Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. AST\\/ALT ratio predicts cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil G. Sheth; Steven L. Flamm; Fredric D. Gordon; Sanjiv Chopra

    1998-01-01

    Objective: A liver biopsy is necessary to grade and stage chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In a previous study of patients with nonalcoholic liver disease, an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio >1 suggested cirrhosis. We sought to examine the value of the AST\\/ALT ratio in distinguishing cirrhotic patients with chronic HCV infection from noncirrhotic patients and

  2. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... compared directly to ALT and an AST/ALT ratio is calculated. This ratio may be used to distinguish between different causes ... is higher than AST , and the AST/ALT ratio will be low ( less than 1). There are ...

  3. AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... compared directly to ALT and an AST/ALT ratio is calculated. This ratio may be used to distinguish between different causes ... is higher than AST and the AST/ALT ratio will be low (less than 1). There are ...

  4. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  5. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Tomkiewicz, Celine [Universite Paris Descartes, UMR-S-747 INSERM, Paris F-75006 (France); Norjavaara, Ensio [AstraZeneca, Clinical Pharmacology, 431 83 Moelndal (Sweden); Aggerbeck, Martine [Universite Paris Descartes, UMR-S-747 INSERM, Paris F-75006 (France); Hellmold, Heike [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Ehrenborg, Ewa [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden); Glinghammar, Bjoern [AstraZeneca, Safety Assessment, Molecular Toxicology, S-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden)], E-mail: Bjorn.Glinghammar@astrazeneca.com

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  6. ALT

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or abnormal liver tests. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 149. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  7. Developments in the AST Library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Berry

    2008-01-01

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of general purpose facilities for managing and manipulating world coordinate systems that describe astronomical data. Written in C, but with interfaces for various other languages, it is used within many applications including GAIA, DS9, SPLAT and XIMAGE. We present an overview of some of the newer functionality such as 3-dimensional coordinate grids, definition

  8. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  9. AST inspection methods and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.C.; Acosta, N.J.; Lim, R. [HMT Inspection and Engineering Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Changes in the regulatory climate regarding Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs) and the costs of properly operating and maintaining these structures across the country are resulting in an ever-increasing need for more refined inspection techniques to detect leaks in tanks. The growing maze of new rules and regulations being imposed on tank owners and operators makes the early detection of leaks in storage tanks a desirable goal in order to minimize the results of any unwanted release of stored product to the environment. The costs of removing tanks from service and making repairs to fix problems or to avoid future problems also makes detection of possible leak paths for storage tanks a desirable goal. Much attention is currently being brought by many different parties to the issue of advancing methods of leak detection for storage tanks. A review of the current state of AST inspection methods and equipment may prove informative.

  10. AST

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or abnormal liver tests. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 149. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  11. Developments in the AST Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, D. S.

    2008-08-01

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of general purpose facilities for managing and manipulating world coordinate systems that describe astronomical data. Written in C, but with interfaces for various other languages, it is used within many applications including GAIA, DS9, SPLAT and XIMAGE. We present an overview of some of the newer functionality such as 3-dimensional coordinate grids, definition of regions within arbitrary coordinate systems, support for the HEALPix FITS-WCS projection, XML data formats, new specialist coordinate Frames to describe time and dual-sideband spectra and new classes of Mappings.

  12. AST: World Coordinate Systems in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.

    2014-04-01

    The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.

  13. AST 5XXX: Data Analysis Spring 2007 Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Harrington, Joe

    AST 5XXX: Data Analysis Spring 2007 Syllabus Joseph Harrington 1 Course Vitals Room: Physics 2007 Final: project Class URL: http://physics.ucf.edu/~jh/ast/ast5xxx/ast5xxx.html Class directory: /home/ast5xxx on all trailer machines Textbooks: Howell, S. B. 2000. Handbook of CCD Astronomy

  14. ASTRONAUTICS & SPACE ASTE OVERVIEW PROGRAMS AVAILABLE

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    (3, Fa) Space- craft mission design, space environment, attitude determination and control, telecommunications, propulsion, structures and mechanisms, thermal control, power systems, launch systems30 ASTRONAUTICS & SPACE TECHNOLOGY ASTE OVERVIEW PROGRAMS AVAILABLE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

  15. ASTRONAUTICS&SPACE ASTE OVERVIEW PROGRAMS AVAILABLE

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    , Fa) Space- craft mission design, space environment, attitude determination and control, telecom- munications, propulsion, structures and mechanisms, thermal control, power systems, launch systems28 ASTRONAUTICS&SPACE TECHNOLOGY ASTE OVERVIEW · PROGRAMS AVAILABLE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

  16. ASTRONAUTICS&SPACE ASTE OVERVIEW PROGRAMS AVAILABLE

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    ) Spacecraft mission design, space environment, attitude determination and control, telecommunications, propulsion, structures and mechanisms, thermal control, power systems, launch systems and facilities28 ASTRONAUTICS&SPACE TECHNOLOGY ASTE OVERVIEW · PROGRAMS AVAILABLE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

  17. $?^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ transition form factors in light cone QCD

    E-print Network

    T. M. Aliev; M. Savci

    2014-09-18

    The $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ reaction is studied in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules method. The sum rules for the multipole form factors, namely, for the magnetic dipole $G_M(Q^2)$, electric quadrupole $G_E(Q^2)$, and Coulomb quadrupole $G_C(Q^2)$, form factors responsible for for the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N^\\ast (1520)$ transition are derived. Using these sum rules, the helicity amplitudes are presented as the combinations of these multipole form factors, and their $Q^2$ dependences are studied. We compare our results on the helicity amplitudes with those of the spectator model predictions, and with the existing experimental data.

  18. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  19. Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC. `Carry-on accelerating'; March 2012 Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC;

    E-print Network

    Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC. `Carry-on accelerating'; March 2012 Weird Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC; University of Liverpool. that I have known #12;Neil Marks; ASTeC, STFC. `Weird Magnets that I have known' PABC, STFC. `Weird Magnets that I have known' PAB, April 2013 Tuning up! The NINA Programmed Quadrupoles

  20. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  1. Aakre Caitlyn Elementary Education Alt Brittney Elementary Education

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Aakre Caitlyn Elementary Education Alt Brittney Elementary Education Anderson Courtney Elementary Education Anderson Jaysen Technology Education Anderson Robert Secondary Education Arnot Caitlin Elementary Education Bailey Molly Elementary Education Bakke Kelsey Elementary Education Beardsley Amberlee Secondary

  2. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Conn; Y. Hirooka; B. LaBombard; R. Moyer; D. M. Goebel; W. K. Leung; R. E. Nygren; W. J. Corbett; R. Lehmer; Y. Ra; G. Tynan; K. H. Dippel; K. H. Finken; A. Hardkte; W. Kohlhaas; G. Wolf; P. Vandenplas; M. Messian; G. Van Oost; R. Weynants; E. Franconi; A. Miyahara; A. Sagara; W. B. Gauster; J. A. Koski; R. T. McGrath; J. G. Watkins; M. E. Malinowski

    1988-01-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES;

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Barry Baker; Ryan Williams; Thomas E. Drennen; Richard Klotz

    2007-01-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows

  4. The AST3 project: Antarctic Survey Telescopes for Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Gu, Bozhong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing; Li, Xinnan; Gong, Xuefei; Wen, Haikun; Li, Zhengyang; Lu, Haiping; Xu, Lingzhe; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Ma, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The AST3 project consists of three large field of view survey telescopes with 680mm primary mirror, mainly for observations of supernovas and extrasolar planets searching from Antarctic Dome A where is very likely to be the best astronomical site on earth for astronomical observations from optical wavelength to thermal infrared and beyond, according to the four years site testing works by CCAA, UNSW and PRIC. The first AST3 was mounted on Dome A in Jan. 2012 and automatically run from March to May 2012. Based on the onsite winterization performance of the first AST3, some improvements such as the usage of high resolution encoders, defrosting method, better thermal control and easier onsite assembly et al were done for the second one. The winterization observation of AST3-2 in Mohe was carried on from Nov. 2013 to Apr. 2014, where is the most northern and coldest part of China with the lowest temperature around -50°. The technical modifications and testing observation results will be given in this paper. The third AST3 will be optimized from optical to thermal infrared aiming diffraction limited imaging with K band. Thus the whole AST3 project will be a good test bench for the development of future larger aperture optical/infrared Antarctic telescopes such as the proposed 2.5m Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope project.

  5. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time.

  6. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Noda, N. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  7. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Williams; Arnold Barry Baker; Thomas E. Drennen

    2009-01-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas

  8. Reconsidering the Use of Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel C. Voelkle

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous estimation of autoregressive (simplex) structures and latent trajectories, so called ALT (autoregressive latent trajectory) models, is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the analysis of change. Although historically autoregressive (AR) and latent growth curve (LGC) models have been developed quite independently from each other, the underlying pattern of change is often highly similar. In this article it is

  9. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets THE GIANT PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    (Petrovay) Giant Planets Differential rotation (a.k.a. zonal flows) Caused by: convective flows + Coriolis belts: late heavy bombardment ("Lunar cataclism") #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets RINGS THE RINGS Planets Origin of sharp edges / thin rings: shepherd satellites. E.g. A sharp oter edge of A ring -- Atlas

  10. New Features in AST - a WCS Management and Manipulation Library

    E-print Network

    Berry, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the AST library are described, including a Python interface, support for the FITS-WCS "-TAB" system for storing tabular co-ordinate information, and extended support for representing distortions in spatial projections, using several schemes in common use (IRAF TNX/ZPX, Spitzer SIP, NOAO TPV and SCAMP).

  11. ast summer's Angora Fire burned 3,100

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    L ast summer's Angora Fire burned 3,100 acres and destroyed over 250 homes. The news of this fire environment. UC Davis played a major role in the rapid response to monitor the effects of the fire and smoke. Liston had been working on another project that required mini-vols, a type of self-contained, battery

  12. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets ROCKY PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    , heavy cratering: Moon. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets VENUS a = 0.72 AU e = 0.07 i = 3 (Petrovay) Rocky planets THE ATMOSPHERE OF VENUS P = 94 bar (!), T = 750 K (!!!) ­ 96.5% CO2 ­ 3 % N2, atmosphere revolves around planet in 4­5 days (superrotation). Thick atmosphere orange sky Venus

  13. Invited Talk at ALT 2012 Conference Manchester 11 Sept 2012 Draft: Under Development -20 Sep 2012

    E-print Network

    Sloman, Aaron

    confrontation with reality" was held at the University of Manchester, UK, 11 - 13 September 2012 (httpInvited Talk at ALT 2012 Conference Manchester 11 Sept 2012 Draft: Under Development - 20 Sep 2012://tinyurl.com/BhamCog/talks/#alt2012 and slideshare.net: http://slideshare.net/asloman AltConf 2012 Manchester Slide 1 Last revised

  14. Quick look analysis of an emergency separation for ALT captive-inert flight 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.; Seale, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Emergency separation capability for the landing configuration of ALT Captive Inert Flight Number One was investigated. The quick look analysis confirms emergency separation capability under nominal conditions for the ALT landing configuration. The recommended emergency separation procedure under those conditions is not applicable to all ALT configurations.

  15. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  16. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUN The Sun is a hot release. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution This can cover solar radiation for 10 billion (1010 distribution. #12;IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Stellar evolution Good agreement (

  17. JOINT BIDDING, GOVERNANCE AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT COSTS:A CASE OF ROAD PROJECTS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Estache; Atsushi Iimi

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT ***:?To utilize public resources efficiently, it is important to take advantage of competition in public procurement auctions to the maximum extent. Joint bidding is a common practice that potentially facilitates competition. By pooling financial and experiential resources, more firms are expected to enter the market, but it will also directly reduce competition if more than one bidder who is

  18. Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1 - a unique, ?-barrel protein dimer exclusively found in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Pomés, Anna; Minor, Wladek

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique ?-barrel comprising 11 ?-strands and forms a ‘butterfly-like’ dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (1345Å2) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric ?-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients. PMID:22664167

  19. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  20. A gene expression signature classifying telomerase and ALT immortalization reveals an hTERT regulatory network and suggests a mesenchymal stem cell origin for ALT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Lafferty-Whyte; C J Cairney; M B Will; N Serakinci; M-G Daidone; N Zaffaroni; A Bilsland; W N Keith

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is maintained by two known mechanisms, the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The molecular mechanisms regulating the ALT phenotype are poorly understood and it is unknown how the decision of which pathway to activate is made at the cellular level. We have shown earlier that active repression of telomerase gene expression by chromatin remodelling

  1. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  2. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  3. X(3872) and the bound state problem of $D^0\\bar{D}^{\\ast0}$ ($\\bar{D}^0{D}^{\\ast0}$) in a chiral quark model

    E-print Network

    Yan-Rui Liu; Zong-Ye Zhang

    2009-05-07

    The bound state problem of $D^0\\bar{D}^{\\ast0}$ ($\\bar{D}^0{D}^{\\ast0}$) is relevant to the molecular interpretation of the X(3872). We investigated this problem in a chiral quark model by solving the resonating group method equation. We found the system is unbound through S-wave $\\pi$ and $\\sigma$ interactions. The inclusion of $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ meson exchanges is helpful to the formation of a molecule. Because the binding energy relies on the coupling constants, we cannot draw a definite conclusion whether a molecular state exists in $D^0\\bar{D}^{\\ast0}$ ($\\bar{D}^0{D}^{\\ast0}$) system. When moving on to the bottom counterpart, we obtained an S-wave $B\\bar{B}^\\ast$ state.

  4. Development of a PCR-based tool for detecting immunologically relevant Alt a 1 and Alt a 1 homologue coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2015-08-01

    Alt a 1 has been recognized as the most important allergen produced by the Pleosporaceae family and is a risk factor for asthma development and/or exacerbation. The aim of this study was to develop a detection tool that is highly specific for species that produced airborne Alt a 1. Based on the highly conserved internal nucleotide region of the several Alt a 1 sequences that are available in GenBank, a pair of primers (Alta1CF/Alta1CR) was designed. A set of primers used by other authors for the production of recombinant Alt a 1 (A21F/A21R) was also tested. The molecular analyses were based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the cDNA that was obtained from thirteen common fungal species. The PCR system that utilized Alta1CF/Alta1CR was highly specific, sensitive, and was able to detect an amplicon of approximately 180 bp from Alt a 1 and Alt a 1-like encoding genes from A. alternata, A. tenuissima, A. infectoria, U. botrytis, and S. botryosum. In contrast, the A21F/A21R primers were specific for the very close taxonomically related species A. alternata and A. tenuissima. Thus, this rapid, sensitive, and specific detection tool can be used to assess Alt a 1 exposure levels and to inform the implementation of the appropriate public health measures. PMID:25877667

  5. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  6. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  7. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  8. Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Users' View on Context-Sensitive Car Advertisements Florian Alt, Christoph Evers, Albrecht Schmidt.alt, albrecht.schmidt}@uni-due.de christoph.evers@stud.uni-due.de Abstract. Cars are ubiquitous and offer large static, with the exception of car-mounted displays that offer dy- namic content. With new display

  9. Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pouneh Mofrad; Melissa J. Contos; Mahmadul Haque; Carol Sargeant; Robert A. Fisher; Velimir A. Luketic; Richard K. Sterling; Mitchell L. Shiffman; Richard T. Stravitz; Arun J. Sanyal

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to (1) characterize the clinical and histologic features of those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, (2) compare the spectrum of NAFLD associated with normal versus elevated ALT levels, and (3) determine whether there were differences in the clinical or histologic spectrum of NAFLD between those with a low

  10. Data Categories for a Normalized Reference Annotation Scheme Susanne Salmon-Alt*, Laurent Romary**

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Data Categories for a Normalized Reference Annotation Scheme Susanne Salmon-Alt*, Laurent Romary** * ATILF ­ CNRS Nancy, France ** LORIA ­ INRIA Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France Susanne.Salmon, Vieira et al. 2003, Salmon-Alt & Romary 2004, Poesio 2004). In conjunction with the maturity in the field

  11. Geophysical investigation of a landslide: The Alt?nda? landslide site, ?zmir (western Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gökhan Göktürkler; Çaglayan Balkaya; Zülfikar Erhan

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical survey including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) was carried out to study a landslide site in the Alt?nda? district of ?zmir city, western Turkey. In the city, landslide is one of the causes of natural hazard, and one of the most important landslide sites is located in the Alt?nda? district. The ERT studies were

  12. Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

  13. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System KEPLER'S LAWS Kepler's first law I. Planets move (ramutatval egyez): retrograde #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Motions in the Solar System Kepler's second law II component of velocity. So the law says r = constant But mr is the angular momentum

  14. How useful are similarity word lists for indirect anaphora resolution? Caroline Gasperin* Susanne Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Salmon-Alt** Renata Vieira* *PIPCA - Unisinos São Leopoldo, Brazil {caroline, renata}@exatas.unisinos.br **ATILF - CNRS Nancy, France Susanne.Salmon-Alt@atilf.fr Abstract This work tests the use of word, also adopted in our previous work (Vieira et al. 2002, Salmon- Alt & Vieira, 2002) was based

  15. Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games In Education and Research

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    Practical Lessons From Creating the Control-Alt-Hack Card Game and Research Challenges for Games, produced, distributed, and evaluated Con- trol-Alt-HackTM: a recreational tabletop card game in- tended we released Control-Alt-Hack: White Hat Hacking for Fun and ProfitTM--a recreation- al tabletop card

  16. Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness and Education

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    Control-Alt-Hack: The Design and Evaluation of a Card Game for Computer Security Awareness from 22 of these educators about their experiences using Control-Alt-Hack with over 450 students to thinking about security and that facilitates ad hoc, social interactions led us to design Control-Alt-Hack

  17. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system....

  19. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system....

  20. Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Samir; Kaul, Zeenia; Gocha, April Sandy; Martinez, Alaina R.; Harris, Julia; Parvin, Jeffrey D.; Groden, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM. PMID:25084169

  1. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in asymptomatic US air force basic trainee blood donors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon W. Kundrotas; Donald J. Clement

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a population of asymptomatic volunteer blood donors. Subjects with an ALT value >2.25sd above norm (>55 IU\\/liter) from the donated unit, were prospectively evaluated over a six-week interval. The subjects consisted of blood donors (78% male, 22% female) beginning basic military training at Lackland

  2. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test...

  5. Different levels of alternative splicing among Eddo Kim, Alon Magen and Gil Ast*

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    Different levels of alternative splicing among eukaryotes Eddo Kim, Alon Magen and Gil Ast* Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat ABSTRACT Alternative splicing increases transcriptome and proteome diversification. Previous analyses

  6. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1100 Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system....

  7. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  8. The neural and peptidergic control of gut contraction in Locusta migratoria: the effect of an FGLa/AST.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lisa; Rodriguez, E Patricia; Lange, Angela B

    2012-10-01

    The regulation of insect gut physiology is complex and involves the interactions of a number of mechanisms, including the neural regulation of gut contraction by altering neural input and the modulation of gut contractions by neuropeptides directly affecting the muscle. The FGLa-type allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) are known brain/gut peptides with numerous physiological roles, including modulation of gut contraction and neural input. To further investigate the pleiotropic roles of FGLa/AST peptides in Locusta migratoria, we have examined the role of a locust FGLa/AST (Scg-AST-6) in the gut. Proctolin and Scg-AST-6 have opposing effects on gut contraction, where proctolin dose-dependently increases gut muscle tension, while Scg-AST-6 inhibits both muscle tension and spontaneous and neurogenic contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Results from neurophysiological recordings indicate that there may be a central pattern generator (CPG) within the ventricular ganglia regulated by descending inhibition, and the addition of Scg-AST-6 dose-dependently modulates this ventricular ganglion CPG. This work provides a comprehensive picture of how FGLa/ASTs may modulate and coordinate each region of the locust gut, and shows that FGLa/ASTs have both central effects, on the ventricular ganglion CPG, and peripheral effects on the gut muscle. Overall, this study shows how FGLa/ASTs contribute to the complex regulation and fine tuning of gut contraction. PMID:22693021

  9. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  10. Avaliação de resíduos da fabricação de enzimas nas características químicas de um Cambissolo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Ribeiro; Rua Francisco Ribeiro; Ulisses José Ribeiro

    Resumo - Os resíduos industriais e biossólidos reaproveitados na agricultura possuem potencial par a melhorar as características químicas e físicas do s olo, e evitando perda via reciclagem destes resíduos. Co m o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de substrato da fermentação microbiana inativado com Ca(OH) 2, oriundo da fabricação de enzimas industriais (proteases), sobre as características químicas do s

  11. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

  12. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of the Klebsiella K-36 astA gene, encoding an arylsulfate sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Baek, M C; Kim, S K; Kim, D H; Kim, B K; Choi, E C

    1996-01-01

    A gene-encoding arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) was cloned from a Klebsiella K-36 genomic library. ASST transfers a sulfate group from phenolic sulfate esters to a phenolic acceptor substrate. The gene, designated astA, was subcloned into vector pGEM3Zf(-) and sequenced. Recombinant clone-harbouring astA was directly identified using a fluorescent product. The nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,082 bp encoding a protein of 694 amino acids with a secretory signal sequence. A protein of similar size was visualized after in vitro transcription and translation using a plasmid carrying the cloned 3.1-kb fragment as a template. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified processed protein was found to be identical to that predicted from the gene sequence. When searching the database for astA nucleotide or its deduced amino acid sequence, no significant homology to any sequence was found. PMID:8887346

  14. A Visuo-haptic Sensor for the Exploration of Deformable Objects Nicolas Alt and Eckehard Steinbach

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Eckehard

    --We present a linear tactile sensor for grasping applications, which is based on a passive rubber foam the grasping process to obtain the current state and provided by a dedicated laminar tactile sensor such as [1A Visuo-haptic Sensor for the Exploration of Deformable Objects Nicolas Alt and Eckehard Steinbach

  15. Enzymatic activities of Alternaria alternata allergenic extracts and its major allergen (Alt a 1).

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Santamaría, Miriam; Guisantes, Jorge A; Martínez, Jorge

    2006-07-01

    Several allergens from Alternaria alternata have been isolated allowing some of them to be identified and characterised. Despite the fact that the major allergen of A. alternata (Alt a 1) has been extensively produced by recombinant technology, its biological activity still remains unknown. In the present study, extracts from culture filtrates were used to evaluate the intra-specific variability of the enzymes and also as a source for isolating and purifying native Alt a 1. This was purified by affinity chromatography using antibody anti-recombinant Alt a 1 (produced in Escherichia coli). Enzyme activities were analysed by the API-ZYM System screening method. Results demonstrated the high variability of enzyme activities among the different strains. Only activities corresponding to phosphatases, esterases and beta-glucosidase were expressed by 100% of the strains. Both native and recombinant Alt a 1 showed phosphatase and esterase activities, suggesting that the glucidic moiety of this allergen does not significantly affect its enzyme activity. PMID:16784442

  16. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction in much less air pollution due to its higher oxygen content and lack of both "aromatic compounds percent lower when using biodiesel.This is due to the fact that biodiesel fuel has less energy per unit

  17. A stable and selective electrochemical biosensor for the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mamun; Worsfold, Oliver; McCormac, Timothy; Dempsey, Eithne

    2009-05-15

    An electrochemical method to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity over its normal and elevated physiological range was developed based upon detection of L-glutamate at a glutamate oxidase-modified platinum electrode. Measurements were carried out in the presence of ALT co-substrates L-alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate and current response from either the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide or the re-oxidation of the mediator ferrocene carboxylic acid was employed. The enzyme electrode was tested over a 6-month period and found to retain 79% of its original activity towards ALT detection with >200 measurements performed over this time. Signals associated with interfering electroactive species (ascorbic acid and uric acid) were eliminated using background subtraction at a denatured glutamate oxidase enzyme electrode. The sensitivity of the device was found to be 0.845 nA U(-1) L ALT with t(90)=180 s, linear range 10-1000 U L(-1) and LOD of 3.29 U L(-1) using amperometry at E(app)=0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl at 308 K (35 degrees C). PMID:19356918

  18. Bridging Waiting Times on Web Pages Florian Alt, Alireza Sahami Shirazi,

    E-print Network

    Bridging Waiting Times on Web Pages Florian Alt, Alireza Sahami Shirazi, Albrecht Schmidt a conve- nient task. However, there are many situations in which surfing the web is still slow due to limited bandwidth, slow servers, or complex queries. As a result, loading web pages can take several

  19. On the Trajectories of the Predetermined ALT Model: What Are We Really Modeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongerling, Joran; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows that the mean and covariance structure of the predetermined autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model are very flexible. As a result, the shape of the modeled growth curve can be quite different from what one might expect at first glance. This is illustrated with several numerical examples that show that, for example, a…

  20. Theodor Fontane Die Kirche war noch nicht aus, aber die alte Frau

    E-print Network

    Prodinger, Helmut

    Theodor Fontane Quitt 1. KAPITEL Die Kirche war noch nicht aus, aber die alte Frau Menz und ihr Frau Menz und ihrem Sohne freundlich zunickten; aber ehe sie noch den Ausgang erreicht hat- ten Frau Menz und stand rasch auf, um ihm einen Knicks zu machen. Der Förster nickte kurz, streifte Lehnert

  1. AST 337 Exercise #1: IDL Basics Due in class tonight (9/11/12) on Moodle

    E-print Network

    Lowenthal, James D.

    AST 337 Exercise #1: IDL Basics Due in class tonight (9/11/12) on Moodle Every astrophysicist needs basic tools to extract useful information from data and display it. This exercise will introduce you. Login to an iMac computer. Make a new exercises directory (folder). Start idl. 2. Locate and download

  2. Joel Goodbody AST/EGL 389 5/1/08 Short

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Joel Goodbody AST/EGL 389 5/1/08 Short Story Revolt The wall- screen lit up, complete with robotic face, and out of its mouth- slit came a toneless voice, "Rise and shine." The phrase was repeated until Riley managed to hit the blue button on his bedframe, making the robot face disappear. I'll get

  3. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE IMPORTANCE OF SOLAR RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    (relative to the orbiting Earth): 27d.2753. (Looking from Earth, Sun-related events occur with this period. Curvature force: Maxwell stress acts to straighten the field lines plasma accelerated towards the center of curvature. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun MEASURING SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS Zeeman effect: In a magnetic

  4. Independent-Tree Ad hoc MulticAst Routing S. Sajama Zygmunt J. Haas

    E-print Network

    Haas, Zygmunt J.

    Independent-Tree Ad hoc MulticAst Routing (ITAMAR) S. Sajama Zygmunt J. Haas School of Electrical communication and is typically implemented by creating a mul- ticasting tree. Because of the severe battery-to-predict topological changes of ad hoc networks, maintenance of a mul- ticasting tree to ensure its availability, could

  5. PhAst: An IDL Astronomical Image Viewer Optimized for Astrometry of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Rehnberg, Morgan; Crawford, Robert; Trueblood, Mark; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    2012-12-01

    We present PhAst, a new IDL astronomical image viewer, based on the existing ATV application, which has been optimized for astrometry of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). After describing the features of PhAst, we describe how PhAst enabled the recovery of the Virtual Impactor (VI) 2011AX22 and the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008OX1. The recovery of 2011AX22 led to a large improvement in the time of perihelion passage and in the semimajor axis and eccentricity of its orbit. The distance of closest approach in May 2055 was moved away from Earth to >1 lunar distance. As a result of the orbital improvement made possible by the successful recovery, NEODyS downgraded 2011AX22 from a VI to a PHA, having ruled out the chance of an Earth impact this century. The recovery of 2008OX1 extended its observational arc to 1303 days - more than 2.5 orbital revolutions. It was confirmed to be a PHA and its orbit was improved sufficiently to permit prediction of its sky position to within 1' over an interval of 10 years into the future. We discuss the astrometric and photometric performance of PhAst and then conclude by briefly describing future enhancements to the application.

  6. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-07-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  7. RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M.; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, ‘Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres’ (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA–DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA–DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

  8. Untersuchungen an alten Hölzern—Dritte Mitteilung: Ein altes Pterocarpus-Holz aus Tirupathi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Narayanamurti; B. N. Prasad; G. M. Verma

    1961-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Innerhalb einer Reihe von Untersuchungen an besonders alten Hlzern hatten die Verfasser Gelegenheit, ein etwa 500 Jahre altes\\u000a Stck einerPterocarpus-Art verschiedenen physikalischen und chemischen Prfungen zu unterwerfen. Zum Vergleich wurden mehrere frischePterocarpus-Arten mitgeprft. Die Abweichungen des alten Holzes gegenber den Werten der frischen Hlzer sind aus den Tabellen ersichtlich.\\u000a Am erstaunlichsten ist die Tatsache, da die in dem alten Holz

  9. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  10. Identification of AstG1, A LAL Family Regulator that Positively Controls Ansatrienins Production in Streptomyces sp. XZQH13.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Deng, Jing-Jing; Wang, Hao-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Ansamycins is a group of type I polyketides characterized by the unique starter unit 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid. This family of secondary metabolites shows diverse biological activities, well-known members of which include rifamycin, geldanamycin, and maytansine. Previously, we isolated an AHBA synthase gene-positive strain Streptomyces sp. XZQH13 containing a "silent" ansamycin biosynthetic gene cluster ast. The constitutive expression of the Large-ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR family regulator gene astG1 located within the cluster triggered the expression of the biosynthetic genes. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that the expression of the key biosynthetic genes, astB4, astD1, and astF1, was induced in the astG1 overexpression mutant compared to the wild type. This led to the isolation of two known ansatrienins, hydroxymycotrienin A (1) and thiazinotrienomycin G (2), which were identified by analysis of the mass spectral and NMR spectral data, from the mutant. These observations suggest that astG1 is probably a pathway-specific positive regulator for the biosynthesis of ansatrienin. PMID:25784540

  11. Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

  12. The package cushioning design of the first AST3 and its dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haikun; Gong, Xuefei; Zhang, Ru

    2012-09-01

    Dome A has been considered as one of the best observation sites on the earth. The First AST3(three Antarctic Survey Telescopes) is on its way to Dome A by the 28th Chinese National Antarctic research expedition. It will be the largest Optic telescope in Dome A after assembling and testing in this austral summer. Firstly, this paper reports the method of collecting the vibration and shock data from ShangHai to Dome A and analyses the data. Secondly, the package cushioning design of the first AST3 is introduced in this paper according to the vibration and shock data. Finally, the paper introduces the result of the dynamics analysis of the design and a test was done to verify the performance of the package cushioning design. The dynamics analysis and the test indicate that the package cushioning design can meet the demand of the Antarctic inland transportation.

