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Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. Increased AST/ALT ratio in azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, W; Gójska-Zygner, O; Norbury, L J; Wedrychowicz, H

    2012-01-01

    The AST/ALT ratio was estimated in 182 dogs infected with Babesia canis. Among these dogs 65 had anaemia and 68 were azotaemic. Student's t test was used to compare means of the AST/ALT ratio in anaemic and non-anaemic dogs, and in azotaemic and non-azotaemic dogs (p < 0.05). The differences in AST/ALT ratio between anaemic (1.52 +/- 1.15) and non-anaemic (1.76 +/- 1.34) dogs were statistically insignificant (p = 0.23), however, the comparison of AST/ALT ratio between azotaemic (2.68 +/- 1.52) and non-azotaemic (1.08 +/- 0.53) dogs revealed a significantly higher value of this index in azotaemic dogs (p = 0.00). The present results suggest that kidney injury contributed to increased AST activity in these dogs. PMID:23214368

  2. The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-07-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age. PMID:23580007

  3. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  4. Detection of TTV in peripheral blood cells from patients with altered ALT and AST levels.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho; Nasser, Thiago Franco; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Carneiro, Juliana Laino do Val; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2008-04-01

    This work analyzes the prevalence of TTV DNA in peripheral blood cells from patients with hepatic alterations and healthy blood donors and measures levels of sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphatase alkaline, total and direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in certain randomly selected patients. DNA samples from 111 individuals were evaluated. They were divided into two groups, "A" (study) and "B" (control), including 54 patients with liver enzyme alterations (ALT/AST) presenting non-B-non-C hepatitis and 57 blood donors, respectively. TTV DNA was determined by nested PCR. Certain products of the second-round PCR were sequenced. Serum biochemical assay was performed and disclosed TTV in 31.48% (17/54) of patients in group A and 5.26% (3/57) in the control group B. TTV prevalence was significantly higher in patients with liver disease than in healthy donors. In group A, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphatase alkaline, total and direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were analyzed in certain randomly selected patients and no significant difference in biochemical levels (p>0.05) was found when TTV infected and noninfected individuals were compared. Knowledge related to TTV has rapidly increased, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This led us to question the role of TTV and doubt remains as to whether or not it is just a commensal virus. Further studies are necessary to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:18623984

  5. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  6. Liver Enzymes: Interaction Analysis of Smoking with Alcohol Consumption or BMI, Comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Background A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. Methodology/Principal Findings The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001) and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001). The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. Conclusion The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury. PMID:22132177

  7. Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Li, Jian-Pei; Li, Lin-Fang; Zeng, Tao; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388–0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044–4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119–3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. PMID:27294917

  8. AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and in the first day or two of acute hepatitis or injury from bile duct obstruction. With heart or muscle ... higher than ALT for longer than with liver injury. AST is often performed together ... may increase AST levels. Acute burns, surgery, and seizures may raise AST levels ...

  9. The AST/ALT (De-Ritis) ratio: A novel marker for critical limb ischemia in peripheral arterial occlusive disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rief, Peter; Pichler, Martin; Raggam, Reinhard; Hafner, Franz; Gerger, Armin; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The aspartat aminotransferase (AST)/alanin aminotransferase (ALT) (De-Ritis) ratio (AAR) is an easily applicable blood test. An elevated AAR on the one hand has been associated with an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD on the other hand is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and diabetes. As the AAR is also elevated in case of muscular damage, we investigated AAR and its association with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients.In our cross-sectional study, we included 1782 PAOD patients treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients with chronic alcohol consumption (>20 g/day) were excluded. AAR was calculated and the cohort was categorized into tertiles according to the AAR. An optimal cut-off value for the continuous AAR was calculated by applying a receiver operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI.In our cohort, occurrence of CLI significantly increased with an elevation in AAR. As an optimal cut-off value, an AAR of 1.67 (sensitivity 34.1%, specificity 81.0%) was identified. Two groups were categorized, 1st group containing 1385 patients (AAR < 1.67) and a 2nd group with 397 patients (AAR > 1.67). CLI was more frequent in AAR > 1.67 patients (166 [41.9%]) compared to AAR < 1.67 patients (329 [23.8%]) (P < 0.001), as was prior myocardial infarction (28 [7.1%] vs 54 [3.9%], P = 0.01). Regarding inflammatory parameters, C-reactive protein (median 8.1 mg/L [2.9-28.23] vs median 4.3 mg/L [2.0-11.5]) and fibrinogen (median 427.5 mg/dL [344.25-530.0] vs 388.0 mg/dL [327.0-493.0]) also significantly differed in the 2 patient groups (both P < 0.001). Finally, an AAR > 1.67 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.3) for CLI even after adjustment for other well-established vascular risk factors.An increased AAR is significantly associated with patients

  10. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  11. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nausea, vomiting Abdominal swelling and/or pain Jaundice Dark urine, light-colored stool Itching ( pruritus ) ALT may ... sponsored by ... Learn more about ... Understanding Your Tests Inside the Lab In the News Article Index About ...

  12. AST3: dwarf nova outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Hu, Yi; Shang, Zhaohui; Wang, Lifan

    2016-05-01

    AST3#2 OT J024453.11-580940.1 discovery - new dwarf nova outburst with ampl > 5.8 The 2nd Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3#2) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 02:44:53.11 -58:09:40.1 on 2016-05-06.071 UT with Sloan-g magnitude of 15.5m (limit 18.6m).

  13. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood tests have also increased. An increased AST level may be due to any of the following: Scarring of the liver ( cirrhosis ) Death of liver tissue Heart attack Too much iron in the body ( hemochromatosis ) Swollen and inflamed liver ( hepatitis ) Lack of ...

  14. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  15. AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

    2014-04-01

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

  16. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  17. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  18. astLib: Tools for research astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Matt; Boada, Steven

    2016-07-01

    astLib is a set of Python modules for performing astronomical plots, some statistics, common calculations, coordinate conversions, and manipulating FITS images with World Coordinate System (WCS) information through PyWCSTools, a simple wrapping of WCSTools (ascl:1109.015).

  19. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  20. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  1. Bridging the UST/AST gap

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Choosing between underground and aboveground storage tank options can be a daunting--and risky--enterprise. Although USTs are conveniently out of sight, they cannot remain out of mind, and must be monitored continuously for possible unseen leaks or structural damage. ASTs provide easy access for monitoring and maintenance, but this benefit makes them open targets for vandalism, accidents and long-term effects of exposure to the elements. CON/SPAN{reg_sign} Bridge Systems, Dayton, Ohio, in association with the Dayton-based engineering firm LJB Inc., developed a unique solution to the AST/UST dilemma by adapting the company`s modular-concrete bridge construction technology to storage tank installation.

  2. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  3. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  4. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. PMID:27003862

  5. ALT telomeres get together with nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Eric; Lingner, Joachim

    2015-02-26

    Nuclear receptors bind chromosome ends in "alternative lengthening of telomeres" (ALT) cancer cells that maintain their ends by homologous recombination instead of telomerase. Marzec et al. now demonstrate that, in ALT cells, nuclear receptors not only trigger distal chromatin associations to mediate telomere-telomere recombination events, but also drive chromosome-internal targeted telomere insertions (TTI). PMID:25723159

  6. An innovative alt-alt telescope for small observatories and amateur astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghigo, M.; Landoni, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spanó, P.; Tomelleri, R.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper want to show an innovative amateur oriented telescope with an unconventional alt-alt conguration. The goal is to make a telescope with good optical quality reducing production costs by adopting a gimbal based mounting to develop an alt-alt conguration suitable for a telescope. Reduce costs while preserving the optical quality is a necessary condition to allow small groups of amateur astronomers, schools and cultural clubs, with reduced economic resources, to acquire an astronomical instrument that encourages learning and advancing astrophysical knowledge. This unconventional mechanism for the realization of a telescope alt-alt provides signicant advantages. The traditional rotary motors coupled with expensive precision bearings are replaced with two simple linear actuators coupled to a properly preloaded gimbal joint and the cell becomes the primary structure of the telescope. A second advantage would be secured by mechanical simplicity evident in the easy portability of the instrument. The frame alt-alt has some limitations on the horizon pointing but does not show the zenith blind spot of the alt-az mount. A dedicated alt-alt pointing and tracking model is under development to be compatible with commercial telescope softwares and with the proposed new mounting.

  7. The Antarctic Survey Telescopes AST3 and the AST3-NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Wang, Lifan; Gu, Bozhong; Du, Fujia; Li, Zhengyang; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haiping; Wen, Haikun; Gong, Xuefei; Shang, Zhaohui; Ashley, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Antarctic Survey Telescopes consists of three different filtered telescopes with 680mm primary mirror and 8 square degree field of view, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is anticipated to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the recent years site testing works jointly by CCAA and UNSW. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically runned for two months from March 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the AST3-1, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et. al were done for the second one. After the Mohe winterization test, the AST3-2 was deployed on Dome A successfully in Jan. 2015 and now the telescope is ready for remote observations. The blind tracking accuracy is about 0.2arcsecond. For the third one, a fold mirror was added to guide the focal plane outside the main optical tube which makes the CCD onsite assembly and maintenance easier and better tube seeing. By changing different correctors and detector, the third telescope can also work in near infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging in K band. The staylight analysis and thermal emission analysis will be given in this paper. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  8. Elements of F-ast proton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2011-05-01

    Gauge coupling unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) strongly suggests the existence of a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), which could be probed by the observation of proton decay. Proton lifetime in the p→(π dimension six mode is proportional in the fourth power to the GUT mass scale, and inversely proportional in the fourth power to the GUT coupling. Flipped SU(5) with strict MSSM field content is known to survive existing null detection limits for proton decay approaching 10 years, and indeed, the lifetime predicted by prior studies can be so long that successful detection is not currently plausible. We provide an updated dictionary of solutions for the relevant flipped unification parameters with generic β-function coefficients, significantly upgrading the level of detail with which second order effects are treated, and correcting subtle published errors. Recently studied classes of F-theory derived GUT models postulate additional vector-like multiplets at the TeV scale which modify the renormalization group to yield a substantial increase in the SU(3×SU(2 unified coupling. In conjunction with the naturally depressed F-lipped SU(5) partial unification mass M, the F-resh analysis undertaken predicts comparatively F-ast proton decay which only narrowly evades existing detection limits, and likely falls within the observable range of proposed next generation detectors such as DUSEL and Hyper-Kamiokande. The TeV-scale vector multiplets are themselves suitable for cross correlation by the Large Hadron Collider. Their presence moreover magnifies the gap between the dual mass scales of Flipped SU(5), allowing for an elongated second stage renormalization, pushing the F-inal grand unification to the doorstep of the reduced Planck mass.

  9. Fusarium sambucinum astA gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans astA.

    PubMed

    Piłsyk, Sebastian; Natorff, Renata; Gawińska-Urbanowicz, Hanna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. Orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (AstA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens Fusarium sambucinum and Fusarium graminearum. By physiological and biochemical analyses, the AstA orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. Similarly to astA in A. nidulans, the FsastA gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (SMR) in a sulfur-dependent manner. In contrast, the FgastA transcript was undetectable, however, when the FgastA gene was expressed heterologously in A. nidulans, the translated FgAstA protein acted as a sulfate transporter. Interestingly, F. sambucinum astA expression was remarkably augmented in infected potato tubers, despite the presence abundant sulfate and was found not to be correlated with plant resistance. PMID:25986548

  10. The ALTE mysteries: who's to blame?

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. A recent paper on apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in newborn babies brought to mind an experience from practice, the cause of which remains a mystery. As many similar events are unexplained, is it acceptable that there is a tendency in the literature to claim that skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are risk factors for ALTEs? PMID:27008761

  11. AST: A library for modelling and manipulating coordinate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Jenness, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In view of increased interest in object-oriented systems for describing coordinate information, we present a description of the data model used by the Starlink AST library. AST provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world co-ordinate systems to astronomical data, and for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS. AST is a mature system that has been in use for more than 17 years, and may consequently be useful as a means of informing development of similar systems in the future.

  12. The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50°. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  13. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  14. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  15. SMARCAL1 Resolves Replication Stress at ALT Telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kelli E; Maréchal, Alexandre; Flynn, Rachel Litman

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells overcome replicative senescence by exploiting mechanisms of telomere elongation, a process often accomplished by reactivation of the enzyme telomerase. However, a subset of cancer cells lack telomerase activity and rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway, a recombination-based mechanism of telomere elongation. Although the mechanisms regulating ALT are not fully defined, chronic replication stress at telomeres might prime these fragile regions for recombination. Here, we demonstrate that the replication stress response protein SMARCAL1 is a critical regulator of ALT activity. SMARCAL1 associates with ALT telomeres to resolve replication stress and ensure telomere stability. In the absence of SMARCAL1, persistently stalled replication forks at ALT telomeres deteriorate into DNA double-strand breaks promoting the formation of chromosome fusions. Our studies not only define a role for SMARCAL1 in ALT telomere maintenance, but also demonstrate that resolution of replication stress is a crucial step in the ALT mechanism. PMID:26832416

  16. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Wolf, G.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Hsu, W.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.

