicity and also altered glycemic profile which may leads to various clinical complications. PMID:23958975

  20. Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Shumaila; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Khan, Bakhtyawar Ali; Durrani, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusions It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters. PMID:23569919

  1. The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, ?-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001). Odds ratios (ORs) of instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ? 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ? 3 times/week to ?-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets. PMID:24284330

  2. Heritability of liver enzyme levels estimated from genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; Lubke, Gitta H; de Moor, Marleen H M; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Walters, Raymond K; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the liver enzyme levels in humans is moderately heritable, as indicated by twin-family studies. At present, genome-wide association studies have traced <2% of the variance back to genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimated the SNP-based heritability of levels of three liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) using genome-wide SNP data in a sample of 5421 unrelated Dutch individuals. Two estimation methods for SNP-based heritability were compared, one based on the distant genetic relatedness among all subjects as summarized in a Genetic Relatedness Matrix (GRM), and the other one based on density estimation (DE). The DE method was also applied to meta-analysis results on GGT and ALT. GRM-derived SNP-based heritability estimates were significant for GGT (16%) and AST (11%), but not for ALT (6%). DE estimates in the same sample varied as a function of pruning and were around 23% for all liver enzymes. Application of the DE approach to meta-analysis results for GGT and ALT gave SNP-based heritability estimates of 6 and 3%. The significant results in the Dutch sample indicate that genome-wide SNP platforms contain substantial information regarding the underlying genetic variation in the liver enzyme levels. A major part of this genetic variation remains however undetected. SNP-based heritability estimates, based on meta-analysis results, may point at substantial heterogeneity among cohorts contributing to the meta-analysis. This type of analysis may provide useful information to guide future gene searches. PMID:25424715

  3. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases: systematic review with individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic and manual searches were combined. Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. Participants Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. Main outcome measures Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Data synthesis The results of included trials were combined in meta-analyses. Sequential, subgroup and regression analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias. Results We included 12 RCTs on lixisenatide versus placebo and 3 RCTs with the active comparators liraglutide, exenatide or sitagliptin. The mean treatment duration was 29?weeks. Lixisenatide increased the proportion of patients with normalisation of ALT (risk difference: 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14; number needed to treat: 14 patients, p=0.042). The effect was not confirmed in sequential analysis. No effects of lixisenatide were identified on AST, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. No evidence of bias was identified. Mixed effect multilevel meta-regression analyses suggest that the benefit of lixisenatide on ALT was limited to patients who were overweight or obese. Conclusions This review suggests that lixisenatide increases the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. Trial registration number PROSPERO; CRD42013005779. PMID:25526792

  4. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application-dual flow. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Price, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic and diagnostic data that were obtained to determine the influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of coannular nozzles with thermal acoustic shields are summarized in this comprehensive data report. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale-model nozzles The tested nozzles included baseline (unshielded), 180 deg shielded, and 360 deg shielded dual flow coannular plug configurations. The baseline configurations include a high radius ratio unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coanuular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor. The tests were conducted at nozzle temperatures and pressure typical of operating conditions of variable cycle engine.

  5. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using cation-exchange prior to hydridegeneration permits accurate arsenic(III) determinations in acid mine waters containing high concentrations of interfering metals. Stabilization of the arsenic redox species for as many as 15 months is demonstrated for samples that have been properly filtered and acidified with HCl in the field. The detection limits for the method described in this report are 0.1 micrograms per liter for total arsenic and 0.8 micrograms per liter for arsenic(III).

  6. AST/RBASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

  7. AST/R–BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

  8. AST/R BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire ...

  9. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

  10. Development of high-efficiency, low-cost ZnSiAst/sub 2/ solar cells. Final report, April 9, 1979-June 8, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J E

    1980-01-01

    A research program with an ultimate goal of fabricating a ZnSiAs/sub 2//Si-web cascade solar cell is described. Calculations indicate, given a suitable material quality, that 23% efficiencies may be possible and that the Si-web substrate and materials proposed for this cell offer the potential for meeting the cost goals of $300/peak KW/sub e/. Significant results achieved under this contract include the successful conversion of the original open tube vapor phase epitaxial growth system to an organometallic growth approach which in turn led to reduced carrier concentrations, and improved material quality. This represents the first known chalcopyrite to be deposited via the MO-CVD technique. Additionally, epitaxial growth was obtained on ..cap alpha..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Si substrates for the first time. ZnSiAs/sub 2//Si structures have been fabricated in which carrier collection from both sides of the interface was observed using the electron beam induced current measurement technique. N-type impurity doping experiments have been initiated with the objective of synthesizing n-ZnSiAs/sub 2/ via substitutional doping. (WHK)

  11. Heart transplantation in children: indications. Report of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee of the Pediatric Committee of the American Society of Transplantation (AST).