  13. Factors underlying the association of body mass index with serum ALT in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Qin, Xian-hui; Li, Jian-ping; Cui, Yi-min; Liu, Ze-yuan; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Ge, Jun-bo; Guan, De-ming; Hu, Jian; Wang, Yan-ni; Zhang, Fu-min; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xi-ping; Huo, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: High body mass index (BMI) is considered as the most important risk factor for elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration. This study examined an array of factors, including waist circumference (WC) and folate deficiency, which may mediate the association of BMI with serum ALT concentration in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 378 patients with mild or moderate hypertension and without known hepatic diseases were recruited from five hospitals in Harbin, Shanghai, Beijing, Xi’an, and Nanjing. Results: Of the 360 hypertensive patients with complete data in our final analysis, 13.6% had high ALT concentrations (>40 IU/L). Factors including BMI, WC, triglyceride level, and folate concentration were associated with ALT concentration in univariate analysis. Consistently higher prevalence rates of elevated ALT were observed in subjects with lower folate concentrations (?12 vs. <12 nmol/L, 9.9% vs. 17.8%, P=0.03), with higher BMI (?28 vs. <28 kg/m2, 21.5% vs. 11.4%, P=0.02) or higher WC (?90 vs. <90 cm, 18.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.02). However, in multivariate analysis, the association between BMI and ALT concentration disappeared (P=0.802 in males and 0.369 in females), while WC in females (P<0.001) and folate concentration (P=0.036 in males and 0.044 in females) remained as significant predictors for ALT concentration. Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated that WC and low folate concentration were important factors underlying the association between BMI and ALT concentrations in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. PMID:23897794

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the astA gene encoding arylsulfate sulfotransferase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kang, J W; Kwon, A R; Kim, D H; Choi, E C

    2001-05-01

    Arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) transfers a sulfate group from a phenolic sulfate ester to a phenolic acceptor substrate. In the present study, the gene encoding ASST was cloned from a genomic library of Salmonella typhimurium. The gene was subcloned into the vector pKF3 and was sequenced. A recombinant clone harboring the gene was directly identified using a fluorescent assay. Sequencing revealed two contiguous open reading frames (ORFs) on the same strand. Based on amino acid sequence homology, ORF1 and ORF2 are designated as astA and dsbA, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of astA from S. typhimurium was highly similar to those of the Enterobacter amnigenus, Klebsiella, and Campylobacter jejuni ASSTs, encoded by the astA genes. However, an ASST activity assay revealed a different acceptor specificity. Using p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNS) as a donor substrate, phenol is the best acceptor substrate, followed by alpha-naphthol, resorcinol, tyramine, acetaminophen, and tyrosine. PMID:11379783

  15. An automated method for the analysis of urinary free catecholamines using ASTED and high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Green, B; Cooper, J D; Turnell, D C

    1989-07-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatography procedure for the measurement of free catecholamines in urine is described. 'On-line' sample preparation using a cartesian robot combined with the ASTED process ensures minimal operator intervention and reduced costs. PMID:2764490

  16. ECLSS consumables analysis: ALT captive/active 1 and captive/active 3. [space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    A consumables analysis of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) was performed for approach and landing test (ALT) captive/active missions 1 through 3 and is also applicable to missions 4 and 5. The ECLSS configuration analyzed and the guidelines and assumptions used in performing the analysis are presented. A projection of ammonia temperatures and pressures during the captive/active 1 mission is also included. The resulting consumables, budgets are presented in tabular and graphic form. Adequate margins were obtained for all systems.

  17. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  18. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  19. ELEFUNT test results under AST Fortran V1. 8. 0 on the Sequent Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses testing of the floating-point arithmetic and of the elementary function libraries under AST Fortran on a 24-processor Sequent Symmetry computer. The programs MACHAR and PARANOIA were used to check the quality of arithmetic, and the ELEFUNT suite of programs from the book Software Manual for the Elementary Functions by Cody and Waite was used to check function performance. Two complete sets of tests were run, one for each type of floating-point processor, Intel 80387 and Weitek 1167, on the machine. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion. PMID:20338176

  1. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  2. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  3. Intrachain versus interchain electron transport in poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole): a quantum-chemical insight.

    PubMed

    Van Vooren, Antoine; Kim, Ji-Seon; Cornil, Jérôme

    2008-05-16

    Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) [F8BT], displays very different charge-transport properties for holes versus electrons when comparing annealed and pristine thin films and transport parallel (intrachain) and perpendicular (interchain) to the polymer axes. The present theoretical contribution focuses on the electron-transport properties of F8BT chains and compares the efficiency of intrachain versus interchain transport in the hopping regime. The theoretical results rationalize significantly lowered electron mobility in annealed F8BT thin films and the smaller mobility anisotropy (mu( parallel)/mu( perpendicular)) measured for electrons in aligned films (i.e. 5-7 compared to 10-15 for holes). PMID:18389513

  4. Nuclear-receptor-mediated telomere insertion leads to genome instability in ALT cancers.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Paulina; Armenise, Claudia; Pérot, Gaëlle; Roumelioti, Fani-Marlen; Basyuk, Eugenia; Gagos, Sarantis; Chibon, Frédéric; Déjardin, Jérôme

    2015-02-26

    The breakage-fusion-bridge cycle is a classical mechanism of telomere-driven genome instability in which dysfunctional telomeres are fused to other chromosomal extremities, creating dicentric chromosomes that eventually break at mitosis. Here, we uncover a distinct pathway of telomere-driven genome instability, specifically occurring in cells that maintain telomeres with the alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism. We show that, in these cells, telomeric DNA is added to multiple discrete sites throughout the genome, corresponding to regions regulated by NR2C/F transcription factors. These proteins drive local telomere DNA addition by recruiting telomeric chromatin. This mechanism, which we name targeted telomere insertion (TTI), generates potential common fragile sites that destabilize the genome. We propose that TTI driven by NR2C/F proteins contributes to the formation of complex karyotypes in ALT tumors. PMID:25723166

  5. Cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of the astA gene encoding an arylsulfate sulfotransferase from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Kang, J W; Jeong, Y J; Kwon, A R; Yun, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, E C

    2001-08-01

    Arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) transfers a sulfate group from a phenolic sulfate ester to a phenolic acceptor substrate. In the present study, the gene encoding ASST was cloned from a genomic library copy of Citrobacter freundii, subcloned into the vector pGEM3Zf(-) and sequenced. Sequencing revealed two contiguous open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) on the same strand and based on amino acid sequence homology, they were designated as astA and dsbA, respectively. The amino acid sequence of astA deduced from C. freundii was highly similar to that of the Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter amnigenus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas putida, and Campylobacter jejuni, encoded by the astA genes. However, the ASST activity assay revealed different acceptor specificities. Using p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNS) as a donor substrate, alpha-naphthol was found to be the best acceptor substrate, followed by phenol, resorcinol, p-acetaminophen, tyramine and tyrosine. PMID:11534764

  6. Invitasjon til trriscurling Tror du instituttets ansatte har svar p alt? Tro du studentene begynner bli for nesevise? Proton inviterer

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    Invitasjon til tørriscurling Tror du instituttets ansatte har svar på alt? Tro du studentene begynner å bli for nesevise? Proton inviterer dere herved til tørriscurling. Her har dere muligheten til å vise hvem som er best! Vil dere finne det ut i en sportslig utskeielse dere sannsynligvis ikke har vært

  7. Perspectives on English Education in the Japanese Public School System: The Views of Foreign Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaki, Yuki

    2008-01-01

    Public school students in Japan must take English as a required subject for three years in junior high school and for three more years in senior high school. In spite of the amount of classroom time invested, and in spite of the available learning support services, the foreign Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) system included, the English…

  8. Characterization of (As.Te)1-xSex thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. M.; Moharram, A. H.; Abu-Sehly, A. A.

    Optical absorption at room temperature and electrical resistivity at temperatures between 200 and 320 K for (As.Te)1-xSex thin films (where x=0.20, 0.23, 0.27, 0.32 and 0.44) have been studied. Increasing the Se content was found to increase the optical energy gap and the activation energy for conduction of the investigated films. The optical energy gap of the As0.40Te0.40Se0.20 films was increased up to 1.21 eV by increasing the film thickness to 120 nm, while thermal annealing at 480 K reduced it down to 0.83 eV. The decrease of the optical gap is discussed on the basis of amorphous-crystalline transformations.

  9. Topotactic conversion of ?-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-10

    AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (?-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1)?hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2)?dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. PMID:24431158

  10. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  11. "Control-Alt-Delete": Rebooting Solutions for the E-Waste Problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations. PMID:26007633

  12. Boric acid reversibly inhibits the second step of pre-mRNA splicing Noam Shomron, Gil Ast

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    Boric acid reversibly inhibits the second step of pre-mRNA splicing Noam Shomron, Gil Ast. This investigation demonstrates that the addi- tion of boric acid to an in vitro pre-mRNA splicing reaction causes words: Pre-mRNA splicing; Inhibition; Boric acid; Spliceosome 1. Introduction The spliceosome

  13. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of the AKARI Deep Field South: source catalogue and number counts

    E-print Network

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H. v; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, M. S.

    2011-02-11

    We present results of a 1.1-mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25-deg2 area with an rms noise level of 0.32–0.71 mJy. This is one...

  14. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  15. Interfacial properties of poly(maleic acid-alt-1-alkene) disodium salts at water\\/hydrocarbon interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcela D. Urzua; Fernando J. Mendizábal; Walton J. Cabrera; Hernán E. Ríos

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial properties of poly(maleic acid-alt-1-alkene) disodium salts at hydrocarbon\\/water interfaces are determined. In all the studied systems, the interfacial tension decreases markedly with the polyelectrolyte concentration as the side-chain length increases. The results of the standard free energy of adsorption, ?Gads0, are a linear function of the number of carbon atoms in the polyelectrolyte side chain. The contribution to

  16. The island pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap via the lateral subcutaneous tunnel for recurrent ischial ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kua, E H J; Wong, C H; Ng, S W; Tan, K C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic recurrent ischial sores are an important cause of morbidity in paraplegics and geriatric patients. Compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers, ischial sores are the most difficult to treat, with a low success rate following conservative therapy and a high recurrence rate after surgical treatment. We report the use of the pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap for reconstruction of a chronic ischial sore. The free ALT flap has an established role in reconstruction in the head and neck and extremities. However, there are few reports concerning its clinical applications for regional reconstruction. As a pedicled flap, it has been used in the primary reconstruction of the perineum, groin, anterior abdominal wall, thigh and ischium. We present the first reported case of a paraplegic man with a recurrent ischial sore treated successfully with an island pALT flap inset via a lateral subcutaneous approach. We discuss the indications and its role as a simple and reliable secondary reconstructive option in the treatment of recurrent ischial ulcers after first-line loco-regional surgical options have been exhausted. PMID:20851067

  17. Targeting of the yeast plasma membrane [H+]ATPase: a novel gene AST1 prevents mislocalization of mutant ATPase to the vacuole

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a class of mutations in PMA1, (encoding plasma membrane ATPase) that is ideal for the analysis of membrane targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This class of pma1 mutants undergoes growth arrest at the restrictive temperature because newly synthesized ATPase fails to be targeted to the cell surface. Instead, mutant ATPase is delivered to the vacuole, where it is degraded. Delivery to the vacuole occurs without previous arrival at the plasma membrane because degradation of mutant ATPase is not prevented when internalization from the cell surface is blocked. Disruption of PEP4, encoding vacuolar proteinase A, blocks ATPase degradation, but fails to restore growth because the ATPase is still improperly targeted. One of these pma1 mutants was used to select multicopy suppressors that would permit growth at the nonpermissive temperature. A novel gene, AST1, identified by this selection, suppresses several pma1 alleles defective for targeting. The basis for suppression is that multicopy AST1 causes rerouting of mutant ATPase from the vacuole to the cell surface. pma1 mutants deleted for AST1 have a synthetic growth defect at the permissive temperature, providing genetic evidence for interaction between AST1 and PMA1. Ast1 is a cytoplasmic protein that associates with membranes, and is localized to multiple compartments, including the plasma membrane. The identification of AST1 homologues suggests that Ast1 belongs to a novel family of proteins that participates in membrane traffic. PMID:7822420

  18. Twisted 3D $N=4$ Supersymmetric YM on deformed $\\mathbb{A}_3^\\ast$ Lattice

    E-print Network

    El Hassan Saidi

    2014-07-13

    We study a class of twisted 3D $N=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice denoted as $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ and given by non trivial fibration $\\mathcal{L}_{1D}^{u_1}\\times \\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}$ with base $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}=\\mathbb{A}_2^\\ast$, the weight lattice of $SU(3)$. We first, develop the twisted 3D $N=4$ SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge $Q$ is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action $\\mathcal{S}_{latt}$ invariant under the 3 following: (i) $U(N)$ gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the hidden $SU(3) \\times U(1)$ symmetry of $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_2\\times u_1}$, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{5D}^{su_4\\times u_1}$ as well as the relation with known results are also given.

  19. Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

  20. Differential elastic scattering of He&ast; (21S) by Ar, Kr and Xe: Repulsive rainbows and optical potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Martin; R. W. Gregor; R. M. Jordan; P. E. Siska

    1978-01-01

    Elastic scattering angular distributions of He&ast; (21S) with Ar, Kr, and Xe measured in crossed atomic beams at collision energies from 0.4–2.8 kcal\\/mole are analyzed using a physically motivated optical potential model. The resulting potentials show some features expected on the basis of the analogous Li–rare gas potentials: monotonically increasing van der Waals well depths &egr; in the sequence Ar,

  1. Immunomodulation of ALT-2 and TLR may collude in antigen specific T cell hyporesponsiveness: proposed mechanism for elevated IL-10 levels in Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-03-01

    ALT-2, a novel antigen belonging to the chromadorea ALT-2 family of the filarial nematode is proved to clear filarial parasites in Jirds. In order to increase the protection efficacy by stimulating the cell mediated immunity, MPLA a detoxified derivative of LPS known to induce the cellular response, was used in this study as an adjuvant on mice models. ALT-2+MPLA formulation elicited a high titer of total IgG antibody, with profoundly increased levels of IgG2b. Reduced splenocyte proliferation was observed in immunized group when compared to control groups which could be attributed to many in vivo factors. The levels of IFN-? were high in unstimulated MPLA group compared to ALT-2 stimulated MPLA group, suggesting that the ALT-2 antigen suppressed the IFN-? levels. A high level of IL-10 was induced by the ALT-2+MPLA formulation, which inhibited the production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and also reduced the Th1 cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2) levels which are not in vogue with the classical MPLA adjuvant formulation. We propose a mechanism for this immunomodulation which involves a diminished expression of TLR-4, by which the filarial parasites have evolved to evade host immune mechanism. PMID:24570047

  2. Ein salztoleranter Ökotyp von Phascum cuspidatum. var. piliferum (HEDW.) HOOK. & TAYLOR an den Salinen von Bad Kreuznach und Bad Münster a.St

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Oesau

    Zusammenfassung: OESAU, A. (2008): Ein salztoleranter Ökotyp von Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum (HEDW.) HOOK. & TAYLOR an den Salinen von Bad Kreuznach und Bad Münster a.St. Im Rahmen einer Erhebung der Moosflora der Salinen von Bad Kreuznach und Bad Münster a.St. (Rheinland-Pfalz) wurde eine salztolerante Form von Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum gefunden. Diese wächst auf dauerfeuchten Salzböden. Im Gegensatz dazu

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE 1.1mm observations in the ADF-S (Hatsukade+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2011-09-01

    The centre region of the ADF-S was observed with AzTEC on the ASTE. The observations were made from 2007 September 16 to October 14 and from 2008 August 4 to December 21. The operations were carried out remotely from the ASTE operation rooms in San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, and in Mitaka, Japan, through the network observation system N-COSMOS3 developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). (1 data file).

  4. Alt-Az telescope control system standardization attempt: case study of the TT1 (Toppo Telescope #1) control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Dario; Brescia, Massimo; Spirito, Gianfranco

    1998-05-01

    The TT1 is a 1.54 m Alt-Az telescope designed and built by the Technology Working Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. The standardization process is of course one of the fundamental requirements for telescope control system design and development, well considered in the TT1 design. In this paper we present the approach used to identify a control system applicable to medium-size Alt-Az telescope. The TT1 control system architecture is based on a distributed working flow and it is PC-based, i.e. organized in several interconnected standard PCs and standard fast communication protocol. Every PC is based on the 'dedicated processing unit' concept and it makes real time own tasks independently by other units. Also, the extremely reduced communication flow between PCs, and the internal organization based on the preference given to software rather than hardware solutions, makes its control system extremely reliable, easily reconfigurable and upgradable, obsolescence deprived and independent from any hardware choice.

  5. The MAPk ASTE11 is involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity and in filamentation in Arxula adeninivorans, but not in adaptation to hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Böer, Erik; El Metabteb, Gamal; El Fiki, Ayman; Brückner, Peggy; Wartmann, Thomas; Piontek, Michael; Kunze, Gotthard

    2009-05-01

    In many fungal species, cell growth and morphology, thermo- and osmotolerance are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk) cascades. Ste11p is a MAP kinase kinase kinase, which plays a central role in various pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we describe ASTE11, an STE11 homologue from Arxula adeninivorans, an imperfect, dimorphic, but nonpathogenic and extremophilic yeast. ASTE11 lacks introns, and codes for a protein of 824 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 91.6 kDa. The gene is constitutively expressed at low levels, but is induced by high-salt stress. To facilitate functional analysis of ASTE11, disruption and overexpressing mutants were constructed. The phenotypes of these strains indicate that Aste11p is involved in regulating aspects of cell wall structure and form, but is dispensable for adaptation to hypertonic stress. Despite its structural homology to STE11, ASTE11 cannot complement the mating defect of S. cerevisiae ste11 mutants. These findings emphasize that, although components of MAPk pathways are conserved among yeasts, they often operate in different contexts in different species. PMID:19260971

  6. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15R?-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1?, IL-1? and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

  7. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-?1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  9. Extraction of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulating fullerenes by poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tange, Masayoshi; Kwon, Jin Kyoung; Okazaki, Toshiya; Iijima, Sumio

    2014-04-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating fullerenes, the so-called “nanopeapods (NPDs)”, are expected as building blocks in future nanoelectronics because the mechanical and electronic properties of SWCNTs frequently undergo considerable modification with the encapsulation of molecules at a nanometer scale. The separation of semiconducting species from metallic counterparts is the next step in the application of NPDs in electronics and photonics. Here, semiconducting NPDs are successfully extracted in toluene using a fluorene-based polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT). Although F8BT shows a high extraction selectivity for (15, 4) SWCNTs, such a high selectivity disappears in the obtained photoluminescence excitation (PLE) map of NPDs. The change in electronic energy level by the encapsulation of C60 may induce the loss of the selectivity.

  10. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles suppressed colon carcinoma established subcutaneously in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Kyu; Kim, Kyung Keun; Cho, Sang-Hee; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Jere, Dhananjay; Cho, Chong-Su; Chung, Ik-Joo

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable gene carrier, termed as PEI-alt-PEG, has been synthesized based on Michael addition reaction between lower Mw PEI and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate and tested its potential of anti-metastatic cancer gene therapy by using anti-KITENIN short hairpin RNA. KITENIN is known to promote invasion of mouse colon adenocarcinoma in vivo. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles has shown suppressed proliferlation and enhanced apoptosis signal in tumor compared to commercial available liposome, leading to delayed tumor growth. PMID:20358939

  11. Beam-Target Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target at 1.422

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A.J. R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X

    2012-01-30

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function gq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production on 3He and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  12. Astakine LvAST binds to the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-?) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-? as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

  13. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Masaaki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan (China); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [Institute of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); Saito, Masao [ALMA Project Office, NAOJ (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  14. ASTS Advanced Transplant Provider Award Mr. Monge's active participation in and dedication to multi-organ transplant programs over the past

    E-print Network

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    ASTS Advanced Transplant Provider Award Mr. Monge's active participation in and dedication to multi-organ transplant programs over the past two decades clearly illustrate how deserving he is of this award. Surgeons, hepatologists, transplant fellows, PAs, nurses, residents, and students have all benefited from his generosity

  15. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  16. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  17. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be addressed by application of a correction factor to fingerstick values. Remote reading of this device is feasible. PMID:26020244

  18. Beam-Target Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target at 1.422

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; et al

    2012-01-30

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function gq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production onmore »3He and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  19. Interfacial electronic structure for Ca and an electroluminescent polymer: Poly (2,5-diheptyl-1,4-phenylene-alt-2,5-thienylene)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparna Rajagopal; Norbert Koch; Jacques Ghijsen; Robert L. Johnson; K. Kaeriyama; Günther Leising; Jean-Jacques Pireaux

    2000-01-01

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) have been used to investigate the evolution of the interfacial electronic structure of a blue light-emitting polymer: poly (2,5-diheptyl-1,4-phenylene-alt-2,5-thienylene) (PDHPT) as a function of Ca metal coverage. UPS results show a decrease in intensity of the highest molecular orbital-derived feature of the polymer upon Ca deposition and a decrease in work

  20. Physical analysis of the complex rye ( Secale cereale L.) Alt4 aluminium (aluminum) tolerance locus using a whole-genome BAC library of rye cv. Blanco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-J. Shi; J. P. Gustafson; J. Button; J. Miyazaki; M. Pallotta; N. Gustafson; H. Zhou; P. Langridge; N. C. Collins

    2009-01-01

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale\\u000a improvement. Rye is highly tolerant of aluminum (Al) toxicity, and possesses a complex structure at the Alt4 Al tolerance locus not found at the corresponding locus in wheat. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv.

  1. Effect of Segregation of Secondary Phase Particles and "S" Line on Tensile Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded 2024Al-T351 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2013-09-01

    A 5-mm-thick 2024Al-T351 plate was friction stir welded (FSWed) at welding speeds of 100, 200, and 400 mm min-1 with a constant rotation rate of 800 rpm, and the microstructure and tensile fracture behavior of the joints were investigated in detail. FSW resulted in the redistribution of secondary phase particles along the recrystallized grain boundaries at the nugget zone (NZ), forming linear segregation bands consisting of secondary phase particles. The segregation bands, mainly present in the shoulder-driven zone, were believed to result from periodic material flow, with the average band spacing on the longitudinal and horizontal cross sections equal to the tool advancement per revolution. At a low welding speed of 100 mm min-1, in spite of the highest density of segregation bands, the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joint fractured along the low hardness zone (LHZ) of the heat-affected zone because of large hardness gap between NZ and LHZ. Increasing the welding speed to 200 and 400 mm min-1 reduced both the hardness gap between NZ and LHZ and the density of segregation bands. In this case, the segregation bands played a role, resulting in unusual fracture of the joints along the segregation bands. The "S" line originated from the oxide film on the initial butting surfaces and did not affect the fracture behavior of the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joints.

  2. Distribution of the HLA class I allele in chronic hepatitis C and its association with serum ALT level in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kobayashi, Koju; Kobayashi, Tomoo; Shiina, Masaaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Satoh, Takaomi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2003-10-01

    An essential process for resolution of viral infections is the efficient recognition and elimination of intracellular virus. Recognition of viral antigens in the form of short peptides associated with HLA class I molecule is a major task of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency of the HLA class I alleles in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HLA-B51, -B52, -B55, -B56, -B61, B70, -Cw1, -Cw3, and -Cw4 are less frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in Japanese individuals. The frequency of HLA-A2 is slightly lower in the patients but tends to be higher in patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level than in those with elevated ALT level (p = 0.07). Other HLA alleles are not significantly different between two groups. Comparison of HLA homozygosity at HLA-A and -B or -C or at two or three loci did not show a significant association with levels of serum ALT or with the clinical outcome of interferon therapy in patients with hepatitis C. These results suggest a possibility that the alterations of host response, which depends on genetic background, influence disease activities of HCV infection. PMID:14626512

  3. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained. PMID:25599262

  4. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: a comprehensive look at B cells and antibodies in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mengel, M; Chong, A; Rothstein, D M; Zorn, E; Maltzman, J S

    2014-03-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) represents a significant clinical challenge for solid organ transplantation. Mechanistic understanding of ABMR is incomplete and diagnostic accuracy for ABMR is limited, and as a result, targeted treatment remains elusive and new treatment modalities are difficult to validate. Three hundred twenty-six participants from 15 countries met for the first Cutting Edge of Transplantation (CEOT) symposium organized by the American Society of Transplantation (AST) in Chandler, Arizona, February 14-16, 2013. During the 3-day interactive symposium, presentations, moderated poster sessions and round table discussions addressed cutting edge knowledge of B and plasma cell biology, mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury, advances and limitations in ABMR diagnostics, as well as current and potential new treatment options for ABMR. The outcome of the meeting identified the following unmet needs for: (a) improved understanding of the regulation of B cell maturation and antibody response to enable targeted therapies; (b) more precise diagnostics of ABMR, including molecular pathology, risk stratification by sensitive antibody testing and monitoring of treatment effects; and (c) innovative multicenter trial designs that enhance observational power, in particular, in assessing synergistic multimodality therapies with reduced toxicities. PMID:24674597

  5. The RET kinase inhibitor NVP-AST487 blocks growth and calcitonin gene expression through distinct mechanisms in medullary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Akeno-Stuart, Nagako; Croyle, Michelle; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Malaguarnera, Roberta; Vitagliano, Donata; Santoro, Massimo; Stephan, Christine; Grosios, Konstantina; Wartmann, Markus; Cozens, Robert; Caravatti, Giorgio; Fabbro, Doriano; Lane, Heidi A; Fagin, James A

    2007-07-15

    The RET kinase has emerged as a promising target for the therapy of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) and of a subset of papillary thyroid cancers. NVP-AST487, a N,N'-diphenyl urea with an IC(50) of 0.88 mumol/L on RET kinase, inhibited RET autophosphorylation and activation of downstream effectors, and potently inhibited the growth of human thyroid cancer cell lines with activating mutations of RET but not of lines without RET mutations. NVP-AST487 induced a dose-dependent growth inhibition of xenografts of NIH3T3 cells expressing oncogenic RET, and of the MTC cell line TT in nude mice. MTCs secrete calcitonin, a useful indicator of tumor burden. Human plasma calcitonin levels derived from the TT cell xenografts were inhibited shortly after treatment, when tumor volume was still unchanged, indicating that the effects of RET kinase inhibition on calcitonin secretion were temporally dissociated from its tumor-inhibitory properties. Accordingly, NVP-AST487 inhibited calcitonin gene expression in vitro in TT cells, in part, through decreased gene transcription. These data point to a previously unknown physiologic role of RET signaling on calcitonin gene expression. Indeed, the RET ligands persephin and GDNF robustly stimulated calcitonin mRNA, which was blocked by pretreatment with NVP-AST487. Antagonists of RET kinase activity in patients with MTC may result in effects on plasma calcitonin that are either disproportionate or dissociated from the effects on tumor burden, because RET kinase mediates a physiologic pathway controlling calcitonin secretion. The role of traditional tumor biomarkers may need to be reassessed as targeted therapies designed against oncoproteins with key roles in pathogenesis are implemented. PMID:17638907

  6. Terahertz Receiver with NbN HEB Device (TREND) - A Low Noise Receiver User Instrument for AST\\/RO at the South Pole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Yngvesson; C. F. Musante; M. Ji; F. Rodriguez; Y. Zhuang; E. Gerecht; M. Coulombe; J. Dickinson; T. Goyette; J. Waldman; C. K. Walker; A. Stark; A. Lane

    2001-01-01

    Based on the excellent performance of NbN HEB mixer receivers at THz frequencies which we have established in the laboratory, we are building a Terahertz REceiver with NbN HEB Device (TREND) to be installed on the 1.7 meter diameter AST\\/RO submillimeter wave telescope at the Amundsen\\/Scott South Pole Station. TREND is scheduled for deployment during the austral summer season of

  7. Starting salaries for Agricultural Systems Technology (AST) graduatesStarting salaries for Agricultural Systems Technology (AST) graduates range from $39,000 to $52,500 per year, depending on location, employer,range from $39,000 to $52,500 per year, depe

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Starting salaries for Agricultural Systems Technology (AST) graduatesStarting salaries among the highest average starting salaries of all ISU College of Agriculture graduates.highest average starting salaries of all ISU College of Agriculture graduates. Our placement rate is nearly 100%.Our

  8. New Strategies to Obtain Insights into CP Violation Through $B_s\\to D_s^{\\pm}K^\\mp, D_s^{\\ast\\pm}K^\\mp, ...$ and $B_d\\to D^{\\pm}?^\\mp, D^{\\ast\\pm}?^\\mp, ...$ Decays

    E-print Network

    Robert Fleischer

    2003-08-01

    Decays of the kind $B_s\\to D_s^{\\pm}K^\\mp, D_s^{\\ast\\pm}K^\\mp, ...$ and $B_d\\to D^{\\pm}\\pi^\\mp, D^{\\ast\\pm}\\pi^\\mp, ...$ allow us to probe $\\phi_s+\\gamma$ and $\\phi_d+\\gamma$, respectively, involving the angle $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle and the $B^0_q$--$\\bar B^0_q$ mixing phases $\\phi_q$ ($q\\in\\{d,s\\}$). Analysing these modes in a phase-convention-independent way, we find that their mixing-induced observables are affected by a subtle $(-1)^L$ factor, where $L$ denotes the angular momentum of the $B_q$ decay products, and derive bounds on $\\phi_q+\\gamma$. Moreover, we emphasize that ``untagged'' rates are an important ingredient for efficient determinations of weak phases, not only in the presence of a sizeable width difference $\\Delta\\Gamma_q$; should $\\Delta\\Gamma_s$ be sizeable, the combination of untagged with tagged $B_s\\to D_s^{\\pm}K^\\mp,D_s^{\\ast\\pm}K^\\mp, ...$ observables provides an elegant and unambiguous extraction of $\\tan(\\phi_s+\\gamma)$, whereas the conventional determination of $\\phi_s+\\gamma$ is affected by an eightfold discrete ambiguity. Finally, we propose a combined analysis of $B_s\\to D_s^{\\pm}K^\\mp, D_s^{\\ast\\pm}K^\\mp, ...$ and $B_d\\to D^{\\pm}\\pi^\\mp, D^{\\ast\\pm}\\pi^\\mp, ...$ modes, which has important advantages, offering various interesting new strategies to extract $\\gamma$ in an essentially unambiguous manner.

  9. Implementation and evaluation of the 5As framework of obesity management in primary care: design of the 5As Team (5AsT) randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a pressing public health concern, which frequently presents in primary care. With the explosive obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need to maximize effective management in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management™ (5As) are a collection of knowledge tools developed by the Canadian Obesity Network. Low rates of obesity management visits in primary care suggest provider behaviour may be an important variable. The goal of the present study is to increase frequency and quality of obesity management in primary care using the 5As Team (5AsT) intervention to change provider behaviour. Methods/design The 5AsT trial is a theoretically informed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Clinic-based multidisciplinary teams (RN/NP, mental health, dietitians) will be randomized to control or the 5AsT intervention group, to participate in biweekly learning collaborative sessions supported by internal and external practice facilitation. The learning collaborative content addresses provider-identified barriers to effective obesity management in primary care. Evidence-based shared decision making tools will be co-developed and iteratively tested by practitioners. Evaluation will be informed by the RE-AIM framework. The primary outcome measure, to which participants are blinded, is number of weight management visits/full-time equivalent (FTE) position. Patient-level outcomes will also be assessed, through a longitudinal cohort study of patients from randomized practices. Patient outcomes include clinical (e.g., body mass index [BMI], blood pressure), health-related quality of life (SF-12, EQ5D), and satisfaction with care. Qualitative data collected from providers and patients will be evaluated using thematic analysis to understand the context, implementation and effectiveness of the 5AsT program. Discussion The 5AsT trial will provide a wide range of insights into current practices, knowledge gaps and barriers that limit obesity management in primary practice. The use of existing resources, collaborative design, practice facilitation, and integrated feedback loops cultivate an applicable, adaptable and sustainable approach to increasing the quantity and quality of weight management visits in primary care. Trial registration NCT01967797. PMID:24947045

  10. Assessing Racial Profiling &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven N. Durlauf

    2006-01-01

    In this article I consider the evaluation of racial profiling in traffic stops from a combination of welfarist and non-welfarist considerations. I argue that benefits from profiling in terms of crime reduction have not been identified and that further, the harm to those who are innocent and stopped is potentially high. I then argue that profiling creates a clear injustice

  11. Underground Gun Markets &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets, drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teenagers in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities, plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence

  12. FRIENDSHIP NETWORKS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan K. Brueckner

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?This paper develops a model of social networks different from those presented in the recent literature. In contrast to existing models, the level of investment in link formation is a continuous decision variable, and links form stochastically rather than deterministically, with the probability depending on the noncooperative investment choices of both parties. Since the network structure is then stochastic rather

  13. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  14. ASTE CO(3--2) Observations of the Southern Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 986: a Large Gaseous Bar Filled with Dense Molecular Medium

    E-print Network

    Kohno, K; Miura, R; Muraoka, K; Sawada, T; Nakanishi, K; Kuno, N; Sakai, T; Sorai, K; Kamegai, K; Tanaka, K; Okuda, T; Endo, A; Hatsukade, B; Sameshima, M; Ezawa, H; Sakamoto, S; Kamazaki, T; Cortés, J; Tamura, Y; Fukuhara, M; Iono, D; Kawabe, R

    2008-01-01

    We present CO(3-2) emission observations toward the 3'x3' (or 20x20kpc at a distance of 23Mpc) region of the southern barred spiral galaxy NGC 986 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). This effort is a part of our on-going extragalactic CO(3-2) imaging project ADIoS (ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Spiral galaxies). Our CO(3-2) image revealed the presence of a large (the major axis is 14 kpc in total length) gaseous bar filled with dense molecular medium along the dark lanes observed in optical images. This is the largest ``dense-gas rich bar'' known to date. The dense gas bar discovered in NGC 986 could be a huge reservoir of possible ``fuel'' for future starbursts in the central region, and we suggest that the star formation in the central region of NGC 986 could still be in a growing phase. We found a good spatial coincidence between the overall distributions of dense molecular gas traced by CO(3-2) and the massive star formation depicted by H$\\alpha$. The global CO(3-2) luminosity $L'_{\\r...