  17. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of glasses in the As-Te system

    SciTech Connect

    Tverjanovich, A.; Rodionov, K.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-06-15

    For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, have been measured over the entire glass-forming range. The spectra exhibit three broad spectral features attributed to vibrations of structural units having Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds. The observed chemical disorder in the glasses is discussed on the basis of partial bond fractions derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. The underlying structural model suggests a dissociation of AsTe- or As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-related units in the glass melt. The spectra of glasses quenched from different temperatures, as well as those of the annealed vitreous alloys, are consistent with predictions of the model. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.4 and 0.4{<=}x{<=}0.6). Fractional concentrations of Te-Te, As-Te and As-As bonds in the As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses calculated using experimental Raman data. The solid lines represent predictions of the dissociation model assuming that the main chemically ordered structural units are related to AsTe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time, the Raman spectra of As{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} glasses, 0.2{<=}x{<=}0.6, were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The partial bond fractions were derived from the integrated intensity of the Raman modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An empirical quantitative approach to the Raman data was proposed for the reaction modeling.

  19. Submillimeter Astronomy from the South Pole (AST/RO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Antony A.

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO), a 1.7 m diameter offset Gregorian telescope for astronomy and aeronomy studies at wavelengths between 200 and 2000 μm, saw first light in 1995 and operated until 2005. It was the first radio telescope to operate continuously throughout the winter on the Antarctic Plateau. It served as a site testing instrument and prototype for later instruments, as well as executing a wide variety of scientific programs that resulted in six doctoral theses and more than one hundred scientific publications. The South Pole environment is unique among observatory sites for unusually low wind speeds, low absolute humidity, and the consistent clarity of the submillimeter sky. Especially significant are the exceptionally low values of sky noise found at this site, a result of the small water vapor content of the atmosphere. Multiple submillimeter-wave and Terahertz detector systems were in operation on AST/RO, including heterodyne and bolometric arrays. AST/RO's legacy includes comprehensive submillimeter-wave site testing of the South Pole, spectroscopic studies of 492 GHz and 809 GHz neutral atomic carbon and 460 GHz and 806 GHz carbon monoxide in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds, and the first detection of the 1.46 THz [N II] line from a ground-based observatory.

  20. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  1. Identification of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus casei AST18.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Wenming; Lv, Jiaping

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus casei AST18 was screened as an antifungal lactic acid bacteria which we have reported before. In this research, the antifungal properties of cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from L. casei AST18 were detected, and the antifungal compounds of CCF were prepared by ultrafiltration, and semi-preparative HPLC, and then determined by GC-MS. CCF was sensitive to pH and heat treatment but it was not affected by the treatment of trypsin and pepsin. Through the treatment of ultrafiltration and semi-preparative HPLC there were two parts of CCF which showed antifungal activities: part 1 and part 4. Lactic acid was identified as the main antifungal compound in part 1. In part 4, three small molecular substances were detected with GC-MS. The three potential antifungal substances were cyclo-(Leu-Pro), 2,6-diphenyl-piperidine, and 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a;1',2'-d]pyrazine. The antifungal activity of L. casei AST18 was a synergistic effect of lactic acid and cyclopeptides. PMID:22580887

  2. Effects of BRCA2 deficiency on telomere recombination in non-ALT and ALT cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that BRCA2 affects telomere maintenance. Interestingly, anti cancer treatments that involve BRCA2 and telomerase individually are currently being explored. In the light of the above recent studies their combinatorial targeting may be justified in the development of future treatments. In order to investigate effects of BRCA2 that can be explored for this combinatorial targeting we focused on the analysis of recombination rates at telomeres by monitoring T-SCEs (Telomere Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Results We observed a significant increase in T-SCE frequencies in four BRCA2 defective human cell lines thus suggesting that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. To test this hypothesis further we analyzed T-SCE frequencies in a set of Chinese hamster cell lines with or without functional BRCA2. Our results indicate that introduction of functional BRCA2 normalizes frequencies of T-SCEs thus supporting the notion that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. Given that ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) positive cells maintain telomeres by recombination we investigated the effect of BRCA2 depletion in these cells. Our results show that this depletion causes a dramatic reduction in T-SCE frequencies in ALT positive cells, but not in non-ALT cells. Conclusion BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres in cells that maintain them by conventional mechanisms. Furthermore, BRCA2 depletion in ALT positive cells reduces high levels of T-SCEs normally found in these cells. Our results could be potentially important for refining telomerase-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22152194

  3. Expression and purification of a functional recombinant aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lihui; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Daguang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Xiao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST; E.C. 2.6.1.1), a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, preferentially promotes the mutual transformation of aspartate and α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. It plays a key role in amino acid metabolism and has been widely recommended as a biomarker of liver and heart damage. Our study aimed to evaluate the extensive preparation of AST and its application in quality control in clinical laboratories. We describe a scheme to express and purify the 6His-AST fusion protein. An optimized sequence coding AST was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression. Ideally, the fusion protein has a volumetric productivity achieving 900 mg/l cultures. After affinity chromatography, the enzyme activity of purified AST reached 150,000 U/L. Commutability assessment between the engineered AST and standard AST from Roche suggested that the engineered AST was the better candidate for the reference material. Moreover, the AST showed high stability during long-term storage at -20ºC. In conclusion, the highly soluble 6His-tagged AST can become a convenient tool for supplying a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for the clinical laboratory. PMID:24722375

  4. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  5. Simultaneous Extended ALT Flaps for Foot Salvage After Severe Frostbite.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Marius; Bota, Olimpiu; Fodor, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Plantar area reconstruction represents the most challenging part of the lower limb. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap proved to be a versatile flap for this special area. Herein, we present the application of bilateral ALT free flaps for foot salvage after frostbite injury and long-term follow-up. Single perforator bilateral ALT flaps (304 and 320 cm) were harvested and anastomosed to posterior tibial vessels. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was anastomosed to the calcaneal branches of the posterior tibial nerve. The two-point discrimination test showed values from 16 to 28 mm in different flap areas 5 years later. The patient is able to walk with crutches. This is the first case report of bilateral ALT for foot salvage. PMID:26284647

  6. AST-120 Improves Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jung-Hwa; Yu, Mina; Lee, Sihna; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a pivotal phenomenon in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a known uremic toxin that induces ED in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AST-120, an absorbent of IS, improves microvascular or macrovascular ED in HD patients. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective, case-controlled trial. Fourteen patients each were enrolled in respective AST-120 and control groups. The subjects in the AST-120 group were treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 6 months. Microvascular function was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry using iontophoresis of acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months. Carotid arterial intima-media thickness (cIMT) and flow-mediated vasodilation were measured at baseline and 6 months. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to compare values before and after AST-120 treatment. Results Ach-induced iontophoresis (endothelium-dependent response) was dramatically ameliorated at 3 months and 6 months in the AST-120 group. SNP-induced response showed delayed improvement only at 6 months in the AST-120 group. The IS level was decreased at 3 months in the AST-120 group, but remained stable thereafter. cIMT was significantly reduced after AST-120 treatment. No significant complications in patients taking AST-120 were reported. Conclusion AST-120 ameliorated microvascular ED and cIMT in HD patients. A randomized study including a larger population will be required to establish a definitive role of AST-120 as a preventive medication for CVD in HD patients. PMID:27189289

  7. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  8. Interchromosomal Homology Searches Drive Directional ALT Telomere Movement and Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam Woo; Dilley, Robert L.; Lampson, Michael A.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, approximately 10-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multi-telomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break (DSB) response at ALT telomeres triggers long-range movement and clustering between chromosome termini, resulting in homology-directed telomere synthesis. Damaged telomeres initiate increased random surveillance of nuclear space before displaying rapid directional movement and association with recipient telomeres over micron-range distances. This phenomenon required Rad51 and the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer, which are essential for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. These findings implicate a specialized homology searching mechanism in ALT dependent telomere maintenance and provide a molecular basis underlying the preference for recombination between non- sister telomeres during ALT. PMID:25259924

  9. ALTE Handbook of European Language Examinations and Examination Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Language Testers in Europe, Cambridge (England).

    The handbook describes language examinations offered and examination systems administered by members of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE). An introductory section describes the rationale behind the founding of the organization, lists its 22 current members, and states its aims and objectives. Subsequent sections detail the…

  10. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  11. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  12. Quick look analysis of an emergency separation for ALT captive-inert flight 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.; Seale, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Emergency separation capability for the landing configuration of ALT Captive Inert Flight Number One was investigated. The quick look analysis confirms emergency separation capability under nominal conditions for the ALT landing configuration. The recommended emergency separation procedure under those conditions is not applicable to all ALT configurations.

  13. Initial ALT-I pump limiter studies on TEXOR

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.; Watson, R.D.; Gauster, W.B.; Campbell, G.A.; Goebel, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    The ALT-I pump limiter has been used to control the fueling and recycling characteristics of TEXTOR during stable, reproducible tokamak discharges. The module has been operated in three modes: (1) Normal Limiter, with no particle collection, (2) Particle Scoop, with a maximum approx. 2 x 10/sup -3/ torr pressure rise in the 700 liter unpumped collection chamber, and (3) Pump Limiter, with up to approx. 10,000 1/s pumping speed and particle removal rates of up to 6 x 10/sup 20//s. In a comparison of operation in modes (1) and (3) using identical gas fueling programs, the total core electron number decreased by as much as 50%. The effective TEXTOR particle confinement time, tau/sub p/* = tau/sub p//(1-R), was decreased by a similar ratio. Within the throat region, during typical operation, electron densities and temperatures were 6 x 10/sup 11/ to 2 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 3/ and 15 to 30 eV. These conditions are representative of an operating regime in which there is high reionization of neutrals, but no change in incoming plasma parameters in the throat region. Energetic particles near the deflector plate were observed. During a gradual insertion of TiC-coated ALT-I beyond the stainless steel TEXTOR main limiters, the density of Ti in the plasma increased to a level similar to those of Cr and Fe. The gas injection fueling efficiency while puffing hydrogen directly into the plasma at the pump limiter tangency point was measured to be > 0.9. These results are discussed in conjunction with measurements of particle flows within ALT-I and other plasma diagnostics to characterize pump limiter operation on TEXTOR.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin; Shen, He Ding

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica are described first in the article. The mitogenomes (14 772 bp and 14 601 bp) contain 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes, and one putative control region (CR). CR is not well characterized due to the lack of discrete conserved sequence blocks. This characteristic is similar with CRs of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes, which is the typical bivalvia mitochondrial gene composition. PMID:26244691

  15. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  16. Two crews for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two crews for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are, left to right, Astronauts C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew; Fred W. Haise Jr., commander of the first crew; Joe H. Engle, commander of the second crew; and Richard H. Truly, pilot of the second crew. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  17. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  19. Guidelines for the design and safe installation of tank integrity systems under existing ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The technology has been developed to safely and accurately install perforated piping horizontally under existing in-service aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Piping that is properly networked under a tank is useful for multiple functions including: evaluation of tank bottom-to-soil potentials at various undertank locations; soil side tank bottom corrosion control with the placement of anodes undertank; rapid detection of product leaks and releases; and control and/or remediation of released product. All functions can be employed simultaneously or as needed in the future. They provide an affordable solution to high AST maintenance and operating costs. The design of a multipurpose undertank piping network requires the consideration of numerous factors and objectives. A safe and reliable procedure to install the piping networks in close proximity to a tank bottom is essential. There are important guidelines and criteria that need to be achieved for any technology used to place piping under an AST.

  20. AST/RO: Lessons from a Decade of Sub-mm Astronomy at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tothill, N. F. H.

    AST/RO spent over a decade at the South Pole, observing submillimetre-wave emission from the interstellar medium. We outline some of the lessons learned and experience gained that may be relevant to future Antarctic projects. Small submillimetre-wave telescopes, on the excellent sites provided by the Antarctic plateau, have very strong large-area mapping capabilities, together with the potential for ground-based THz observations. Highlighted technical aspects include AST/RO's lack of icing problems and availability of warm space.

  1. An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

    2008-05-01

    A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

  2. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  3. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  4. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  11. Holographic Wilson loops in symmetric representations in {N} = {2}^{ast } super-Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Lin, Xinyi; Dekel, Amit; Zarembo, Konstantin

    2016-02-01

    We construct the D3-brane solution in the holographic dual of the {N} = {2}^{ast } theory that describes Wilson lines in symmetric representations of the gauge group. The results perfectly agree with the direct field-theory predictions based on localization.

  12. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... from Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX). Under the Proposed Action, the FAA would... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY:...

  13. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  14. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  15. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-07-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  16. The Uremic Toxin Adsorbent AST-120 Abrogates Cardiorenal Injury Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lekawanvijit, Suree; Kumfu, Sirinart; Wang, Bing H.; Manabe, Minako; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Kelly, Darren J.; Krum, Henry; Kompa, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated progressive decline in renal function is a frequent accompaniment of myocardial infarction (MI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin that accumulates from the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is contributory to both renal and cardiac fibrosis. IS levels can be reduced by administration of the oral adsorbent AST-120, which has been shown to ameliorate pathological renal and cardiac fibrosis in moderate to severe CKD. However, the cardiorenal effect of AST-120 on less severe renal dysfunction in the post-MI setting has not previously been well studied. MI-induced Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either AST-120 (MI+AST-120) or were untreated (MI+Vehicle) for 16 weeks. Serum IS levels were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Echocardiography and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed prior to sacrifice. Renal and cardiac tissues were assessed for pathological changes using histological and immunohistochemical methods, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Compared with sham, MI+Vehicle animals had a significant reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (by 42%, p<0.001) and fractional shortening (by 52%, p<0.001) as well as lower GFR (p<0.05) and increased serum IS levels (p<0.05). A significant increase in interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex was demonstrated in MI+Vehicle animals (p<0.001). Compared with MI+Vehicle, MI+AST-120 animals had increased GFR (by 13.35%, p<0.05) and reduced serum IS (p<0.001), renal interstitial fibrosis (p<0.05), and renal KIM-1, collagen-IV and TIMP-1 expression (p<0.05). Cardiac function did not change with AST-120 treatment, however gene expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α as well as collagen-I and TIMP-1 protein expression was decreased in the non-infarcted myocardium (p<0.05). In conclusion, reduction of IS attenuates cardio-renal fibrotic processes in the post-MI kidney. KIM-1 appears to be a sensitive renal injury biomarker in this setting and is correlated with serum

  17. Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

  18. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II.