    PubMed

    Fricker, F J; Addonizio, L; Bernstein, D; Boucek, M; Boucek, R; Canter, C; Chinnock, R; Chin, C; Kichuk, M; Lamour, J; Pietra, B; Morrow, R; Rotundo, K; Shaddy, R; Schuette, E P; Schowengerdt, K O; Sondheimer, H; Webber, S

    1999-11-01

    This review details the indications for heart transplantation in children. Contraindications have evolved from absolute to relative. Controversial issues remain and this paper represents a consensus of more than a dozen centers that have programs that remain active performing pediatric heart transplants. PMID:10562980

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

  13. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  14. Insulin resistance and β cell function in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ghergherehchi, Robabeh; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is a common finding in chronically transfused β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients with possible effect on β cell function and insulin resistance. In this study we aimed to evaluate glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and β cell function in β-TM patients. A total of 78 transfusion-dependent β-TM patients and 40 age and sex matched normal children were included. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in all subjects. Fasting plasma insulin level, insulin resistance index (IRI) and β cell function index (BFI) were also estimated. β-Thalassemia major patients had significantly more abnormal OGTT than the control group. β-Thalassemia major patients had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fasting blood sugar and IRI than the control group. Findings between β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients, with and without abnormal OGTT results, were also compared; β-thal patients with abnormal OGTT had significantly higher duration of chelation therapy, serum ferritin levels, AST, ALT and increased IRI and decreased BFI in comparison to patients with normal OGTT. Abnormal glucose metabolism is common in β-TM patients with chelation therapy and multiple transfusions which are attributable to impaired β cells' function and increased insulin resistance. PMID:25572183

  15. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

  16. Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

  17. Antioxidant and protective effects of Phytocee against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Radhakrishnan, Uma; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Phytocee) in the rodent model. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 6) were pretreated with Vitamin C (20 mg/kg) or Phytocee (20, 100, and 200 mg/kg), respectively for 10 days. Oxidative stress in rat liver was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 2 ml/kg as a single dose orally to all groups except the vehicle control group. After 24 h of administration of CCl4, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. Results: Phytocee administered groups at all the dose levels significantly reduced the hepatic MDA, serum ALT and AST levels with a marked increase in hepatic SOD and catalase as compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Phytocee markedly reversed the effects of CCl4 induced oxidative stress and can be used as an antioxidant feed supplement. PMID:25810658

  18. Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury in mice via inhibiting JNK/ERK MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai-Yan; Lian, Li-Hua; Jiang, Ying-Zi; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms of Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in mice. METHODS: GM (200, 150 or 50 mg/kg body weight) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 300 mg/kg body weight) was administrated orally with a single dose 2 h prior to APAP (300 mg/kg body weight) injection in mice. RESULTS: APAP treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal levels, and decreased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, the pretreatment of GM significantly alleviated APAP-induced oxidative stress by increasing GSH content, decreasing serum ALT, AST and MDA, and retaining the activity of GSH-px and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GM pretreatment can inhibit caspase-3 activation and phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal protein kinase 2 (JNK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). GM also remarkably attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method. CONCLUSION: Hepatoprotective effects of GM against APAP-induced acute toxicity are mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or its direct anti-apoptosis capacity. These results support that GM is a potent hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20082487

  19. The Effect of rhCygb on CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrogenesis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Wei, Wei; Chen, Bohong; Cai, Gaotai; Li, Xin; Wang, Ping; Tang, Jinping; Dong, Wenqi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the use of recombinant human cytoglobin (rhCygb) impact on hepatic fibrogenesis caused by CCl4. SD (n = 150) rats were randomly divided into three groups of normal, CCl4 model and rhCygb groups. After model establishment, rats in rhCygb groups were administered daily with rhCygb (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Histological lesions were staged according to metavir. Serum parameters including ALT, AST, HA, LN, Col III and Col IV were determined. The liver proteins were separated by 2-DE and identified. As a result, the stage of hepatic damage and liver fibrosis in rhCygb groups were significantly milder than that in CCl4 model groups. Meanwhile, rhCygb dramatically reversed serum levels of ALT and AST, and also markedly decreased the liver fibrosis markers levels of LN, HA, Col III and Col IV. In 2-DE, 33 proteins among three groups with the same changing tendency in normal and rhCygb treated groups compared with CCl4 model group were identified. GO analysis showed that several identified proteins involved in oxidative stress pathway. The study provides new insights and data for administration of rhCygb reversing CCl4-induced liver fibrosis suggesting that rhCygb might be used in the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27006085