  15. Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide. III. Partial isopropyl ester of poly(vinyl methyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) as a stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Guha, Suparna; Mandal, Broja M

    2004-03-01

    Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide at 40 degrees C in t-butyl alcohol-water media of varying composition (50 to 90 vol% alcohol) using a partial isopropyl ester of poly(vinyl methyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) as the stabilizer has been studied. The isopropyl ester derivative proves to be a better stabilizer than its precursor polymer. However, the particles were polydisperse in size. The number average diameter of the particles increases linearly with the solubility parameter of the dispersion medium. Dispersions of nanoparticles of polyacrylamide are produced when the t-butyl alcohol content of the dispersion medium is 90% by volume. Comparison of the particle diameter measured by transmission electron microscopy with that measured by dynamic light scattering in acetone reveals a thickness of the hairy stabilizer layer on the dispersion particles of 31 nm. PMID:14757077

  16. Selective extraction of semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes by poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-pyridine) for 1.5 ?m emission.

    PubMed

    Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Iijima, Sumio

    2012-12-01

    For applications in standard optical devices, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibiting emissions near 1500 nm are potentially feasible because silicon semiconductors efficiently transmit the light in this region. However, techniques to extract such semiconducting SWCNTs have not been reported thus far. In this study, using poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-pyridine) (PFOPy) as a dispersant in organic solvent, we succeeded in selectively dispersing SWCNTs which show near-infrared fluorescence around 1500 nm. On the basis of optical absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we revealed that the outstanding tube-structure preference of PFOPy can be interpreted by a characteristic "wavy" conformation of PFOPy on the tube wall. PMID:23231776

  17. A phase I study of AST1306, a novel irreversible EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AST1306 is an orally active irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (erbB2) and HER4 (erbB4) signaling. This is a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary anti-tumor effects of oral AST1306. In addition the effects of food on PK was tested. Methods A modified Fibonacci 3 plus 3 dose-escalation design was employed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in patients with advanced solid tumors. The following dose levels were investigated: once daily (QD) at two dose levels (400-and 800 mg), twice daily (BID) in five dose levels (600-, 800-, 1000-, 1200- and 1500 mg), and three times daily (TID) in three dose levels (800-, 1000- and 1200 mg). In the PK and extension study, at least eight patients per dose cohort in three dose levels (maximum tolerated dose [MTD], one or two doses level lower than the MTD) were enrolled to evaluate the PK profiles. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled, with breast (n?=?22) and lung cancers (n?=?14) being the most common primary cancers. The most frequent drug-related adverse events were grade 1 to 3 diarrhea and rash, grade 1 to 2 fatigue. During dose escalation, the key DLT was grade 3 diarrhea observed in 5 patients at 1000 mg BID (n?=?1), 1500 mg BID (n?=?1), 800 mg TID (n?=?1) and 1200 mg TID (n?=?2). AST1306 was rapidly absorbed and had moderate to high clearance. PK concentration parameters increased with dose over the range evaluated, with no evidence of accumulation over time. Under fed conditions, the mean Tmax was prolonged, Cmax was increased, and AUC0-? was raised. Of the 55 evaluable patients, 7 patients experienced partial responses, including 5 with breast cancer, 1 with lung cancer, and 1 with gastric cancer. The best response with stable disease for???6 months was achieved in 7 patients. Conclusions Based on the DLT and PK profile, the RP2D was defined as 1000 mg TID with evidence of preliminary anti-tumor activity. Further studies are recommended. PMID:24612546

  18. Secoemestrin D, a cytotoxic epitetrathiodioxopiperizine, and emericellenes A-E, five sesterterpenoids from Emericella sp. AST0036, a fungal endophyte of Astragalus lentiginosus1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Mangping X; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2013-12-27

    A new epitetrathiodioxopiperizine, secoemestrin D (1), and five sesterterpenoids bearing a new carbon skeleton, emericellenes A-E (2-6), together with previously known fungal metabolites, sterigmatocystin (7), arugosin C (8), and epiisoshamixanthone (9), were obtained from the endophytic fungal strain Emericella sp. AST0036 isolated from a healthy leaf tissue of Astragalus lentiginosus. The planar structures and relative configurations of the new metabolites 1-6 were elucidated using MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using a panel of six tumor cell lines and normal human fibroblast cells. Only metabolites 1 and 7 showed cytotoxic activity. More importantly, secoemestrin D (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 0.24 ?M and moderate selectivity to human glioma (SF-268) and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. PMID:24251417

  19. Secoemestrin D, A Cytotoxic Epitetrathiodioxopiperizine and Emericellenes A–E, Five Sesterterpenoids from Emericella sp. AST0036, a Fungal Endophyte of Astragalus lentiginosus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ya-ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Mangping X.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A new epitetrathiodioxopiperizine, secoemestrin D (1), five sesterterpenoids bearing a new carbon skeleton, emericellenes A–E (2–6), together with previously known fungal metabolites, sterigmatocystin (7), arugosin C (8), and epiisoshamixanthone (9), were obtained from the endophytic fungal strain Emericella sp. AST0036 isolated from a healthy leaf tissue of Astragalus lentiginosus. The planar structures and relative configurations of the new metabolites 1–6 were elucidated using MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using a panel of six tumor cell lines and normal human fibroblast cells. Only metabolites 1 and 7 showed cytotoxic activity. More importantly, secoemestrin D (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50s ranging from 0.06–0.24 µM and moderate selectivity to human glioma (SF-268) and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. PMID:24251417

  20. ASTE CO(3-2) Observations of the Southern Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 986: a Large Gaseous Bar Filled with a Dense Molecular Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Tosaki, Tomoka; Miura, Rie; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kuno, Nario; Sakai, Takeshi; Sorai, Kazuo; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Okuda, Takeshi; Endo, Akira; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Sameshima, Masahiro; Ezawa, Hajime; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Cortés, Juan; Tamura, Yoichi; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Iono, Daisuke; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2008-06-01

    We present CO(3-2) emission observations toward the 3'×3' (or 20kpc×20kpc at a distance of 23Mpc) region of the southern barred spiral galaxy NGC 986 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). This effort is a part of our on-going extragalactic CO(3-2) imaging project, ADIoS (ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Spiral galaxies). Our CO(3-2) image revealed the presence of a large (the major axis is 14kpc in total length) gaseous bar filled with a dense molecular medium along the dark lanes observed in optical images. This is the largest “dense-gas rich bar” known to date. The dense gas bar, discovered in NGC 986, could be a huge reservoir of possible “fuel” for future starbursts in the central region, and we suggest that star formation in the central region of NGC 986 could still be in a growing phase. We found a good spatial coincidence between the overall distributions of dense molecular gas traced by CO(3-2) and massive star formation depicted by H?. The global CO(3-2) luminosity, LCO(3-2), of NGC 986 was determined to be (5.4±1.1)×108Kkms-1pc2. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) integrated intensity ratio was found to be 0.60±0.13 at a spatial resolution of 44'' or 5kpc, and the CO(3-2)/CO(2-1) ratio was 0.67±0.14 at a beam size of ˜25'' or ˜2.8kpc. These line ratios suggest moderate excitation conditions of CO lines (nH2˜103-4cm-3) in a few kiloparsec region of central NGC 986.

  1. ASTE CO(3--2) Observations of the Southern Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 986: a Large Gaseous Bar Filled with Dense Molecular Medium

    E-print Network

    K. Kohno; T. Tosaki; R. Miura; K. Muraoka; T. Sawada; K. Nakanishi; N. Kuno; T. Sakai; K. Sorai; K. Kamegai; K. Tanaka; T. Okuda; A. Endo; B. Hatsukade; M. Sameshima; H. Ezawa; S. Sakamoto; T. Kamazaki; J. Cortes; Y. Tamura; M. Fukuhara; D. Iono; R. Kawabe

    2008-05-10

    We present CO(3-2) emission observations toward the 3'x3' (or 20x20kpc at a distance of 23Mpc) region of the southern barred spiral galaxy NGC 986 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). This effort is a part of our on-going extragalactic CO(3-2) imaging project ADIoS (ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Spiral galaxies). Our CO(3-2) image revealed the presence of a large (the major axis is 14 kpc in total length) gaseous bar filled with dense molecular medium along the dark lanes observed in optical images. This is the largest ``dense-gas rich bar'' known to date. The dense gas bar discovered in NGC 986 could be a huge reservoir of possible ``fuel'' for future starbursts in the central region, and we suggest that the star formation in the central region of NGC 986 could still be in a growing phase. We found a good spatial coincidence between the overall distributions of dense molecular gas traced by CO(3-2) and the massive star formation depicted by H$\\alpha$. The global CO(3-2) luminosity $L'_{\\rm CO(3-2)}$ of NGC 986 was determined to be $(5.4 \\pm 1.1) \\times 10^8$ K km s$^{-1}$ pc$^2$. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) integrated intensity ratio was found to be 0.60 +/- 0.13 at a spatial resolution of 44'' or 5 kpc, and a CO(3-2)/CO(2-1) ratio was 0.67 +/- 0.14 at a beam size of ~25'' or ~2.8 kpc. These line ratios suggest moderate excitation conditions of CO lines ($n_{\\rm H_2} \\sim 10^{3-4}$ cm$^{-3}$) in the central a few kpc region of NGC 986.

  2. Measurement of ${?(H?_e\\bar{?_e})\\times BR(H\\rightarrow ZZ^\\ast)}$ and Higgs production in $ZZ$ fusion at a 1.4 TeV CLIC collider

    E-print Network

    G. Milutinovi?-Dumbelovi?; I. Božovi?-Jelisav?i?; A. Robson; P. Roloff

    2015-05-12

    This paper presents the potential measurement at 1.4 TeV CLIC of the cross-section (times branching ratio) of the Higgs production via $WW$ fusion with the Higgs subsequently decaying in $ZZ^\\ast$, ${\\sigma(H\

  3. Measurement of ${?(H?_e\\bar{?_e})\\times BR(H\\rightarrow ZZ^\\ast)}$ and Higgs production in $ZZ$ fusion at a 1.4 TeV CLIC collider

    E-print Network

    G. Milutinovi?-Dumbelovi?; I. Božovi?-Jelisav?i?; A. Robson; P. Roloff

    2015-07-19

    This paper presents the potential measurement at 1.4 TeV CLIC of the cross-section (times branching ratio) of the Higgs production via $WW$ fusion with the Higgs subsequently decaying in $ZZ^\\ast$, ${\\sigma(H\

  4. Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/0... 1 of 2 06/09/2007 20:38

    E-print Network

    Claeys, Philippe

    Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing aste... http REAL ESTATE CARS SFGate Web by Sign In | Register (45) Scientists say they know where dinosaur into the Earth some 65 million years ago and drove all the dinosaurs to extinction, the story has taken on a life

  5. Winter 2010 FOr ALUMni, PArentS, AnD FrienDS OF tHe eAStMAn SCHOOL OF MUSiC FrOM tHe DeAn

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Winter 2010 FOr ALUMni, PArentS, AnD FrienDS OF tHe eAStMAn SCHOOL OF MUSiC #12;NOTES FrOM tHe De-Piper Photography Helen Hou Don Ver Ploeg Gerry Szymanski nigel Waters Photography coordinator Karen Ver Steeg

  6. 24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research 1-888-777-NAAR ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism,

    E-print Network

    24 NAARRATIVE, Number 6, Summer 2000 · Newsletter of the National Alliance for Autism Research · 1-888-777-NAAR L ast weekend, Alex, my 14 year old son with autism, resumed a project of building his own article sets me to musing about cures and treatments for autism - Alex is never far from my mind. Indeed

  7. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2014-04-01

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process.

  8. Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD?/NADH reduction.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-09-10

    A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  9. Nanohybrids from direct chemical self-assembly of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhua; Yi, Chenglin; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Donghua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-12-16

    The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers based on poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) were facilely prepared via the direct chemical self-assembly triggered by the aminolysis of SMA with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and the in situ polycondensation of APTES under refluxing in acetone. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the spherical-like morphology of the nanohybrids. Dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis revealed the structure transition of the nanohybrids in response to pH change. The emulsification study showed that the nanohybrids were effective particulate emulsifiers when homogenized with various oils including toluene, paraffin oil, silicone oil, isooctyl palmitate, dicaprylyl carbonate, and propylheptyl caprylate. The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers exhibited pH-sensitivity, and the diameter of paraffin oil droplets remarkably increased with pH of the nanohybrid aqueous dispersion decrease. Also, the reduced dynamic interfacial tension predicted the thermodynamically unstable state of the emulsions prepared at high pH values. Most interesting, the paraffin oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with a high oil volume fraction of 83.3% were formed when the nanohybrids were heavily flocculated by adding HCl. The HIPEs were pH-responsive and capable of demulsification with the addition of an alkaline solution showing a potential application in the oil industry. PMID:25423487

  10. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2?-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  11. Bio-Rad Laboratories s e r u m c h e m I s t r y c O N t r O L s Liquid Multiqual

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    -Hydroxybutrate Dehydrogenase (HBDH)* ALT/SGPT Amikacin* Amylase Amylase (Pancreatic)* Apolipoprotein A-1 Apolipoprotein B AST Arylamidase* Lipase Lithium Magnesium Osmolality* PAP* Phenobarbital Phenytoin Phospholipids* Phosphorus

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates in the altes land, an intensely used orchard region in Germany: Correlation between community structure and potential for pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Schäfers, Christoph; Hommen, Udo; Dembinski, Michael; Gonzalez-Valero, Juan E

    2006-12-01

    To assess the impact of pesticides on aquatic organisms under realistic worst-case conditions, a macroinvertebrate community of small ditches was sampled at 40 sites of the orchard region Altes Land near Hamburg, Germany. To differentiate between pesticide impact and other variables, the ditches selected for sampling were located at different distances along grassland, unused apple orchards, and orchards managed with integrated and/or organic crop protection methods. Samples of macroinvertebrates were taken on five dates over two years. In addition to biological data, water chemistry and structural parameters were measured. For each sampling site, a potential for exposure was calculated on the basis of the distance of the ditch to the nearest row of trees and the depth and width of the ditch. The neighborhood to either grassland or orchards turned out to have a larger impact on the macroinvertebrate community than the potential for exposure. Therefore, grassland sites were omitted from further evaluation. Remaining sites were grouped into low exposure (sites at unused orchards), medium exposure (distance of 3-5 m [track] between trees and ditch), and high exposure (trees close to the ditch, mean distance < or = 1.5 m). Principal response curves showed differences in community structure between the three exposure groups over time. Whereas for sites from the high exposure group significant differences from low exposure was observed in all seasons, significant differences between low and medium were observed only occasionally. Effects were less pronounced in samples taken at springtime before the starting pesticide applications, suggesting some community recovery. Species richness was negatively correlated to exposure potential. Isopoda, Eulamellibranchiata, and insects, especially Ephemeroptera, showed a high negative correlation with the potential for pesticide exposure, suggesting that these taxa are sensitive to the pesticide use in the orchards. PMID:17220099

  13. AST/RO Observations of CO J=4-3 Emission from the N44 Complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-print Network

    Sungeun Kim; Wilfred Walsh; Kecheng Xiao

    2004-06-07

    We present Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) observations of 12CO J=4-3 and C I emission in the N44 H II complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We detected strong 12CO J=4-3 emission toward the H II region called as N44BC, which is located on the rim of an expanding giant shell in the N44 region. Analysis with a photodissociation region (PDR) model showed that the 12CO J=4-3 emitting cloud is very dense, with n ~ 10^5 cm^-3. We also note that there is a high-velocity component associated with the 12CO J=4-3 emission. This probably originates from molecular material accelerated as a result of the motion induced by the expanding giant shell surrounding LH47 in the N44 complex. We found that the kinetic energy of this high-velocity gas observed in the CO J=4-3 emission toward the rim of the expanding H II shell is at least an order of magnitude higher than the kinetic energy derived for the H I and H II gas in this region.

  14. Study of $(W/Z)H$ production and Higgs boson couplings using $H \\rightarrow WW^{\\ast}$ decays with the ATLAS detector

    E-print Network

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A search for Higgs boson production in association with a $W$ or $Z$ boson, in the $H \\rightarrow WW^{\\ast}$ decay channel, is performed with a data sample collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.5 ${\\rm fb}^{-1}$ and 20.3 ${\\rm fb}^{-1}$, respectively. The $WH$ production mode is studied in two-lepton and three-lepton final states, while two-lepton and four-lepton final states are used to search for the $ZH$ production mode. The observed significance, for the combined $WH$ and $ZH$ production, is 2.5 standard deviations while a significance of 0.9 standard deviations is expected in the Standard Model Higgs boson hypothesis. The ratio of the combined $WH$ and $ZH$ signal yield to the Standard Model expectation, $\\mu_{VH}$, is found to be $\\mu_{VH} =3.0^{+1.3}_{-1.1}{\\, {(\\rm stat.)}}^{+1.0}_{-0.7}{\\,{(\\rm sys.)}}$ for the Higgs boson mass of 125.36 GeV. The $WH$ and $ZH$ produc...

  15. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 AST-N111 card for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca compared to ESBL Etests and combination disk methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Valenza; S. Müller; C. Schmitt; D. Turnwald; T. T. Lam; M. Frosch; M. Abele-Horn; Y. Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    The VITEK 2 AST-N111 card was evaluated for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by testing 51 ESBL positive\\u000a and 50 ESBL negative isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and K. oxytoca. The occurrence of beta-lactamase genes was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The advanced expert system (AES) of the VITEK\\u000a 2 system achieved sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and

  16. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  17. Brominated VSLSs in and over the East Pacific During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific Cruise (HalocAST-P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Smith, R. W.; Shen, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.

    2010-12-01

    Brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2), and dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) can potentially supply a significant amount of inorganic bromine (Bry) to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Bromine radicals are 50 - 100 times more efficient in depleting ozone (O3) than chlorine radicals; therefore, these compounds are important to the ozone chemistry in the atmosphere. CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2 and CHBrCl2 are thought to be produced mainly by phytoplankton in the open ocean. During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific (HalocAST - P) cruise we examined the distributions of halocarbons in the East Pacific Ocean and in the overlying atmosphere. The cruise started from Punta Arenas, Chile on March 29, and finished at Seattle, WA, United States on April 29 2010. Continuous underway measurements of the atmospheric and surface seawater concentrations along with depth profiles of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and a suite of other halogenated compounds were measured over a large cross latitudinal transect. The brominated VSLS measured during this cruise generally exhibit a correlation with chlorophyll a, supporting biogenic production as the predominate source for these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we will be discussing air and seawater concentrations, saturation anomalies, fluxes, and depth profiles for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2. Cyanobacteria counts, pigment compositions, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the water column were also measured and serve as useful tools for understanding the biological production of these brominated VSLSs.

  18. GENERALIZED STOCHASTIC GRADIENT LEARNING &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Evans; Seppo Honkapohja; Noah Williams

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of the generalized stochastic gradient (GSG) learning in forward-looking models. GSG algorithms are a natural and convenient way to model learning when agents allow for parameter drift or robustness to parameter uncertainty in their beliefs. The conditions for convergence of GSG learning to a rational expectations equilibrium are distinct from but related to the well-known stability

  19. Job Search with Nonparticipation &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Frijters; Bas van der Klaauw

    2006-01-01

    In a non-stationary job search model we allow unemployed workers to have a permanent option to leave the labour force. Transitions into nonparticipation occur when reservation wages drop below the utility of being nonparticipant. Taking account of these transitions allows the identification of duration dependence in the job offer arrival rate and the wage offer distribution. We estimate the structural

  20. Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov., a novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103), and emended description of the genus Catenovulum.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Qi; Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Tao; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel agarolytic, Gram-stain negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale-white pigmented bacterial strain, designated Q1(T), was isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103) collected from the coastal area of Weihai, China. The cells are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The isolate requires NaCl for growth, while seawater is not necessary, and growth occurs optimally at about 30-33 °C, in 1-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7-7.5. Strain Q1(T) shows oxidase-positive and catalase-negative activities, and possesses the ability to hydrolyse starch and alginate, but not cellulose, gelatin, urea or Tween-80. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Q1(T) is affiliated with the family Alteromonadaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The isolate, strain Q1(T), is most closely related to Catenovulum agarivorans YM01(T) (94.85 %), with less than 91.2 % sequence similarity to other close relatives with validly published names. The draft genome sequence of strain Q1(T) consists of 62 contigs (>200 bp) of 4,548,270 bp. The genomes of Q1(T) and YM01(T) have an ANI value of 70.7 %, and the POCP value between the two genomes is 64.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Q1(T) is 37.9 mol% as calculated from the draft genome sequence. The main isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-8. The predominant cellular fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0 and C18:1 ?7c. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on data from a polyphasic chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical study, strain Q1(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Catenovulum, for which the name Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Q1(T) (=CICC 10836(T)=DSM 28813(T)). PMID:26036673

  1. 12/17/07 11:02 AMPresence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets Page 1 of 4http://www.air-space.us/alt.sci.planetary/15/Presence-of-Essential-Molecule-in-Space-Could-Support-Life-on-Other-Planets-article6156-.htm

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    12/17/07 11:02 AMPresence of Essential Molecule in Space Could Support Life on Other Planets Page 1 of 4http://www.air-space.us/alt.sci.planetary/15/Presence-of-Essential-Molecule-in-Space-Could-Support-Life-on-Other-Planets on Other Planets NewsGroups | Search | About Login Password Login Register Now! Lost Password? Life

  2. Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

  3. Mobile Public Display Systems Florian Alt

    E-print Network

    on context data derived from different sensors. First, we integrated a tablet PC with a standard backpack such as the AdWalker[2] entered the market. This device can be mounted like a backpack. As the name already developments in the area of wearable computing will make it possible to easily integrate low-weight displays

  4. 3. TTULO ALTE 4. FECHA DE P

    E-print Network

    no est e selecciona l cha de publica ha en la que e nada automát mero Internacio nte o número ito la nte si es de International 075045 A1 mber (ISBN). cación del libro ese formato). manera autom dle

  5. Increased liver markers are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Han, Kyung-Do; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between liver markers and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: A total of 8863 participants (3408 men and 5455 women) over 30 years of age were analyzed from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). The associations of serum liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), AST/ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with T2DM and IFG were analyzed using logistic regression models. Participants were divided into sex-specific quartiles on the basis of liver markers. RESULTS: The prevalence of T2DM and IFG were 11.3% and 18.3%. Increasing quartiles of ALT and GGT were positively and AST/ALT were negatively correlated with T2DM and IFG. Analysis of the liver marker combinations showed that if any two or more markers were in the highest risk quartile, the risks of both T2DM and IFG increased significantly. The risk was greatest when the highest ALT and GGT and lowest AST/ALT quartile were combined, with the risk of T2DM at 3.21 (95%CI: 1.829-5.622, P < 0.001) in men and 4.60 (95%CI: 3.217-6.582, P < 0.001) in women. Men and women with the highest AST and ALT and lowest AST/ALT quartile had a 1.99 and 2.40 times increased risk of IFG. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of GGT and ALT and lower AST/ALT within the physiological range are independent, additive risk factors of T2DM and IFG.

  6. Lympho- and Hemodynamics in Dogs with Acute Experimental Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Abdreshov, S N; Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A

    2015-05-01

    Dogs with experimental pancreatitis showed increased lymph fl ow, impaired rheological properties of the lymph and blood plasma, and increased plasma and blood levels of glucose, ALT, and AST. PMID:26033584

  7. Associations between liver enzymes, psychopathological and clinical features in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Lorenzo; Castellini, Giovanni; Gabbani, Tommaso; Godini, Lucia; Rotella, Francesco; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-11-01

    Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are frequently reported in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in subjects who are overweight or with hyperlipidemia, which can be found to be associated with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Liver functioning and psychopathological features have been evaluated in 43 patients with AN, 33 with BN, and 32 with BED. Body mass index was found to be inversely associated with AST and ALT in AN, and directly associated with AST and ALT in BED. A positive association between ALT and AST and body shape concern in AN was observed. Liver enzymes could be considered as an index of severity in AN and BED patients. PMID:25139759

  8. The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Mona; Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    De Ritis described the ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) almost 50 years ago. While initially described as a characteristic of acute viral hepatitis where ALT was usually higher than AST, other authors have subsequently found it useful in alcoholic hepatitis, where AST is usually higher than ALT. These interpretations are far too simplistic however as acute viral hepatitis can have AST greater than ALT, and this can be a sign of fulminant disease, while alcoholic hepatitis can have ALT greater than AST when several days have elapsed since alcohol exposure. The ratio therefore represents the time course and aggressiveness of disease that would be predicted from the relatively short half-life of AST (18 h) compared to ALT (36 h). In chronic viral illnesses such as chronic viral hepatitis and chronic alcoholism as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, an elevated AST/ALT ratio is predictive of long terms complications including fibrosis and cirrhosis. There are methodological issues, particularly whether or not pyridoxal phosphate is used in the transaminase assays, and although this can have specific effects when patient samples are deficient in this vitamin, these method differences generally have mild effects on the usefulness of the assays or the ratio. Ideally laboratories should be using pyridoxal phosphate supplemented assays in alcoholic, elderly and cancer patients who may be pyridoxine deplete. Ideally all laboratories reporting abnormal ALT should also report AST and calculate the De Ritis ratio because it provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:24353357

  9. astronautical aste overview majors & areas of emphasis

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    Design (3, Fa) Space- craft mission design, space environment, attitude determination and control, tele- communications, propulsion, structures and mechanisms, thermal control, power systems, launch systems Astronautical engineers design, build and operate space vehicles used in exploration and applications of places

  10. Smart optics: Smart optics in ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Welch; Alan Greenaway; Peter Doel; Gordon Love

    2003-01-01

    The UK has several activities in the area of active and adaptive optics that have an excellent crossover with commercial applications. This article introduces some of the key areas of UK expertise - liquid crystal lenses, wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors - and shows how the need to develop these is closing the virtuous circle, with academic developments leading to

  11. ASTRONAUTICAL ASTE OVERVIEW MAJORS & AREAS OF EMPHASIS

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    design and operations, propulsion, orbital mechanics, spacecraft dynamics and control, navigation for its cutting-edge research and space exploration. The research occurring in areas such as advanced spacecraft propulsion, micro- propulsion devices, plasma physics, heliospheric structure, fundamental

  12. Negotiating Peace in Ethnic Wars&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sahadevan

    2006-01-01

    Ethnic war is an asymmetrical military contest for power in which vital interests of the groups are clearly at stake. Wining the war is, therefore, the fundamental objective of the com-batants. Compromise is hard to arrive at in negotiations, so long as the asymmetry of power between the ethnic parties is not altered. Thus, power assumes an important factor in

  13. Profiling in Bargaining Over College Tuition &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Epple; Richard Romano; Sinan Sarpaca; Holger Sieg

    2006-01-01

    Profiling in college admissions arises when applicant attributes are given weight because they are correlated with unobservable student characteristics that the college values. The article models the admission process of a single college as a bargaining game between the college and a potential student with sequential moves and asymmetric information. We test the empirical implications of this model using a

  14. AST 443 / PHY 517 The Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    (horizontal) and z (ver;cal) axes have origin on the Earth's surface. ­ An incoming photon is detected at a zenith angle . ­ The curvature of the photon's path()dn/dz ­ If dn = 0, K=0 and there is no curvature. ­ In a plane-parallel atmosphere

  15. DOES DUAL SOURCING LOWER PROCUREMENT COSTS? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Lyonw

    2006-01-01

    U.S. defense policy encourages the use of dual sourcing to reduce government procurement costs, but recent theoretical work raises doubts about the benefits of this policy. I study the determinants of dual sourcing and its effects on government procurement costs using a panel dataset of tactical missiles. I find dual sourcing is not driven by failures to reduce costs; instead,

  16. Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened

  17. A European Nuclear Accident Pool&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Skogh

    2008-01-01

    The compensation to victims of nuclear accidents is based on a Paris (OECD) and a Vienna (UN) convention. A problem with the system is that a strictly liable, but insolvent or uninsured plant owner leaves victims without compensation. In this paper, it is argued that a system could be better organised by, for example, the European Union (EU). A State

  18. Determination of the upper cut-off values of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Yu-Xiang; Pan, Yu; Niu, Jun-Qi; He, Shu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the upper cut-off values of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a Northern Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 3769 subjects in Jilin Province Northeast China were stratified to determine the potential factors affecting serum ALT and AST levels. The upper cut-off values of serum ALT and AST in these subjects were determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis and their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. RESULTS: Stratification analysis revealed that serum ALT and AST levels were associated with gender, alcohol consumption, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and body mass index. The upper cut-off values of serum ALT and AST were 22.15 U/L and 25.35 U/L for healthy men and 22.40 U/L and 24.25 U/L for healthy women, respectively. The new cut-off values had a higher sensitivity, but a slightly lower specificity than the current standards. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the new upper cut-off values of serum ALT and AST are markedly lower than current standards and may be valuable for the evaluation of liver function. PMID:25741150

  19. Correlation of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianying; Zhang, Jingying; Wen, Jing; Ming, Qiang; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between different risk factors (especially serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: A total of 610 inpatients were recruited. Initial coronary angiography (CAG) was performed to evaluate the severity of coronary lesions. On the basis of findings from CAG, patients were divided into control group (n=260) and CHD group (n=350). Logistic regression analysis was employed for the evaluation of clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters, aiming to explore the relationship between risk factors (including AST and ALT) and CHD. Results: Results showed type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and family history of CHD were clinical risk factors of CHD. Laboratory examinations showed the serum levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, AST and ALT in CHD group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the AST was 50.98±8.12 U/L in CHD group and 20.14±3.94 U/L in control group (P<0.01); the ALT was 42.31±8.34 U/L in CHD group and 18.25±6.38 U/L in control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The serum levels of AST and ALT in CHD patients are higher than those in controls. High serum AST and ALT are biochemical markers which can be used to predict the severity of CHD and are also independent risk factors of CHD.

  20. Organic photovoltaic cells of fully conjugated poly[2,6- (4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b';]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] doped with fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jen Wei; Hsu, Ming Seng; Lin, Tzu-Chin

    2014-09-01

    The fully conjugated poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b'] dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) was a low energy gap (Eg) organic polymer material with polydispersity index (PDI) 1.3. It's the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) 5.2 eV, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) 3.75 eV and Eg 1.45 eV. As compared with poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the lower Eg made the more absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) area. Its maximum absorption peak (?max) was near 800 nm. The optimal conversion efficiency (?p) of single-layered PCPDTBT:PC61BM organic photovoltaic (OPV) device reached 2.44% when the weight ratio of PCPDTBT:PC61BM was 1:2.5. In this study, we changed weight ratio, layer thickness, and solvent to enhance the optoelectronic properties of OPV devices. Variations the layer thickness were processed and investigated leading to an optimum ?p of 2.62 % for a single layer OPV cell with layer thickness of 150nm. The PCPDTBT molecule packed more order when the solvent evaporated to go slow. However, it did not increase the crystal level of PCPDTBT molecule for enhanced ?p.