  19. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  20. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85–90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  1. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  2. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  3. Liver Injury Assessment by Vetscan VS2 Analyzer and Most Frequently Used ALT/GTP Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Avila, Diana; Frimodig, Jane C.; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J; Gobejishvili, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Liver injury is estimated by serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) levels in experimental animal models. Laboratories use various techniques to measure ALT levels including assay reagents and chemistry analyzers. VetScan VS2 (VS2) is widely used in veterinary clinics and research laboratories for highly reproducible, convenient and effective testing. Alternatively, ALT liquid reagent is used by laboratories to estimate liver injury in animal studies. The aim of this study was to perform comparative analyses of data obtained from these two assays in two different animal models. Methods In this study, we used two different mouse models and compared the ALT levels measured using VetScan VS2 chemistry analyzer and ALT liquid reagent. Immunohistochemical analysis of hepatic tissue was also performed to document liver pathology. The first model is a high fat diet feeding model that results in a mild hepatic steatosis (fat accumulation in the liver) without elevation of ALT levels. For a severe liver injury model, we employed a hepatotoxin-induced liver injury model (carbon tetrachloride, CCl4), which leads to the development of hepatic fibrosis and very high ALT levels. Results VetScan VS2 and ALT reagent gave different values of ALT for all animal groups. However, linear regression analysis showed a significantly high association between ALT levels obtained by VS2 and ALT liquid reagent in a high-fat feeding model with no liver injury. For the CCl4 induced liver injury model, serum dilution (5 and 10 times) was performed to obtain accurate results with ALT reagent. ALT levels acquired from both techniques showed a close association. Interestingly, this correlation was closer when serum was diluted 5 fold. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both methods give similar results when evaluating liver injury in animal studies. However, the serum dilution factor is critical for severe liver injury assessment when using ALT reagent and requires some

  4. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code 4321-4347 (as amended), Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA implementing regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] parts 1500-1508), and FAA Order 1050.1E, Change 1, the FAA is announcing the availability of a SEA and FONSI for the FAA/AST to renew Launch Site Operator License......

  5. European landscape in astrobiology, results of the AstRoMap consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Walter, Nicolas; Gomez, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field of research, which encompasses scientists ranging from cosmology, astronomy, planetary sciences, physics, chemistry, geology, paleontology to biology. In order to map the existing astrobiological expertise in Europe a comprehensive community consultation has been performed within the AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping) project that is supported by the European Commission FP7 framework. From this information a data base of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see:

  6. Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Unexplained Elevation in ALT Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with metabolic syndrome. Participants in NHANES III with unexplained elevation in ALT levels have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that the serum concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with unexplained elevation in ALT. Methods A total of 6,826 fasting subjects underwent morning physical examination and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From these participants, we have constructed cases with unexplained elevation in ALT (n = 308) and compared their serum vitamin D concentrations to matched controls with normal ALT (N = 979). We examined the prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT level across different quartiles of vitamin D levels. Results Participants with unexplained elevation in ALT had significantly lower serum vitamin D levels compared to controls (61.8 ± 26.0 nmol/l vs. 66.8 ± 27.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01). The unadjusted prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT in patients with highest to lowest quartiles of serum vitamin D levels were 21.4, 21.4, 25.6, and 31.5%, respectively. Compared to lowest quartile, patients with top two quartiles of serum vitamin D levels had significantly lower prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT (OR, 95% CI for highest quartile 0.62 [0.43–0.89] and for third quartile 0.61 [0.42–0.86]). This relationship persisted even after controlling for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum triglycerides. Conclusions This study suggests a significant inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and unexplained elevation in ALT. Further studies are needed to confirm this observation and to understand the basis for and implications of this observation. PMID:21503677

  7. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  8. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  9. AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php. PMID:24892935

  10. Detection of Carbapenemases in Clinical Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the VITEK AST-N202 Card

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Jang, In-Ho; Lee, Woonhyoung; Kim, Keonhan; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in clinical microbiology laboratories is essential for the treatment and control of infections caused by these microorganisms. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the VITEK AST-N202 card to detect CPE isolates. Materials and Methods A total of 43 (Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 37; Escherichia coli, n = 3; and Enterobacter cloacae, n = 3) CPE isolates and 79 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CNE) isolates were included in this study. The CPE isolates harbored KPC-2 (n = 11), KPC-3 (n = 20), GES-5 (n = 5), VIM-2 (n = 2), IMP-1 (n = 1), NDM-1 (n = 2), or OXA-232 (n = 2). Of the 79 CNE isolates, eight K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem, while the remaining 71 isolates were susceptible to the carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the VITEK AST-N202 card, and the results were interpreted as positive when the isolates showed resistant or intermediate results. Modified-Hodge tests (MHTs) were performed using ertapenem or meropenem disks for the screening of carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to identify β-lactamase genes. Results Sensitivity of MHT with ertapenem and meropenem disks for the detection of carbapenemase was 81.4% (35/43) and 81.4% (35/43), respectively, and a combination with both antibiotic disks increased the sensitivity to 88.4% (38/43). Specificity of the MHT was 100% (79/79) for the CNE isolates. Sensitivity of ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem as assessed by the VITEK AST-N202 card was 100% (43/43), 93% (40/43), and 95.3% (41/43), respectively. Specificity (89.8%, 71/79) of the test with each carbapenem was improved to 100% (71/71) when eight carbapenem-resistant CNE isolates were excluded from the testing. Conclusion The VITEK AST-N202 card showed high sensitivity for the detection of carbapenemases in

  11. Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. PMID:23137391

  12. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  13. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  14. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  15. Partition function of N={2}^{ast } SYM on a large four-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Kumar, S. Prem

    2015-12-01

    We examine the partition function of N={2}^{ast } supersymmetric SU( N) Yang-Mills theory on the four-sphere in the large radius limit. We point out that the large radius partition function, at fixed N, is computed by saddle-points lying on walls of marginal stability on the Coulomb branch of the theory on {R}^4 . For N an even (odd) integer and θ YM = 0( π), these include a point of maximal degeneration of the Donagi-Witten curve to a torus where BPS dyons with electric charge [N/2] become massless. We argue that the dyon singularity is the lone saddle-point in the SU(2) theory, while for SU( N) with N > 2, we characterize potentially competing saddle-points by obtaining the relations between the Seiberg-Witten periods at such points. Using Nekrasov's instanton partition function, we solve for the maximally degenerate saddle-point and obtain its free energy as a function of g YM and N, and show that the results are "large- N exact". In the large- N theory our results provide analytical expressions for the periods/eigenvalues at the maximally degenerate saddle-point, precisely matching previously known formulae following from the correspondence between N={2}^{ast } theory and the elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable model. The maximally singular point ceases to be a saddle-point of the partition function above a critical value of the coupling, in agreement with the recent findings of Russo and Zarembo.

  16. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  17. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-02-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes.

  18. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120.

    PubMed

    Velenosi, Thomas J; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E; Nevison, Stephanie E; Kerr, Michael A; Urquhart, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  19. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120

    PubMed Central

    Velenosi, Thomas J.; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A.; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S.; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E.; Nevison, Stephanie E.; Kerr, Michael A.; Urquhart, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  20. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents' interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  1. Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking and Aspartate Aminotransferase:Alanine Aminotransferase (AST:ALT) Ratio, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), and Apolipoprotein A1 and B in the U.S. Population*

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Qi, Rong; Crabb, David W.; Witzmann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The misuse of alcohol, even at levels just above two drinks per day, is a public health problem, but identifying patients with this potentially unhealthy drinking is hindered by the lack of tests. Several blood tests, such as those testing for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) or mean corpuscular volume (MCV), are among the commonly used markers to identify very heavy drinking, but combinations of these markers have rarely been tested in lighter drinkers. We examined the relationship between alcohol drinking and the levels of these markers in a national population-based study composed primarily of lighter drinkers. Method: Data were analyzed from 8,708 adult participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey after excluding subjects with iron overload; with hepatitis B and C; who were pregnant; and who were taking prescription drugs such as phenytoin (Dilantin), barbiturates, and hydroxyurea (Droxia and Hydrea). The relationship between the amount of alcohol drinking and GGT, aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase ratio, MCV of erythrocytes, and apolipoprotein A1 and B were analyzed and adjusted for potential liver injury risk factors. Results: The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol drinking (defined as consumption of more than two standard drinks per day) was 6.7%. Heavier drinkers tended to be younger and reported an average of 4.2 drinks per day. When tested alone or in combination, the sensitivity and positive predictive values for these blood tests were too low to be clinically useful in identifying the subjects in the heavier drinking category. Conclusions: In this large, national, population-based study, the markers of heavy drinking studied here, either alone or in combination, did not appear to be useful in identifying unhealthy drinking. More work is needed to find the novel marker(s) associated with risky alcohol drinking. PMID:20230722

  2. The role of AST-120 and protein-bound uremic toxins in irritable bowel syndrome: a therapeutic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mosińska, Paula; Storr, Martin; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    AST-120 (kremezin) exhibits its favourable effects in reducing the levels of renal toxins by selective adsorption of low molecular weight substances from the intestinal lumen. So far, a vast majority of studies were focused on the role of AST-120 in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases and cardiovascular disorders, and positive therapeutic effects of the agent have already been confirmed in clinical conditions. Up to the present, there are only a few studies regarding the role of AST-120 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Compelling data suggest the ability of the compound to adsorb protein-bound uremic toxins and mast cell derived mediators and to modulate the farnesoid X receptor, which is a bile acid sensor indispensable for maintaining homeostasis in the intestine. In this review we focus on the actions of AST-120 on intestinal permeability, reduction of visceral sensitivity and alteration of gut motility. We also discuss whether AST-120 can mitigate common IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating and malfunction of the colonic transit and thus improve the quality of life of patients with IBS. PMID:26327918

  3. Next challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS data processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    NEODyS and AstDyS are systems that provide asteroid dynamical data through dedicated web services. In particular, NEODyS is devoted to the Near Earth Objects orbital data computations and impact monitoring activities on a hourly basis, while AstDyS computes orbits and dynamical information (such as the asteroid family membership) of all numbered and multi-opposition asteroids on a monthly basis. Both systems are operational for more than 15 years.During the last years the major NEO surveys such as CSS, Pan-STARRS and so on and so forth increased the rate of discovery of new NEOs passing the threshold of 1000 discoveries/year. In particular, in 2014 there was a relative increase of about 42% wtrt 2013, mostly thanks to the full availability of the Pan-STARRS telescope for the NEO survey.In this framework is important to notice that the NEO population characterization is near to be complete for objects brighter that 18th, while the big majority of new discoveries are smaller and smaller objects.The major consequence is that we should expect a higher and higher number of discoveries of the so-called possible imminent impactors, that is small objects (from the Tunguska class and less) which are going to impact the Earth within the next days or hours.It is foreseen that in the next decade new dedicated surveys such as the American ATLAS and the European Fly-Eye telescopes will scan the sky just with the purpose of detecting such possible imminent impactors. The amount of data from the already operative surveys and the new ones will increase dramatically, while the time for processing such amount of data must be necessary shorten than in the past. Moreover, this huge quantity of astrometric data will increase also the knowledge of the dynamics of all known asteroids of the Solar System.In this panel we discuss the next decades new challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS systems and for the NEO system as a whole. The major players of the NEO system will be the observers

  4. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  5. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT).

    PubMed

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2Rγ (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  6. Characterization of (As.Te)1-xSex thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. M.; Moharram, A. H.; Abu-Sehly, A. A.

    Optical absorption at room temperature and electrical resistivity at temperatures between 200 and 320 K for (As.Te)1-xSex thin films (where x=0.20, 0.23, 0.27, 0.32 and 0.44) have been studied. Increasing the Se content was found to increase the optical energy gap and the activation energy for conduction of the investigated films. The optical energy gap of the As0.40Te0.40Se0.20 films was increased up to 1.21 eV by increasing the film thickness to 120 nm, while thermal annealing at 480 K reduced it down to 0.83 eV. The decrease of the optical gap is discussed on the basis of amorphous-crystalline transformations.

  7. ALT in the polarized Drell-Yan process at RHIC and HERA energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Y.; Koike, Yuji; Nishiyama, N.

    1998-06-01

    We present a leading order (LO) estimate for the longitudinal-transverse spin asymmetry (ALT) in the nucleon-nucleon polarized Drell-Yan process at RHIC and HERA-N energies in comparison with ALL and ATT. ALT receives contribution from g1, the transversity distribution h1, and the twist-3 distributions gT and hL. For the twist-3 contribution we use the bag model prediction evolved to a high energy scale by the large-Nc evolution equation. We found that ALT (normalized by the asymmetry in the parton level) is much smaller than the corresponding ATT. Twist-3 contribution given by the bag model also turned out to be negligible.