  20. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window. PMID:26081271

  1. Natural Progression of Canine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yi, Haiqing; Austin, Stephanie L; Thurberg, Beth L; Young, Sarah P; Fyfe, John C; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa) is caused by a deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme activity. Hepatomegaly, muscle degeneration, and hypoglycemia occur in human patients at an early age. Long-term complications include liver cirrhosis, hepatic adenomas, and generalized myopathy. A naturally occurring canine model of GSD IIIa that mimics the human disease has been described, with progressive liver disease and skeletal muscle damage likely due to excess glycogen deposition. In the current study, long-term follow-up of previously described GSD IIIa dogs until 32 mo of age (n = 4) and of family-owned GSD IIIa dogs until 11 to 12 y of age (n = 2) revealed that elevated concentrations of liver and muscle enzyme (AST, ALT, ALP, and creatine phosphokinase) decreased over time, consistent with hepatic cirrhosis and muscle fibrosis. Glycogen deposition in many skeletal muscles; the tongue, diaphragm, and heart; and the phrenic and sciatic nerves occurred also. Furthermore, the urinary biomarker Glc4, which has been described in many types of GSD, was first elevated and then decreased later in life. This urinary biomarker demonstrated a similar trend as AST and ALT in GSD IIIa dogs, indicating that Glc4 might be a less invasive biomarker of hepatocellular disease. Finally, the current study further demonstrates that the canine GSD IIIa model adheres to the clinical course in human patients with this disorder and is an appropriate model for developing novel therapies. PMID:26884409

  2. Bio-sample detection on paper-based devices with inkjet printer-sprayed reagents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wun-Hong; Chu, Chien-Hung; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2015-12-01

    The reagent required for bio-sample detection on paper-based analytical devices is generally introduced manually using a pipette. Such an approach is time-consuming; particularly if a large number of devices are required. Automated methods provide a far more convenient solution for large-scale production, but incur a substantial cost. Accordingly, the present study proposes a low-cost method for the paper-based analytical devices in which the biochemical reagents are sprayed onto the device directly using a modified commercial inkjet printer. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by performing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) tests using simple two-dimensional (2D) paper-based devices. In both cases, the reaction process is analyzed using an image-processing-based colorimetric method. The experimental results show that for AST detection within the 0-105 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is around four minutes, while for ALT detection in the 0-125 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is approximately one minute. Finally, for both samples, the detection performance of the sprayed-reagent analytical devices is insensitive to the glucose concentration. PMID:26459437

  3. Protective Effects of Garlic and Silymarin on NDEA-Induced Rats Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shaarawy, Sabry M; Tohamy, Amany A; Elgendy, Saad M.; Elmageed, Zakaria Y Abd; Bahnasy, Abeer; Mohamed, Maha S; Kandil, Emad; Matrougui, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Background ­— The present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garlic extract and silymarin on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Methods and Results — Animals were pretreated with garlic, silymarin or both for one week prior to the injection of NDEA. Then animals received a single injection of NDEA followed by weekly subcutaneous injections of CCl4 for 6 weeks. Oral administration was then continued along with the injection of CCl4 for the duration of the experiment. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were measured. Injection of NDEA induced a significant elevation in serum AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NDEA increased oxidative stress through the increase in LPO and decrease in SOD, and GSH-dependent enzymes. Although administration of garlic or silymarin significantly reduced the liver toxicity, combined administration was more effective in preventing the development of hepatotoxicity. Conclusion — These novel findings suggest that silymarin and garlic have a synergistic effect, and could be used as hepatoprotective agents against hepatotoxicity. PMID:19742242

  4. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. PMID:25261609

  5. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanolelevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  6. Different doses of partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Shi, Changzheng; Cui, Meng; Yang, Zhenhua; Gan, Danhui; Wang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat. Left-half liver of rat was irradiated to 10 Gy, and the Right-half to 0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy, respectively. Then, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were evaluated on 0 day, 15-day, 30-day, 45-day and 60-day after liver irradiation. Next, the serum HGF, NF-?B and TGF-?1 levels were also analyzed on 60-day after liver irradiation. Lastly, the cyclinD1 protein expression was appraised by western blots on 60-day after liver irradiation. ALT, AST and ALP levels were reduced compared with that of controls. The serum HGF, NF-?B and TGF-?1 levels, and the cyclinD1 protein expression in liver irradiation group were increased compared with that of controls group. However, hepatic regeneration of higher dose-irradiated cirrhotic liver was triggered a more enhanced regeneration, compared with that of higher doses group. In summary, these results suggest that different doses of partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat. PMID:26261535