  1. Sonographic assessment of fatty liver: intraobserver and interobserver variability

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Mustafa; Sentürk, Senem; Cetin, Bulent; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendio?lu; Bilek, Senem Uysal

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide and ultrasonography is widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up we purposed to assess intraobserver and interobserver variability in the sonographic evaluation of the existence and steatosis grades of NAFLD. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and AST to ALT (AST/ALT) ratio were compared between the grades of hepatosteatosis. Hepatic ultrasonography (US) examinations consisted of 5-10 static images of 113 successive adult patients, whose records were in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of our hospital were retrospectively evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Hepatic images were graded into 4 groups; as normal, mild, moderate or severe hepatic steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis of the same set of images was repeated after one month under the same conditions. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed by using kappa (?) statistics. In each group, the percentage of individuals with high ALT and/or AST, or AST/ALT ratio over 1 was calculated. The intraobserver agreement was 51%, fair kappa (?=0.356) for observer 1; and 68%, moderate (?=0.591) for observer 2. The interobserver agreements in the initial and second readings were 39% and 40%, fair (?=0.208) and (?=0.225), respectively. Elevations of ALT and/or AST levels were similar between groups depending on the degree of hepatosteatosis among the patients. Visual assessment of NAFLD by ultrasonography has substantial interobserver variability, and reproducibility of results is limited. More objective imaging modalities are needed to evaluate the degree of hepatosteatosis. PMID:25664055

  2. amagazineforalumniandfriendsoftheinstituteoftechnology|SPring/Summer2007 AltErnAtivEs

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Richard Broderick Jonathan Chapman Jayme Halbritter Michelle Haschka Rick Moore Deane Morrison Patrick O'Leary Kermit Pattison Brad Stauffer Silva Young design Julie Streitz, Printing Services Printing University in the state's commitment to renewable energy research By riChArd BrodEriCk Breakthrough Ideas · 22 Institute

  3. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Pang, Yi (Ames, IA)

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  4. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  5. 10 Cover Story: Prof PHILIP ALtBACH

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    of higher education will take place in India and China. India today only enrols about 13 per cent of its for higher education? Read on 16 · future ProofINg Why schools and universities both have a part to play in advocating for the IB Diploma Programme recognition 10 IBworld cover story Entries into higher education

  6. An RF link analysis of MSBLS during ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speir, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) ground station to orbiter radio frequency (RF) link was made to determine if the expected signal levels will be compatible with orbiter receiver capabilities. Of primary interest was whether or not loss of data will occur due to interference caused by the orbiter 101 nose boom which provides additional air data during the approach and landing test. The results of the analysis indicate that a small amount of data loss may occur due to the proximity of the MSBLS antennas and the nose boom. Tabulated data of antenna radiation patterns are given.

  7. The Art of ALT: Toward a More Accessible Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slatin, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to persuade friends and colleagues in the computers and writing community to do more to ensure that the Web pages (especially for classes) are accessible to people with disabilities. Raises this issue as a matter of some urgency in light of the surging interest in multimedia and visual rhetoric represented by this special issue. (SG)

  8. A large?scale, multicentre, double?blind trial of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Masao; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Toyota, Joji; Tomita, Eiichi; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Hayashi, Norio; Iino, Shiro; Makino, Isao; Okita, Kiwamu; Toda, Gotaro; Tanikawa, Kyuichi; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2007-01-01

    Background Combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin has improved chronic hepatitis C (CH?C) therapy; however, sustained virological response is achieved in only about half of the patients with a 1b genotype infection. We assessed oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on serum biomarkers as a possible treatment for interferon non?responders. Methods CH?C patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assigned randomly to 150 (n?=?199), 600 (n?=?200) or 900?mg/day (n?=?197) UDCA intake for 24?weeks. Changes in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma?glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were assessed. This study is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov, identifier NCT00200343. Results ALT, AST and GGT decreased at week 4 and then remained constant during drug administration. The median changes (150, 600 and 900?mg/day, respectively) were: ALT, ?15.3, ?29.2 and ?36.2%; AST, ?13.6, ?25.0 and ?29.8%; GGT, ?22.4, ?41.0 and ?50.0%. These biomarkers decreased significantly less in the 150?mg/day than in the other two groups. Although changes in ALT and AST did not differ between the 600 and 900?mg/day groups, GGT was significantly lower in the 900?mg/day group. In subgroup analysis, ALT decreased significantly in the 900?mg/day group when the baseline GGT exceeded 80?IU/l. Serum HCV?RNA did not change in any group. Adverse effects were reported by 19.1% of the patients, with no differences between groups. Conclusions A 600?mg/day UDCA dose was optimal to decrease ALT and AST levels in CH?C patients. The 900?mg/day dose decreased GGT levels further, and may be preferable in patients with prevailing biliary injuries. PMID:17573387

  9. Liver Enzymes and Ultrastructure in Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Ferreira; A. Costa-e-Silva; E. Monteiro; M. J. R. Oliveira; A. P. Águas

    2006-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus infection that kills most adult rabbits 24–72 h after viral inoculation.\\u000a Two liver enzymes (AST, aspartate aminotransferase, and ALT, alanine aminotransferase) were monitored in blood samples of\\u000a calicivirus-infected rabbits during the short course of RHD. Values of AST were used to differentiate three stages of hepatocellular\\u000a degeneration in RHD: mild (up

  10. ELEMENTS OF SKILL: TRAITS, INTELLIGENCES, EDUCATION, AND AGGLOMERATION &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marigee Bacolod; Bernardo S. Blum; William C. Strange

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?There are many fundamental issues in regional and urban economics that hinge on worker skills. This paper builds on psychological approaches to learning to characterize the role of education and agglomeration in the skill development process. While the standard approach of equating skill to worker education can be useful, there are important aspects of skill that are missed. Using a

  11. Domestic Labor Markets and Foreign Direct Investment &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan I. Haaland; Ian Wooton

    2007-01-01

    AbstractWe study how the labor market and industry uncertainty affect the investment decisions of multinational enterprises (MNEs). In an uncertain business climate, MNEs must take account of the future in deciding where to locate a branch plant. When wages are endogenously determined, both the opportunity cost of labor and redundancy payments influence the MNE’s decision. When countries compete for foreign

  12. DISTANCE FROM URBAN AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES AND RURAL POVERTY &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Partridge; Dan S. Rickman

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?Despite strong national economic growth and significant poverty reduction during the late 1990s, high poverty persisted in remote rural areas. This study uses a geographical information system county database to examine the nexus between rural U.S. poverty and remoteness. We find that poverty rates increase with greater rural distances from successively larger metropolitan areas (MAs). We explain this outcome as

  13. International outsourcing and factor prices with multistage production &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelm Kohler

    2004-01-01

    We develop a dual representation of the technology of international fragmentation for an industry using 2 factors in a continuum of stages. We then derive a generalised factor price frontier which incorporates an endogenous adjustment of the margin of fragmentation. Using this frontier in a 2?×?2 general equilibrium model, we investigate the role of outsourcing in the adjustment to a

  14. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Spectra STELLAR SPECTRA

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ) Spectra Kirchhoff's laws of spectroscopy (1860): 1. The spectrum of a hot body (solid body or opaque and spectrum of hydrogen (H I): Lyman series: ultraviolet domain Balmer series: optical domain Paschen series

  15. IS THE GHOSH MODEL INTERESTING? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis de Mesnard

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?The overall value of the Ghosh model is appraised. Its treatment of quantities and prices is scrutinized by examining the variant with data in quantities and prices, and the variant with data in value and price indexes. The methodology involves returning to the accounting equations and shows that: (i) the Ghosh model offers solutions of limited interest, being incapable of

  16. Government Outsourcing: Public Contracting with Private Monopoly &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuelle Auriol; Pierre M. Picard

    2009-01-01

    The article studies the impact of the government budget constraint on the regulation of natural monopolies in adverse selection contexts. The government maximises total surplus but incurs some cost of public funds à la Laffont and Tirole (1993). Government outsourcing is proposed as an alternative to regulation in which firms freely enter the market and choose their prices and output

  17. Gillian Fisher-Reid AST 389 Paper #3: Short Story

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ! Impossible I tell you!" Dr. Malachite shouted. "Erin, I know it may seem that way but the evidence is right found at the deepest part of the ocean proves it." Dr. Erin Malachite was a young woman of 30 minerals, malachite. Although Erin was mostly raised in upstate New York, as geologists her parents would

  18. MARKET ORGANIZATION AND THE PRICES OF FINANCIAL ASSETS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE M. CONSTANTINIDES

    2006-01-01

    Several empirical regularities in the prices of financial assets are at odds with the predictions of standard economic theory. I address these regularities and explore the extent to which they are resolved in the context of two markets organized in very different ways. The first setting is a neoclassical economy with incomplete markets and heterogeneous agents. Market incompleteness naturally arises

  19. CSC467 Lab 3 AST Construction and Semantic Checking

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Jianwen

    lightly. If you decide to do one or more of the bonus questions, then state exactly which bonuses you have be bugs, or bug fixes. If you discover errors in the starter files then please politely report them

  20. "...My God, it's full of stars!" AST 248 Lecture 5

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    .512 in brightness · 5 magnitudes = factor of 100 in brightness (2.5125 = 100) · Vega has a magnitude of 0 · Larger values are redder colors · Smaller values are bluer colors · By definition, the colors of Vega = 0 · A · F · G · K · M · L · T · Y #12;Spectral Types An empirical scale based on appearance of the spectrum

  1. Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

    2009-01-01

    A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

  2. Complex representation theory of the electromagnetic field Andreas Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Andreas

    to the description of the electromagnetic field is given. It is shown that a mass term is in conflict in column matrix form E(x) = E1(x) E2(x) E3(x) , B(x) = B1(x) B2(x) B3(x) , x = {xµ } = x0 x1 x2 identity matrix, and k = ~k = -k for k = 1, 2, 3, equation (5) finally reads iµ µ = 0 . (14) Obviously

  3. BEYOND SEARCH: FIAT MONEY IN ORGANIZED EXCHANGE &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Howitt

    2005-01-01

    A model of fiat money is constructed in which spatial separation and the logistics of communication are made explicit as in search theory, but exchange is organized by profit-seeking business enterprises as in all market economies. Firms mitigate search costs by opening shops that are easily located. Equilibria may exist in which fiat money is used as a universal medium

  4. Regression-based Tests for a Change in Persistence &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S tephen J. L eybourne; T ae-H wan K im; A. M. R obert T aylor

    2006-01-01

    AbstractWe show that the minimal forward (reverse) recursive unit tests of Banerjee, Lumsdaine and Stock [Journal of Business and Economics Statistics (1992) Vol. 10, pp. 271–288] are consistent against the alternative of a change in persistence from I(0) to I(1) [I(1) to I(0)]. However, these statistics are also shown to diverge for series which are I(0) throughout. Consequently, a rejection

  5. Financial Innovation, Macroeconomic Stability and Systemic Crises &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasanna Gai; Sujit Kapadiay; Stephen Millard; Ander Perez

    2008-01-01

    We present a general equilibrium model of intermediation designed to capture some of the key features of the modern financial system. The model incorporates financial constraints and state-contingent contracts, and contains a clearly defined pecuniary externality associated with asset fire sales during periods of stress. If a sufficiently severe shock occurs during a credit expansion, this externality is capable of

  6. On Prevention and Control of an Uncertain Biological Invasion &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars J. Olson; Santanu Roy

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how optimal prevention and control policies depend on the economic and biological characteristics of a randomly introduced biological invas ion where the objective is to minimize the expected social costs from prevention, control , and invasion damages. The results characterize how optimal prevention and control policies vary with the initial invasion size, the invasion growth rate, and

  7. LABOR MOBILITY OF IMMIGRANTS: TRAINING, EXPERIENCE, LANGUAGE, AND OPPORTUNITIES &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarit Cohen-Goldner; Zvi Eckstein

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the labor mobility and human capital accumulation of male immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel. We estimate a dynamic choice model for employment and training in blue- and white-collar occupations, where the labor market randomly offered opportunities are affected by past choices. The estimated model accurately reproduces the patterns in the data. The estimated direct

  8. What Have We Learned from Market Design? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin E. Roth

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses some things we have learned about markets, in the process of designing marketplaces to fix market failures. To work well, marketplaces have to provide thickness, i.e. they need to attract a large enough proportion of the potential participants in the market; they have to overcome the congestion that thickness can bring, by making it possible to consider

  9. Simulations And Software For The Ast-101 Lecture And Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan

    2008-05-01

    At Michigan State University, we have used two Education/Public Outreach (EPO) grants, from the Great Observatories Hubble and Chandra, to involve individual researchers in the development of simulations and software to be used in the "ASTRO-101" classroom. I will discuss the products we developed for these projects. One is a laboratory exercise using what we developed to call "DS9-Lite" to allow the students to measure angles and distances on HST images. We embedded a full-featured DS9 (FITS image viewer) in a Flash framework, but display with far fewer buttons and features to distract the student. For the 2nd project, we developed some animations in collaboration with the SAO Media Lab to explain the rationale for dark matter in the universe. These animations can be used in a powerpoint lecture presentation (slides provided) to spark classroom discussion about dark matter. We also discuss the challenge of developing and evaluating these projects, and lessons learned.

  10. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ) A variable star is what is listed in GCVS or VSX GCVS: General Catalogue of Variable Stars; http (version 4.2, 47 811 stars). AAVSO VSX: International Variable Star Index http://www.aavso.org/vsx (AAVSO

  11. Fahim Islam AST 389: Science Fiction Professor Frederick Walter

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    of guilt of remorse. If she had any, it was somewhere terribly #12;deep inside her perfect chest. She, it was getting harder to lie to her, and harder even to hide the shallow creature she had married. Thankfully

  12. Dylan DiStefano AST389 Infinity and Eternity

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    of stars and gas, the deep red star came close to the center. The enormous black hole acted as a slingshot the incredible force and fall into a bottomless well. With so much energy, the black hole and the galaxy itself to cool to the point when electrons moved slow enough for protons to hold onto them, then space became

  13. Overconfident: Do You Put Your Money On It? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Hoelzl; Aldo Rustichini

    2005-01-01

    A group exhibits overconfidence if significantly more than half the group members declare to be better than the median in some characteristic. Overconfidence was found in verbal reports for a variety of characteristics and settings but was less often studied for choice behaviour. In an experiment we tested how perceived relative skill influences verbal and choice behaviour. Treatments varied task

  14. Effects of coffee consumption against the development of liver dysfunction: a 4-year follow-up study of middle-aged Japanese male office workers.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, N; Nakamura, K; Suzuki, K; Tatara, K

    2000-01-01

    The association of coffee consumption with the development of increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities over 4 years was studied in 1221 liver dysfunction-free (serum AST and ALT < or = 39 IU/l and no medical care for or no past history of liver disease) Japanese male office workers aged 35 to 56 years. From the analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated incidence of serum AST and/or ALT > or = 40 IU/l, > or = 50 IU/l, and > or = 60 IU/l decreased with an increase in coffee consumption. From the Cox proportional hazards model, coffee drinking was independently inversely associated with the development of serum AST and/or ALT > or = 40 IU/l (p = 0.019 by test for tendency), > or = 50 IU/l (p = 0.002), and > or = 60 IU/l (p = 0.007), controlling for age, body mass index, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking. These results suggest that coffee may be protectively against the liver dysfunction in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:10680318

  15. Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per.) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Saibu

    -1 body weight over a 60 day study period revealed that continuous exposure of the plant extract had no damaging effects on the organs of xenobiotic metabolism (liver and kidney). results of levels of serum ast, alt, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, bilirubin and triglycerides of the two groups were not significantly different (p ? ? ? ? 0.05) at the end

  16. Untersuchung verschiedener Plasmaenzyme und Plasmasubstrate beim Birkwild ( Lyrurus tetrix L.), Auerwild ( Tetrao urogallus L.), Rebhuhn ( Perdix perdix L.) und Fasan ( Phasianus colchicus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Gremmels

    1987-01-01

    Mit Hilfe eines Enzym-Analyzers wurden verschiedene Plasmaenzyme und Plasmasubstrate beim Birkwild (Lyrurus tetrix), Auerwild (Tetrao urogallus), Rebhuhn (Perdix perdix) und Fasan (Phasianus colchicus) gemessen. Die Untersuchung umfaßte jeweils adulte und juvenile Hähne und Hennen einer Spezies. In der Aktivität der Plasmaenzyme AST, ALT, ?-GT alkalische Phosphatase, LDH und ?HBDH sowie in der Konzentration der Substrate Harnsäure, Harnstoff, Creatinin, Glukose und

  17. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  18. The hematological effects of methyl parathion in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Celik; Huseyin Suzek

    2008-01-01

    The effects of methyl parathion (MP) at sublethal concentration on hematological constituent [red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet (PLT) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrite (HCT) levels] and serum damage marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

  19. Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

  20. Identity, virulence genes, and clonal relatedness of Aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M; Remacha, M-A; Rodríguez-Calleja, J-M; Santos, J A; Otero, A; García-López, M-L

    2010-09-01

    Among 800 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea submitted by Primary Care Centers for routine analysis to the Hospital of León (NW Spain) Microbiology and Parasitology Service, 32 (4%) were tested positive for Aeromonas spp. Mixed infections with other enteric pathogens occurred in 12 patients. A. caviae was isolated from 23 clinical specimens. There were also patients infected with A. media, A. hydrophila, A. bestiarum, and A. veronii biovar veronii. All but three isolates carried one or more of the virulence genes. The incidence of the alt, hlyA, aerA, ast, and laf genes was 71.9, 28.1, 25.0, 18.8, and 9.4%, respectively. The alt(+)/ast(+) combination was detected in four isolates and the aerA(+)/hlyA(+) combination was detected in the two A. hydrophila isolates. None of the strains harbored the TTSS, stx1, or stx2 genes and nine bore plasmids. Thirty clinical isolates and a collection of 12 A. caviae and A. media strains obtained from León municipal drinking water over the study period were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE patterns revealed genetic relatedness and persistence over time among water isolates and some clinical isolates. Interestingly, one A. caviae (aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)) human isolate and two A. caviae (aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)) drinking water isolates had indistinguishable PFGE patterns, suggesting waterborne infection. PMID:20549532

  1. Preliminary observations on the plasma composition of liza klunzingeri from the strait of Hormuz (Persian gulf).

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Afkhami, Majid; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Esmailpoor, Reza

    2013-12-01

    Serum biochemistry can be used for monitoring changes in the physiological condition of fish and water quality. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of plasma T3 (Thyroid hormone), thyroxin, TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone), ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase), AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) and cholesterol of Liza klunzingeri caught on the northern side of the strait of Hormuz (Persian Gulf). Biochemical values were: T3 0.96?±?0.58 ng/ml, Thyroxin 76.58?±?28.26 ng/ml TSH 0.03?±?0.01 nmol/L, ALT 1.71?±?0.68 U/L, AST 49.81?±?5.25 U/L and cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di. A significant positive correlation (P?AST and Cholesterol. ALT had a significant and positive correlation with cholesterol and AST (P?AST (P?

  2. Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2?mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5?mg/d/250?L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P < 0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST?>?ALT?>?ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT?>?AST?>?ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. PMID:25013782

  3. Metadoxine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Kotacherry T.; Balakumaran, Leena K.; Mathew, Philip; Prasad, Mohan; Prabhakar, Boddu; Sood, Ajit; Singh, Shivaram P.; Rao, Nagaraj P.; Zargar, Shoukat A.; Bignamini, Angelo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective and design The study aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy and safety of metadoxine versus placebo on the ultrasonographic and histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Subjects 134 subjects with biopsy-confirmed NASH were randomized to receive metadoxine 500 mg two times daily (n = 75) or placebo (n = 59) added to the standard of care, over 16 weeks. Efficacy endpoints Originally, the primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of: reduction in the steatosis by ?1 grade, reduction in hepatic necro-inflammation by ?1 grade and ALT normalization. Since >50% of patients refused the second biopsy, it was decided to analyze only the individual parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the treatment and the placebo groups in either liver histology or ALT or AST. Overall, as expected both groups showed reduction in serum ALT and AST compared to baseline. Compared to placebo (9 out 54), patients on metadoxine (34 out of 75) had significantly higher rates of improvement in 1-point in steatosis grade on ultrasound (P-value <0.001). Safety and tolerability did not differ between treatments. Conclusion Metadoxine is not effective in improvement of liver histology or serum ALT or AST in patients with NASH. However, there was significant improvement of steatosis assessed by ultrasound. To properly estimate the effects on histology and transaminases, further studies of longer duration and at higher doses are needed. PMID:25755546

  4. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

  5. Discrimination of novel bunyavirus infection using routine laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Q-B; Yang, Z-D; Wang, L-Y; Qin, S-L; Cui, N; Wang, H-Y; Li, H; Liu, K; Hu, J-G; Zhang, X-A; Liu, W; Cao, W-C

    2015-02-01

    The wide epidemic and high case fatality rate have made severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) a significant public health problem. The diagnosis and discrimination of SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection at an early stage of the disease is important for treatment choice. A prospective study was performed in an SFTS reference hospital during 2011-2013. Suspected SFTS patients were recruited and prospectively observed. Comparison between SFTSV-positive and -negative patients was made to identify the parameters that were related to positive detection by discriminant and classification tree analysis. A total of 538 SFTSV-positive and 396 negative patients were recruited and observed. Multiple logistic regression models demonstrated the significant parameters associated with positive detection, including decreased platelet counts and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level during the first stage (1?4 days), decreased white blood cell and platelet counts, elevated creatine kinase (CK) and AST levels during the second stage (5?7 days), and older age, decreased consciousness and elevated CK and AST during the third stage (8-11 days). The classification trees disclosed that the significant predictors for positive SFTSV detection were AST >50.6 U/L and AST/alanine transaminase (ALT) >1.3 at the first stage, CK >257 U/L or 57.7 U/L < CK ?98.5 U/L with AST/ALT >1.6 at the second stage, as well as CK >630.7 U/L or 114.3 U/L < CK ?630.7 U/L with decreased consciousness at the third stage. In making the clinically probable diagnosis of SFTS, the supplementation of AST and CK evaluations might remarkably improve the diagnostic capacity of routine laboratory tests, while the leukopenia is of limited use. PMID:25658566

  6. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  7. Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model

    PubMed Central

    Putri, Herwandhani; Nagadi, Standie; Larasati, Yonika Arum; Wulandari, Nindi; Hermawan, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the combination effect of doxorubicin and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime's) peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Doxorubicin and ChEE (5 rats per group) were administered in five groups of 3 rats each for 11 d. Group I: doxorubicin (dox) 4.67 mg/kg body weight; Group II: dox+ChEE 500 mg/kg body weight; Group III: dox+ChEE 1?000 mg/kg body weight; Group IV: ChEE 1?000 mg/kg body weight; Group V: untreated (control). Results ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity rats, but did not repair neither hepatohistopathology profile nor reduce serum activity of ALT and AST. Conclusion ChEE has potency to be developed as cardioprotector agent in chemotherapy. PMID:23646300

  8. Effect of long-term administration of a high protein or low protein diet on rat liver. Morphological and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Simek, J; Shkurupy, V A; Shorina, G N; Bgatova, N P; Cervinková, Z; Holecek, M

    1986-01-01

    An increase in relative liver weight, the total liver DNA content, hepatocyte volume and the total surface area of the membranes of mitochondria and the granular and smooth endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, but a decrease in the size of the nuclei, were found in adult male rats fed three weeks on a high protein diet compared with animals given a standard laboratory diet. Serum transaminase (ALT, AST) and alkaline phosphatase activity was practically the same as the control values. Rats fed three weeks on a low protein diet showed a decrease in relative liver weight, in the total liver DNA content, in hepatocyte and nuclear volume and in ploidy, and also in the surface area of the membranes of the mitochondria and the smooth and granular endoplasmic reticulum; conversely, the number of binucleate hepatocytes rose. Serum ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase activity was mildly, but statistically significantly elevated. PMID:2941805

  9. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5?g/kg?BW) by gavage every 12?hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200?mg/kg?BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200?mg/kg?BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure. PMID:25960751

  10. Enzymatic activities in brains of diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulphate and sodium tungstate.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, A; Fernández, M A; Ouviña, G; Rodríguez, R R; Peredo, H A; Susemihl, C; Villarreal, I; Filinger, E J

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that diabetes mellitus might affect brain metabolism. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, treated with vanadyl sulphate (V) and sodium tungstate (T) were employed to observe the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in brain homogenates. Significant increases in AST, ALT and CK activities were found in diabetic brain homogenates against controls, suggesting increments of transamination in brain and/or increases in cell membrane permeability to these enzymes. The increase in brain CK possibly expresses alterations in energy production. The decrease in CK activity caused by V and T treatment in diabetic rats suggests that both agents tend to normalize energy consumption. It is also possible that V and T-induced hypoglycemic effects cause metabolic alterations in brain. PMID:18038759

  11. Effects of Rumex patientia L. extract on some drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Silig, Yavuz; Cetinkaya, Oge; Demirezer, L Omur

    2004-02-01

    The effect of aqueous extract from the roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae) (D-1), a traditional Turkish medicine used as a laxative and cholagogue, on drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P4502E1, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were studied in male Wistar albino rat liver. A significant increase was observed in cytochrome P4502E1 and GST activities, but not in NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activities. Serum AST and ALT activities were found within the normal laboratory range values. The results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of R. patientia triggers induction of cytochrome P4502E1 in liver and cytosolic GST activity. PMID:22896908

  12. Effects of buprenorphine on balance of oxidant/antioxidant system in the different ages of male rat liver.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Afshari, Reza; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Karimnezhad, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Our knowledge about a link between buprenorphine and hepatotoxicity is controversial. This study evaluated the effects of buprenorphine on the liver of young, adult, and aged rats. For this reason, young, adult, and aged rats received intraperitoneally 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg buprenorphine for 30 days. The present results revealed that the normal aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in the liver lipid peroxidation, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the aged rats. This study also demonstrated that buprenorphine led to a significant increase in the serum activities of ALT, AST, and LDH as well as liver lipid peroxidation content with a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of buprenorphine-treated aged rat versus the aged matched control animals. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that buprenorphine deteriorated oxidative damage in the aged livers. PMID:25683329

  13. The effect of zearalenone on some enzymatic parameters in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva ?onková; Anna Laciaková; Bernadeta Pástorová; Herbert Seidel; Gabriel Ková?

    2001-01-01

    The effects of low (10 ?g\\/kg b.w.) and high (100 ?g\\/kg b.w.) doses of mycotoxin-zearalenone on selected blood serum enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total lactatedehydrogenase (LD) of rabbits were studied. The toxin was administered orally for 14 days. In the experimental group E1 (10 ?g\\/kg b.w.), a significant increase

  14. Hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride: protective effect of Gongronema latifolium.

    PubMed

    Etim, O E; Akpan, E J; Usoh, I F

    2008-07-01

    The protective effect of the ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium (GLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatic toxicity was studied. Liver enzymes studied included alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotraferase (AST), and alkaline phosphates (ALP). Hepatic injuries involved with possible necrosis which may have contributed to its possible pathogenesis was explored. Administration of toxicant only showed that the ALT level was significantly (P<0.05) increased to 345.83% when compared to control. Pretreatment with Gongronema latifolium extract (GLE) non-significantly (P<0.05) decreased to 13.08% when compared to those treated with toxicant only. Also under experimental conditions, increasing the concentration of Gongronema latifoluim extract (GLE) non-significantly (P<0.05) decreased dose-dependently the level of ALT to 18.20%. The AST level was non-significantly (P<0.05) increased to 41.55% on treatment with toxicant only. Pretreatment with GLE decreased the AST level non-significantly (P<0.05) to 25.76%. No evident increase or decrease in the level of ALP was observed. Treatments with toxicant showed liver cells filled with uniformly distributed dense small fat droplets, large nuclei, inflamed cells and evidence of necrosis and fibrosis. Pretreatment with 100mg/kg of the extract showed microvesicular fatty change with no evidence of inflammation, necrosis or fibrosis. The protective effect of the GLE was more pronounced in ALT and AST. However, the GLE has a strong modulatory effect against the hepatocellular damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. PMID:18614423

  15. Abnormal liver function test results are related to metabolic syndrome and BMI in Taiwanese adults without chronic hepatitis B or C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-H Hsieh; C-K Ho; N-J Hou; M-Y Hsieh; W-Y Lin; J-F Yang; C-C Chiu; J-F Huang; N-C Chang; C-L Wang; C-Y Dai; W-L Chuang; M-L Yu

    2009-01-01

    Background:Metabolic syndrome (MS) is considered a cause of abnormal deposition of fat into hepatocytes, which might be associated with hepatic steatosis or abnormal liver function.Objective:The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with MS and the relationship between MS and abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in Taiwanese subjects without chronic

  16. Overexpression of Nrf2 Protects against Microcystin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie Jerry; Wu, Kai Connie; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-02-25

    for alanine aminotransferase (Infinity ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (Infinity AST, Thermo Scientific, Middletown, VA) as indicators of hepatotoxicity. Histopathology A portion of each liver was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, processed by standard... through carrier- mediated transport. Oatp transporters, such as OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in human cells, have been reported to play an important role in microcystin transport into cells [21,22], and Oatp1b2-null mice transport less microcystin into the liver...

  17. Diet, Disease State, and the Space Environment Modify the Intestinal Microbiota and Mucosal Environment via Microbiota-directed Alterations in Colonocyte Signalling

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Lauren E

    2013-11-25

    Board Roo31A609, HVM006-12, and NASA HRP MTL 730. vi NOMENCLATURE ALT alanine transaminase AST aspartate transaminase CD crohn’s disease CON control group COX cyclooxygenase CRC colorectal cancer CRP C-reactive protein ddH... factor FITC fluorescein isothiocyanate GI gastrointestinal GPX glutathione peroxidase HEPES 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid HTA-Br hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide vii IBD inflammatory bowel disease IL...

  18. Association of Abnormal Liver Function Parameters with HIV Serostatus and CD4 Count in Antiretroviral-Naive Rwandan Women.

    PubMed

    Dusingize, Jean Claude; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Ndacyayisenga, Victorien; Gakindi, Léonard; Mulvihill, Michael; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV(-)) Rwandan women. In 2005, 710 HIV(+) ART-naive and 226 HIV(-) women enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment. Liver enzymes were measured with abnormality defined as either AST or ALT ?1.25 times the upper limit of normal. Low serum albumin level was defined as <3.5?g/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of elevated AST/ALT and low serum albumin. HIV(-) women had the lowest prevalence (6.6%) of abnormal AST/ALT, with the highest prevalence (16.4%) in HIV(+) women with CD4 <200 cells/?l (p=0.01). The odds of having serum albumin <3.5?g/dl was 5.7-fold higher in HIV(+) than HIV(-) women (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 3.32-9.71). The risk of low albumin decreased from low to high CD4 count, with OR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.14 and OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43 in HIV(+) women with a CD4 count <200 and 200-350 cells/?l, respectively vs. HIV(+) with CD4 >350 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for all comparisons). Our findings suggest that HIV-associated liver damage may occur in ART-naive patients. Although liver abnormality prevalences in this cohort of HIV-infected Rwandan women are less than reported in developed countries, caution is needed for risk assessment measures to monitor and screen HIV-infected patients pre- and post-ART initiation in African clinical settings to curtail potential risks associated with HIV infection. PMID:25924728

  19. Protective effects of seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Wen Hsu; Chia-Fang Tsai; Wen-Kang Chen; Fung-Jou Lu

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the protective effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., SBT) seed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in male ICR mice. Our results showed that oral administration of SBT seed oil at doses of 0.26, 1.30, and 2.60mg\\/kg for 8weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride

  20. Long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats (Efectos a largo plazo del aceite esencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume en algunos parametros fisiológicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talal A. ZARI; Ayed Sh

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while high density lipoprotein HDL- cholesterol, total protein and uric acid

  1. Inhibitory effect of leflunomide on hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-wei YAO; Jun LI; Ji-qiang CHEN; Shu-yun XU

    AIM: To study the effect of leflunomide on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 50 % CCl4 in Sprague-Dawley rats. The amount of CCl4 administered was 1 mg\\/kg. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO) levels in plasma and hydroxyproline (Hyp) contents in liver tissue were assayed by spectrophotometry.