  8. National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

    1991-10-01

    To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

  9. Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

    1986-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90/sup 0/ toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary.

  10. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  17. Keeping It in the Family: ATRX Loss Promotes Persistent Sister Telomere Cohesion in ALT Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Roake, Caitlin M; Artandi, Steven E

    2015-09-14

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ramamoorthy and Smith report that cancer cells that maintain their chromosome ends through alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) display persistent sister telomere cohesion. This delayed resolution of sister telomere cohesion depends upon the loss of ATRX and its histone-sequestering function and is associated with increased recombination between sister telomeres. PMID:26373274

  18. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  19. Exact partition functions for the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We study the low energy effective action of the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory. It depends on the deformation parameters ɛ 1, ɛ 2, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet mass m. We explore the plane (m/ɛ_1,ɛ_2/ɛ_1) looking for special features in the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential, motivated by what happens in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit ɛ 2 → 0. We propose a simple condition on the structure of poles of the k-instanton prepotential and show that it is admissible at a finite set of points in the above plane. At these special points, the prepotential has poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. Besides and remarkably, both the instanton partition function and the full prepotential, including the perturbative contribution, may be given in closed form as functions of the scalar expectation value a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Dedekind η function. As a byproduct, the modular anomaly equation can be tested at all orders at these points. We discuss these special features from the point of view of the AGT correspondence and provide explicit toroidal 1-blocks in non-trivial closed form. The full list of solutions with 1, 2, 3, and 4 poles is determined and described in details.

  20. Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

    2013-01-01

    The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

  1. ASTE CO J = 3-2 SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Tomoharu; Onodera, Yui; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Nagai, Makoto; Kamegai, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    We present high-resolution CO J = 3-2 maps of the Galactic center region, taken with the ASTE 10 m telescope. We have collected approximately 30,000 spectra with a 34'' grid spacing. The mapping area is roughly -1.{sup 0}8 < l < +3.{sup 0}5 and -0.{sup 0}8 < b < +0.{sup 0}9, which includes the central molecular zone and Bania's Clump 2, covering almost the full extent of the molecular gas concentration in the Galactic center. These CO J = 3-2 images show a behavior similar to the CO J = 1-0 images with the same resolution. Molecular gas in the Galactic center shows a higher J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratio ({approx}0.7) than the gas in the spiral arms in the Galactic disk ({approx}0.4). The CO J = 3-2/CO J = 1-0 luminosity ratio is 0.71. We see several regions with very high J = 3-2/J = 1-0 intensity ratios exceeding 1.5, including the Sgr A, l = +1.{sup 0}3, l = -0.{sup 0}4, and l = -1.{sup 0}2 regions. A number of small spots of high ratio gas are also found. Many of them have large velocity widths, indicating that they are spots of hot molecular gas shocked by unidentified supernovae and/or winds from massive stars.

  2. Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. )

    1991-03-11

    Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

  3. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  4. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K.; Lue, Neal F.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and “trapped” the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  5. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  6. Overlapping ATP2C1 and ASTE1 genes in human genome: implications for SPCA1 expression?

    PubMed

    Micaroni, Massimo; Malquori, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The ATP2C1 gene encodes for the secretory pathway calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase pump (SPCA1), which localizes along the secretory pathway, mainly in the trans-Golgi. The loss of one ATP2C1 allele causes Hailey-Hailey disease in humans but not mice. Examining differences in genomic organization between mouse and human we speculate that the overlap between ATP2C1 and ASTE1 genes only in humans could explain this different response to ATP2C1 dysregulation. We propose that ASTE1, overlapping with ATP2C1 in humans, affects alternative splicing, and potentially protein expression of the latter. If dysregulated, the composition of the SPCA1 isoform pool could diverge from the physiological status, affecting cytosolic Ca2+-signaling, and in turn perturbing cell division, leading to cell death or to neoplastic transformation. PMID:23344038

  7. Determination of mask induced polarization effects on AltPSM mask structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollein, Ingo; Teuber, Silvio; Bubke, Karsten

    2005-06-01

    In the process of discussion of possible mask-types for the 5x nm node (half-pitch) and below, the alternating phase-shifting mask (AltPSM) is a potential candidate to be screened. The current scenario suggests using 193 nm immersion lithography with NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate need to be taken into account when the optical performance of a mask is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures on a real mask. Measurements of the polarization dependent diffraction efficiencies have been performed on AltPSM masks. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations. A comparison with Binary Masks is made.

  8. Loss of ATRX Suppresses Resolution of Telomere Cohesion to Control Recombination in ALT Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Smith, Susan

    2015-09-14

    The chromatin-remodeler ATRX is frequently lost in cancer cells that use ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) for telomere maintenance, but its function in telomere recombination is unknown. Here we show that loss of ATRX suppresses the timely resolution of sister telomere cohesion that normally occurs prior to mitosis. In the absence of ATRX, the histone variant macroH2A1.1 binds to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase tankyrase 1, preventing it from localizing to telomeres and resolving cohesion. The resulting persistent telomere cohesion promotes recombination between sister telomeres, while it suppresses inappropriate recombination between non-sisters. Forced resolution of sister telomere cohesion induces excessive recombination between non-homologs, genomic instability, and impaired cell growth, indicating the ATRX-macroH2A1.1-tankyrase axis as a potential therapeutic target in ALT tumors. PMID:26373281

  9. Two members of the first crew of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two members of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr. (left), commander; and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  10. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  11. Antioxidant and antifatigue activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata rhizomes in rats.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-11-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  12. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  13. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  14. Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2014-07-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

  15. Functional analysis of a highly conserved abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2) intron 2 repeat region of lymphatic filarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-06-01

    The filarial-specific protein abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) is expressed exclusively in the infective larval stage (L3) and is a crucial protein for establishing immunopathogenesis in human hosts. The alt-2 gene has a conserved minisatellite repeat (29 or 27bp) in intron 2 (IR2) whose significance within lymphatic filarial species is unknown. Here, we report the role of IR2 in the regulation of alt-2 gene expression using an in vitro model. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified the presence of a putative nuclear protein binding region within IR2. Subsequent transient expression experiments in eukaryotic cell lines demonstrated that the IR2 downregulated the expression of a downstream luciferase reporter gene, which was further validated with RT-PCR. We therefore identify IR2 as a suppressor element that regulates L3 stage-specific expression of alt-2. PMID:24681262

  16. Thermal load distribution near the tips of the ALT-II limiter roof on TEXTOR-94

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, T.; Finken, K. H.; Mank, G.; Noda, N.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of these investigations is the description of the power flux on roof-like limiters near the LCFS. Here, the specific subject is the toroidal pump limiter ALT-II of TEXTOR-94. Similar to other plasma facing objects, the surface of ALT-II is shaped to enhance the plasma wetted area; this is achieved by reducing the angle of incidence of the magnetic field to less than 1° for the first 10 mm of the SOL. This small angle of incidence enhances all effects of toroidal non-uniformity as given, for example, by magnetic field ripple. Extensive modelling explains well the observed heating pattern on the limiter surface due to the ripple effect. In contrast to the expectations from density and temperature distributions in the SOL and at the edge of the confined region, an excessive power density is deposited on the first few millimetres near the tip of the limiter roof. Physical effects which could cause this phenomenon are discussed.

  17. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09 mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  18. Continuous Reduction of Protein-Bound Uraemic Toxins with Improved Oxidative Stress by Using the Oral Charcoal Adsorbent AST-120 in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Kazama, Junichiro J.; Omori, Kentaro; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Kazuko; Matsuto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs) is one of the reasons for the development of uraemia-related complications including cardiovascular disease; however, conventional haemodialysis is limited in its ability to remove PBUTs. We aimed to examine whether the oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 has an additive effect on PBUT removal in haemodialysis patients. During the 4-week study, anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis received AST-120 (6 g/day) in the last 2 weeks (n = 10) or the first 2 weeks (n = 10). Serum levels of total and free PBUTs such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate at the pre- and postdialysis sessions were measured before and after AST-120 use and after discontinuation. Levels of the oxidative stress markers oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane were also measured. AST-120 use induced dramatic reduction of indoxyl sulfate (total, 45.7% [33.2–50.5%]; free, 70.4% [44.8–79.8%]), p-cresyl sulfate (total, 31.1% [25.0–48.0%]; free, 63.5% [49.3–70.9%]), and phenyl sulfate (free, 50.6% [32.3–71.2%]) levels; however, this effect disappeared after the discontinuation of AST-120. AST-120 use also induced substantial reduction of the oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane levels. In conclusion, oral administration of AST-120 had additive effects on the continuous reduction of some PBUTs in anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis. PMID:26395517

  19. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  20. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  1. Cdk-dependent phosphorylation regulates TRF1 recruitment to PML bodies and promotes C-circle production in ALT cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Florence R; Ho, Angus; Walker, John R; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2016-07-01

    TRF1, a duplex telomeric DNA binding protein, is implicated in homologous-recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres, known as ALT. However, how TRF1 promotes ALT activity has yet to be fully characterized. Here we report that Cdk-dependent TRF1 phosphorylation on T371 acts as a switch to create a pool of TRF1, referred to as (pT371)TRF1, which is recruited to ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) in S and G2 phases independently of its binding to telomeric DNA. We find that phosphorylation of T371 is essential for APB formation and C-circle production, both of which are hallmarks of ALT. We show that the interaction of (pT371)TRF1 with APBs is dependent upon ATM and homologous-recombination-promoting factors Mre11 and BRCA1. In addition, (pT371)TRF1 interaction with APBs is sensitive to transcription inhibition, which also reduces DNA damage at telomeres. Furthermore, overexpression of RNaseH1 impairs (pT371)TRF1 recruitment to APBs in the presence of campothecin, an inhibitor that prevents topoisomerase I from resolving RNA-DNA hybrids. These results suggest that transcription-associated DNA damage, perhaps arising from processing RNA-DNA hybrids at telomeres, triggers (pT371)TRF1 recruitment to APBs to facilitate ALT activity. PMID:27185864

  2. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  3. Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in the Production of Photons, Hadrons, and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    We calculate the double spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT in proton-proton (pp) collisions for the production of photons, hadrons, and jets in the collinear twist-3 framework. These processes allows us for the first time to access a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions. We also give numerical estimates for the asymmetries of which photon production shows the most promise of a measurable effect. Furthermore, we comment on how these asymmetries would allow us to probe the gluon helicity down to as of yet unexplored x values, remark on the importance of these effects in determining the evolution of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x, x), and discuss their usefulness in resolving the true mechanism behind the large transverse single spin asymmetries (SSAs) measured in pp collisions.

  4. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji; Pitonyak, Daniel; Yoshida, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions, i.e., p↑ p → → h X. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  7. Progress report on pump limiter developments for the TEXTOR tokamak: ALT-I

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Finken, F.H.; Gauster, W.B.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    A collaborative program is underway to field a comprehensive pump limiter experimental program on TEXTOR: Advanced Limiter Test-I (ALT-I). Either of two interchangeable limiter modules may be attached to an insertion/rotation mechanism to direct particles to the about1 m/sup 3/ pumping chamber. Pumping is provided primarily by a solid getter assembly at about20,000 1/sec. Variation of geometric dimensions and gas puffing in the modules will allow the study of plasma and neutral interaction in differing recycle regimes. Multiple diagnostic systems are incorporated into the pump limiter design for use in conjunction with TEXTOR plasma diagnostics. Initial experiments are scheduled for December 1983.