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

  8. Zerumbone Attenuates the Severity of Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis and Pancreatitis-Induced Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wenhong, Deng; Jia, Yu; Weixing, Wang; Xiaoyan, Chen; Chen, Chen; Sheng, Xu; Hao, Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential effects of zerumbone pretreatment on an acute necrotizing pancreatitis rat model induced by sodium taurocholate. The pancreatitis injury was evaluated by serum AMY, sPLA2, and pancreatic pathological score. Pancreatitis-induced hepatic injury was measured by ALT, AST, and hepatic histopathology. The expression of I-?B? and NF-?B protein was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry assay while ICAM-1 and IL-1? mRNA were examined by RT-PCR. The results showed that AMY, sPLA2, ALT, and AST levels and histopathological assay of pancreatic and hepatic tissues were significantly reduced following administration of zerumbone. Applying zerumbone also has been shown to inhibit NF-?B protein and downregulation of ICAM-1 and IL-1? mRNA. The present paper suggests that treatment of zerumbone on rat attenuates the severity of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis-induced hepatic injury, via inhibiting NF-?B activation and downregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and IL-1?. PMID:22529518

  9. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  10. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  11. Effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhong; Sun, Xuehui; Sang, Guifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (group A), chloral hydrate group (group B) and pentobarbital sodium group (group C). Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione s transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level as well as serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) were determined. Liver histopathological examinations were performed at termination. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were also evaluated. The SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT activities significantly decreased but TBARS levels increased in group B and C compared with group A. Hepatic injury was evidenced by a significant increase in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities in group B and C, which also confirmed by the histopathological alterations. Moreover, administration of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium could induce certain hepatic apoptosis accompanied by the upregulated Bax expression, the downregulated Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and the increase of caspase-3 activity. Repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia could produce hepatotoxicity. PMID:26379846

  12. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1α)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occured when the expression balance of SDF-1α between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1α expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  13. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana; Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-12-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol-elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  14. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. PMID:26074692

  15. Comparison of the chronic effects of ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Motor, Sedat; Alp, Harun; Şenol, Serkan; Pınar, Neslihan; Motor, Vicdan Köksaldı; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alp, Ayşe; Gökçe, Cumali

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to comparison of the effects of the chronic use of the Ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were given orally 30 mg/kg/day doses of Ribavirin for 30 days, and intraperitoneally 10 μmol/kg doses of CAPE. The 37 rats were divided into 4 groups: (I) Control (n=7), (II) Ribavirin (R) (n=10), (III) CAPE (n=10), and (IV) R+CAPE (n=10). Results: Ribavirin and CAPE yielded similar results in terms of Serum, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), amylase, lipase, and insulin compared to the control group. However, while Ribavirin provided similar results with the control group in terms of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, the CAPE group had elevated AST and ALT levels compared to the control group. Histopathologic evaluations revealed that CAPE or Ribavirin had no degenerative effects on both the pancreas and liver tissues. In this way, the biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathologic results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Ribavirin does not lead to any pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity, and has more beneficial effects than CAPE on especially liver tissue. PMID:24955174

  16. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on emotional behavior and biochemical parameters in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Khemissi, Wahid; Mrad, Imen; Rihane, Naima; Ben Slama, Imen; Mir, Lassaad E; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Ben Rhouma, Khemais; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is becoming a potential source for human exposure to nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been widely produced in industrial processes for several years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on plasmatic biochemical parameters and the emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 nanoparticles (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg. For toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles sample, body weight, organ coefficient, blood biochemistry panel assay (AST, ALT, LDH, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose content) and emotional behavior parameters were determined. Sub-acute TiO2 nanoparticles treatment decreased the body weight, but increased the relative brain weight. Biochemical assessment in plasma samples showed that TiO2 nanoparticles injection increased uric acid concentration and AST activity in rats. However, the same treatment decreased the creatinine level, but had no effect on glucose concentration, ALT and LDH activity. The emotional behavior of control and treated rats was tested in elevated plus-maze. Interestingly, our results showed that TiO2-treated rats spent more time in the secured closed arms and entered the anxiogenic open arms less frequently than control. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanoparticles intoxication could altered biochemical parameters related to changes in organ function and leads to emotional behavior impairment of rats. PMID:23682022

  17. [Can the L/A ratio identify acute alcoholic pancreatitis?].