  2. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet moderates the association of aminotransferases with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; the ATTICA study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Tzima; Christos Pitsavos; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christina Chrysohoou; Evangelos Polychronopoulos; John Skoumas; Christodoulos Stefanadis

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated liver enzymes are markers of liver steatosis and metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association of Mediterranean diet on the relationship between aminotransferases (i.e., AST, ALT, gGT) and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The ATTICA study has randomly enrolled 1514 adult males (18–87 yrs) and 1528 females (18–89 yrs) from the greater area of Athens. Adherence to Mediterranean

  3. Protective effect of allicin against glycidamide-induced toxicity in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Ting; Chen, Dong-Yan; Liu, Huang-You; Yan, Hai-Yang; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide is known to be a neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic compound. Glycidamide has a close relationship to the toxic mechanism of acrylamide. In order to explore the toxic mechanism of acrylamide, we further discussed the effects of oral administration of allicin on glycidamide-induced toxicity by determining the hematological parameters like AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, creatinine, ROS, and 8-OHdG, and biochemical parameters such as MDA, MPO, SOD, GST and GSH in the kidney, liver, brain and lung of male and female mice for the first time. We found that the same dose of glycidamide had more toxic effects and damage effects to the mice compared to the previous study of acrylamide. It could markedly increase the level of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, MPO while decrease the SOD, GST and GSH. However, our data showed the oral administered allicin with a concentration of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w./day could significantly decrease the damage indexes of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, and MPO, while increase the antioxidant indicators of SOD, GST and GSH. Thus allicin could be used as an effective dietary supplement for the chemoprevention of glycidamide genotoxicity internally, and to prevent the tissue damage and toxicity induced by glycidamide. PMID:25730897

  4. Study on protecting effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Zheng; Feng, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Yang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Ju, Tong-Fa; Xie, Qi; Yuan, Wen-Qin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: The SAP rat models were prepared and randomly assigned to the model control group, Baicalin treated group, and Octreotide treated group while other healthy rats were assigned to the sham-operated group. Rat mortality, levels of ALT, AST, liver and pancreas pathological changes in all groups were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Tissue microarray (TMA) sections of hepatic tissue were prepared to observe expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 protein and Caspase-3, and changes of apoptotic indexes. RESULTS: Rat survival at 12 h, expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 protein and apoptotic indexes of liver were all significantly higher in treated groups than in model control group. While the liver and pancreas pathological scores, contents of ALT, AST, and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein were all lower in treated groups than in the model control group. CONCLUSION: Both Baicalin and Octreotide can protect rats with SAP by decreasing the contents of ALT, AST and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein, and improving the expression levels of Bax protein, Caspase-3 protein, and inducing apoptosis. PMID:19030211

  5. Circulating microRNA?122, ?21 and ?223 as potential markers of liver injury following warm ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Caster, Patrick Van; Brandenburger, Timo; Strahl, Thorsten; Metzger, Sabine; Bauer, Inge; Pannen, Benedikt; Braun, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    The liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are commonly used but not specific markers to quantify hepatic injury. In this in vivo study it was determined whether hepatic expression and serum levels of the microRNAs (miRNA) miR?122, ?21 and ?223 are altered and correlated with the release of liver enzymes after warm hepatic ischaemia and reperfusion (IR). Male Wistar rats were subjected to either 45 min of partial (70%) hepatic ischaemia and 240 min of reperfusion (n=7) or sham operation (n=5). Expression levels of miR?122, ?21 and ?223 were analysed in serum and liver tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and tested for correlation with serum activities of AST, ALT and LDH. The relative expression levels of circulating miR?122 increased after IR and correlated with the serum activity of AST, ALT and LDH. Neither increased serum level of miR?21 nor elevated relative hepatic expression of miR?223 correlated with the serum activity of liver enzymes. The hepatic expression of miR?122 was unaffected by IR. The correlation between circulating miR?122 expression levels and liver enzyme activity qualifies miR?122 as a potential biomarker of warm hepatic IR injury. PMID:25954995

  6. Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.

    PubMed

    Nan, J X; Park, E J; Yang, B K; Song, C H; Ko, G; Sohn, D H

    2001-08-01

    The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from mycelial liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL/S) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dramatically increased. The WEC or IPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) in BDL/S rats reduced the serum AST, ALT and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). The EPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) reduced the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde contents in liver treated with WEC, IPC or EPC were significantly reduced (p<0.05). But Liver hydroxyproline content was decreased only in EPC treated BDL/S rats to 55% that of BDL/S control rats (p<0.01). The morphological characteristics and expression of alpha smooth muscle like actin in fibrotic liver, which appeared in BDL/S control group were improved in EPC treated fibrotic liver. These results indicate that EPC (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) has an antifibrotic effect on fibrotic rats induced by BDL/S. PMID:11534766

  7. Silver nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress-dependent toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Anita K; Hackett, Diahanna; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their health risk assessment is of great importance. For acute toxicity evaluation of orally administered Ag-NPs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activity of liver function enzymes [(alanine (ALT/GPT), aspartate (AST/GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), comet assay, and histopathology of liver in the rat model were performed. Four groups of five male rats were orally administered Ag-NPs, once a day for five days with doses of 5, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg, body weight. A control group was also made of five rats. Blood and liver were collected 24 h after the last treatment following standard protocols. Ag-NPs exposure increased the induction of ROS, activities of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), tail migration, and morphological alterations of the liver tissue in exposed groups compared to control. The highest two doses, 50 and 100 mg/kg showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in ROS induction, ALT, AST, ALP activity, LHP concentration, DNA damage, and morphological alterations of liver compared to control. Based on these results, it is suggested that short-term administration of high doses of Ag-NP may cause organ toxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:25355157

  8. Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with optical coherence tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Kova?evi?, Igor; Radosavljevi?, Aleksandra; Kalezi?, Bojan; Poti?, Jelena; Damjanovi?, Goran; Stefanovi?, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938546

  9. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-08-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  10. A paper-based multiplexed transaminase test for low-cost, point-of-care liver function testing

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nira R.; Rolland, Jason P.; Kumar, Shailendra; Beattie, Patrick D.; Jain, Sidhartha; Noubary, Farzad; Wong, Vicki L.; Pohlmann, Rebecca A.; Ryan, Una S.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In developed nations, monitoring for drug-induced liver injury via serial measurements of serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) in at-risk individuals is the standard of care. Despite the need, monitoring for drug-related hepatotoxicity in resource-limited settings is often limited by expense and logistics, even for patients at highest risk. This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of AST and ALT in a fingerstick specimen. Using 223 clinical specimens obtained by venipuncture and 10 fingerstick specimens from healthy volunteers, we have shown that our assay can, in 15 minutes, provide visual measurements of AST and ALT in whole blood or serum which allow the user to place those values into one of three readout “bins” (<3x upper limit of normal (ULN), 3-5x ULN, and >5x ULN, corresponding to tuberculosis/HIV treatment guidelines) with >90% accuracy. These data suggest that the ultimate point-of-care fingerstick device will have high impact on patient care in low-resource settings. PMID:22993296

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3?g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (?-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, ?-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, ?-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25821491

  12. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousef, M I; Saad, A A; El-Shennawy, L K

    2009-06-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the toxicity of cisplatin in male rats. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant elevation in plasma, heart, kidney and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GST, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) were decreased. Aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT), creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased in plasma, while liver AST and ALT were significantly decreased. Cisplatin significantly increased the levels of plasma total lipid, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, and the relative weight of kidney. On the other hand, plasma total protein and albumin, and body weight were significantly decreased. GSPE reduced cisplatin-induced the levels of TBARS in plasma, heart, kidney and liver, TL, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, and liver AST and ALT. Moreover, it ameliorated cisplatin-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and GSH, total protein and albumin. Therefore, the present results revealed that GSPE exerts a protective effect by antagonizing cisplatin toxicity. PMID:19425235

  13. Implications of metal exposure and liver function in Parkinsonian patients resident in the vicinities of ferroalloy plants.

    PubMed

    Squitti, Rosanna; Gorgone, G; Panetta, V; Lucchini, R; Bucossi, S; Albini, E; Alessio, L; Alberici, A; Melgari, J M; Benussi, L; Binetti, G; Rossini, P M; Draicchio, F

    2009-10-01

    Valcamonica is an Italian valley where ferro-manganese industries have been active for a century and where an increased prevalence of parkinsonism was observed. A group of 93 patients (65 from Valcamonica, 28 from the reference area of Brescia city) and 76 controls (52 from Valcamonica, 24 from Brescia) were screened for serum Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn in blood (MnB) and urine (MnU), transferrin, peroxides, alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) transaminases and direct bilirubin. Test results were compared among groups according to the residential area and related to the disease severity. Valcamonica patients had a serum-increase of Cu, as well as of AST/ALT ratio, and a serum-decrease of Zn and Fe compared with other subgroups of cases and controls. Cases and controls from Valcamonica had higher MnB and MnU levels compared to cases and controls from Brescia. After controlling for the duration of illness, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III domain correlated with serum Cu and AST/ALT ratio. Our results suggest the possibility that, in this area, a lifetime exposure to neurotoxicants and to Mn in particular, when accompanied to a subclinical liver dysfunction, may pose an increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders via metal metabolism (Cu, Zn, Fe) abnormalities. PMID:19680597

  14. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  15. Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system.

  16. Tutorium Alte Geschichte Infoblatt 5: Einfhrung in die Numismatik A) Mnzen als Quellen bieten Hinweise

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    römische Münze, München 1973. [= KO][50 ND6280 K73] [viele brauchbare Fotos!] Franke, P.R. (u.a.), Die griechische Münze, München 2 1972.[50ND6240F829] [viele brauchbare Fotos!] Münzen werden leider nicht immer/Ort/Prägeherr, Nummer (b. Beschreibungen) o.Tafel (b. Fotos) (Achtung: nur ein Teil der in den Editionsreihen

  17. Questioning Indefinites in Dialogues Susanne Salmon-Alt, Bertrand Gaiffe, Laurent Romary

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    between the denotations of two predicates, and is opposed to designation which consists in naming descriptions is optimally associated to "brand new" entities (Prince, 1981), for which the hearer can only

  18. "Control-Alt-Delete": Rebooting Solutions for the E-Waste Problem.

    E-print Network

    Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, M; Ogunseitan, OA; Stevels, A

    2015-01-01

    printed circuit boards for green electronics: Fabricationprinted- circuits-on-paper flexible electronics. Sci. Rep.circuit boards are extremely prone to being released into the environment when EoL electronics

  19. "Control-Alt-Delete": Rebooting Solutions for the E-Waste Problem.

    E-print Network

    Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, M; Ogunseitan, OA; Stevels, A

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control,furans pollution in the ambient environment. Environ. Int.pollution control measures, excessive levels of toxicants have been released into the environment.

  20. Els Briòfits de les basses de l?Albera, Alt Empordà

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brugués; Rosa M. Cros; Creu Casas i Sicart; Cecília Sérgio

    2001-01-01

    Hem estudiat unes basses i unes depressions temporalment inundades en les quals, en evaporar- se l'aigua, sobre el sòl emergit, s'hi observa una elevada diversitat i abundància de briòfits. Per a la distribució dels briòfits hem establert tres zones concèntriques en relació amb el grau d'humitat. En la més externa i excepcionalment inundada, hi destaquen les hepàtiques Riccia gougetiana i

  1. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B. G. (Brodie G.); Rodriguez, G. (George); Stokes, J. L. (John L.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.); Clark, D. A. (David A.)

    2001-01-01

    A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

  2. "Control-Alt-Delete": Rebooting Solutions for the E-Waste Problem.

    E-print Network

    Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, M; Ogunseitan, OA; Stevels, A

    2015-01-01

    in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plasticsand plastics, which could be obtained with a substantial disassembling. Previous studies indicates wastewaste printed circuit boards (PCBs) to salvage reusable components, and uncontrolled open burning of plastics

  3. "Control-Alt-Delete": Rebooting Solutions for the E-Waste Problem.

    E-print Network

    Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, M; Ogunseitan, OA; Stevels, A

    2015-01-01

    waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plastics andwaste printed circuit boards (PCBs) to salvage reusable components, and uncontrolled open burning of plastics andplastics, which could be obtained with a substantial disassembling. Previous studies indicates waste

  4. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  5. A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt

    E-print Network

    Darken, Christian J.

    , and target acquisition prior to a close range encounter, as well as the soldier's initial action choice an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target awareness in combat simulations is a key capability to informing analysis of future combat systems

  6. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  7. Zu alt für den Arbeitsmarkt? Der Einfluß des Alters auf die Produktivität

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Schneider

    2006-01-01

    Due to the public debate on the raising legal re-tirement age in Germany labor market research has recently focused on an explanation of the low labor market participation rate of elders. In the economic discussion the low participation is pri-marily explained by a supposed imbalance of la-bor costs and returns for old workers. Whereas wages rise with increasing age, the

  8. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. (Center for the Research of Environmental and Occupational Disease, Graduate Institute of Public Health and Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine (China))

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  9. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  10. Effects of Metformin, Pioglitazone, and Silymarin Treatment on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajiaghamohammadi, Ali Akbar; Ziaee, Amir; Oveisi, Sonia; Masroor, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common reasons of enzyme increase in liver. In About 10 percent of patients with NAFLD, the disease progresses toward Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and about one third of them may progress toward cirrhosis, liver dysfunction, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives According to high prevalence of NAFLD and the fact that there is no consensus on treatment of this disease, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of metformin, pioglitazone, and silymarin on treatment of NAFLD. Patients and Methods Sixty six patients with NAFLD who were presented in the Endocrinology and Metabolism clinic of Boo’ali Hospital, Qazvin, Iran, were assigned randomly into three groups (n = 22). First group was treated by pioglitazone 15 mg/d, second group by metformin 500 mg/d, and third group by silymarin 140 mg/d. All patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluations including weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profiles, body mass index (BMI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum insulin levels in pre- and post-intervention after eight-week follow up. Results Before the treatment there was no significant difference between three groups with respect to average age, BMI and gender, FBS, lipid profile, AST, ALT, serum insulin level, and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance. After the intervention, a significant reduction was observed in average amount of FBS, lipid profile, ALT, AST, serum insulin level and HOMA index in three groups (P < 0.01). The most reduction in average FBS, TG, serum insulin level, and HOMA index was observed in pioglitazone group, the most reduction in average amount of cholesterol was seen in metformin group, and the most decrease in average amount of AST and ALT occurred in silymarin group. Conclusions These results suggest that all drugs are beneficial in improving biochemical indices in patients with NAFLD. Changes in AST and ALT in silymarin group were demonstrated more than that in other groups and the average difference between changes was significant between silymarin and metformin groups. PMID:23087748

  11. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  12. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  13. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial ?-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

  14. On the influence of oil prices on economic activity and other macroeconomic and financial variables &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Lescaroux; Valérie Mignon

    2008-01-01

    AbstractThe aim of this paper is to investigate the links between oil prices and various macroeconomic and financial variables for a large set of countries, including both oil-importing and oil-exporting countries. Both short-run and long-run interactions are analysed through the implementation of Granger-causality tests, evaluation of cross correlations between the cyclical components of the series in order to identify lead\\/lag

  15. ARE LOCAL MILIEUS THE KEY TO INNOVATION PERFORMANCE? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Czarnitzki; Hanna Hottenrott

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?This study investigates how local milieus foster innovation success in firms. We complement the common practice of linking firm performance indicators to regional characteristics with survey evidence on the perceived importance of locational factors. While the former approach assumes that location characteristics affect all firms in the same way, the survey allows us to model how firms judge the attractiveness

  16. Two-dimensional froths and the dynamics of biological tissues B. Dubertret,* T. Aste,

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    the possible cell configurations can be explored by mitosis and disappearance. Cell mitosis and disappearance by mitosis or disappearance, but its averaged value s 6 is fixed throughout the evolu- tion of the tissue

  17. UK Economic Policy and the Global Financial Crisis: Paradigm Lost? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DERMOT HODSON; DEBORAH MABBETT

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThe global financial crisis of 2007–08 produced a sudden change in the economic policy of the United Kingdom (UK). Prior to the crisis, the government preached the gospel of price stability, fiscal prudence and light-touch financial regulation. In the wake of the crisis, the government countenanced unconventional monetary policies, a surge in public-sector borrowing and the need for a rethink

  18. International Outsourcing and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand in the United Kingdom &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Hijzen; Holger Görg; Robert C. Hine

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates empirically the link between international outsourcing and the skill structure of labour demand in the UK. It is the first detailed study of this issue for the UK. Outsourcing is calculated using import-use matrices of input-output tables for manufacturing industries for the period 1982 to 1996. Estimating a system of variable factor demands, our main results show

  19. NONPARAMETRIC BOOTSTRAP PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTIVE INFERENCE BASED ON RECURSIVE ESTIMATION SCHEMES &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Corradi; Norman R. Swanson

    2007-01-01

    We introduce block bootstrap techniques that are (first order) valid in recursive estimation frameworks. Thereafter, we present two examples where predictive accuracy tests are made operational using our new bootstrap procedures. In one application, we outline a consistent test for out-of-sample nonlinear Granger causality, and in the other we outline a test for selecting among multiple alternative forecasting models, all

  20. RACIAL PROFILING OR RACIST POLICING? BOUNDS TESTS IN AGGREGATE DATA &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén Hernández-Murillo; John Knowles

    2004-01-01

    State-wide reports on police traffic stops and searches summarize very large populations, making them potentially powerful tools for identifying racial bias, particularly when statistics on search outcomes are included. But when the reported statistics conflate searches involving different levels of police discretion, standard tests for racial bias are not applicable. This article develops a model of police search decisions that

  1. ROAD INVESTMENTS, SPATIAL SPILLOVERS, AND DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Pfaff; Juan Robalino; Robert Walker; Steven Aldrich; Marcellus Caldas; Eustaquio Reis; Stephen Perz; Claudio Bohrer; Eugenio Arima; William Laurance; Kathryn Kirby

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved

  2. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...US Helicopter, Inc. (previously Williams Helicopter Tech., Southern Aero Corp., Oregon Helicopters and Lenair Corp...Us Helicopter, Inc. (Previously Williams Helicopter Tech., Southern Aero Corp., Oregon Helicopters and Lenair...

  3. Extracting the correlation structure by means of planar T. Di Matteo and T. Aste

    E-print Network

    Di Matteo, Tiziana

    . In Tumminello et al.,2 we have shown that this method, applied to a financial portfolio of 100 stocks in the USA equity markets, is pretty efficient in filtering relevant information about the system clustering revaling the hierarchical organization in the whole system and within each cluster. Here we discuss

  4. A tool for filtering information in complex systems M. Tumminello*, T. Aste

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    with the market structure and properties. cluster analysis complex networks correlation analysis Several complex), commu- nication networks (9), sexual contacts among individuals (10), company links in a stock portfolio.S. equity portfolio. In the modeling of equity portfolios, a natural starting point is the investigation

  5. Nurse Education and the Retention of Registered Nurses in New South Wales &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHELLE CUNICH; STEPHEN WHELAN

    2010-01-01

    The retention of registered nurses (RNs) in the nursing profession has become a key issue for governments. This article examines the impact of a change in the nature of nurse education, from hospital-based to university-based training, on the labour market behaviour of RNs. The analysis indicates that RNs trained in universities are approximately 6 per cent more likely to exit

  6. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site...Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site...suborbital launches and landings of the Grasshopper Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)...

  7. A Unique Informationally Efficient Allocation Mechanism In Economies With Consumption Externalities &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqiang Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the informational requirements of resource allocation processes in pure exchange economies with consumption externalities. It is shown that the distributive Lindahl mechanism has a minimal informational size of the message space, and thus it is informationally the most efficient allocation process that is informationally decentralized and realizes Pareto-efficient allocations over the class of economies that include nonmalevolent

  8. Presented at the 2007 ASTE conference, Clearwater Beach, FL Using Programmable Crickets

    E-print Network

    following the scientific method. Their view of scientific work is predictable, given that high school (and of science as facts that are revealed only when the prescribed scientific method is followed (Pizzini Beginning Teachers Experience Scientific Inquiry Fred Martin, Department of Computer Science, University

  9. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...resources; Department of Transportation Section 4(f) Properties...cumulative impacts to the environment or surrounding populations...the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA...Office of Commercial Space Transportation, Federal Aviation...

  10. ET VE ET ÜRÜNLER?NDE KONJUGE L?NOLE?K AS?T VE ÖNEM?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eda Demirok; Nuray Kolsarici

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. CLA iso- mers, which are natural and functional components, are predominantly present in meat and milk of rumi- nants and their products. CLAs are synthesized as an intermediate product during the microbial biohydro- genation of linoleic acid to stearic acid in the rumen or from

  11. Ast roparticle ELSEYIER AstroparticlePhysics 10 (1999) 47-68

    E-print Network

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    1999-01-01

    involving a broad blue-shifted e+/e- annihilation line that is Doppler boosted in a relativistic jet (Roland; Galaxies: jets; Gamma-rays: theory 1. Introduction The detection of high-energy y-ray emission from more

  12. Course: AST 375 or CS 378: Cosmic Dawn II --FRI Semester: Fall 2012

    E-print Network

    by following your notebook, without additional input from you. Academic We have a zero tolerance policy Dr. Anson D'Aloisio (Research Educator) Office: RLM: 16.202 phone: 512-471-2785 e-mail: anson @ astro

  13. Interest rates hierarchical structure T. Di Matteo a, , T. Aste a

    E-print Network

    Hyde, Stephen

    hierarchical structure. This produces a clear cluster differen- tiation and allows to compute new local and global topological quantities. Key words: Interest Rates, Data Clustering, Correlations, Econophysics with the investigations performed on stock market prices. Only recently these stud- ies are becoming very attractive

  14. AST 2009, March 26-27, Hamburg, Germany MODEL-BASED DIAGNOSTICS TECHNIQUES FOR

    E-print Network

    Burns, Peter

    of the Apollo 13 where astronaut Jim Lovell (played by Tom Hanks) reports back to earth: "Houston, we have technical air-to-ground voice communication of the Apollo 13 mission may wish to consult the internal INTRODUCTION It is an all too familiar scene from a very famous movie: Apollo 13. The movie shows the cockpit

  15. CREDIT CONSTRAINTS IN THE MARKET FOR CONSUMER DURABLES: EVIDENCE FROM MICRO DATA ON CAR LOANS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orazio P. Attanasio; Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg; Ekaterini Kyriazidou

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the significance of borrowing constraints in the market for consumer loans. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey on auto loan contracts we estimate the elasticities of loan demand with respect to interest rate and maturity. We find that, with the exception of high income households, consumers are very responsive to maturity and less responsive to interest rate

  16. Trade Liberalization and the Profitability of Mergers: a Global Analysis &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Benchekroun; Amrita Ray Chaudhuri

    2006-01-01

    AbstractWe analyze the effects of bilateral tariff reductions on the profitability of cost-reducing horizontal mergers. Given Cournot competition in a two-country world, for any positive tariff below a certain threshold, marginal trade liberalization is shown to encourage only those domestic mergers with sufficiently large cost-savings and to discourage the rest. For tariffs close to, but smaller than, the prohibitive tariff,

  17. FROM PRIVATE BANKING TO CENTRAL BANKING: INGREDIENTS OF A WELFARE ANALYSIS &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Wallace

    2005-01-01

    An earlier analysis of Cavalcanti and Wallace showing that the set of allocations achievable using outside (government) money is a subset of those achievable using inside (private) money is extended. Here, the class of outside-money allocations is enriched by allowing the planner to make transfers in the form of outside money. At the same time, punishments for defection are weakened.

  18. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  19. Building Better Theory by Bridging the Quantitative–Qualitative Divide &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonali K. Shah; Kevin G. Corley

    2006-01-01

    abstract Qualitative methods for data collection and analysis are not mystical, but they are powerful, particularly when used to build new or refine existing theories. This article provides an introduction to qualitative methods and an overview of tactics for ensuring rigor in qualitative research useful for the novice researcher, as well as more experienced researchers interested in expanding their methodological

  20. The Effect of Discounting on Policy Choices in Inflation Targeting Regimes &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SGB Henry; Mathan Satchi; David Vines

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses the implications of discounting on a result derived by Bean (1998): that in a model of monetary policy where policy acts with a lag, the outcomes of monetary policy are very similar for a wide range of preferences of the monetary authority with respect to inflation and output stability. We show that when the authority discounts the

  1. R.A. Jansen AST 598/494 'The Distant Universe' course, ASU, Fall 2014

    E-print Network

    Jansen, Rolf Arthur

    nd (or 3rd) edition (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK) 2 An excellent review paper format was suitable for application as a 2-D detector. · In a CCD, two or more electrodes (called gates to and remain confined within the potential well created by the gate kept at the largest positive voltage

  2. AST 598 'Instrumentation and Data Analysis' course, ASU, Fall 2013 Astronomy with Charged Coupled Devices

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    , Handbook of CCD Astronomy, 2nd (or 3rd) edition (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK) 2 An excellent was suitable for application as a 2-D detector. · In a CCD, two or more electrodes (called gates in MOSFET to and are confined within the potential well created by the gate kept at the largest positive Voltage. The holes

  3. Mistake #37: The Effect of Previously Encountered Prices on Current Housing Demand &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uri Simonsohn; George Loewenstein

    2006-01-01

    Based on contrast effects studies from psychology, we predicted that movers arriving from more expensive cities would rent pricier apartments than those arriving from cheaper cities. We also predicted that as people stayed in their new city they would get used to the new prices and would readjust their housing expenditures countering the initial impact of previous prices. We found

  4. Minority Employees Engaging with (Diversity) Management: An Analysis of Control, Agency, and Micro-Emancipation &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Zanoni; Maddy Janssens

    2007-01-01

    abstract? This study analyses how minority employees engage with control in organizations. Differently from most critical studies of diversity management, which focus on how minority employees are discursively controlled, we approach (diversity) management as a constellation of both identity-regulating discourses and bureaucratic controls. We assume that minority employees are agents who actively resist and/or comply with the constellation of controls

  5. Has Monetary Policy become more Efficient? a Cross-Country Analysis &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Cecchetti; Alfonso Flores-Lagunes; Stefan Krause

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, macroeconomic performance has improved in industrialised and developing countries alike. In a broad cross-section of countries inflation volatility has fallen markedly while output variability has either fallen or risen only slightly. This increased stability can be attributed to some combination of more efficient monetary policy making, a reduction in the variability of supply shocks, and

  6. AN ON-THE-JOB SEARCH MODEL OF CRIME, INEQUALITY, AND UNEMPLOYMENT &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Burdett; Ricardo Lagos; Randall Wright

    2004-01-01

    We extend simple search models of crime, unemployment, and inequality to incorporate on-the-job search. This is valuable because, although simple models are useful, on-the-job search models are more interesting theoretically and more relevant empirically. We characterize the wage distribution, unemployment rate, and crime rate theoretically, and use quantitative methods to illustrate key results. For example, we find that increasing the

  7. Statin therapy and hepatotoxicity: Appraisal of the safety profile of atorvastatin in hyperlipidemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Saeed; Naghipour, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statins are one of the most frequently prescribed medications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Statins appear to be safe however, there are contradictory data regarding their adverse effects, which might be due to genetic variation in their metabolism. Hence, this prospective study was aimed to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on liver transaminase changes in a clinical setting, in north Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective semi-experimental study was performed on hyperlipidemic adults in 2010-2011. Patients received atorvastatin (5-40 mg/d) based on the American National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Liver aminotransferases were measured in three occasions of baseline, 8 and 16 weeks period. Results: A total of 206 patients were included in the study. Of which 178 were female and 30 were male. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were in normal range before intervention in the majority, except in 25 (12.1%) and 16 (7.8%) of patients, respectively. In general, ALT and AST remained in normal range over the study period (23.3 IU/L and 21.8 IU/L, respectively). There was found no relationship between different doses of atorvastatin prescribed and ALT/AST changes in the patients. The males’ ALT means at baseline (26.9 IU/L), 8 weeks (30 IU/L) and 16 weeks (28.8 IU/L) after statin therapy were significantly higher than females (22 IU/L, 22.2 IU/L and 22.1 IU/L, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The absence of any hepatic adverse effect in the present study supports safety of atorvastatin and emerging opinion that routine screening of liver function tests is not necessary in patients on statins. PMID:25221771

  8. Biochemical Evaluation of Patients of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Non-alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Torkadi, Prasad P; Apte, I C; Bhute, A K

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is due to excessive alcohol intake for long duration. Distinguishing ALD from non-ALD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatitis of viral origin) is difficult as patient may deny alcohol abuse. Clinical examination, histology and serology may not differentiate these conditions. Accurate diagnosis is important as management of ALD differs from non-ALD patients. The aim of our study was (1) To evaluate the patients of ALD and non-ALD by biochemical parameters compared to controls, (2) To assess whether these parameters can differentiate ALD from non-ALD. Study was carried out on 50 patients of ALD in group I and 35 patients of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and acute viral hepatitis each in group II. Age matched healthy controls n = 50. Selection criteria-history of alcohol intake (amount and duration), clinical examination, sonography of abdomen, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin levels. Blood samples were analyzed for bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) by kinetic method. Statistical analysis was done by Student unpaired 't' test. Patients of ALD have raised AST/ALT ratio (De Ritis ratio) (>2), ALP and GGT compared to controls (P < 0.01).There is significant difference in AST/ALT ratio, serum GGT and ALP in ALD group compared to that in NASH and acute viral hepatitis (P < 0.05). This study suggests that De Ritis ratio >2 in ALD patients may be due to alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial injury and pyridoxine deficiency. High GGT and ALP values may indicate enzyme induction by alcohol and mild cholestasis. Thus ALD patients have severe hepatic damage. De Ritis ratio <1 and normal to mild elevation in GGT level in NASH and acute viral hepatitis suggest mild hepatic injury of non-alcoholic origin. Our study concludes that ALD patients can be differentiated from NASH and acute viral hepatitis with certainty by measuring serum AST/ALT ratio, GGT and ALP. These biochemical parameters may help clinicians to support the diagnosis of ALD and non-ALD. PMID:24478554

  9. Cryoprotective therapy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma: a study of 14 patients with a single lesion.