  8. Nuclear-receptor-mediated telomere insertion leads to genome instability in ALT cancers.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Paulina; Armenise, Claudia; Pérot, Gaëlle; Roumelioti, Fani-Marlen; Basyuk, Eugenia; Gagos, Sarantis; Chibon, Frédéric; Déjardin, Jérôme

    2015-02-26

    The breakage-fusion-bridge cycle is a classical mechanism of telomere-driven genome instability in which dysfunctional telomeres are fused to other chromosomal extremities, creating dicentric chromosomes that eventually break at mitosis. Here, we uncover a distinct pathway of telomere-driven genome instability, specifically occurring in cells that maintain telomeres with the alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism. We show that, in these cells, telomeric DNA is added to multiple discrete sites throughout the genome, corresponding to regions regulated by NR2C/F transcription factors. These proteins drive local telomere DNA addition by recruiting telomeric chromatin. This mechanism, which we name targeted telomere insertion (TTI), generates potential common fragile sites that destabilize the genome. We propose that TTI driven by NR2C/F proteins contributes to the formation of complex karyotypes in ALT tumors. PMID:25723166

  9. Different expression of alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT)-associated proteins/mRNAs in osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YI; CAI, LIN; WEI, REN-XIONG; HU, HAO; JIN, WEI; ZHU, XIAO-BIN

    2011-01-01

    Tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS), are capable of evading senescence and cell death, which is caused by telomere loss with cell division. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is considered as the main telomere maintenance mechanism in OS. In this study, we investigated the expression of ALT-associated proteins and mRNAs in human OS cell lines. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression in OS cell lines, while the expression of mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Whole-genome expression arrays were used to analyze the expression of all the mRNAs involved in telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) including human telomerase reverse transcriptase, promyelocytic leukemia proteins and other related proteins. OS and normal cell lines do not express telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) as a key subunit of telomerase, although they show varying levels of ALT-associated proteins and mRNAs such as PML, Rad52, MRE11 and FEN1 by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. A number of mRNAs that play essential roles in ALT are expressed more in OS cell lines than in the osteoblast cell line, as shown by whole-genome expression arrays. In conclusion, OS cell lines maintain their telomere length primarily through the ALT mechanism. There are numerous other proteins that regulate this process in OS; therefore, anti-ALT therapy may be a more effective method to treat OS than anti-telomerase therapy. PMID:22848311

  10. PhyloToAST: Bioinformatics tools for species-level analysis and visualization of complex microbial datasets.

    PubMed

    Dabdoub, Shareef M; Fellows, Megan L; Paropkari, Akshay D; Mason, Matthew R; Huja, Sarandeep S; Tsigarida, Alexandra A; Kumar, Purnima S

    2016-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene is widely used for taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems; and recent advances in sequencing chemistry have allowed extremely large numbers of sequences to be generated from minimal amounts of biological samples. Analysis speed and resolution of data to species-level taxa are two important factors in large-scale explorations of complex microbiomes using 16S sequencing. We present here new software, Phylogenetic Tools for Analysis of Species-level Taxa (PhyloToAST), that completely integrates with the QIIME pipeline to improve analysis speed, reduce primer bias (requiring two sequencing primers), enhance species-level analysis, and add new visualization tools. The code is free and open source, and can be accessed at http://phylotoast.org. PMID:27357721

  11. PhyloToAST: Bioinformatics tools for species-level analysis and visualization of complex microbial datasets

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Shareef M.; Fellows, Megan L.; Paropkari, Akshay D.; Mason, Matthew R.; Huja, Sarandeep S.; Tsigarida, Alexandra A.; Kumar, Purnima S.

    2016-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene is widely used for taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems; and recent advances in sequencing chemistry have allowed extremely large numbers of sequences to be generated from minimal amounts of biological samples. Analysis speed and resolution of data to species-level taxa are two important factors in large-scale explorations of complex microbiomes using 16S sequencing. We present here new software, Phylogenetic Tools for Analysis of Species-level Taxa (PhyloToAST), that completely integrates with the QIIME pipeline to improve analysis speed, reduce primer bias (requiring two sequencing primers), enhance species-level analysis, and add new visualization tools. The code is free and open source, and can be accessed at http://phylotoast.org. PMID:27357721

  12. ALT1, a Snf2 Family Chromatin Remodeling ATPase, Negatively Regulates Alkaline Tolerance through Enhanced Defense against Oxidative Stress in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  13. The effect of IFN-based therapies on the short-term dynamics of alt in HCV-infected patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, R. M.; Talal, A. H.; Layden, J. E.; Powers, K. A.; Layden, T. J.; Perelson, Alan S.,

    2002-01-01

    IFN therapy of HCV-infection has been shown to reduce production of virus from infected cells, but its effect on hepatocytes is less well understood. One indicator of liver damage is ALT, which has been used as an associated diagnostic for HCV infection.

  14. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  15. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  16. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations. PMID:26007633

  17. AltAnalyze and DomainGraph: analyzing and visualizing exon expression data.

    PubMed

    Emig, Dorothea; Salomonis, Nathan; Baumbach, Jan; Lengauer, Thomas; Conklin, Bruce R; Albrecht, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for increasing protein diversity. However, its functional effects are largely unknown. Here, we present our new software workflow composed of the open-source application AltAnalyze and the Cytoscape plugin DomainGraph. Both programs provide an intuitive and comprehensive end-to-end solution for the analysis and visualization of alternative splicing data from Affymetrix Exon and Gene Arrays at the level of proteins, domains, microRNA binding sites, molecular interactions and pathways. Our software tools include easy-to-use graphical user interfaces, rigorous statistical methods (FIRMA, MiDAS and DABG filtering) and do not require prior knowledge of exon array analysis or programming. They provide new methods for automatic interpretation and visualization of the effects of alternative exon inclusion on protein domain composition and microRNA binding sites. These data can be visualized together with affected pathways and gene or protein interaction networks, allowing a straightforward identification of potential biological effects due to alternative splicing at different levels of granularity. Our programs are available at http://www.altanalyze.org and http://www.domaingraph.de. These websites also include extensive documentation, tutorials and sample data. PMID:20513647

  18. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  19. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  20. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  1. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: a comprehensive look at B cells and antibodies in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mengel, M; Chong, A; Rothstein, D M; Zorn, E; Maltzman, J S

    2014-03-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) represents a significant clinical challenge for solid organ transplantation. Mechanistic understanding of ABMR is incomplete and diagnostic accuracy for ABMR is limited, and as a result, targeted treatment remains elusive and new treatment modalities are difficult to validate. Three hundred twenty-six participants from 15 countries met for the first Cutting Edge of Transplantation (CEOT) symposium organized by the American Society of Transplantation (AST) in Chandler, Arizona, February 14-16, 2013. During the 3-day interactive symposium, presentations, moderated poster sessions and round table discussions addressed cutting edge knowledge of B and plasma cell biology, mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury, advances and limitations in ABMR diagnostics, as well as current and potential new treatment options for ABMR. The outcome of the meeting identified the following unmet needs for: (a) improved understanding of the regulation of B cell maturation and antibody response to enable targeted therapies; (b) more precise diagnostics of ABMR, including molecular pathology, risk stratification by sensitive antibody testing and monitoring of treatment effects; and (c) innovative multicenter trial designs that enhance observational power, in particular, in assessing synergistic multimodality therapies with reduced toxicities. PMID:24674597

  2. Proceedings of the AST heart allocation meeting at the American Transplant Congress, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 4, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kobashigawa, Jon; Teuteberg, Jeffrey; Colvin, Monica; Edwards, Leah; Daun, Tiffany; Luu, Minh; Patel, Jignesh; Vega, John David; Meyer, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ensuring fair and equitable allocation of donor hearts in the US is the charge of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). However, the recent increase of candidates waiting without a corresponding increase in available donors, higher waitlist mortality rates in higher status patients, the presence of disadvantaged subgroups, and the changing management of heart failure patients with increased VAD usage, has necessitated review of allocation policy. Therefore, the Heart Subcommittee of the OPTN/UNOS Thoracic Committee is exploring a further-tiered allocation system, devising a "straw man" model as a starting point for modeling analyses and public discussion. On May 4, 2015, an American Society of Transplantation (AST)-endorsed forum to discuss these potential proposed changes took place. Attendees included 41 people, mostly highly experienced transplant cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons, representing 19 heart transplant centers across the US, UNOS, and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). There was unanimous agreement that the potential proposed policy will require careful wording to avoid ambiguity and "gaming" of the system, and strong support for abolishment of local organ sharing in favor of geographic sharing. However, contention existed concerning the appropriate prioritization levels of ECMO, temporary VAD/TAH patients as well as the 30-day LVAD listing. PMID:27000519

  3. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  4. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  5. Comparison Study II: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas G.; Coombs, Lee C.

    2012-07-01

    Eight double stars with separations between 13 and 48 arc seconds were studied. Their separations and position angles were measured using an equatorial mounted refractor and and alt-az mounted reflector. A 2x Barlow lens was used along with a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece to magnify the separation. Comparison of the possible effect of magnitude difference on the separation and position angle measurements was investigated.

  6. A Comparison Study: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Coombs, Lee

    2010-10-01

    Separation and position angle measurements were made on seven different double star systems with a six-inch equatorial mounted refractor and an eighteen-inch alt-az reflector. The accuracies of the observations made with the two instruments were compared to each other and the corresponding literature values. The results indicated both telescopes can be used to accurately measure the separation and position angles of double stars for separations greater than 25 arc seconds.

  7. The immunomodulatory, antitumor and antimetastatic responses of melanoma-bearing normal and alcoholic mice to sunitinib and ALT-803: a combinatorial treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Kari A; Little, Alexander A; McBride, Alisha A; Garcia, Savanna R; Brar, Kiranjot K; Zhu, Zhaohui; Platt, Amity; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G; Zhang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    ALT-803, a novel IL-15/IL-15 receptor alpha complex, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, were examined for their single and combined effects on the growth of subcutaneous B16BL6 melanoma and on lymph node and lung metastasis. The study was conducted in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice drinking water (Water mice) and in mice that chronically consumed alcohol (Alcohol mice), which are deficient in CD8(+) T cells. Sunitinib inhibited melanoma growth and was more effective in Alcohol mice. ALT-803 did not alter tumor growth or survival in Water or Alcohol mice. Combined ALT-803 and sunitinib inhibited melanoma growth and increased survival, and these effects were greater than sunitinib alone in Water mice. ALT-803 and alcohol independently suppressed lymph node and lung metastasis, whereas sunitinib alone or in combination with ALT-803 increased lymph node and lung metastasis in Water and Alcohol mice. Initially, ALT-803 increased IFN-γ-producing CD8(+)CD44(hi) memory T cells and CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) effector memory T cells and sunitinib decreased immunosuppressive MDSC and T regulatory cells (Treg). However, the impact of these treatments diminished with time. Subcutaneous tumors from Water mice showed increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells, CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells, NK cells, and MDSC cells and decreased Treg cells after ALT-803 treatment. PMID:27481107

  8. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  9. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    We present number counts and clustering properties of millimeter-bright galaxies uncovered by the AzTEC camera mounted on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We surveyed the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA22 fields with an area of ~0.25 deg2 each with an rms noise level of ~0.4-1.0 mJy. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z~2-3. The average mass of dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources was calculated to be 1013-1014 Msolar. Comparison of correlation lengths of 1.1 mm sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the 1.1 mm sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

  10. Model study by FT-IR of the interaction of select cholate dissolution inhibitors with poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Gabor, Allen H.; Medina, Arturo N.

    1999-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interaction between the polymer matrix and the cholate based dissolution inhibitors are being studied by Fourier Transform-IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the simple cholate derivatives undergo, in a blend with poly(norbornene-alt- maleic anhydride) and in a blend with the terpolymers poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-t-butylacrylate) and poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-acrylic acid), stronger interaction as seen by shifts in the OH region of the spectra than do blends with dimeric or oligomeric cholates.

  11. Lifetime vibrational interference during the NO 1s-1π ^ast resonant excitation studied by the NO^+(A ^1Pi → X ^1Σ^+) fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, A.; Kielich, W.; Werner, L.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Omel'Yanenko, D. V.; Sukhorukov, V. L.; Schartner, K.-H.; Schmoranzer, H.

    2007-11-01

    Dispersed fluorescence from fragments formed after the de-excitation of the 1s-1π ast resonances of NastO and NOast has been measured in the spectral range of 118 142 nm. This range is dominated by lines of atomic nitrogen and oxygen fragments and by the A 1Pi ≤ft(vprimeright) → X 1Σ+≤ft(vprime primeright) bands in the NO+ ion which result from the participator Auger decay of the 1s-1π ast resonances. Ab-initio calculations of the transition probabilities between vibrational levels during the reaction NO X 2Pi≤ft(v0=0right) → Nast O≤ft( NOastright) 1s-1π ast ≤ft( vrright) Longrightarrow NO+ A 1Pi ≤ft(vprimeright) → X 1Σ+≤ft(vprime primeright) were used to explain the observed intensity dependence for the A≤ft(vprime right) → X≤ft(vprime primeright) fluorescence bands on the exciting-photon energy across the resonances and on both vprime and vprime prime vibrational quantum numbers. The multiplet structure of the 1s-1π ast resonance and lifetime vibrational interference explain the observed exciting-photon energy dependence of the A≤ft( vprimeright) → X≤ft(vprime primeright) fluorescence intensity. A strong spin-orbit coupling between singlet and triplet states of NO+ is proposed to reduce additional cascade population of the A 1Pi state via radiative transitions from the W 1Δ and Aprime 1Σ- states and to explain remaining differences between measured and calculated integral fluorescence intensities.

  12. Crystal Structure of N-succinylarginine Dihydrolase AstB, Bound to Substrate and Product, an Enzyme from the Arginine Catabolic Pathway of Escherichia Coli

    SciTech Connect

    Tocilj,A.; Schrag, J.; Li, Y.; Schneider, B.; Reitzer, L.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ammonia-producing arginine succinyltransferase pathway is the major pathway in Escherichia coli and related bacteria for arginine catabolism as a sole nitrogen source. This pathway consists of five steps, each catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, the second enzyme of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway, providing the first structural insight into enzymes from this pathway. The enzyme exhibits a pseudo 5-fold symmetric {alpha}/{beta} propeller fold of circularly arranged {beta}{beta}{alpha}{beta} modules enclosing the active site. The crystal structure indicates clearly that this enzyme belongs to the amidinotransferase (AT) superfamily and that the active site contains a Cys-His-Glu triad characteristic of the AT superfamily. Structures of the complexes of AstB with the reaction product and a C365S mutant with bound the N-succinylarginine substrate suggest a catalytic mechanism that consists of two cycles of hydrolysis and ammonia release, with each cycle utilizing a mechanism similar to that proposed for arginine deiminases. Like other members of the AT superfamily of enzymes, AstB possesses a flexible loop that is disordered in the absence of substrate and assumes an ordered conformation upon substrate binding, shielding the ligand from the bulk solvent, thereby controlling substrate access and product release.