    PubMed

    Deltenre, P; Ghilain, J M; Maisin, J M; Schapira, M; Henrion, J; Heller, F R

    1995-01-01

    Early distinction between acute alcoholic pancreatitis is important, because of possible emergency endoscopic sphincterotomy in case of biliary pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of L/A ratio in the diagnosis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. From 1990 to end 1993, 133 patients with acute pancreatitis were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: 1) abdominal pain, 2) pathological serum amylase or serum lipase on admission or within 24 hours after beginning or abdominal pain, 3) acute pancreatitis at the echography or CT scan within 48 hours after admission. 60 patients met the inclusion criteria (31 alcoholic pancreatitis, 19 biliary pancreatitis and 10 pancreatitis of other causes). L/A ratio was studied in terms of delay from beginning of abdominal pain. There was no statistical difference between alcoholic and biliary pancreatitis at any time of the study, with the exception of admission. AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase were higher in biliary pancreatitis than in alcoholic pancreatitis. AST and ALT were the best biochemical tests to diagnose biliary pancreatitis. Blamey's criteria can also contribute to diagnose biliary pancreatitis. These biochemical tests are the most helpful if they are collected very soon in the evolution of acute pancreatitis. It is concluded that L/A ratio is not helpful in the diagnosis of alcoholic acute pancreatitis. PMID:7571983

  18. Antagonistic activity of dietary allicin against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, has been evaluated for its' efficacy in preventing deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed on 2 different doses of 0.5 g and 1 g of allicin/kg diet for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated. Moreover, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) was analyzed as a lipid peroxidation marker. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. Results show that deltamethrin subacute intoxication (1.46 g/L for 28 days) increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA. At the same time, serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue level of GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT were reduced. Allicin supplemented diets enhanced all the altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissues' lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that feeding allicin can ameliorate deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and might have some therapeutic properties to protect Nile tilapia on subacute deltamethrin toxicity. PMID:25450927

  19. Hepatoprotective Potential of Prosopis farcta Beans Extracts against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wister Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Akram; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash; Torbati, Mohammad Bagher Montazar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. Prosopis farcta beans extract (PFE) has some antioxidant property and may alleviate hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PFE against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats weighing 220 ± 30 g were distributed into six groups. Two groups were pretreated with PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) for 7 days before administration of acetaminophen (600 mg/kg). Two were given acetaminophen or PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) alone, and the control received normal saline. One day after acetaminophen, administration blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver function enzymes markers; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high, low, and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL). Results: In acetaminophen-treated rat plasma AST (314 ± 18.54 vs. 126.37 ± 4.13), ALT (304 ± 49.24 vs. 187.33 ± 3.71), cholesterol, TG, LDL, and VLDL were increased by 149, 160, 37, 92, 60, and 94%, respectively. PFE at both doses significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the above biochemical indices to near normal. Conclusions: Prosopis farcta beans extract (50 and 75 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against APAP. PMID:25400887

  20. Case Report: Hexachloroethane Smoke Inhalation: A Rare Cause of Severe Hepatic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Ching-Hui; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chang, Jun-Hei; Chen, Hong-I

    2006-01-01

    Context We report on two patients, a 23-year-old man and a 24-year-old man, who had chemical pneumonitis and respiratory distress after inhaling hexachloroethane/zinc oxide (HC/ZnO) smoke during military training. Case Presentation The patients had been healthy previously and denied any history of alcohol or drug abuse. Hematologic tests revealed leukocytosis with neutrophils predominant. The respiratory conditions of both patients improved after steroid therapy and oxygen support, but deterioration of liver function was found. The laboratory results showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were elevated about 1.5-fold the normal limits and that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were marginally elevated. The elevation of liver aminotransferase started from day 1 and day 2 and peaked from day 18 to day 22. ALT/AST levels then returned to normal in 6 weeks. Common viral hepatitis was ruled out after serologic tests. Abdominal sonography and physical examination failed to show any specific findings. Discussion The hepatotoxic effect was attributed to inhalation of high-concentration HC/ZnO smoke in an enclosed area, where several hepatotoxicants, including ZnCl2, HC, and chlorinated vapors, could have been generated and mixed in the smoke. Relevance to clinical practice These case reports elaborate the hepatic effects that may occur in addition to pulmonary effects of HC/ZnO smoke. PMID:16675434