    PubMed

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Niu, Lizhi; Li, Jialiang; Yao, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Jianying; Ye, Jin; Chen, Jibing; Mu, Feng; Xu, Kecheng

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous cryoablation is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study reviewed retrospectively clinical data from 14 patients who underwent cryoablation of huge HCC (long diameter >7 cm). The side effects of cryosurgeries and liver function reverse were recorded and compared everyday. All the patients survived cryosurgery and none died before leaving hospital 2 weeks later. Despite liver-protective treatment before cryosurgery, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were increased significantly, but returned to preoperative levels 2 weeks post-cryosurgery. Before cryosurgery, mean total bilirubin (T.BIL) and direct bilirubin (D.BIL) levels were normal; 8-10 days after cryosurgery, they increased more than two-fold, but returned to the preoperative level 2 weeks post-cryosurgery. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels were compared between hepatitis B positive and negative patients. The hepatitis B negative group's AST level increased significantly 1 day post-cryosurgery (mean, 186 U/L) and decreased to the preoperative level at day 14. In the hepatitis B positive group, means transaminase and bilirubin reached peak values at different days post-cryosurgery. Overall, ALT and AST are valuable indicators of liver function impairment following cryosurgery. In patients with hepatitis B virus, close attention to the serum bilirubin level should be paid 8-10 days after cryosurgery. Liver-protective treatment may alleviate liver function impairment caused by cryosurgery of huge HCC. PMID:25445461

  10. [Effect of notoginseng extracts and their components on lipopolysaccharide and galactosamine mixture-induced impaired hepatic function in mice].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Daisuke; Kawashima, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of notoginseng against hepatic damage were investigated in mice. To prepare a model animal of hepatitis, a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and galactosamine (LPS/GAlN) was administered intraperitoneally, leading to the impairment of hepatic function. Extracts of notoginseng or its components (ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rg1) were orally administered 2 h before LPS/GalN injection. Eight hours after LPS/GalN injection, blood and liver tissue samples were collected. The levels of serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interferon (IFN)-? were measured using commercial assay kits. Histologic changes in the tissue samples were also observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining. LPS/GalN administration increased the serum levels of AST and ALT, and histologic changes were noted, indicating hepatic cell damage. Prior to the increase in ALT, the serum levels of TNF-? and IFN-? were elevated after LPS/GalN injection. Pretreatment of the mice with either notoginseng extract or gensenoside Rb1 and Rg1 attenuated the LPS/GalN-induced hepatic damage markedly. The protective effects of the components against hepatic damage appeared to be less potent than those of the crude extract and prescription of notoginseng. Notoginseng may be clinically useful in patients with hepatitis. PMID:22790029

  11. Biochemical and hormonal characteristics of peripheral blood in bulls in relation to genotype.

    PubMed

    G?owi?ska, Beata; Oler, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating differences in selected peripheral blood biochemical parameters and hormones in bulls of various genotype: Polish Holstein-Friesians (PHF; group I) and crossbreeds obtained from PHF dams sired by Limousin bulls (LMxPHF; group II). The blood for analysis was taken from the jugular vein twice. In blood serum the content of glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, AST and ALT activity were determined. Insulin, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that the insulin concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) was significantly different (P<0.05) in both of the animal groups therefore it may be associated with bull genotype. Changes in triglyceride and urea levels were unclear thus long-term observation would be necessary to precisely interpret the relationships between blood serum parameters and bull genotype. PMID:23767296

  12. Biochemical parameters in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica infected with coccidia and treated with Toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Sokól, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M; Koziatek, S

    2015-01-01

    The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels were determined in the blood serum of Japanese quails infected with coccidia and treated with Baycox (active ingredient: toltrazuril). Lower levels of AST and ALT activity were noted in treated birds regardless of the applied Baycox dose. The biochemical changes observed in the blood serum of Japanese quails point to coccidia-induced damage of digestive system tissues despite an absence of pronounced clinical symptoms. Significantly lower levels of AST activity and higher levels of LDH activity in treated birds indicate that coccidiosis treatment with toltrazuril contributed to the regeneration of digestive system tissues. An insignificant increase in cholesterol levels was noted, whereas the other serum biochemical parameters remained within the reference ranges. PMID:25928913

  13. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ?2.5 ?m [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and ?-glutamyltranspeptidase [?-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and ?-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with ?-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  14. Toxic Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Liver and Some Hematological Parameters in Male and Female Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Heydrnejad, M Saeed; Samani, Roya Jafarzadeh; Aghaeivanda, Simin

    2015-06-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate toxic effects of nanosilver (Ag-NPs) on liver function and some blood parameters of male and female mice Mus musculus. A group of 54 BALB/c mice was randomly divided into three groups (each with two replications): Ag-NP (2) and control (1), each with nine mice. The experiment lasted for 14 days. In the treatment groups, two different doses of 20 and 50 ppm of Ag-NP solution were administered orally, while in the untreated (control) group, no Ag-NP solution but distilled water was used. At the end of the experiment, the serum was obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The biochemical levels including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and blood cells were assayed by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Also, liver biopsy was performed and samples were stained using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The values of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) did not vary significantly in the control and Ag-NP-treated animals. There were significant changes in the treatment and control groups in the levels of liver enzymes so that at both doses, there were significantly elevated levels of ALT and AST in mice treated with Ag-NPs compared with the control (p?AST and ALT and histological damages to the liver with no significant changes between male and female mice. PMID:25637567

  15. Protective Effect of FTY720 on Several Markers of Liver Injury Induced by Concanavalin A in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao-Dong; Jia, Pei-Jie; Pang, Yan; He, Jing-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride (FTY720) is a novel agent with protective effect on several markers of liver injury. It is a chemical substance derived by modifying myriocin from the ascomycete Isaria sinclairii. It has been reported that FTY720 is able to treat autoimmune encephalomyelitis, renal cancer, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. More potent clinical applications of FTY720 need to be investigated. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of FTY720 on several markers of experimental liver injury and to investigate the possible mechanism of action. Methods Concanavalin A (Con A) at a dose of 15 mg/kg was intravenously. injected in mice, and 10 days before the Con A challenge, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, and 6 mg/kg of FTY720 were administered to mice. The liver injury was monitored biochemically by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels. TNF-? and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in liver tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. Results FTY720, when administered intragastrically for 10 days in mice with Con A–induced liver injury, dose-dependently reduced serum ALT and AST and TNF-? levels. The differences were statistically significant (P ? 0.05). It was also found that FTY720 decreases TNF-? and NF-?B protein expression in liver tissue. Conclusions FTY720 is able to improve several markers of Con A–induced liver injury in mice, including serum ALT, serum AST, TNF-?, and NF-?B, which might be at least in part related to its ability to reduce TNF-?/NF-?B cascade activity. PMID:24653516

  16. Hepatitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Korean children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Won; Sung, Jae Jin; Ryoo, Eell; Cho, Hye Kyung; Sun, Yong Han; Cho, Kang Ho; Son, Dong Woo; Jeon, In Sang; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is a major cause of respiratory infection in school-aged children. Extrapulmonary manifestations of MP infection are common, but liver involvement has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of MP-associated hepatitis. Methods This prospective study included 1,044 pediatric patients with MP infection diagnosed serologically with MP IgM at one medical center from January 2006 to December 2012. Eighty of these patients had elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), each greater than 50 IU/L, without any other specific liver disorder and were compared with the 964 children without liver disorders. Results In total, 7.7% of patients with MP infection had a diagnosis of hepatitis, especially in fall and winter. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1, and the mean age of the patients was 5 years and 5 months. The most common symptoms were cough, fever, and sputum. Anorexia was the most common gastrointestinal symptom, followed by nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Mean levels of AST and ALT were 100.65 IU/L and 118.73 IU/L, respectively. Serum AST/ALT level was normalized within 7.5 days on average without complications. The mean duration of hospitalization (11.3 days) was longer for children with hepatitis than for those without hepatitis (P=0.034). Conclusion MP-associated hepatitis is not uncommon and has a relatively good prognosis. Therefore, clinicians should be concerned about liver involvement in MP infection but avoid further unnecessary evaluation of hepatitis associated with MP.

  17. Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Farías, Carlett; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Nidia; Martínez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martínez, Ingrid; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-González, José A

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 ± 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration. PMID:18240347

  18. Predicting Clinical Outcomes Using Baseline and Follow-up Laboratory Data From The Hepatitis C Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghany, Marc G.; Kim, Hae-Young; Stoddard, Anne; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Lok, Anna S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C is challenging. We used the HALT-C Trial database to develop two models, using baseline values of routinely available laboratory tests together with changes in these values during follow-up to predict clinical decompensation and liver-related death/liver transplant in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Methods Patients randomized to no treatment and who had ?2 year follow-up without a clinical outcome were included in the analysis. Four variables (platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, total bilirubin and albumin) with three categories of change (stable, mild or severe) over two years were analyzed. Cumulative incidence of clinical outcome was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome. Results 470 patients with 60 events were used to develop models to predict clinical decompensation. Baseline values of all four variables were predictive of decompensation. There was a general trend of increasing outcomes with more marked worsening of laboratory values over 2 years, particularly for patients with abnormal baseline values. A model that included baseline platelet count, AST/ALT ratio, bilirubin and severe worsening of platelet count, bilirubin and albumin was the best predictor of clinical decompensation. 483 patients with 79 events were used to evaluate predictors of liver-related death or liver transplant. A model that included baseline platelet count and albumin as well as severe worsening of AST/ALT ratio and albumin was the best predictor of liver-related outcomes. Conclusion Both the baseline value and the rapidity in change of the value of routine laboratory variables were shown to be important in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22045670

  19. Liver steatosis (LS) evaluated through chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging liver enzymes in morbid obesity; effect of weight loss obtained with intragastric balloon gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Folini, Laura; Veronelli, Annamaria; Benetti, Alberto; Pozzato, Carlo; Cappelletti, Marco; Masci, Enzo; Micheletto, Giancarlo; Pontiroli, Antonio E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in morbid obesity clinical and metabolic effects related to weight loss on liver steatosis (LS), measured through chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and liver enzymes. Forty obese subjects (8 M/32 W; BMI 42.8 ± 7.12 kg/m(2), mean ± SD) were evaluated for LS through ultrasound (US-LS), chemical-shift MRI (MRI-LS), liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], anthropometric parameters [weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC)], lipids, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at bio-impedance analysis (BIA)]. Anthropometric measures, MRI-LS, BIA, and biochemical parameters were reevaluated 6 months later in 18 subjects undergoing restrictive bariatric approach, i.e., intragastric balloon (BIB, n = 13) or gastric banding (LAGB, n = 5), and in 13 subjects receiving hypocaloric diet. At baseline, US-LS correlates only with MRI-LS, and the latter correlates with ALT, AST, and GGT. After 6 months, subjects undergoing BIB or LAGB had significant changes of BMI, weight, WC, ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, FM, FFM, and MRI-LS. Diet-treated obese subjects had no significant change of any parameter under study; change of BMI, fat mass, and fat-free mass was significantly greater in LAGB/BIB subjects than in diet-treated subjects. Change of MRI-LS showed a significant correlation with changes in weight, BMI, WC, GGT, ALP, and basal MRI-LS. Significant weight loss after BIB or LAGB is associated with decrease in chemical-shift MRI-LS and with reduction in liver enzymes; chemical-shift MRI and liver enzymes allow monitoring of LS in follow-up studies. PMID:24085682

  20. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (+/- SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 +/- 9.5, AST 37.73 +/- 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 +/- 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 +/- 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 +/- 289 cells/mm(3). There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  1. Serum biochemical changes in rabbits on a regular diet with and without flax lignan complex following a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kailash

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flax lignan complex (FLC) isolated from flaxseed suppresses development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. It does not produce regression of atherosclerosis, but prevents its regular diet-induced acceleration following a high-cholesterol diet. It is not known if replacement of a high-cholesterol diet with a regular diet has deleterious effects on body organs. OBJECTIVES: To determine if short-term use of a high-cholesterol diet, and a regular diet with or without FLC following the high-cholesterol diet, have any adverse effects on serum electrolytes, glucose and enzymes related to the liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle and intestines. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from the rabbits before and at various intervals during the high-cholesterol diet, and while on the regular diet with or without FLC, following the high-cholesterol diet. Measurements of serum total cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), albumin, creatinine, electrolytes (sodium [Na], potassium [K], chloride [Cl]) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken. RESULTS: The high-cholesterol diet produced hypercholesterolemia, which was associated with reductions in serum glucose and no significant changes in serum Na, K, Cl, CO2, ALT, ALP, AST, GGT, albumin or creatinine. Regular diet with or without FLC, following the high-cholesterol diet, reduced serum total cholesterol and glucose, increased serum Na, Cl and creatinine, but produced no significant alterations in serum K, CO2, ALT, AST, GGT or albumin. FLC reduced serum ALP, but regular diet produced no significant change. CONCLUSION: Short-term use of a high-cholesterol diet, or a regular diet with or without FLC following the high-cholesterol diet, does not produce deleterious effects in the liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle, intestine or bone, as shown by changes in serum electrolytes, glucose and enzymes. PMID:22477368

  2. Effect of dietary fiber in edible seaweeds on the development of D-galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Naoko; Egashira, Yukari; Sanada, Hiroo

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated the repressive effect of seaweeds (Laminaria sp., Sargassum fulvellum, Eisenia bicyclis and Gelidium sp.) against D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatopathy. However, the mechanism by which these four seaweeds attenuate the D-GalN-hepatopathy has not been completely clarified. This study was carried out to determine the constituents of these seaweeds that protect rats against the D-GalN-hepatopathy. Male Wistar rats were fed for 8 d diets containing 5% seaweeds with or without the antibiotic neomycin (NEO) in experiment 1, and typical seaweed dietary fibers (laminaran, fucoidan, alginate, agar and kappa-carrageenan) of these seaweeds in experiment 2. On the 7th day, the rats were treated with D-GalN (1,900 mg in experiment 1 and 800 mg/kg in experiment 2) and then sacrificed 24 h after the injection of D-GalN. Their serum transaminase (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases: AST and ALT) activities were then determined. In experiment 1, the serum AST and ALT levels in the rats fed the four kinds of seaweeds without NEO were significantly low in comparison to that of the control group, but those with NEO were not significantly different among the groups. In experiment 2, the serum AST and ALT levels in the rats fed fucoidan were significantly low in comparison to those of the other groups fed the dietary fibers and the control. These results suggest that the protective effect of the three kinds of brown seaweeds Laminaria sp., Sargassum fulvellum and Eisenia bicyclis against D-GalN-hepatopathy was caused at least in part by fucoidan. PMID:18079613

  3. The effect of preconditioning on liver regeneration after hepatic resection in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Sang Woo; Cho, Jin A

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Ischemic preconditioning (IP) decreases severity of liver necrosis and has anti-apoptotic effects in previous studies using liver regeneration in normal rats. This study assessed the effect of IP on liver regeneration after hepatic resection in cirrhotic rats. Methods To induce liver cirrhosis, thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into Sprague-Dawley rats twice per week for 16 weeks. Animals were divided into four groups: non-clamping (NC), total clamping (TC), IP, and intermittent clamping (IC). Ischemic injury was induced by clamping the left portal pedicle including the portal vein and hepatic artery. Liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured to assess liver damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining for apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining for cell replication were also performed. Results Day-1 ALT and AST were highest in IP, however, levels in NC and IC were comparably low on days 1-7. There was no significant correlation of AST or ALT with experimental groups (P=0.615 and P=0.186). On TUNEL, numbers of apoptotic cells at 100× magnification (cells/field) were 31.8±24.2 in NC, 69.0±72.3 in TC, 80.2±63.1 in IP, and 21.2±20.8 in IC (P<0.05). When regeneration capacity was assessed by PCNA staining, PCNA-positive cells (cells/field) at 400× were 3.4±6.0 in NC, 16.9±69 in TC, 17.0±7.8 in IP and 7.4±7.6 in IC (P<0.05). Conclusions Although regeneration capacity in IP is higher than IC, the liver is vulnerable to ischemic damage in cirrhotic rats. Careful consideration is needed in applying IP in the clinical setting. PMID:21757985

  4. Effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzyme activity in rats exposed to organophosphate pesticide diazinon.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shobi, Sepideh; Attar, Hossein; Shayegan, Sahel; Payam, Sakineh Sadat Hosseini; Ghorbani, Faezeh

    2012-10-01

    Diazinon, a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, has been widely used throughout the world in agriculture and horticulture to control insects that feed on crops, ornamentals, lawns, fruits, vegetables and other food products. The toxicity of the DZN causes adverse effects on many organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in rats exposed to diazinon. In this study, male wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 different groups. The groups were administered normal saline, soybean oil (as the solvent for diazinon and fat-soluble vitamins), diazinon, (30 mg kg(-1), vitamins E, C and A (100, 500 mg kg(-1) and 400 IU kg(-1), respectively) and a combination of diazinon with the same dose of each vitamin intraperitoneally i.p.daily for 14 days. Seven days after the final injection, the animals were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. The photometric method was used to measure the activity of the enzymes. The activities of ALT and AST in the diazinon group were significantly higher than that observed in the control group; however, the diazinon/vitamin E, A, C group displayed significant reduction in ALT and AST activities compared to the diazinon group. The lowest level of LDH enzyme activity was observed in the dazinon/vitamin C group and this was statistically lower than the diazinon group. The results of this study revealed that vitamin E, A and C have a potent protective effect against diazinon-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which may be due to the scavenging of free radicals and increased antioxidant status. PMID:24159690

  5. Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Manuel; Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2009-10-31

    Aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. Over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in León (NW of Spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. Samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility, and two public artesian drinking-water fountains. Because of low numbers of coliforms or Clostridium perfringens, the non-compliance rate with microbial standards was 3.8% whereas the percentage of positive samples for motile mesophilic Aeromonas was 26.5%. For all but two samples, Aeromonas was recovered between October and early March when the temperature was below 14 degrees C and the residual chlorine ranged from 0.21 to 0.72 mg/l. An apparent relationship was observed between rainfall and the incidence of Aeromonas. The 35 selected Aeromonas isolates were identified as A. caviae and A. media. The alt and laf genes were present in all isolates, the aerA gene was present in six isolates, and the four remaining genes investigated (hlyA, ast, stx1 and stx2) were absent. The combinations of putative virulence genes were: aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (82.9%) and aerA(+)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (17.1%). None of the isolates bore plasmids. As Aeromonas strains harbouring two or more virulence-associated genes have the potential to cause disease by direct transmission via drinking water or by water use in food preparation, it would be advisable to control excessive numbers of these bacteria in drinking-water supplies. PMID:19720415

  6. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides in controlling ROS-meditated hypoxic injury in cells and can be useful in many hepatic complications. PMID:23833369

  7. Combinatorial Effects of Thymoquinone on the Anticancer Activity and Hepatotoxicity of the Prodrug CB 1954

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Wamidh H.; AbuKhader, Majed M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. PMID:23833717

  8. Influence of Sleeve Gastrectomy on NASH and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, W. K.; Krawczykowski, D.; Kuesters, S.; Marjanovic, G.; Kulemann, B.; Grobe, H.; Karcz-Socha, I.; Hopt, U. T.; Bukhari, W.; Grueneberger, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 85% of adipose patients and may proceed to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). With insulin resistance and obesity being the main risk factors for NASH, the effect of isolated sleeve gastrectomy (ISG) on these parameters was examined. Methods. 236 patients underwent ISG with intraoperative liver biopsy from December 2002 to September 2009. Besides demographic data, pre-operative weight/BMI, HbA1c, AST, ALT, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were determined. Results. A significant correlation of NASH with higher HbA1c, AST and ALT and lower levels for HDL was observed (P < .05, <.0001, <.0001, <.01, resp.). Overall BMI decreased from 45.0 ± 6.8 to 29.7 ± 6.5 and 31.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2 at 1 and 3 years. An impaired weight loss was demonstrated for patients with NASH and patients with elevated HbA1c (plateau 28.08 kg/m2 versus 29.79 kg/m2 and 32.30 kg/m2 versus 28.79 kg/m2, resp.). Regarding NASH, a significant improvement of AST, ALT, triglyceride and HDL levels was shown (P < .0001 for all). A resolution of elevated HbA1c was observed in 21 of 23 patients. Summary. NASH patients showed a significant loss of body weight and amelioration of NASH status. ISG can be successfully performed in these patients and should be recommended for this subgroup. PMID:21274277

  9. Hepatoprotection by Elephantopus scaber Linn. in CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M G; Latha, M S

    2001-10-01

    The efficacy of the medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber Linn. (Asteraceae), to prevent carbon teterachloride (CCI4)-induced chronic liver dysfunction in the rats was examined by determining different biochemical markers in serum and tissues. In serum, liver function marker enzymes like aspartate aminotrasferase (AST), alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and also protein were evaluated. The concentrations of total lipid, cholesterol and phospholipids were studied in serum and the different tissues. The concentration of serum triglycerides was also studied. The biochemical changes induced by CCI4 in different tissues particularly in the liver tissue improved following treatment with E. scaber Linn. The results suggest the hepatoprotective effect of this medicinal plant. PMID:11883157

  10. Comparative effect of dietary olive, safflower, and linseed oils on spontaneous liver tumorigenesis in C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Thuy, N T; He, P; Takeuchi, H

    2001-10-01

    In male C3H/He mice, which frequently develop spontaneous liver tumorigenesis, 5 wk of age and weighing about 20 g, the comparative effects on liver tumor incidence from the feeding of olive oil (OLI), safflower oil (SAF), and linseed oil (LIS) diets for 50 wk, the concentrations of total cholesterol (T-CHOL), triacylglycerol (TG), lipid peroxides in the plasma and liver, and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the plasma were examined. The changes in body weight and liver weight were not different among dietary groups. The number of mice bearing liver adenoma was greater in the SAF group than in the OLI and LIS groups. Liver carcinoma was observed in the SAF group, but not in the OLI and LIS groups. The concentrations of T-CHOL in the plasma and liver were higher in the OLI group than in the other groups. TG levels in the plasma and liver were highest in the OLI group and followed in order by the SAF and LIS groups. The concentration of plasma lipid peroxide was higher in the LIS group than in the other groups. Liver lipid peroxide content was extremely high in the LIS group, medium in the SAF group, and low in the OLI group. The activity of AST was highest in the OLI group and followed in order by the SAF and LIS groups. ALT activity was higher in the OLI group than in the other groups. A positive relationship between spontaneous liver tumorigenesis and the concentrations of T-CHOL, TG, and lipid peroxide or AST and ALT activities was hardly observed. These results suggested that spontaneous tumorigenesis in the liver of male C3H/He mice bred for 50 wk was suppressed by being supplied with OLI and LIS, compared with SAF, which had no direct relation to the concentrations of T-CHOL, TG, and lipid peroxide in the plasma and liver and the activities of plasma AST and ALT. PMID:11814153

  11. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fraction of Stellaria media L.

    PubMed

    Gorina, Ya V; Saprykina, E V; Gereng, E A; Perevozchikova, T V; Krasnov, E A; Ivanova, E V; Fait, E A; Baranova, O V

    2013-03-01

    Therapy of rats with CCl4 hepatitis with Stellaria media L. water-soluble polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduces serum activities of transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and the thymol test values. In the liver, the density of inflammatory infiltration of the organ parenchyma, total count of necrotic hepatocytes, fatty and protein degeneration are reducing. Hence, water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, isolated from the terrestrial part of Stellaria media L., is characterized by hepatoprotective activity. PMID:23658890

  12. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

  13. Short-term bioeffects of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Akda?, A; Türkeri, L N; Ilker, Y; Sim?ek, F; Emerk, K

    1994-06-01

    Safety guidelines for shockwave delivery during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are not yet clear. Renal functions were assessed by using urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC.2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC. 2.6.1.1), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) as well as sodium, potassium, and calcium concentrations in respect to tubular functions after SWL with the Dornier MFL 5000 unit in 32 patients. In order to monitor glomerular function, we determined microalbuminuria. Transient glomerular and tubular damage occurs in SWL-treated kidneys. The minimum interval between two shockwave treatments should be at least 7 days. PMID:7951281

  14. Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides

    SciTech Connect

    Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

  15. Red Mold Rice against Hepatic Inflammatory Damage in Zn-deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of red mold rice (RMR) against liver injury in rats fed with a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks was investigated in this study. Rats were orally administered RMR (151 mg/kg body weight or 755 mg/kg body weight; 1 × dose or 5 × dose, respectively) with or without Zn once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The severity of liver damage was evaluated by measuring the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Zn-deficient rats. RMR significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT levels by Zn-deficient induction. Hepatic antioxidase activity was also significantly increased in the RMR + Zn group (RZ), thereby suppressing the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines in the liver of Zn-deficient rats. These findings suggested that RMR exerted hepatoprotective effects against Zn deficiency-induced liver inflammation. PMID:24716115

  16. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  17. Solstrling er temaet i denne boka. Alt liv er avhengig av solstrling sola gir liv, og sola er

    E-print Network

    Sahay, Sundeep

    ;Solstråling Innledning ....................................................7 Kapittel 1 Hva er solstråling? ........................................10 1.1 Solstrålingens opprinnelse .....................10 1.2 Hva er stråling

  18. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    PubMed

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action. PMID:12349637

  19. Chi'08 alt.chi \\/ do we bump into things more while speaking on a cell phone?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noam Tractinsky; David Shinar

    2008-01-01

    We observed more than 8,800 cases of people passing by an obstacle that was placed at different heights at the entrance to a university cafeteria. Of those cases, 491 were of pedestrians speaking on a cell phone. Overall, 2,422 bumping cases were recorded. Using a cell phone while walking did not increase the risk of bumping into protruding obstacles. The

  20. S›cak Stresi Alt›ndaki SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) Beyaz Yumurtac› Tavuklarda Gece Yemlemesinin Etkileri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özet: Bu çal›flmada, s›cak aylarda gece-gündüz aras›ndaki s›cakl›k fark›ndan yararlan›larak SPF beyaz yumurtac› tavuklar›n geceleri beslenmeleri ile s›cakl›k stresinin olumsuz etkilerinin ne oranda azalt›labileceinin belirlenmesi amaçlanm›flt›r. Bunun içinde SPF kümeslerde her grup için 50 adet SPF tavuk al›nm›flt›r. Tavuklar, kontrol grubunda 0500-2100 saatleri aras›nda, deneme grubunda ise 1700- 0900 saatleri aras›nda yemlenmifltir. Kümes içi s›cakl›klar, kontrol grubunda ortalama 29,5-0,78 ¡C,

  1. Response of durum w heat (t riticum durum Desf .) growth to s alt and drought s tresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhouma SAYAR; Houcine BCHINI; Mohamed MOSBAHI; Habib KHEMIRA

    2010-01-01

    Two durum wheat ( t riticum durum Desf.) cultivars were tested for salt and drought tolerance at ger - mination, seedling emergence and early seedling growth in NaCl and PEG-8000 solutions of different osmotic potentials (-0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa). Daily and final germination and emergence percentage, as well as germination and seedling emergence rate, seedling growth, fresh and

  2. Preliminary temperature accelerated life test (ALT) on lattice mismatched triple-junction concentrator solar cells-on-carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Vincenzo; Espinet, Pilar; Nuñez, Neftalí; Eltermann, Fabian; Contreras, Yedileth; Bautista, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel; Bett, Andreas W.; Algora, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on concentrator lattice mismatched Ga0.37In0.63P/Ga0.83In0.17As/Ge triple-junction solar cells-on-carrier is being carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 125, 145 and 165°C and the nominal photo-current condition (500X) is emulated by injecting current in darkness. The final objective of these tests is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of these solar cells in a moderate period of time. Up to now only the test at 165°C has finished. Therefore, we cannot provide complete reliability information, but we have carried out preliminary data and failure analysis with the current results.

  3. Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

  4. Orbiter/carrier separation for the ALT free flight no. 1 reference trajectories. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Details of the generation of the separation trajectories are discussed. The analysis culminated in definition of separation trajectories between physical separation and orbiter/carrier vortex clearance. Specifications, assumptions and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories are presented. Results of the analytical approach are evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. Supporting references are listed.

  5. Unusually high stability of a poly(alkylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) conjugated copolymer in its n and p-doped states.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mikhael D; Fisyuk, Alexander S; Demadrille, Renaud; Markevich, Elena; Gofer, Yossi; Aurbach, Doron; Pron, Adam

    2006-08-21

    Incorporation of electron accepting units (oxadiazole) into the 2,5-thienylene conjugated chain leads to a significant improvement in the n-doping-undoping redox stability of the resulting polymer. PMID:16883416

  6. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  7. A randomized trial of iron depletion in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperferritinemia

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Luca; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Dongiovanni, Paola; Rovida, Serena; Rametta, Raffaela; Fatta, Erika; Pulixi, Edoardo Alessandro; Maggioni, Marco; Fargion, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare iron depletion to lifestyle changes alone in patients with severe nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperferritinemia, a frequent feature associated with more severe liver damage, despite at least 6 mo of lifestyle changes. METHODS: Eligible subjects had to be 18-75 years old who underwent liver biopsy for ultrasonographically detected liver steatosis and hyperferritinemia, ferritin levels ? 250 ng/mL, and NAFLD activity score > 1. Iron depletion had to be achieved by removing 350 cc of blood every 10-15 d according to baseline hemoglobin values and venesection tolerance, until ferritin < 30 ng/mL and/or transferrin saturation (TS) < 25%. Thirty-eight patients were randomized 1:1 to phlebotomy (n = 21) or lifestyle changes alone (n = 17). The main outcome of the study was improvement in liver damage according to the NAFLD activity score at 2 years, secondary outcomes were improvements in liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl-transferases (GGT)]. RESULTS: Phlebotomy was associated with normalization of iron parameters without adverse events. In the 21 patients compliant to the study protocol, the rate of histological improvement was higher in iron depleted vs control subjects (8/12, 67% vs 2/9, 22%, P = 0.039). There was a better improvement in steatosis grade in iron depleted vs control patients (P = 0.02). In patients followed-up at two years (n = 35), ALT, AST, and GGT levels were lower in iron-depleted than in control patients (P < 0.05). The prevalence of subjects with improvement in histological damage or, in the absence of liver biopsy, ALT decrease ? 20% (associated with histological improvement in biopsied patients) was higher in the phlebotomy than in the control arm (P = 0.022). The effect of iron depletion on liver damage improvement as assessed by histology or ALT decrease ? 20% was independent of baseline AST/ALT ratio and insulin resistance (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Iron depletion by phlebotomy is likely associated with a higher rate of improvement of histological liver damage than lifestyle changes alone in patients with NAFLD and hyperferritinemia, and with amelioration of liver enzymes. PMID:24659891

  8. AST Review, October 2010 The mission of the PSAAP Center at Stanford is to build and demonstrate computational capabilities for

    E-print Network

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    capabilities for the simulations of supersonic combustion engines (scramjet) of hypersonic, the available data collected in flight form a unique validation test. Moreover in land-based facilities (at DLR in Germany) are also extensively used

  9. Cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of the astA gene encoding an Arylsulfate sulfotransferase from Citrobacter freundii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Wook Kang; Yeon-Joo Jeong; Ae-Ran Kwon; Hee-Jeong Yun; Dong-Hyun Kim; Eung-Chil Choi

    2001-01-01

    Arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) transfers a sulfate group from a phenolic sulfate ester to a phenolic acceptor substrate.\\u000a In the present study, the gene encoding ASST was cloned from a genomic library copy ofCitrobacter freundii, subcloned into the vector pGEM3Zf(-) and sequenced. Sequencing revealed two contiguous open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2)\\u000a on the same strand and based on amino acid

  10. An Unbiased Spectral Line Survey toward R CrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz Window with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Lindberg, Johan E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH3OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (~85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H2CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  11. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  12. INDIRECT NETWORK EFFECTS AND THE PRODUCT CYCLE: VIDEO GAMES IN THE U.S., 1994–2002 &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW T. CLEMENTS; HIROSHI OHASHI

    2005-01-01

    We examine the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective

  13. Spectral Line Survey toward RCrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz Window with ASTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Watanabe; N. Sakai; J. Lindberg; J. Jorgensen; S. Bisschopi; S. Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been pointed out that the chemical composition in the low-mass protostars varies from source to source. Two extreme cases are the hot corinos where various complex organic molecules are abundant, and the WCCC (Warm Carbon-Chain Chemistry) sources where carbon-chain molecules are abundant. Understanding an origin of such chemical diversity is an important target for astrochemistry. We have

  14. Community Rating, Entry-Age Rating and Adverse Selection in Private Health Insurance in Australia&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Buchmueller

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of health insurance is an important and often controversial issue. Rules intended to improve access to insurance for high-risk consumers have the potential to reduce overall coverage by inducing adverse selection. This paper examines the issue of adverse selection in the context of the market for private health insurance in Australia, before and after the implementation of a

  15. DOES NEOCLASSICAL THEORY ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF BIG FISCAL SHOCKS? EVIDENCE FROM WORLD WAR II &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen R. M cG rattan; Lee E. Ohanian

    2010-01-01

    Much debate surrounds the usefulness of the neoclassical growth model for assessing the macroeconomic impact of fiscal shocks. We test the theory using data from World War II, which is by far the largest fiscal shock in the history of the United States. We take observed changes in fiscal policy during the war as inputs into a parameterized, dynamic general

  16. Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1998-02-25

    This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

  17. COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM April 2005/Vol. 48, No. 4 21 ast month's "President's Letter" called for a

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the SPUR chal- lenge: Follow the proven path of starting relevant research programs in academia, funded current state of that funding? DARPA and DoD Support For the last few decades of the 20th century;tion (NSF) and the Depart- ment of Defense (DoD) Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The fund

  18. Price Regulation in US Automobile Insurance A Case Study of Massachusetts Private Passenger Automobile Insurance 1978–1990&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A Derrig

    1993-01-01

    This short note highlights price regulation in the United States Personal Automobile Market by reviewing the results of the most highly-regulated U. S. market, the fix-and-establish system in Massachusetts during 1978 to 1990. Financial outcomes of the state-run market are shown. Effects of pricing policy on the size of the residual market, interclass subsidies and the participation of national property-casualty

  19. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

    1984-01-01

    A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

  20. AStA Adv Stat Anal (2009) 93: 6171 DOI 10.1007/s10182-008-0092-z

    E-print Network

    Boehning, Dankmar

    2009-01-01

    .a.w.bohning@reading.ac.uk #12;62 R. Kuhnert, D. Böhning Table 1 Data from the Bangkok heroin users capture­recapture study of the n = 7048 heroin users had one treatment episode up to one case with 19 treatment episodes (f19 = 1

  1. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...evaluate the potential environmental impacts of adding up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors to the Atlas V launch vehicle and larger solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors on the Delta IV vehicle. The FAA participated...