  13. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  14. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and outcomes in persons with acute coronary syndromes: insights from the GRACE-ALT analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Lavanya; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Andrew T; Mendelsohn, Aurora; Ray, Joel G

    2012-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, but no data exist about the relation between NAFLD and adverse outcomes in persons with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We evaluated elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a marker of NAFLD, in association adverse outcomes following ACS. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of participants enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) admitted for ACS to St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, between 1999 and 2007. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the change in maximum measured cardiac troponin I (cTnI) per each 1 IU/l increase in serum ALT concentration. The association between an elevated ALT >90th centile, and adverse outcomes in-hospital and at 6 months were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, serum creatinine, glucose, triglycerides and LDL-C, as well as chronic statin or other lipid-lowering agent use. Results 528 participants were included. Each 1 IU/l increase in ALT was associated with an increase in maximum measured cTnI of 0.16 µg/l (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22). An elevated ALT concentration >90th percentile was associated with a maximum measured cTnI in the highest quartile (adjusted OR 7.07, 95% CI 1.83 to 27.37). An elevated ALT >90th percentile was also significantly associated with all-cause mortality in-hospital, and up to 6 months after discharge (adjusted OR 8.96, 95% CI 3.28 to 24.49). Conclusions NAFLD, determined by an elevated serum ALT, is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes in persons with ACS. Whether ALT is a valid and independent prognostic marker in ACS remains to be determined.

  15. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine. PMID:26843073

  16. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fiona T M; Chan, F Lyn; R McGhie, James D; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R; Wong, Lee H

    2015-03-11

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  18. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  19. Shape evolution of SrCO{sub 3} particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jiaguo . E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Guo Hua; Cheng Bei

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO{sub 3} particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO{sub 3} particles.

  20. Total upper and lower eyelid replacement following thermal burn using an ALT flap--a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Farace, F; Puddu, A; Canu, V; Posadinu, M A

    2008-01-01

    Upper and lower eyelid unilateral full thickness reconstruction in a patient with no available adjacent tissues because of burns or trauma sequelae is a surgical challenge. A case of severe thermal burn with unilateral complete defect of both upper and lower eyelids is reported, together with the surgical technique of reconstruction. The patient was a 65-year-old man who sustained deep burns of the head and neck with upper airway burns after falling into a fireplace. After tracheostomy and acute resuscitation, he underwent escharectomy and coverage of his head and neck burns with split thickness skin grafts and with full thickness skin grafts to the eyelids. There was incomplete take of the skin grafts to the upper and lower left eyelids. In these areas, infection and loss of the tarsum and subsequent eyelid retraction led to exposure keratitis and blurred vision. After healing and respiratory rehabilitation, he was referred to our microsurgical unit for upper and lower eyelid reconstruction. A free forearm flap was first considered, but the Allen test was negative. Therefore, a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was chosen to provide skin eyelid coverage. The flap was harvested including fascia and centred on one perforator. The levator muscle stump and conjunctiva from both upper and lower cul-de-sacs were dissected and advanced. Flap vessels were anastomosed to the superficial temporal artery and vein. The conjunctiva and the fascia replaced the new inner upper and lower lamella. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a perforator flap, the ALT flap, in full thickness reconstruction of both upper and lower eyelids and may be a reliable option in such selected and challenging situations. PMID:17954041

  1. Computational study of pH-dependent oligomerization and ligand binding in Alt a 1, a highly allergenic protein with a unique fold.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Bretones, Jorge; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Cubells, Nuria; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Pacios, Luis F

    2016-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a highly allergenic protein from Alternaria fungi responsible for several respiratory diseases. Its crystal structure revealed a unique β-barrel fold that defines a new family exclusive to fungi and forms a symmetrical dimer in a butterfly-like shape as well as tetramers. Its biological function is as yet unknown but its localization in cell wall of Alternaria spores and its interactions in the onset of allergy reactions point to a function to transport ligands. However, at odds with binding features in β-barrel proteins, monomeric Alt a 1 seems unable to harbor ligands because the barrel is too narrow. Tetrameric Alt a 1 is able to bind the flavonoid quercetin, yet the stability of the aggregate and the own ligand binding are pH-dependent. At pH 6.5, which Alt a 1 would meet when secreted by spores in bronchial epithelium, tetramer-quercetin complex is stable. At pH 5.5, which Alt a 1 would meet in apoplast when infecting plants, the complex breaks down. By means of a combined computational study that includes docking calculations, empirical pKa estimates, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we identified a putative binding site at the dimeric interface between subunits in tetramer. We propose an explanation on the pH-dependence of both oligomerization states and protein-ligand affinity of Alt a 1 in terms of electrostatic variations associated to distinct protonation states at different pHs. The uniqueness of this singular protein can thus be tracked in the combination of all these features. PMID:27090909

  2. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  3. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15Rα-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

  4. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles suppressed colon carcinoma established subcutaneously in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Kyu; Kim, Kyung Keun; Cho, Sang-Hee; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Jere, Dhananjay; Cho, Chong-Su; Chung, Ik-Joo

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable gene carrier, termed as PEI-alt-PEG, has been synthesized based on Michael addition reaction between lower Mw PEI and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate and tested its potential of anti-metastatic cancer gene therapy by using anti-KITENIN short hairpin RNA. KITENIN is known to promote invasion of mouse colon adenocarcinoma in vivo. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles has shown suppressed proliferlation and enhanced apoptosis signal in tumor compared to commercial available liposome, leading to delayed tumor growth. PMID:20358939

  5. Secoemestrin D, A Cytotoxic Epitetrathiodioxopiperizine and Emericellenes A–E, Five Sesterterpenoids from Emericella sp. AST0036, a Fungal Endophyte of Astragalus lentiginosus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ya-ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Mangping X.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A new epitetrathiodioxopiperizine, secoemestrin D (1), five sesterterpenoids bearing a new carbon skeleton, emericellenes A–E (2–6), together with previously known fungal metabolites, sterigmatocystin (7), arugosin C (8), and epiisoshamixanthone (9), were obtained from the endophytic fungal strain Emericella sp. AST0036 isolated from a healthy leaf tissue of Astragalus lentiginosus. The planar structures and relative configurations of the new metabolites 1–6 were elucidated using MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using a panel of six tumor cell lines and normal human fibroblast cells. Only metabolites 1 and 7 showed cytotoxic activity. More importantly, secoemestrin D (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50s ranging from 0.06–0.24 µM and moderate selectivity to human glioma (SF-268) and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. PMID:24251417

  6. Measurement of CP violation parameters and polarisation fractions in {B}s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast 0} decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.

    2015-11-01

    The first measurement of CP asymmetries in the decay {B}_s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast }{(892)}^0 and an updated measurement of its branching fraction and polarisation fractions are presented. The results are obtained using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 .0 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions recorded with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Together with constraints from B 0 → J/ψ ρ 0, the results are used to constrain additional contributions due to penguin diagrams in the CP -violating phase ϕ s , measured through B s 0 decays to charmonium. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Functional complementation of fumonisin biosynthesis in FUM1-disrupted fusarium verticillioides by the AAL-toxin polyketide synthase gene ALT1 from Alternaria alternata f. sp. Lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangcheng; Vogeler, Chad; Du, Liangcheng

    2008-06-01

    Fumonisins and AAL-toxins are mycotoxins produced by several widespread fungal pathogens of crops. The carbon backbone of the mycotoxins originates from a highly reduced, acyclic polyketide, a C18 chain for fumonisins and a C16 chain for AAL-toxins. Fungal reduced polyketides are assembled by iterative modular polyketide synthases (PKS), and their biosynthetic mechanism is not very clear. Here, we cloned the PKS gene, ALT1, from the tomato pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. Lycopersici and introduced it into Fusarium verticillioides 5777, which does not produce fumonisins due to a disrupted fumonisin PKS gene, FUM1. An ALT1 transformant of strain 5777 produced fumonisin B series as well as fumonisin analogues. The results provide experimental evidence for the function of ALT1, which encodes a PKS for mycotoxin biosynthesis. The results also show that the C16-synthesizing ALT1 is able to support the C18 fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides, suggesting that the final size of the fungal reduced polyketides is not determined by the PKSs alone. Unlike other PKSs, these PKSs do not have a thioesterase/cyclase domain. The release of polyketide precursors that are covalently attached to the PKSs involves a distinct mechanism, which probably determines the structure of the final products. PMID:18435561

  8. AltMV TGB1 nucleolar localization requires homologous interaction and correlates with cell wall localization associated with cell-to-cell movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...

  9. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, AZD4619, induces alanine aminotransferase-1 gene and protein expression in human, but not in rat hepatocytes: Correlation with serum ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Thulin, Petra; Bamberg, Krister; Buler, Marcin; Dahl, Björn; Glinghammar, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum is the standard biomarker for liver injury. We have previously described a clinical trial with a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist (AZD4619), which unexpectedly caused increased serum levels of ALT in treated individuals without any other evidence of liver injury. We pinpointed a plausible mechanism through which AZD4619 could increase serum ALT levels; namely through the PPARα-specific activation of the human ALT1 gene at the transcriptional level. In the present study, we present data from the preceding rat toxicity study, demonstrating that AZD4619 had no effect on rat serum ALT activity levels, and further experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this species-related difference. Our results revealed that AZD4619 increased ALT1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in human, but not in rat primary hepatocytes. Cloning of the human and rat ALT1 promoters into luciferase vectors confirmed that AZD4619 induced only the human, but not the rat ALT1 gene promoter in a dose-dependent manner. In PPARα-GAL4 reporter gene assays, AZD4619 was >100-fold more potent on the human vs. rat PPARα levels, explaining the differences in induction of the ALT1 gene between the species at the concentration range tested. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the human and rat ALT1 reporter gene assays for testing future drug candidates at the preclinical stage. In drug discovery projects, these assays elucidate whether elevations in ALT levels observed in vivo or in the clinic are due to metabolic effects rather than a toxic event in the liver. PMID:27430334

  10. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  11. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  12. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the π-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  13. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  14. A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

  15. Thermal load distribution on the ALT-II limiter of TEXTOR-94 during RI mode operation and during disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finken, K. H.; Denner, T.; Mank, G.

    2000-03-01

    Thermographic measurements using an IR scanner have been performed at the pump limiter ALT-II of TEXTOR-94 during RI mode discharges and during disruptions. The measurements on the RI mode discharges were done to complete the TEXTOR database which had shown a structured decay pattern of the deposited power. It was found that the underlying radial heat flux can be described by two exponential decay functions. This structure, which generates an unexpected heat component close to the tangent line, has been observed in all discharge conditions including the RI mode. During disruptions, the heat is released in short pulses with a typical duration of 0.01-0.1 ms. The radial decay length of these pulses has a similar shape to the heat flux during normal discharges: it consists again of a strong component close to the tangent line with a radial decay length of 2-5 mm and probably one with a decay length of the order of 1 cm. The heat is released at the time when the edge electron temperature of the plasma drops, when intense hydrogen and carbon fluxes occur near the walls, and when electrical currents in the limiter blades are excited. In a tentative interpretation, the temporal and spatial structure of the heat pulse is attributed to the presence and growth of a laminar zone at the plasma edge, which is connected with the ergodization of the plasma edge during a disruption.

  16. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  17. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  18. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may signal a decrease in kidney function. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , alanine amino transferase (ALT) , aspartate amino transferase (AST) , and bilirubin ; ALP, ALT, and AST are liver enzymes; bilirubin is produced by the liver. Elevated concentrations ...

  19. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired

  20. AST IV inhibits H₂O₂-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by suppressing Nox4 expression through the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhong; Li, Weizu; Yin, Yanyan; Li, Weiping

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) aggregation is the main cause of vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad2 signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis of several types of cells. However, the association between vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and Nox4, and the involvement of the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Nox4-dependent ROS production and to determine the involvement of the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway in endothelial cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress which causes vascular injury in DM. We demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased Nox4-dependent-ROS aggregation, as well as the expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, Bax and caspase-3, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with diphenyliodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of Nox4 or astragaloside IV (AST IV), a monomer located in an extract of astragaloside, decreased Nox4 expression and the levels of ROS, decreased TGF-β1 and Smad2 expression, altered the expression of apoptosis-related genes and decreased the apoptosis of HUVECs. Treatment with LY2109761, a selective inhibitor of the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway, produced results similar to those of DPI; however, LY2109761 had no effect on Nox4 expression and ROS levels. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that H2O2 contributes to HUVEC apoptosis by inducing Nox4-dependent ROS aggregation and activating the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway. Our data indicate that the protective effects of AST IV against vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in DM are mainly associated with the decrease in Nox4 expression through the TGF-β1

  1. Synthesis, Biophysical, and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Melanocortin Agonist AST3-88: Modifications of Peptide Backbone at Trp 7 Position Lead to a Potent, Selective, and Stable Ligand of the Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (α-, β-, γ-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp7 residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a β-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ∼5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII β-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the α-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  2. Synthesis, biophysical, and pharmacological evaluation of the melanocortin agonist AST3-88: modifications of peptide backbone at Trp 7 position lead to a potent, selective, and stable ligand of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2014-10-15

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (α-, β-, γ-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a β-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ∼5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII β-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the α-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  3. Test and analysis of the stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hesheng; Jiang, Chongguo; Wu, Wang; Wang, Jinso; Zhang, Yuncheng; Xiong, Yaoheng; Yang, Wanjiang; Niu, Xin

    The test and analysis of the static and dynamic stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope at Yunnan Observatory are carried out. The actual velocities and accelerations to be needed for tracking the Moon and the Lageos satellite are simulated. The tested results show that the stability of friction drive system can meet the needs of the ±1″tracking accuracy.