  2. Phys & Ast Undergrad Program Assessment Plan Updated August 27, 2009 Program Assessment Plan for Physics & Astronomy Undergraduate Programs -DRAFT

    E-print Network

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Assessment Plan for Physics & Astronomy ­ Undergraduate Programs," will be housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and will be controlled by the Undergraduate Programs Assessment Coordinator, UNC-tomorrow, and our program assessment plans, the Department of Physics and Astronomy's vision

  3. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 21 A VALUABLE EDIBLE DXOLLlJSIT O F TIIE WEST 00AST.

    E-print Network

    that he has beforo him a huge soft-shelled clam, with a very thick mantle, and a very stoutsiphon. By SOHN A. RYDER. The following extract from a list of shells sent with some speciinens to Mr. George W first dug and laid upon its back, it resembles a fat plump duck. The edges of the shell do not meet

  4. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Jorgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O. (Denmark)

    2012-02-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH{sub 3}OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 ({approx}85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H{sub 2}CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  5. Effects of Executive Characteristics and Venture Capital Involvement on Board Composition and Share Ownership in IPO Firms &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Filatotchev

    2006-01-01

    Combining the agency perspective, resource-based view and upper echelon research, this paper examines factors affecting board selection and share ownership in initial public offerings (IPOs). In line with socio-cognitive and behavioural research, it shows that board independence, cognitive capacity and the incentives of non-executive directors are negatively associated with the experience and power of executive directors, and that large-block share

  6. Becoming European? The Transformation of the British Pro-migrant NGO Sector in Response to Europeanization &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMILY GRAY; PAUL STATHAM

    2005-01-01

    AbstractThis empirical study addresses the question of the emergent adaptation processes of the pro-migrant NGO sector in Britain in response to the advancing Europeanization of immigration policy. Our findings show European-level engagement by some key pioneer non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who have importantly built pathways and linkages to politics beyond the nation-state, as well as participating in the European arena through

  7. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

  8. The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach.

    PubMed

    Huseini, H Fallah; Alavian, S M; Heshmat, R; Heydari, M R; Abolmaali, K

    2005-09-01

    Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs. PMID:16194047

  9. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

  10. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24592277

  11. Temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunt: useless or beneficial in piggy back liver transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pratschke, Sebastian; Meimarakis, Georgios; Bruns, Christiane J; Kaspar, Michael; Prix, Niclas; Zachoval, Reinhart; Guba, Markus; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Loehe, Florian; Angele, Martin K

    2013-01-01

    The role of intraoperative porto-caval shunts in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is controversial. Aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an intraoperative, porto-caval catheter-shunt on graft function and survival following cava sparing OLT. Four hundred and forty-eight piggy back liver transplantations with or without a temporary spontaneous porto-caval shunt between 1997 and 2010 were analyzed (shunt n = 274 vs. no shunt n = 174). Lab MELD scores and donor risk indices (DRI) were calculated. Hepatic injury (ALT, AST), -function (bilirubin, prothrombin ratio), postreperfusion liver blood flow and graft survival were registered [mean follow-up: 50.5 (0-163.0) months]. The impact of a shunt on graft survival was determined using multivariate analysis. Usage of a porto-caval shunt was associated with reduced hepatic injury (ALT, AST), whereas graft function was not affected. The shunt group showed a significantly increased portal venous blood flow after reperfusion. Retransplantation rate was decreased (7.7% vs. 20.1%, P = 0.001) and long-term graft survival was significantly increased with a porto-caval shunt (hazard ratio 2.1, P < 0.001). This effect was even more pronounced for marginal organs. Usage of intraoperative porto-caval catheter-shunts is beneficial in cava sparing OLT and is associated with reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury and improved organ survival in particular for recipients of marginal organs. PMID:23237579

  12. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-?1 and ?-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  14. Evaluation of the hormones responsible for the gastrointestinal motility in cattle with displacement of the abomasum; ghrelin, motilin and gastrin.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, A S; Guzel, M; Askar, T K; Aytekin, I

    2013-06-15

    This study provides the evidence of increased serum gastrointestinal motility hormone concentrations including ghrelin, motilin and gastrin in cattle with displacement of abomasum (DA). In this study, 38 cows with DA (21 left DA (LDA) and 17 right DA (RDA)) and 15 healthy controls were included. All cattle with DA were at the stage of postpartum one to eight weeks, and had clinical signs including anorexia, decreased milk yield and scanty, pasty faeces. Serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations, and leptin concentration which is a functional antagonist of ghrelin, were determined by ELISA. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), Na, K, Cl, Ca and P concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer. In serum biochemical analysis, increases were seen on the serum ALT, AST and GGT activities; however, serum Na, K, Cl and P concentrations decreased in abomasal displacement compared with the control animals. The serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations increased in the cattle with LDA and RDA, as compared with those in the healthy controls. On the other hand, serum leptin concentration decreased in the cattle with DA compared with the controls. Increases in the serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations might be attributed to activation of gastrointestinal motility hormones to enhance of gastric emptying in impaired gastric motility and/or outlet occlusion in displaced abomasum. PMID:23723101

  15. Serum soluble CD40 is associated with liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, HONG-HUI; BAI, BING-KE; WANG, YA-QING; ZHOU, GUANG-DE; HOU, JUN; HU, YAN; ZHAO, JING-MIN; LI, BAO-SEN; HUANG, HAI-LI; MAO, PAN-YONG

    2015-01-01

    Soluble cluster of differentiation 40 (sCD40) is proteolytically cleaved from membrane-bound CD40 and binds to CD154, thereby inhibiting CD40-CD154-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of sCD40 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The sCD40 levels in sera from 132 patients with CHB and 33 healthy individuals were retrospectively measured. sCD40 concentrations in patients with CHB were higher than those in healthy controls, and sCD40 levels correlated positively with serum levels of the liver dysfunction biomarkers alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). sCD40 concentrations increased with a rise in the severity of liver necroinflammation and fibrosis. Patients with >75% liver tissue staining positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen expression showed significantly lower sCD40 levels than those who stained negative for the HBV antigen. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of sCD40 was greater than that of ALT and AST; thus, sCD40 levels have a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting severe liver inflammation in patients with CHB, and could serve as an immunological marker of hepatic tissue injury. PMID:25667667

  16. The effects of heparins on the liver: application of mechanistic serum biomarkers in a randomized study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harrill, A H; Roach, J; Fier, I; Eaddy, J S; Kurtz, C L; Antoine, D J; Spencer, D M; Kishimoto, T K; Pisetsky, D S; Park, B K; Watkins, P B

    2012-08-01

    Heparins have been reported to cause elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but have not been associated with clinically significant liver injury. The mechanisms underlying these benign laboratory abnormalities are unknown. Forty-eight healthy men were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections of unfractionated heparin (UFH; 150 U/kg), enoxaparin sodium (1 mg/kg), dalteparin sodium (120 IU/kg), or adomiparin sodium (125 IU/kg; a novel heparin) every 12 h for 4.5 days. Asymptomatic elevations in serum ALT or AST were observed in >90% of the subjects. Elevations were also observed in the levels of serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), miR-122, high-mobility group box-1 protein (including the acetylated form), full-length keratin 18, and DNA. Keratin 18 fragments, which are apoptosis biomarkers, were not detected. Biomarker profiles did not differ significantly across heparin treatments. We conclude that heparins as a class cause self-limited and mild hepatocyte necrosis with secondary activation of an innate immune response. PMID:22739141

  17. Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2014-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

  18. Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) on ?-amanitin-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Jinsong; Liao, Qiong; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2013-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of G. lucidum aqueous extracts (GLEs) on liver injury induced by ?-amanitin (?-AMA) in mice and to analyze the possible hepatoprotective mechanisms related to radical scavenging activity. Mice were treated with ?-AMA prepared from Amanita exitialis and then administrated with GLE after the ?-AMA injection. The hepatoprotective activity of the GLE was compared with the reference drug silibinin (SIL). ?-AMA induced a significant elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and provoked a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and a significant increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenate. Treatment with GLE or SIL significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased MDA content in liver compared with the ?-AMA control group. The histopathological examination of liver sections was consistent with that of biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that GLE induces hepatoprotective effects on acute liver injury induced by ?-AMA; these protective effects may be related in part to the antioxidant properties of GLE. PMID:23796220

  20. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (?)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  1. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

  2. Rosa canina L. Fruit Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effects on Some Immunological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Aghdam, Zahra; Zarredar, Habib; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Khayyat, Leila; Seyyed-Piran, Seyyed-Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This research investigates the possible potential of Rosa canina (RC) as an immunomodulator in rats and its effects on some biochemical parameters. Methods In this experiment, 45 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into three groups (n = 15). These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg), RC fruit extract (250 mg/kg) and RC fruit extract (500 mg/kg) as oral gavages every day for a period of four weeks, respective-ly. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week), differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, phagocyte activity (number), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP) albumin and globulins levels of sam-ples were obtained. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the se-rum were determined only in day 28 of study. The radical scavenger activity (RSA) of the RC extract was measured spectrophotometrically. Results the gamma globulin level, neu-trophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with the normal saline group. ALT, AST and ALP had not significantly differences in compared to control group. RC extract significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also decreased GSH levels in comparing to control group in day 28. Conclusion the data suggest that the RC extract has been used in traditional medicine might have immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23678431

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of berberine on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Berberine is an active compound in Coptidis Rhizoma (Huanglian) with multiple pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering and anticancer effects. The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effects of berberine on serum and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, the histology in tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were injected intraperitoneally with 50% CCl4 in olive oil. Berberine was orally administered before or after CCl4 treatment in various groups. Twenty-four hours after CCl4 injection, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, serum and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. Histological changes of liver were examined with microscopy. Results Serum ALT and AST activities significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in both pre-treatment and post-treatment groups with berberine. Berberine increased the SOD activity in liver. Histological examination showed lowered liver damage in berberine-treated groups. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that berberine possesses hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and that the effects are both preventive and curative. Berberine should have potential for developing a new drug to treat liver toxicity. PMID:20849653

  4. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500?mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600??g/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  5. Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

  6. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats exposed to malathion and spinosad in stored wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Nour El-Hoda A

    2015-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad. PMID:26081270

  7. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250?mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model. PMID:23864853

  8. The Effect of Thiamine and Thiamine Pyrophosphate on Oxidative Liver Damage Induced in Rats with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Mehmet Ibrahim; Siltelioglu Turan, Isil; Mammadov, Renad; Alt?nkaynak, Konca; Kisaoglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on oxidative stress induced with cisplatin in liver tissue. Rats were divided into four groups; thiamine group (TG), TPP + cisplatin group (TPG), healthy animal group (HG), and cisplatin only group (CG). Oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver tissue and AST, ALT, and LDH levels in rat sera were measured in all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the CG, TG, TPG, and HG groups were 11?±?1.4, 9?±?0.5, 3?±?0.5, and 2.2?±?0.48??mol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 2?±?0.7, 2.8?±?0.4, 7?±?0.8, and 9?±?0.6?nmol/g protein, respectively. Levels of 8-OH/Gua, a product of DNA damage, were 2.7?±?0.4?pmol/L, 2.5?±?0.5, 1.1?±?0.3, and 0.9?±?0.3?pmol/L, respectively. A statistically significant difference was determined in oxidant/antioxidant parameters and AST, ALT, and LDH levels between the TPG and CG groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the TG and CG groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin causes oxidative damage in liver tissue. TPP seems to have a preventive effect on oxidative stress in the liver caused by cisplatin. PMID:23841092

  9. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis after acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yijing; Zou, Zhuolin; Liu, Liyuan; Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Keqing; Xu, Lanman; Chen, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on acute liver injury (ALI) rats. Material and Methods: BMSCs were extracted from rat bone marrow, cultured and expansion in vitro, and identified by flow cytometer. Rat model with acute liver injury was established by employing D-galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide. Male rats were randomly divided into ALI model group and BMSCs transplantation group. Rats were sacrificed 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after BMSCs injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 (GPC3) were performed to analysis proliferation. Terminal deoxynucleontidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to analyze apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent-pathway related factors Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the ALI model group, the BMSCs transplantation group presented the lower levels of ALT, AST, decreased Bax proteins expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. The mRNA levels of AFP and GPC3 and expression of PCNA were significantly higher in BMSCs transplantation group. Conclusions: BMSCs transplantation could significantly restore liver function. These effects were supposed to be mediated by suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis as well as promoting proliferation. Reduction of apoptosis seemed to correlate with mitochondria-dependent-pathway. PMID:25755697

  11. Effect of fucoidan on aspirin-induced stomach ulceration in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Il; Raghavendran, Hanumatha Rao Balaji; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chun, Byeong Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Hong-Seok; Kang, Keon-Wook; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of fucoidan on aspirin-induced ulcers in rats were evaluated: both biochemical and immunological parameters were taken into consideration. The status of stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined. Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p<0.01) alterations in aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer-induced rats. Also, moderate alterations (p<0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histopathological examination showed neutrophil infiltration and inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage. Analysis of serum cytokines of aspirin-induced rats showed a moderate decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) when compared with control. Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p<0.05) protection against ulceration by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. However, aggravated serum INF-gamma was observed in the fucoidan-pretreated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to gastric mucosa. PMID:19788892

  12. Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 18–65?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35?±?6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

  13. Zinc Supplementation Improves the Outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C and Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Shunichi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Oshiro, Shu; Arakawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Junpei; Sekine, Naoki; Nirei, Kazushige; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Amaki, Shuichi; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We treated patients with C-viral chronic hepatitis (CH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) with polaprezinc and determined prospectively the effect on long-term outcome. 62 patients were enrolled. Of these, 32 were administered 1.0 g polaprezinc and the remainder were not administered polaprezinc. We measured the serum zinc concentrations using conventional atomic absorption spectrometry and conducted a prospective study to determine the long-term outcome of the polaprezinc therapy. Changes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the polaprezinc administration group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group. The decrease in platelet count was clearly less than that of the untreated group. The factors that inhibited increases in serum zinc concentrations following administration of polaprezinc included low serum zinc concentration states. Furthermore, the reductions of AST and ALT levels in the low zinc group were significantly greater than those of the high zinc group. When the patients who were administered polaprezinc were divided into two groups whose zinc concentrations increased (zinc responders) or remained stable or decreased (zinc non-responders), the zinc responders had a clearly lower cumulative incidence of HCC than the zinc non-responders. We conclude zinc supplementation improved the long-term outcome in C-viral CH and LC patients. PMID:19902019

  14. Zinc supplementation improves the outcome of chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunichi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Oshiro, Shu; Arakawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Junpei; Sekine, Naoki; Nirei, Kazushige; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Amaki, Shuichi; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2009-11-01

    We treated patients with C-viral chronic hepatitis (CH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) with polaprezinc and determined prospectively the effect on long-term outcome. 62 patients were enrolled. Of these, 32 were administered 1.0 g polaprezinc and the remainder were not administered polaprezinc. We measured the serum zinc concentrations using conventional atomic absorption spectrometry and conducted a prospective study to determine the long-term outcome of the polaprezinc therapy. Changes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the polaprezinc administration group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group. The decrease in platelet count was clearly less than that of the untreated group. The factors that inhibited increases in serum zinc concentrations following administration of polaprezinc included low serum zinc concentration states. Furthermore, the reductions of AST and ALT levels in the low zinc group were significantly greater than those of the high zinc group. When the patients who were administered polaprezinc were divided into two groups whose zinc concentrations increased (zinc responders) or remained stable or decreased (zinc non-responders), the zinc responders had a clearly lower cumulative incidence of HCC than the zinc non-responders. We conclude zinc supplementation improved the long-term outcome in C-viral CH and LC patients. PMID:19902019

  15. Occurrence of HBV/HIV coinfection by laboratory values in Roma, Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Senauoane, Mamakoli Blandina; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Nyandoro, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was an assessment of the coinfection status of patients with human immunode?ciency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Lesotho, and this has been rarely reported. Methods This was a retrospective study, in a laboratory setting, on HBV/HIV coinfection among 304 HIV-positive patients who were screened for HBsAg in St Joseph's Hospital records between March 2011 and December 2013. Demographic characteristics, HIV status, indications for HBsAg screening, HBsAg results and liver function test results including alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase were reviewed from the patient and laboratory registers. Results In this study 10.5% of 304 HIV-positive patients had HBV/HIV coinfection. With respect to gender, males had a significantly higher (p=0.048) rate of HBV/HIV coinfection in this study. Increased levels of ALT (p=0.013) and AST (p=0.014) were significantly associated with HBV/HIV coinfection status. Conclusion Gender and liver function tests are important predictors for HBV/HIV coinfection. Screening for HBV coinfection in HIV-positive patients is recommended. PMID:25763362

  16. Sorghum-based alcoholic beverage, Burukutu, perturbs the redox status of the liver of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Abdulazeez, Azeemat T; Muhammed, Aisha O; Kolawole, Fausat L

    2014-01-01

    The redox status of male rat liver following 28 days consumption of Burukutu was investigated. Twenty rats were randomized into four groups with five rats each. Burukutu consumption at 0.78 g/kg alcohol produced no significant change in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). However, 3.71 and 7.43 g/kg dosages resulted in significant decrease in the activities of ALP, ALT and AST with corresponding increase in serum. The activity of cytochrome P450(CYP 2E1) increased significantly in the liver of rats following consumption of Burukutu at all doses investigated. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in rats treat with 0.78 g/kg, 3.41 and 7.43 g/kg Burukutu. There was a significant increase in the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) with reduction in the levels of glutathione reduced (GSH) and GSH:GSSG. The levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and percentage DNA fragmentation, increased significantly (P < 0.05). It is evident from the alterations in the activities of the hepatocellular enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers that Burukutu mediated its toxicity through the depletion of the antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25473518

  17. Dynamic Changes, Cut-Off Points, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Laboratory Data to Differentiate Macrophage Activation Syndrome from Active Disease

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Raheleh; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the laboratory data and changes in these data between patients with MAS and patients with flare-up of the autoimmune diseases. Methods. In a prospective study, the static laboratory data and dynamic changes in the selected data in 17 consecutive patients with MAS and 53 patients with active disease of SJIA, PJIA, Kawasaki disease, and SLE were compared. The ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the static and dynamic laboratory data to differentiate between MAS and active disease. Results. In the MAS group, the mean CRP3, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, ferritin, LDH, PT, PTT, and INR were significantly higher and the mean WBC2, PMN2, Lymph2, Hgb1, 2, 3, ESR2, serum albumin, and sodium were significantly lower than in control group. Some of the important cut-off points were PLT2 < 209000/microliter, AST > 38.5, ALT > 38, WBC < 8200 × 103/UL, ferritin > 5277?ng/mL. Conclusion. The dynamic changes in some laboratory data, especially PLT, can differentiate between MAS and active disease. The changes in WBC, PMN, and ESR and the levels of the liver enzymes may also be helpful in the early differentiation. Very high levels of ferritin may also help the diagnosis along with other clinical and laboratory signs.

  18. Effect of olive leaf extract treatment on doxorubicin-induced cardiac, hepatic and renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumral, Alk?n; Giri?, Murat; Soluk-Tekke?in, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Do?ru-Abbaso?lu, Semra; Türko?lu, Ümit; Uysal, Müjdat

    2015-06-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to increase in oxidative stress in several organs. Olive leaf extract (OLE) has potent antioxidant effects; therefore, we evaluated the ability of OLE to reduce DOX-induced toxicity in the heart, liver, and kidneys of rats. DOX (30mg/kg; i.p.) was administered to rats, which were sacrificed 4 days after DOX. The rats received OLE (6 and 12mL/L in drinking water) for 12 days. Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, urea and creatinine levels, as well as prooxidant and antioxidant status in organs were measured. DOX was found to increase serum markers that indicate tissue injury, malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels, and to decrease glutathione (GSH) levels in organs. Histopathologic changes were also evaluated. OLE, especially OLE 1000, led to decreases in serum cTnI and urea levels, ALT and AST activities, and amelioration in histopathologic findings. Decreases in MDA, DC, and PC, and increases in GSH levels were observed in organs of DOX-treated rats due to OLE. We conclude that OLE treatment may be effective in decreasing DOX-induced cardiac, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and injury. PMID:26002558

  19. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

  20. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite. PMID:25346195

  1. Protective Properties of Laggera alata Extract and its Principle Components Against d-Galactosamine-Injured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Hang; Hao, Bing-Jie; Shen, E; Meng, Qing-Li; Hu, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Laggera alata extract (LAE) was quantitatively analyzed, and its principle components isochlorogenic acids were isolated and authenticated. Protective properties of LAE were studied using a d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced injury model in neonatal rat hepatocytes and a d-GalN-induced acute liver damage model in mice. Meanwhile, the effect of isochlorogenic acids derived from LAE on d-GalN-induced hepatocyte injury were also measured in vitro. LAE at concentrations of 10–100 ?g/ml significantly reduced cellular leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and improved cell viability. The isochlorogenic acids (4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid) at concentrations of 1–100 ?g/ml also remarkably improved viability of hepatocytes. The oral treatment of LAE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg markedly reduced the serum AST and ALT activity of mice and resulted in significant recovery of hepatocytes in liver sections. PMID:22896829

  2. Effect of cypermethrin, carbendazim and their combination on male albino rat serum

    PubMed Central

    Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Hwang, InHo; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin and carbendazim are synthetic; ?-cypermethrin belongs to a class of synthetic pyrethroids and carbendazim belongs to the class of carbamate fungicides. The current study was carried out to evaluate the low-dose exposure of individual and mixed forms of cypermethrin and carbendazim. ?-cypermethrin was used at 0.06, 0.12, 0.30 and 0.60 mg/kg body weight (bw), carbendazim was at 0.48, 0.96, 2.4 and 4.8 mg/kg bw and combined doses (cypermethrin: 0.06, 0.12, 0.30 and 0.60 mg/kg.bwt + carbendazim: 0.48, 0.96, 2.4 and 4.8 mg/kg.bwt) for 12 h and 24 h. The biochemical parameters and serum markey enzymes were analysed. The biochemical parameters include serum total protein, glucose, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, calcium, phosphorous, albumin and creatinine and serum marker enzymes such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and amylase were ascertained. Results indicated simultaneous changes in serum marker enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and amylase) and biochemical markers (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001). The experimental results indicate that even low-dose use of the synthetic pyrethroid carbamate and their combined form results in consequential negative effects on cell function. PMID:22974217

  3. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  4. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Haoqin Qingdan Decoction against Liver Injury Induced by a Chemotherapeutic Drug Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Baole; Jia, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    Haoqin Qingdan decoction (HQQD), a modern Chinese formula, has been widely used in Eastern Asia. Our study focuses on the hepatoprotective effect of HQQD against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity. S180, a kind of ascites tumor cells, was used to establish S180-bearing mice, followed by the injection of cyclophosphamide (CP, 80?mg/kg) every other day for 5 times. HQQD was used intragastrically at the dose of 80?g/kg, 40?g/kg, and 20?g/kg twice a day for 12 days. HL-7702 hepatic cell line was incubated with HQQD-medicated serum. Then we detected the effects of HQQD on (i) tumor suppression; (ii) morphological examination; (iii) SOD, MDA, GSH, ALT, and AST; (iv) cleaved caspase-3 expression and (v) cellular viability. CP caused dramatic elevations of AST, ALT, and MDA, while HQQD notably attenuated these elevations. SOD and GSH were notably increased, which were efficiently attenuated by HQQD. CP injection significantly increased apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase-3 expression, which was obviously inhibited by HQQD, accompanied by the improvement of cells viability. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Therefore, HQQD may protect liver tissue through attenuating oxidative stress and the caspase-3-dependent intrinsic apoptosis induced by CP, which suggests the potentially therapeutic effect of HQQD in the use of alkylating agent for cancer chemotherapy.

  5. [The catalase inhibitor aminotriazole alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing; Ge, Pu; Dai, Jie; Liang, Tian-Cai; Yang, Qing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the effects of catalase (CAT) inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury were investigated to explore the potential roles of CAT in alcoholic liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and various doses of ATZ (100-400 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 30 min before alcohol exposure. After 24 h of alcohol exposure, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were determined. The degree of hepatic histopathological abnormality was observed by HE staining. The activity of hepatic CAT, hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue were measured by corresponding kits. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that treatment with ATZ dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of ALT, AST and LDH levels induced by alcohol exposure, and that ATZ alleviated alcohol-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, ATZ inhibited the activity of CAT, reduced hepatic levels of H?O?and MDA in alcohol exposed rats. ATZ also decreased the levels of plasma TNF-? and IL-6 in rats with alcohol exposure. These results indicated that ATZ attenuated alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats, suggesting that CAT might play important pathological roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25672632

  6. Effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on the hematological and biochemical parameters and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-xin; Pang, Su-feng; Chen, Xiao-xuan; Yu, Yan-mei; Zhou, Jin-min; Chen, Xi; Pang, Li-jiao

    2013-04-01

    The effect of dietary intake of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharides (CVP) on the hematological and biochemical indices of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. Fish were fed CVP supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CVP kg(-1)) for 56 days. The RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin content, ESR in blood and TP, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHO, TG, and BUN in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. After feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results indicated that feeding crucian carp with suitable dose of CVP enhanced the RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin and TP content, ALP activity, and decreased the ESR, ALT, AST, GLU, CHO, TG and BUN. There was no effect in fish at low dose (0.25 g kg(-1)). Unexpectedly, the higher CVP dose used here (2.0 and 4.0 g kg(-1)) has a negative effect in fish. The results of challenge experiment indicated that a moderate level of CVP in the diet (1.0 g kg(-1)) was the most effective to enhance the survival of fish after infected with A. hydrophila. In summary, the use of CVP, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defense of crucian carp providing resistance to pathogens. PMID:22791194

  7. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of kurdistan province, Western iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 ?g/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 ?g/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver. PMID:25943488

  8. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Bauhinia hookeri Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice and Characterization of Its Bioactive Compounds by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Seif el-Din, Sayed H.; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A.; Hammam, Olfat A.; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Bauhinia hookeri ethanol extract (BHE) against CCl4-induced liver injury was investigated in mice. BHE was administered (500 and 1000?mg/kg/day) along with CCl4 for 6 weeks. The hepatic marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in the serum. The antioxidant parameters: glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in the liver homogenate. BHE treatment significantly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in ALT (44 and 64%), AST (36 and 46%), ALP (28 and 42%), and MDA (39 and 51%) levels at the tested doses, respectively. Moreover, BHE treatment markedly increased the activity of antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, GR, GST, and SOD. Histological observations confirmed the strong hepatoprotective activity. These results suggest that a dietary supplement of BHE could exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress and various liver diseases by enhancing the antioxidant defense status, reducing lipid peroxidation, and protecting against the pathological changes of the liver. The hepatoprotective activity of BHE is mediated, at least in part, by the antioxidant effect of its constituents. The active constituents of BHE were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS. PMID:24955350

  9. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 ?g/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  10. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against bromobenzene-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Mahdavinia, Masood; Salimi, Abobakr; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, hepatoprotective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups receiving normal saline (1), bromobenzene (460 mg/kg) alone (2) and together with increasing doses (200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg) of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula fruit (3-6, respectively). All administrations were carried out orally, daily, for 10 days. On the 11th day, animals were sacrificed. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (?GT) were determined; serum levels of direct and total bilirubin were measured; furthermore, livers were prepared for histological examination. Our results showed that bromobenzene treatment alone elicited a significant increase in activities of AST, ALT, ALP (but not ?GT), and it significantly elevated the levels of direct and total bilirubin. Co-treatment with Cassia fistula fruit extract, however, significantly and dose-dependently decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities (with exception of ?GT) and bilirubin levels, producing a recovery to the naive state. The protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against liver injury evoked by bromobenzene was confirmed by histological examination as well. In conclusion, the Cassia fistula fruit extract has significant hepatoprotective effect in our murine model. PMID:20930029

  11. Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

    2007-04-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

  12. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250?mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model. PMID:23864853

  13. Insulin resistance and ? cell function in patients with ?-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ghergherehchi, Robabeh; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is a common finding in chronically transfused ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients with possible effect on ? cell function and insulin resistance. In this study we aimed to evaluate glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and ? cell function in ?-TM patients. A total of 78 transfusion-dependent ?-TM patients and 40 age and sex matched normal children were included. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in all subjects. Fasting plasma insulin level, insulin resistance index (IRI) and ? cell function index (BFI) were also estimated. ?-Thalassemia major patients had significantly more abnormal OGTT than the control group. ?-Thalassemia major patients had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fasting blood sugar and IRI than the control group. Findings between ?-thalassemia (?-thal) patients, with and without abnormal OGTT results, were also compared; ?-thal patients with abnormal OGTT had significantly higher duration of chelation therapy, serum ferritin levels, AST, ALT and increased IRI and decreased BFI in comparison to patients with normal OGTT. Abnormal glucose metabolism is common in ?-TM patients with chelation therapy and multiple transfusions which are attributable to impaired ? cells' function and increased insulin resistance. PMID:25572183

  14. Effects of extract derived from Eriobotrya japonica on liver function improvement in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kusunose, Masahiko; Cui, Tailin; Hamada, Atuhide; Ono, Masahide; Miyamura, Mituhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro

    2002-08-01

    Eriobotrya japonica is considered a medicinal plant, and its leaves (Eriobotrya folia) have been used to treat skin diseases, as well as to relieve inflammation, pain, coughing, and sputa. In our evaluation of the pharmacological efficacy of the seed extracts, constituents of the seeds were found to contain the unsaturated fatty acids linolenic and linoleic acids and the sterol beta-sitosterol in the 70% EtOH and the MeOH extracts. The seed extracts were orally administered to rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatopathy, and blood L-asparate aminotransferase (AST) and L-alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, liver retinoid level, and hydroxyproline level were measured. Liver fibrosis rates calculated after Azan-Mallory staining and evaluation of the liver function-improving effects of extracts were showed that AST, ALT, and hydroxyproline levels and liver fibrosis rates were significantly lower, and retinoid levels were significantly higher in hepatopathic rats treated with 70% EtOH and MeOH extracts of the seed than in water-treated control rats. This suggests that the positive effect on liver function of the extracts varies depending on the extracting solvent used. 70% EtOH and MeOH extract of the seeds inhibited the development of liver fibrosis in hepatopathic rats, thus exhibiting potent improvement. The unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and the sterol beta-sitosterol contained in these extracts may also contribute to the improvement of liver function. PMID:12186409

  15. Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

  16. Transient liver function abnormality following treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin for nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Chang, Abraham; Lee-Lam, Fu-Ying; Wang, Joanna; Cheng, Ya-Hwei

    2015-02-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is increasingly used in nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Elevated liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported for antithymocyte globulin in the treatment of aplastic anemia, but not when used in a conditioning regimen for HSCT. We describe two cases of patients receiving a conditioning regimen for HSCT containing rATG who developed a transient, severe transaminase elevation. In the first case, a 66-year-old woman with a history of acute myeloid leukemia received the first dose of rATG and the patient's transaminases were found to be extremely elevated within a few hours. The aspartate transaminase (AST) peaked at 1286?U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) peaked at 991?U/L and both resolved within a week. In the second case, a 72-year-old woman with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma received the first dose of rATG and the AST and ALT were found to be 1212?U/L and 689?U/L, respectively, 1?h after finishing the infusion. Like the previous case, the transaminase elevation resolved within a week. LFT abnormalities induced by rATG during conditioning therapy for HSCT may be transient and have a rapid onset after the first dose, but quickly subside without any complications or sequelae. It is important to follow the LFTs closely, as well as monitor for any signs and symptoms of acute liver failure. PMID:24395543

  17. Serum Enzyme Profiles Differentiate Five Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuling; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Yiming; Li, Yaqin; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Wang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background. Differentiation among types of muscular dystrophy (MD) has remained challenging. In this retrospective study, we sought to develop a methodology for differentiation of MD types using analysis of serum enzyme profiles. Methods. The serum levels of enzymes from 232 patients, including 120 with DMD, 36 with BMD, 36 with FSHD, 46 with LGMD, and 11 with EDMD, were evaluated. Results. The characteristic profiles of serum enzymes facilitated differentiation of these five types of MD. DMD was characterized by simultaneous elevation of ALT, AST, LDH, and ALP; BMD and LGMD were characterized by elevation of ALT, AST, and LDH; and FSHD and EDMD were characterized by a lack of abnormal serum enzyme levels. We further developed discriminant functions to distinguish BMD and LGMD. For LGMD, LGMD2B patients had significantly higher ALP levels than non-LGMD2B patients (98 ± 59?U/L versus 45 ± 9?U/L, resp., p < 0.05). Conclusions. Our approach enabled the determination of MD subtypes using serum enzyme profiles prior to genetic testing, which will increase the chance a mutation will be found in the first gene analyzed.