  4. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  5. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  6. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  7. Effect of Segregation of Secondary Phase Particles and "S" Line on Tensile Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded 2024Al-T351 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2013-09-01

    A 5-mm-thick 2024Al-T351 plate was friction stir welded (FSWed) at welding speeds of 100, 200, and 400 mm min-1 with a constant rotation rate of 800 rpm, and the microstructure and tensile fracture behavior of the joints were investigated in detail. FSW resulted in the redistribution of secondary phase particles along the recrystallized grain boundaries at the nugget zone (NZ), forming linear segregation bands consisting of secondary phase particles. The segregation bands, mainly present in the shoulder-driven zone, were believed to result from periodic material flow, with the average band spacing on the longitudinal and horizontal cross sections equal to the tool advancement per revolution. At a low welding speed of 100 mm min-1, in spite of the highest density of segregation bands, the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joint fractured along the low hardness zone (LHZ) of the heat-affected zone because of large hardness gap between NZ and LHZ. Increasing the welding speed to 200 and 400 mm min-1 reduced both the hardness gap between NZ and LHZ and the density of segregation bands. In this case, the segregation bands played a role, resulting in unusual fracture of the joints along the segregation bands. The "S" line originated from the oxide film on the initial butting surfaces and did not affect the fracture behavior of the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joints.

  8. Aluminum-Dependent Terminal Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Root Tip Is Mediated through an ATR-, ALT2-, and SOG1-Regulated Transcriptional Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sjogren, Caroline A.; Bolaris, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    By screening for suppressors of the aluminum (Al) hypersensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant als3-1, it was found that mutational loss of the Arabidopsis DNA damage response transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF GAMMA RESPONSE1 (SOG1) confers increased Al tolerance similar to the loss-of-function mutants for the cell cycle checkpoint genes ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA AND RAD3 RELATED (ATR) and ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2). This suggests that Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip is an active process resulting from activation of the DNA damage checkpoint by an ATR-regulated pathway, which functions at least in part through SOG1. Consistent with this, ATR can phosphorylate SOG1 in vitro. Analysis of SOG1’s role in Al-dependent root growth inhibition shows that sog1-7 prevents Al-dependent quiescent center differentiation and endoreduplication in the primary root tip. Following Al exposure, SOG1 increases expression of several genes previously associated with DNA damage, including BRCA1 and PARP2, with gel-shift analysis showing that SOG1 can physically associate with the BRCA1 promoter in vitro. Al-responsive expression of these SOG1-regulated genes requires ATR and ALT2, but not ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED, thus demonstrating that in response to chronic Al exposure, ATR, ALT2, and SOG1 function together to halt root growth and promote terminal differentiation at least in part in a transcription-dependent manner. PMID:26320227

  9. Lower liver cancer risk with antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with normal to minimally elevated ALT and no cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Joseph K.; Yang, Hwai-I; Le, An; Nguyen, Nghia H.; Lin, Derek; Vu, Vinh D.; Chaung, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Trinh, Huy N.; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian Q.; Chen, Chien-Jen; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For chronic hepatitis B (CHB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) is often used as a major criteria to initiate treatment in absence of cirrhosis, though patients with lower ALT may not be free from future risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to examine the effect of antiviral therapy on HCC incidence based on ALT levels. We performed a retrospective study on 3665 patients consisting of United States and Taiwanese REVEAL-HBV cohort who were consecutive, treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic CHB patients aged ≥40 years. Patients were categorized by ALT cutoffs (≥2 × ULN vs <2 × ULN) and subgrouped by treatment status. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of HCC adjusting for REACH-B scores. A total of 202 patients developed HCC. Antiviral treatment significantly reduced HCC risk: HR 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.58; P = 0.001. HCC incidence per 100,000 person-years was significantly higher in untreated versus treated patients, even for those with ALT < 2 × ULN: 314.46 versus 0 per 100,000 person-years, P = 0.0042. For patients with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ≥ 2000 IU/mL, the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were 15 and 14 to prevent 1 incident HCC at year 10 for patients with ALT < 2 × ULN and ≥2 × ULN, respectively. After adjustment by REACH-B score, antiviral treatment significantly decreased HCC incidence even in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. NNT to prevent 1 incident HCC after 10 years of therapy was low (14–15) in patients with mildly elevated HBV DNA ≥ 2000 IU/mL regardless of ALT levels. PMID:27495067

  10. Storage tanks ASTs and USTs

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, D.E.; Lehmann, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Risks of storage tank failure and ground contamination are just two of the problems facing storage tank owners and operators today. As governmental concern for public safety increases, so does the pressure on operators to implement the necessary changes to satisfy the new regulations within the specified time frame. There is a lot of legislation pending on aboveground storage tanks that will affect companies planning construction in the future. The paper presented here are being presented not only to cover pending legislation, but also prospective legislation. Besides the important regulatory issues, the technical program covers corrosion, leak detection and prevention, contingency planning, emergency response, asset preservation, design, construction, and maintenance. All paper have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  11. Elevated AST-to-platelet ratio index is associated with increased all-cause mortality among HIV-infected adults in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor, Michael J.; Sinkala, Edford; Mweemba, Aggrey; Zanolini, Arianna; Mulenga, Lloyd; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Fried, Michael W.; Eron, Joseph J.; Wandeler, Gilles; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims We investigated the association between significant liver fibrosis, determined by AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and all-cause mortality among HIV-infected patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia Methods Among HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, we categorized baseline APRI scores according to established thresholds for significant hepatic fibrosis (APRI ≥1.5) and cirrhosis (APRI ≥2.0). Using multivariable logistic regression we identified risk factors for elevated APRI including demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), HIV clinical and immunologic status, and tuberculosis. In the subset tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), we investigated the association of hepatitis B virus co-infection with APRI score. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression we determined the association of elevated APRI with death during ART. Results Among 20,308 adults in the analysis cohort, 1,027 (5.1%) had significant liver fibrosis at ART initiation including 616 (3.0%) with cirrhosis. Risk factors for significant fibrosis or cirrhosis included male sex, BMI <18, WHO clinical stage 3 or 4, CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3, and tuberculosis. Among the 237 (1.2%) who were tested, HBsAg-positive patients had four times the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.71–10.04) of significant fibrosis compared HBsAg-negatives. Both significant fibrosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.41, 95% CI, 1.21–1.64) and cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.31–1.89) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Conclusion Liver fibrosis may be a risk factor for mortality during ART among HIV-infected individuals in Africa. APRI is an inexpensive and potentially useful test for liver fibrosis in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25581487

  12. YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> dc SQUID array for multichannel magnetometry and multichannel flip-chip current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Zakosarenko, V.; IJsselsteijn, R.; Stolz, R.; Schultze, V.; Chwala, A.; Hoenig, H. E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    1999-09-01

    We have prepared arrays of single-layer washer-type dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) on 10 mm × 10 mm bicrystal substrates. Each SQUID in the array is equipped with its own modulation loop, which makes a separate operation of them possible. Arrays containing nine or 11 dc SQUIDs have been tested and the crosstalk between neighbouring channels has been found to be 5%. The field sensitivity of the SQUIDs is 85 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 and 105 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 for the nine- and 11-device array, respectively. The equivalent flux noise is typically icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> 20 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 Hz-1/2 down to 1 Hz with ac bias reversal. A field resolution of less than 2.1 pT Hz-1/2 has been obtained for at least eight channels on a chip. By using multiturn YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> input coils and mounting them in a flip-chip configuration together with the single-layer dc SQUIDs we have been able to build three-channel current sensors. The current sensitivity equals 3-3.5 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>A icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 depending on the alignment of the flip-chip configuration. The current resolution of the devices is < 70 pA Hz-1/2. We show the possibility of building sensitive magnetometers by connecting the input coil of these current sensors to a normal-conducting pickup antenna.

  13. Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    M'Kada, Helmi; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ramanujam, Nittia; Fautrel, Bruno; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Ratziu, Vlad; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Leblond, Véronique; Delattre, Jean Yves; Samson, Yves; Caen, Olivier Lyon; Bricaire, François; Khayat, David; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Herson, Serge; Amoura, Zahir; Tilleul, Patrick; Deckmyn, Olivier; Coriat, Pierre; Delpech, Vincent Nicolas; Boulogne, Philippe; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening. Design We prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care strategy for 24-week period based on referral cases to the hepatology unit. In the centralized strategy, a designated study biochemist identified patients with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal values (ULN) and notified the designated hepatologists, who then went to the patients' wards, analyzed the charts, and if necessary, interviewed the identified patients. During these two periods, patients with possible DILI were included after signing an informed consent in an ongoing European diagnostic study (SAFE-T consortium). Results During the 24-week period of the standard strategy, 12 (0.04%) patients out of a total of 28,145 were identified as having possible DILI, and 11 of these accepted to be included in the protocol. During the one-week proactive period, 7 patients out of a total of 1407 inpatients (0.498%) [odds ratio vs. standard = 12.1 (95% CI, 3.9–32.3); P<0.0001] were identified with possible DILI, and 5 were included in the protocol. Conclusion A simple strategy based on the daily analysis of cases with ALT >3 ULN by designated biochemists and hepatologists identified 12 times more acute cases of drug-induced liver disease than the standard strategy. This pilot cohort is registered on the number AP-HP P110201/1/08-03-2011 and AFSSAPS B110346-70. PMID:22905129

  14. Patterns of viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil and their association with ALT levels and HBeAg status.

    PubMed

    Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Gaburo, Nelson; Cheinquer, Hugo; L'Italien, Gilbert; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau; Mantilla, Patricia; Cure-Bolt, Nancy; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2009-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a predictor of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nevertheless, the distribution of viral load levels in chronic HBV patients in Brazil has yet to be described. This cross-sectional study included 564 participants selected in nine Brazilian cities located in four of the five regions of the country using the database of a medical diagnostics company. Admission criteria included hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity, availability of HBV viral load samples and age >or=18 years. Males comprised 64.5% of the study population. Mean age was 43.7 years. Most individuals (62.1%) were seronegative for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median serum ALT level was 34 U/L. In 58.5% of the patients HBV-DNA levels ranged from 300 to 99,999 copies/mL; however, in 21.6% levels were undetectable. Median HBV-DNA level was 2,351 copies/mL. Over 60% of the patients who tested negative for HBeAg and in whom ALT level was less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range had HBV-DNA levels > 2,000 IU/mL, which has been considered a cut-off point for indicating a liver biopsy and/or treatment. In conclusion, HBV-DNA level identified a significant proportion of Brazilian individuals with chronic hepatitis B at risk of disease progression. Furthermore, this tool enables those individuals with high HBV-DNA levels who are susceptible to disease progression to be identified among patients with normal or slightly elevated ALT. PMID:20009133

  15. Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov., a novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103), and emended description of the genus Catenovulum.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Qi; Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Tao; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel agarolytic, Gram-stain negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale-white pigmented bacterial strain, designated Q1(T), was isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103) collected from the coastal area of Weihai, China. The cells are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The isolate requires NaCl for growth, while seawater is not necessary, and growth occurs optimally at about 30-33 °C, in 1-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7-7.5. Strain Q1(T) shows oxidase-positive and catalase-negative activities, and possesses the ability to hydrolyse starch and alginate, but not cellulose, gelatin, urea or Tween-80. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Q1(T) is affiliated with the family Alteromonadaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The isolate, strain Q1(T), is most closely related to Catenovulum agarivorans YM01(T) (94.85 %), with less than 91.2 % sequence similarity to other close relatives with validly published names. The draft genome sequence of strain Q1(T) consists of 62 contigs (>200 bp) of 4,548,270 bp. The genomes of Q1(T) and YM01(T) have an ANI value of 70.7 %, and the POCP value between the two genomes is 64.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Q1(T) is 37.9 mol% as calculated from the draft genome sequence. The main isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-8. The predominant cellular fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0 and C18:1 ω7c. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on data from a polyphasic chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical study, strain Q1(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Catenovulum, for which the name Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Q1(T) (=CICC 10836(T)=DSM 28813(T)). PMID:26036673

  16. Detection of virulence factors of Escherichia coli focused on prevalence of EAST1 toxin in stool of diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets and presence of adhesion involving virulence factors in astA positive strains.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Konstantinova, Lucie; Alexa, Pavel

    2012-01-27

    Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 800 Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea were tested for the presence of enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin EAST1, heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) and shigatoxin (Stx2e) by PCR with the purpose of investigating the present distribution of virulence factors on swine farms in the Czech Republic. The isolates were analyzed for their O-serogroup, fimbrial (K88, K99, 987P, F41, F18) and nonfimbrial adhesins (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence AIDA and porcine attaching and effacing-associated factor PAA). The detection rates of ETEC and STEC isolates were 36.5% and 7.75%, respectively, which implies that ETEC play the major role in E. coli infections in Czech herds. Generally, the most common serotype was O149:K88 which possessed genetic determinants for LT and EAST1. None of the tested E. coli isolates was positive for genes K99, 987P and F41. It was shown that out of 800 E. coli strains isolated from pigs, 277 were EAST1 positive and 74% from the latter were identified as ETEC. Of the fimbrial adhesins, K88 and F18 were commonly detected. Over 80% of K88/EAST1 positive strains possessed the gene for paa. We detected no EAE isolate positive for fimbrial adhesins or PAA and AIDA. The AIDA was more often associated with F18 than with K88. The gene astA was also identified among E. coli isolates of non-diarrheic piglets. We tested rectal swab samples collected from apparently healthy piglets on three farms. On all farms, E. coli astA positive strains (26.66%, 90.00% and 46.66% astA positive animals) were isolated. Our results showed a significantly higher prevalence of astA positive E. coli isolates among apparently healthy piglets in comparison with diarrheic piglets. The question remains as to what is the role of the astA gene in the pathogenesis of porcine colibacillosis and as a virulence factor. PMID:21864997

  17. New use of an old drug: chloroquine reduces viral and ALT levels in HCV non-responders (a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial).

    PubMed

    Peymani, Payam; Yeganeh, Behzad; Sabour, Siamak; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Keyvani, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saied; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy. HCV RNA load and plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at baseline, week 4 (initial response), week 8 (end-of-treatment response), and at the end of 12 weeks. A significant decrease in HCV RNA after the treatments (week 8) was observed in all patients in the CQ group (P = 0.04). However, HCV RNA levels increased within 4 weeks after discontinuation of CQ treatment although they were still lower than baseline. In addition, the ALT normalized during treatment in the CQ group. However, this response was also lost after treatment cessation. This study provides preliminary evidence that CQ is possibly a safe treatment option for HCV non-responders. PMID:26998724

  18. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  19. Surface grafting of octylamine onto poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) gate insulators for low-voltage DNTT thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yun-Seo; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Ji-Heung; Kim, Yun Ho; Jang, Kwang-Suk

    2016-03-28

    This study investigates a spin-coating method for modifying the surface properties of a poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) gate insulator. The 60 nm-thick PEMA thin film exhibits excellent electrical insulating properties, and its surface properties could be easily modified by surface grafting of octylamine. Due to surface treatment via spin-coating, the surface energy of the PEMA gate insulator decreased, the crystal quality of the organic semiconductor improved, and consequently the performance of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) was enhanced. Our results suggest that the surface treatment of the PEMA gate insulator could be a simple and effective method for enhancing the performance of organic TFTs. PMID:26940136

  20. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  1. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol. PMID:26381639

  2. Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

  3. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2′-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  4. Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD⁺/NADH reduction.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-09-10

    A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  5. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 21. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ... 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  6. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  7. The effect of side-chain length on the solid-state structure and optoelectronic properties of fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole based conjugated polymers--a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Eslamibidgoli, Mohammad J; Lagowski, Jolanta B

    2012-11-01

    Using the dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D/B97D) approach, we have performed bulk solid-state calculations to investigate the influence of side-chain length on the molecular packing and optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9-di-n-alkylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) or FnBT's where n is the number of CH(2) units in the alkyl side-chains. Our results indicate that the FnBT's with longer side-chains in their most stable configurations, due to the significant intermolecular interactions between the side-chains, form lamellar crystal structures. On the other hand, for the FnBT's with shorter side-chains, two nearly degenerate stable crystal structures with nearly hexagonal symmetries have been found. These different packing structures can be attributed to the microphase separations between the flexible side-chains and the rigid backbones whose existence has been discussed in previous investigations for other hairy rod polymers. As a result of the efficient interchain interactions for the lamellar structures, the dihedral angle between the F and BT units is reduced by about 30°, providing a more planar configuration for the backbone. In turn, a more planar backbone leads to a decrease, about 0.2 and 0.3 eV, of the band gaps of the lamellar structures relative to the gap values for the gas and the nearly hexagonal phases, respectively. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) was used to study the excited states of the monomers of FnBT's with various lengths of side-chains. TD-DFT study suggests that the absorption spectrum of the polymers with longer side-chains is red-shifted relative to the polymers with shorter side-chains and the gas phase. PMID:23050864

  8. Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 Ω m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological

  9. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; Lerose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.

    2012-02-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized He3 target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured He3 asymmetries and proton over He3 cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on He3 and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  10. The research on property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. The function of servo system compensation network in control system (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-06-01

    According to the requirement of SLR (Satellite Laser Range) using 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope of Yunnan Observatory, and the analysis of function of cascade compensation network in control system and the observation results, the compensation network of servo system of 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope, and the performance of control system after its compensation are discussed in this article. When friction drive is fulfilled by two torque motors, and PD compensation network in servo control system is used, it is found that the capability of rapid tracking of the 1.2 m telescope is actually improved, and the telescope can achieve 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration, 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity, and it can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  11. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  12. Beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{LT} in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target at 1.4

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2012-02-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16A{LT} asymmetries were extracted from the measured {3}He asymmetries and proton over {3}He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g{1T}{q} and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π{-} production on {3}He and the neutron, while our π{+} asymmetries are consistent with zero. PMID:22400926

  13. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  14. Multiplex PCR method for detection of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes.

    PubMed

    Kingombe, Cesar I Bin; D'Aoust, Jean-Yves; Huys, Geert; Hofmann, Lisa; Rao, Mary; Kwan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. This assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. A total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. The alt gene was detected with 34 reference strains (97%) and occurred singly in 14% of these strains. The frequency of occurrence of the act/alt, act/alt/ast, and alt/ast gene patterns in reference strains was 14 (40%), 2 (6%), and 2 (6%), respectively. An unpredicted amplicon was detected in 11 reference strains (31%). Characterization of this amplicon showed that its size was 148 bp, as generated by the AHLF and AHLR primers, and that it uniquely aligned with the Aeromonas salmonicida A449 genome sequence (GenBank accession number CP000644). This amplicon was named Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida hypothetical protein amplicon (AssHPA). In the 537 food-borne isolates, the act and alt genes were most dominant and were detected in 349 (65%) and 452 (84%) isolates, respectively, either alone or in combinations. The act and alt genes occurred singly in 30 (6%) and 128 (24%) of these strains, respectively. The act/alt gene pattern occurred in 315 isolates (59%), whereas the ast gene was always linked to strains exhibiting the act/alt/ast and alt/ast gene combinations in 4 (0.7%) and 5 (0.9%) isolates, respectively. The uniplex amplification of three enterotoxin genes separately confirms the specificity of the unique selected primers. This multiplex PCR is rapid and simple and can detect the presence of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes in a single assay. PMID:19933350

  15. The property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. Mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-03-01

    According to the special requirement we have made the Laser Ranging for satellites on the low orbit of the Earth using the 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. This article discusses the mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives of the telescope. When friction drives are fulfilled with two moment electromotors, the telescope an reach 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration and 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity. This can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  16. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  17. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  18. Warm and Dense Molecular Gas in the N 159 Region: 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 Observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yoji; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Muller, Erik; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Stutzki, Jürgen; Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Uli; Bertoldi, Frank; Koo, Bon-Chul; Rubio, Monica; Burton, Michael; Benz, Arnold; Ezawa, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kohno, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Ikeda, Masafumi; Ott, Jürgen; Wong, Tony; Hughes, Annie; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Gordon, Karl D.; Whitney, Barbara; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Fukui, Yasuo

    2010-02-01

    New 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 observations of the N 159 region, an active site of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, have been made with the NANTEN2 and ASTE submillimeter telescopes, respectively. The 12CO J = 4-3 distribution is separated into three clumps, each associated with N 159 W, N 159 E, and N 159 S. These new measurements toward the three clumps are used in coupled calculations of molecular rotational excitation and line radiation transfer, along with other transitions of the 12CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 7-6 as well as the isotope transitions of 13CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 4-3. The 13CO J = 3-2 data were newly taken for the present work. The temperatures and densities were found to be ˜70-80 K and ˜3 × 10³ cm-3 in N 159 W and N 159 E, and ˜30 K and ˜1.6 × 10³ cm-3 in N 159 S. These results were compared with the star-formation activity based on data of young stellar clusters and HII regions as well as midinfrared emission obtained with the Spitzer MIPS. The N 159 E clump is associated with cluster(s) embedded, as observed at 24μm by the Spitzer MIPS, and the derived high temperature, 80 K, is interpreted as being heated by these sources. The N 159 E clump is likely to be responsible for a dark lane in a large HII region by dust extinction. On the other hand, the N 159 W clump is associated with clusters embedded mainly toward the eastern edge of the clump only. These clusters show offsets of 20''-40'' from the 12CO J = 4-3 peak, and are probably responsible for heating indicated by the derived high temperature, 70 K. The N 159 W clump exhibits no sign of star formation toward the 12CO J = 4-3 peak position and its western region that shows enhanced R4-3/1-0 and R3-2/1-0 ratios. We therefore suggest that the N 159 W peak represents a pre-star-cluster core of ˜105Modot which deserves further detailed studies. The N 159 S clump shows little sign of star formation, as is consistent with the lower

  19. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  20. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  1. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  2. Model study by FT-IR and 13C NMR of the interaction of poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives with select cholate dissolution inhibitors or with select iodonium and sulfonium phot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya L.; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Yan, Zhenglin; Reiser, Arnost

    2000-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interactions between poly (norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins and cholate based dissolution inhibitors (DIs) were studied by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. We also studied the role that photo-acid generators (PAGs) play in the dissolution of these polymer resins. We attempted to disentangle the hydrophobic effects of the DIs and PAGs from the specific interactions (Van der Waal's, hydrogen bonding or ionic) that these materials have within the polymer system. We employed solubility studies of DIs and PAGs using cloud point determinations and dissolution inhibition experiments on spun films to determine the extent that hydrophobicity and polymer interactions play in development. We found that for simple cholate derivatives the interactions with maleic anhydride repeating units parallel the dissolution inhibition sequence (t-butyllithocholate > t-butyldeoxycholate > t-butylcholate). For a wider range of cholate derivatives, the cloud point in water is a useful predictive tool, in that it takes into account both the hydrophobicity and the propensity to interact with other moieties. Thus for these materials, dissolution inhibition is governed by both interactions between the DI and the polymer, and the hydrophobic nature of the DIs. In contrast, for the PAGs, the cloud point is not a good predictive tool for dissolution inhibition. We found for onium salt materials, that the extent of dissolution inhibition is predicated by the size of the anion. For example, large sterically hindered anions which give rise to PAGs that exhibit poor solubility in water, paradoxically also show poor dissolution inhibition. This may be because the steric hinderance disfavors interactions with the polymer matrix.

  3. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  4. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  5. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bile from the liver (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin). Inflammation of the pancreas is best ... associated with an increase in the products and enzymes made by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas, which ...

  6. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  7. Observational constraint on Pluto's atmospheric CO with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takahiro; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Hidemori, Takehiro; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Nakajima, Taku; Nakamoto, Satoru; Kato, Chihaya

    2016-02-01

    To confirm the previous observational results of Pluto's atmospheric CO in the J = 2-1 rotational transition, we conducted a new observation of CO (J = 3-2) in Pluto's atmosphere in 2014 August with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m single-dish telescope. In contrast to the previous observational result obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2009 and 2010 by using the J = 2-1 transition, no emission structure was observed near the rest frequency in our attempt. Possible explanations for the nondetection result of the J = 3-2 transition are discussed.

  8. Astrometry Verifications and Tests; AST-OV-20 (repeat 2185)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferys, William

    1990-12-01

    The goal of this test is to 1) verify that each FGS filter wheel position as commanded actually results from the command. This is required for any observations requiring a filter other than the "clear" filter. 2) verify that the FGSs will be able to observe stars of different magnitudes by using different integration sample times. The test will be coordinated with P-E. Successful conclusion of this test is required for astrometry on objects fainter than the Guide Star limit. 3) determine if objects fainter than the nominal 17.0 magnitude limit can be observed with the FGSs. The nominal limit may be used as a guide line, but the magnitudes may be uncertain by a magnitude. 4) verify the ability of the FGSs to obtain astrometric data on a 17th and 16th magnitude star which will allow its relative position to be determined to 0.002" in one minute. 5) determine the effects of varying FGE NFES Slope in transiting from coarse track to fine lock, on the statistical nature of the astrometric data, and on the parameters which allow acquisition of astrometric targets with different characteristics (FGS 3 and 1 only. FGS 2 completed). Test has been slightly modified to reflect partial success of first run of 2185. Transfer scans and 2/3 aperture have been added to magnitude limit sub-test. 2/3 aperture observations added to Verify Integration Times sub-test.

  9. The Attitude Scale towards Distance Nursing Education (AstDNE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgian; Unsal Barlas, Gul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a measurement is seen as an instrument to measure the attitudes of the nurses towards the distance nursing education was developed. The study population consist of nurses who working in two hospitals of the ministry of health and two special hospitals in Istanbul. The sample of the study consisted of 194 nurses who agreed to…

  10. Advanced Seals and Secondary Airflow Systems for Allison AST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2006-01-01

    The author will present results obtained to date of a secondary flow study currently being conducted. The purpose of the study is to investigate and report all the ramifications of introducing advanced sealing technology into gas turbine engine secondary flow systems. In addition to detailed cost/benefit results we will also derive seal operational requirements which can be fed into a subsequent advanced seal development program. Using the current Allison AE3007 engine as a model/baseline we have examined 6 different advanced seal variations. We have settled on a design with 2 advanced seals which results n a savings of 2% in chargeable cooling. The introduction of these advanced seals has resulted in substantial changes to surrounding engine components which will be reported.