  18. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  19. Caffeine test in predicting flutamide-induced hepatic injury in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozono, S; Yamaguchi, A; Mochizuki, H; Kawakami, T; Fujimoto, K; Otani, T; Yoshida, K; Ichinei, M; Yamashita, T; Hirao, Y

    2002-01-01

    The caffeine test measures the activity of cytochrome p450 (CYP1A2) which is a major enzyme involved in the activation of flutamide. The usefulness of this test in predicting flutamide-induced hepatic injury in patients with prostate cancer was examined. The subjects were: (1). five patients whose aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level rose to 100 IU/l or higher following the start of flutamide (moderately injured group); (2). four patients whose AST and ALT levels were higher than normal but less than 100 IU/l (mildly injured group); and (3). two patients whose hepatic function remained normal (normal group). The subjects were each given canned coffee to drink. Urinary caffeine (137X), paraxanthine (17X) and 1, 7-dimethyluric acid (17U) levels were measured 4-5 h later. The metabolite ratio, (17U+17X)/137X, was calculated to serve as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The metabolite ratio for the moderately injured group (3.98+/-1.56) and the mildly injured group (5.55+/-1.42) were lower than that for the normal group (9.56). The results suggest that a decrease in CYP1A2 activity is involved in the onset of flutamide-induced hepatic injury, and that the caffeine test seems to provide a useful means of its prediction. PMID:12497002

  20. Comparison of the chronic effects of ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Motor, Sedat; Alp, Harun; ?enol, Serkan; P?nar, Neslihan; Motor, Vicdan Köksald?; Kaplan, ?brahim; Alp, Ay?e; Gökçe, Cumali

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to comparison of the effects of the chronic use of the Ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were given orally 30 mg/kg/day doses of Ribavirin for 30 days, and intraperitoneally 10 ?mol/kg doses of CAPE. The 37 rats were divided into 4 groups: (I) Control (n=7), (II) Ribavirin (R) (n=10), (III) CAPE (n=10), and (IV) R+CAPE (n=10). Results: Ribavirin and CAPE yielded similar results in terms of Serum, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), amylase, lipase, and insulin compared to the control group. However, while Ribavirin provided similar results with the control group in terms of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, the CAPE group had elevated AST and ALT levels compared to the control group. Histopathologic evaluations revealed that CAPE or Ribavirin had no degenerative effects on both the pancreas and liver tissues. In this way, the biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathologic results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Ribavirin does not lead to any pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity, and has more beneficial effects than CAPE on especially liver tissue. PMID:24955174

  1. LPS pretreatment ameliorates D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure in rat

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Sai-Nan; Shi, Ke-Qing; Chen, Shao-Long; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) remains an extremely poor prognosis and high mortality; with no effective treatments. The endotoxin tolerance (ET) phenotype has been reported to exhibit protective activities in several sepsis models. We now investigated the effects and underlying intraperitoneal injection of the same volume of pyrogen-free 0.9% sodium chloride instead of LPS for five consecutive days before D-GalN/LPS injection in rats. The serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL from ET + ALF group and ALF group were measured at different time points. Our results showed that ET + ALF group markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL and histological features in the ET + ALF group were improved significantly. Furthermore, LPS pre-treatment inhibited D-GalN/LPS-induced NF-?B activation, Bax activation, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activities. LPS pre-treatment also significantly enhance the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Our experimental data indicated that ET might alleviate D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inhibiting the inflammatory response, inactivation of STAT1 and STAT3 and up-regulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3. PMID:25550775

  2. Hepatoprotective Effects of a Chinese Herbal Formula, Longyin Decoction, on Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunguang; Zhang, Tie; Cui, Xuemei; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Xinghua; Zhong, Xiuhui

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish poultry liver injury model induced by (CCl4) and seek effective hepatoprotective herbals for clinical application. Different doses of CCl4 dissolved in vegetable oil (1?:?1, V/V) were injected via pectoral muscle to induce acute liver injury model in chickens. An herbal formula, Longyin decoction, was prepared for hepatoprotection test on chicken acute liver injury models. The pathologic changes of the liver were observed, and the activities of ALT and AST were, respectively, detected to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Longyin decoction on chickens. The chicken acute liver injury model was successfully established by injecting CCl4 via pectoral muscle. The best dose of CCl4 inducing chicken liver injury was 4.0?mL/kg·BW (body weight). The results of qualitative determination by HPTLC showed that the components of Longyin decoction contained Gentian, Capillaries, Gardenia, and Bupleurum root. In the high-dose Longyin group and the middle-dose Longyin group, the pathological changes of the damaged liver were mitigated and the activities of ALT and AST in serum were reduced significantly. Longyin decoction has obvious hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injury induced by CCl4. PMID:23533478

  3. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Harraz, Fathalla M.; Ghareib, Salah A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Gabr, Salah A.; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats’ liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats’ liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  4. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of collagen peptides from cod skin against liver oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, Yantao; Xie, Jing; Gao, Hui; Xia, Yunqiu; Chen, Xuehong; Wang, Chunbo

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CSCP), isolated from fishing industrial by-products, in vitro and in vivo. Effect of CSCP on cell proliferation of normal and H2O2-damaged Chang liver cells was determined by MTT assay in vitro. Two animal models, CCl4-induced and acetaminophenum-induced acute hepatotoxicity, were established to assess the hepatoprotective effect of CSCP. Liver weight index, serum ALT and AST, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation product were used as the markers of liver toxicity. The cell viability in the H2O2-treated Chang liver cells was remarkably increased when pretreated with CSCP from 100 to 1,000 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. CSCP pretreatment also alleviated the CCL4-induced liver index loss, while no marked changes were found in acetaminophenum-treated mice. Furthermore, CSCP pulled down serum ALT and AST level, increased the activities of SOD and CAT, and decreased MDA in both murine models of acute liver toxicity. Pretreatment with CSCP protected liver tissue against oxidative injure in vivo and in vitro. The underlying mechanism might involve enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduction in the lipid peroxidation. PMID:25344648

  6. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  7. Comparative study of C-reactive protein and other biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B and malaria in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amah, U K; Ahaneku, J E; Usoro, C A O; Ezeoke, A C J; Okwara, J E; Amah, A K; Etukudo, M H; Okwara, E C; Amah, B C

    2011-06-01

    Serum levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin and globulins were investigated using high sensitivity immunoturbidometric and colorimetric techniques in individuals with hepatitis (n=50), malaria (n=50) and 40 control subjects in age range of 30 to 65 years. The hepatitis patients had a significantly higher (P < 0.01) level of aminotransferases when compared to malaria patients and control subjects. The mean value of ALT was 103.50 ± 71.4 IU/L and 46.72 ±17.48 IU/L for hepatitis and malaria respectively. The values for AST were 116.76 ± 63.27 IU/L and 57.74 IU/L ± 15.18 IU/L for hepatitis and malaria respectively while the values for control were 34.75 ± 14.64 and 35.25 ± 15.56 IU/L for AST and ALT respectively. The malaria patients showed a significantly higher level (P < 0.01) of aminotransferases when compared to the control. The mean serum CRP levels were 0.71 ± 0.11 mg/dL and 0.78 ± 0.13 mg/dL for hepatitis and malaria respectively. These values were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of the controls which was 0.32 ± 0.12 mg/dL. The values of CRP in malaria were significantly higher (P< 0.05) when compared with hepatitis. In malaria, AST correlated with CRP (r = 0.58). The mean serum proteins of hepatitis patients were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control and malaria while there were no significant differences between the total protein in malaria when compared with control. Albumin levels in both patients were significantly lower (P > 0.05) than those of the controls. The mean values were 33.40 ± 3.40g/L and 34.47 ± 3.56g/L for hepatitis and malaria respectively and 37.00 ± 3.43 g/L for the control. C-reactive protein correlated negatively with albumin in malaria (r = -0.26) while albumin had a negative correlation with globulin(r = -0.36). Also albumin-globulin ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both patients when compared with controls. This result suggests that a systemic acute phase response is present in hepatitis and malaria patients hence measurement of C-reactive proteins may be helpful in the diagnosis and management of hepatitis and malaria; especially in the malaria endemic region such as Nigeria. PMID:22314997

  8. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harr, K.E.; Allison, K.; Bonde, R.K.; Murphy, D.; Harvey, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate amino-transferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 ??mol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement, indicating that separate reference intervals should be established for serum and plasma. Finally, storage of these enzymes at -70??C for 1 mo resulted in up to a 25% decrease in enzymatic activity in manatee plasma. Copyright 2008 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  9. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that surgical implantation of ultrasonic transmitters had indeed caused significantly negative effects on the physiological response of bighead carp. However, all the negative influences on stress response, tissue damage and nutritional status had disappeared in 14 days after surgery, and the presence of transmitters had no significant negative impact. Therefore, the bighead carp should be temporary cultured at least 14 days for the recovery of physiological response and then released into the free water for the ultrasonic telemetry research. PMID:24844600

  10. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on liver function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric patients with or without hepatitis virus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijuan; Jin, Changzhong; Bai, Shi; Davies, Henry; Rao, Heping; Liang, Yong; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Co-infection of hepatitis virus is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults in China. But little is known about hepatitis virus co-infection in pediatric HIV-infected subjects. The study aimed to investigate the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on liver function of pediatric HIV-infected subjects. Materials and Methods: A cohort study including 101 pediatric HIV-infected subjects with HBV/HCV co-infection and 44 pediatric comparators with HIV mono-infection was carried out in Henan Province of China from September 2011 to September 2012. All patients received HAART for 1-year. HBV and HCV infection was determined by antibody tests. HIV RNA load, CD4+ T-cell counts and liver function were determined before and after HAART. The Student's t-test or a one-way ANOVA was used for normally distributed values and A Mann-Whitney U-test was performed for values without normal distribution using SPSS statistical package 18.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results: After HAART for 1-year, the median levels of viral load were decreased to lower limit of detection in 90.34% pediatric HIV-infected subjects with/without HBV/HCV co-infection (P < 0.001), and CD4+ T-cell counts increased significantly (P < 0.001). Compared with the pre-HAART, mean level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in each group had a significant increase after HAART (P < 0.01). The mean levels of ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in nevirapine (NVP) based HAART group increased significantly after HAART (P < 0.01). Mean change values of ALT and AST were significantly higher in the NVP based regimen group than in the efavirenz (EFV) based regimen group (P < 0.01). For HIV/HBV/HCV co-infected patients, mean change values of ALT and AST in NVP-based HAART group was significantly higher than that in EFV-based HAART group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Highly active antiretroviral therapy can damage liver function in pediatric HIV-infected subjects, especially in those with HBV/HCV co-infection. NVP was more harmful to liver function of pediatric HIV-infected subjects than EFV. PMID:25983763

  11. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  12. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Seon-Young

    2013-01-01

    We compared the preventive capacity of high intakes of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats received the low fat (10% of total calories) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group, 36% of total calories) or ethanol in combination with VC (Alc + VC group, 40 mg VC/100 g body weight) or VE (Alc + VE group, 0.8 mg VE/100 g body weight). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with the Alc group. Ethanol administration induced a modest increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), conjugated dienes (CD), and triglycerides but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) in plasma. VE supplementation to alcohol-fed rats restored the plasma levels of AST, CD, and TRAP to control levels. However, VC supplementation did not significantly influence plasma ALT, AST, or CD. In addition, a significant increase in plasma aminothiols such as homocysteine and cysteine was observed in the Alc group, but cysteinylglycine and glutathione (GSH) did not change by ethanol feeding. Supplementing alcohol-fed rats with VC increased plasma GSH and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, but plasma levels of aminothiols, except GSH, were not influenced by either VC or VE supplementation in ethanol-fed rats. These results indicate that a low-fat ethanol diet induces oxidative stress and consequent liver toxicity similar to a high-fat ethanol diet and that VE supplementation has a protective effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver toxicity. PMID:23610603

  13. CO(2)-driven seawater acidification differentially affects development and molecular plasticity along life history of fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yung-Che; Hu, Marian Y; Stumpp, Meike; Lin, Li-Yih; Melzner, Frank; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2013-06-01

    Fish early life stages have been shown to react sensitive to simulated ocean acidification. In particular, acid-base disturbances elicited by altered seawater carbonate chemistry have been shown to induce pathologies in larval fish. However, the mechanisms underlying these disturbances are largely unknown. We used gene expression profiling of genes involved in acid-base regulation and metabolism to investigate the effects of seawater hypercapnia on developing Japanese ricefish (medaka; Oryzias latipes). Our results demonstrate that embryos respond with delayed development during the time window of 2-5 dpf when exposed to a seawater pCO(2) of 0.12 and 0.42 kPa. This developmental delay is associated with strong down-regulation of genes from major metabolic pathways including glycolysis (G6PDH), Krebs cycle (CS) and the electron transport chain (CytC). In a second step we identified acid-base relevant genes in different ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings and adults) and tissues (gill and intestine) that are up regulated in response to hypercapnia, including NHE3, NBCa, NBCb, AE1a, AE1b, ATP1a1a.1, ATP1a1b, ATP1b1a, Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg. Interestingly, NHE3 and Rhcg expressions were increased in response to environmental hypercapnia in all ontogenetic stages and tissues tested, indicating the central role of these proteins in acid-base regulation. Furthermore, the increased expression of genes from amino acid metabolism pathways (ALT1, ALT2, AST1a, AST1b, AST2 and GLUD) suggests that energetic demands of hatchlings are fueled by the breakdown of amino acids. The present study provides a first detailed gene expression analysis throughout the ontogeny of a euryhaline teleost in response to seawater hypercapnia, indicating highest sensitivity in early embryonic stages, when functional ion regulatory epithelia are not yet developed. PMID:23416137

  14. Effects of Echinacea purpurea on Hepatic and Renal Toxicity Induced by Diethylnitrosamine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Annahita; Fazlara, Ali; Haghi Karamolah, Mojtaba; Shahriari, Ali; Najaf Zadeh, Hossein; Pashmforosh, Marzieh

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrites are mainly used in food preservation. These materials could change to nitrosamine due to the effect of heat and gastric acid. Nitrosamine is absorbed in intestine and enters the liver and hepatocytes by portal venous system, and hampers the detoxification system of liver by interfering in cytochrome P450 enzymes, so, the liver gently proceeds to cirrhosis and cancer. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the hepatic and renal protective effects of aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Materials and Methods Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups were as follow: Control group (normal saline), DEN (200 mg/kg, IP, a single dose), EPE (100 mg/kg, orally, daily) and DEN + EPE which received as group DEN and EPE. After 30 days, Blood samples, and liver and kidney tissues were taken for further examination. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), BUN, Creatinine and total and direct bilirubin were estimated in serum. Results DEN induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in all the treated animals by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and BUN, creatinin and total and direct bilirubin levels. AST, BUN and total and direct bilirubin significantly decreased in DEN + EPE compared to DEN group. After 30 days of DEN administration, histopathological investigation revealed proliferation of hepatic stellate cells and early fibrosis which were partly improved by EPE administration. Conclusions The current study findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract played an important role in the protection against DEN toxicity in rats. PMID:24624189

  15. Hepato- and nephroprotective activities of a Nigerian local king tuber oyster mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (higher Basidiomycetes), in chemically induced organ toxicities in rats.

    PubMed

    Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Ihim, Stella A; Ugwu, Loveth E; Laiyemo, Kolawole A; Akah, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal failure, and liver diseases are increasing worldwide and constitute a huge burden on health care costs, with attendant high morbidity and debility. Despite advances in modern medicine, there are still no licensed drugs that satisfactorily restore lost kidney or hepatic functions. In this study the chemoprotective effects of the hot aqueous extract of a local edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (APTR), was evaluated in experimental liver and kidney toxicities. The effect of APTR on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- and paracetamol (PCM)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated by determining serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Short-term oral treatment with APTR (100 and 250 mg/kg) significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the increased concentrations of AST, ALT, and ALP induced in both PCM and CCl4 models of liver toxicity. APTR (100 and 250 mg/kg) decreased the mean serum AST concentrations by as much as 73.00% and 99.37%, respectively, in PCM-treated rats. Nephroprotection was assessed by determining the serum concentrations of creatinine and urea, as well as antioxidant enzymes, in kidney tissue homogenates after a repeated high dose of gentamicin. APTR (100 and 250 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the escalated serum concentrations of creatinine and urea by as much as 48.36% and 41.53%, respectively, compared to control. Similarly, levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in kidney tissue were increased in a dose-related manner in groups that received oral APTR supplementation. The results of this study suggest that the consumption of our local edible mushroom, P. tuberregium, could, in addition to its high nutritive value, protect the liver and kidneys from oxidative damage caused by drugs and toxicants such as CCl4 and high doses of gentamicin and PCM. PMID:25271859

  16. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  17. Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Effect of phenanthrene, pyrene, and their ozonized products on blood chemistry in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, T.; Ruhr, L.P.; Flory, W.; Giamalva, D.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A.

    1985-06-30

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single ip injection of physiological saline (3.0 ml/kg), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 3.0 ml/kg), phenanthrene (150 mg/kg), ozonized products of phenanthrene (150 mg/kg), pyrene (150 mg/kg), or ozonized products of pyrene (150 mg/kg). Phenanthrene, pyrene, and their ozonized products were dissolved in DMSO (50 mg/ml). Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was increased significantly 24 hr after ip administration of DMSO when compared with physiological saline. Phenanthrene produced a significant elevation of serum AST and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) levels related to physiological saline and DMSO-injected rats 24 hr after injection. However, GGTP levels for groups treated with DMSO or phenanthrene were not significantly increased when compared with saline groups 72 hr after injection. Ozonized products of phenanthrene produced a significant elevation of serum AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), GGTP, and bilirubin levels when compared with groups treated with physiological saline, DMSO, and phenanthrene 24 or 72 hr after injections. The ozonized products of phenanthrene also produced significant elevation of serum creatinine levels compared with physiological saline, DMSO, and phenanthrene groups at 24 hr after treatment and of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at 24 and 72 hr.

  18. 302013-14 Suggested Course Plan ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    : Astronautics & Space Environment I ASTE 301A: Thermal and Statistical Systems I ASTE 301b: Thermal: Senior Projects Laboratory AME 451: Linear Control Systems I ASTE 101L: Intro. to Astronautics ASTE 280 and Statistical Systems II ASTE 330: Astronautics & Space Environment II ASTE 421: Space Mission Design ASTE 470

  19. Seroprevalence of HCV and its co-infection with HBV and HIV among liver disease patients of South Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Ganesh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Sridharan; Thiyagarajan, Thirunalasundari

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis delta agent (HDV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among liver disease patients of south Tamil Nadu. METHODS: A total of 1012 samples comprising 512 clinically diagnosed cases of liver disease patients and 500 apparently healthy age and sex matched individuals were screened for Hepatitis C virus (anti HCV and HCV RNA), Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg), Hepatitis delta agent (anti HDV) and Human immuno virus (antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2) using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. HCV RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Liver function tests like ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin were also studied. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HCV was found to be 5.6% among liver disease patients by ELISA. 27/512, 49/512 and 12/512 patients were positive for HIV, HBV & HDV respectively. Co-infection of HCV & HBV was found in 8 patients, with 6 for HCV & HIV and 4 for HCV, HBV & HIV co-infections. Sex-wise analysis showed that HIV, HCV & HBV and HCV & HIV co-infection was high among females whereas for HBV it was high in males. The mean ALT and AST in HCV positive cases were 42.1 ± 8.3 and 49 ± 10.1. In people co-infected with HCV & HBV or HCV & HIV or HCV, HBV & HIV the mean ALT of 58.0 ± 03.16, 56.78 ± 4.401 and 64.37 ± 4.01 respectively. CONCLUSION: We strongly recommend routine test of the blood for HCV in addition to HBV and HIV. We also recommend individualized counseling to identify those at risk and testing for those who want it. Improved surveillance and periodic epidemiological studies will have to be undertaken to monitor and prevent these blood-borne viruses. PMID:21160955

  20. Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Aoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)], E-mail: tnasu23@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

  1. Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n?=?22), naive (n?=?16) and HIV-1 negative (n?=?23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n?=?15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P?=?0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P?ALT values (P?=?0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P?=?0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P?=?0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P?ALT (? = ?0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ??=?0.529, P?=?0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (??=??0.468, P?=?0.037) and naive (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) and globulin (??=?0.570, P?=?0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment. PMID:25057262

  2. 78 FR 51808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST) Customer...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST) conducts...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST)...

  3. 78 FR 69740 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST) Customer...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST) conducts...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation (AST)...

  4. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...SUMMARY: The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) will...Graham (AST-100), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800...Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. [FR...

  5. Role of activin A in carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Hui; Wang, Yi-Nan; Ge, Jing-Yan; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Jun; Qi, Yan; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Cui, Xue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and role of activin A in a mouse model of acute chemical liver injury. METHODS: Acute liver injury in C57BL/6 male mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.5 mL/kg, body weight) dissolved in olive oil (1:19 v/v). Mice were sacrificed 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after the treatment. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were examined and pathological changes of liver observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate the liver injury. Activin A protein levels in serum and hepatic tissue homogenate of mice were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression pattern of activin A protein in livers of mice was examined by immunohistochemistry. Activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA) and Smad3 expressions in the liver were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In order to further investigate the role of activin A, we also utilized activin A blocking experiment by anti-activin A antibody (500 ?g/kg, body weight) injection into mouse tail vein. RESULTS: In CCl4-treated mice, serum ALT and AST levels were significantly increased, compared with that in control mice (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the serious necrosis was observed around hepatic portal areas in CCl4-treated mice. Simultaneously, activin A levels in serum and hepatic tissue homogenate of mice treated with CCl4 for 1, 3 and 5 d increased significantly, compared with that in control mice (P < 0.01). Activin A protein expression in hepatocytes not within the necrotic area was also upregulated in mice following CCl4 treatment. Not only activin A, but also ActRIIA and activin signaling molecule Smad3 mRNA expressions in injury liver induced by CCl4 were significantly higher than that in control liver. In addition, levels of serum ALT and AST in CCl4-treated mice were significantly decreased by injection of anti-activin A antibody to block endogenous activin A action, compared with that in CCl4-treated mice by injection of immunoglobulin G instead of anti-activin A antibody (P < 0.01), and the severity of liver injury was also reduced remarkably. CONCLUSION: These data show that activin A is involved in CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Blocking activin A actions may be a therapeutic approach for acute liver injury. PMID:23840118

  6. [Study on safety of Tibetan medicine zuotai and preliminary study on clinical safety of its compound dangzuo].

    PubMed

    Li, Cen; Wang, Dong-Ping; Duo, Jie; Duojie, La-Dan; Chen, Xian-Min; Du, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Jie; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-07-01

    Zuotai (gTso thal) is a typical representative of Tibetan medicines containing heavy metals, but there is still lack of modem safety evaluation data so far. In this study, acute toxicity test, sub-acute toxicity test, one-time administration mercury distribution experiment, long-term mercury accumulative toxicity experiment and preliminary study on clinical safety of Compound Dangzuo were conducted in the hope of obtain the medicinal safety data of Zuotai. In the acute toxicity test, half of KM mice given the lethal dose of Zuotai were not died or poisoned, and LD50 was not found. The maximum tolerated dose of Zuotai was 80 g x kg(-1). In the subacute toxicity test, Zuotai could reduce ALT, AST, Crea levels in serums under low dose (13.34 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and medium dose (53.36 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), with significant difference under low dose, and increase the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, Crea in serums under high dose (2 000 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)); besides, the levels of BUN and GSH in serums reduced with the increase in dose of Zuotai, indicating a significant dose-effect relationship. In the one-time administration distribution experiment, the content of mercury in rat kidney, liver and lung increased after the one-time administration with Zuotai, with a significant dose-dependent relationship in kidney. In the long-term mercury accumulative toxicity experiment, KM mice were administered with equivalent doses of Zuotai for 4.5 months and then stopped drug administration for 1.5 months. Since the 2.5th month, they showed significant mercury accumulation in kidney, which gradually reduced after drug withdrawal, without significant change in mercury content in liver, spleen and brain and ALT, AST, TBIL, BUN and Crea in serum. At the 4.5th month after drug administration, KM mice showed slight structural changes in kidney, liver and spleen tissues, and gradually recovered to normal after drug withdrawal. Besides, no significant difference in weight gain was found between the Zuotai group and the control group. According to the findings of the clinical safety study of Dangzuo, after subjects administered Dangzuo under clinical dose for one month, their serum biochemical indicators, blood routine indicators and urine routine indicators showed no significant adverse change. This study proved that traditional Tibetan medicine Zuotai was slightly toxic, with a better safety in clinical combined administration and no adverse effects on bodies under the clinical dose and clinical medication cycle. However, long-term high-dose administration of Zuotai may have a certain effect on kidney. PMID:25276985

  7. Naja naja karachiensis envenomation: biochemical parameters for cardiac, liver, and renal damage along with their neutralization by medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ubaid, Muhammad; Durr-e-Sabih; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Rubada; Mahmood, Qaisar; Ansari, Muhammad Muzzmil; Karim, Sabiha; Mehmood, Zahid; Hussain, Izhar

    2014-01-01

    Naja naja karachiensis envenomation was found to hit more drastically heart, liver, and kidneys. 400 ?g/kg of venom-raised moderate serum levels of ALT (72 ± 4.70 U/L, 0.1 > P > 0.05), AST (157 ± 24.24 U/L, 0.1 > P > 0.05), urea (42 ± 3.08 mg/dL, 0.05 > P > 0.02), creatinine (1.74 ± 0.03 mg/dL, 0.01 > P > 0.001), CK-MB (21 ± 1.5 U/L, 0.05 > P > 0.02), and LDH (2064 ± 15.98 U/L, P < 0.001) were injected in experimental rabbits. However, lethality was enhanced with 800 ?g/kg of venom in terms of significant release of ALT (86 ± 5.0 U/L, 0.05 > P > 0.02), AST (251 ± 18.2 U/L, 0.01 > P > 0.001), urea (57.6 ± 3.84 mg/dL, 0.02 > P > 0.01), creatinine (2.1 ± 0.10 mg/dL, 0.02 > P > 0.01), CK-MB (77 ± 11.22 U/L, 0.05 > P > 0.02), and LDH (2562 ± 25.14 U/L, P ? 0.001). Among twenty-eight tested medicinal plant extracts, only Stenolobium stans (L.) Seem was found the best antivenom (P > 0.5) compared to the efficacy of standard antidote (ALT = 52.5 ± 3.51 U/L, AST = 69.5 ± 18.55 U/L, urea = 31.5 ± 0.50 mg/dL, creatinine = 1.08 ± 0.02 mg/dL, CK-MB = 09 ± 0.85 U/L, and LDH = 763 ± 6.01 U/L). Other plant extracts were proved less beneficial and partly neutralized the toxicities posed by cobra venom. However, it is essential in future to isolate and characterize bioactive compound(s) from Stenolobium stans (L.) Seem extract to overcome the complications of snake bite. PMID:24877153

  8. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, M; Ozguner, M; Aydin, G; Gokalp, O

    2004-01-01

    The plant Mentha piperita, or peppermint, is commonly used in the treatment of loss of appetite, common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis, fever, nausea and vomiting, and indigestion as a herbal agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate biochemical and histological effects of M. piperita Labiatae, growing in the Yenisar Bademli town of Isparta city, and Mentha spicata Labiatae, growing in the Anamas high plateau of the Yenisar Bademli town, on the rat liver tissue. Forty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used for this study. Rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals: Group I received no herbal tea (control group); Group II received 20 g/L M. piperita tea; Group III received 20 g/L M. spicata tea; and Group IV received 40 g/L M. spicata tea. Herbal teas were prepared daily and provided at all times to the rats during 30 days as drinking water. Liver function tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) activities were measured. To evaluate liver antioxidant defences, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities were determined in the homogenates of liver tissue. In addition, liver tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination. AST and ALT activities were increased in Group II, Group III and Group IV gradually when compared with the control group. The difference between Group II and the control group was not statistically significant (P > 0.016). Increases in AST and ALT activities of Group III and Group IV were statistically significant when compared with the control group. SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities were increased in Group II when compared with the control group but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.016). However, SOD, GSH-Px activities and the TBARS level were significantly increased, and CAT activity was significantly decreased in Group III when compared with the control group. In Group IV, while SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities were decreased, the TBARS level was increased as compared with the control group (P < 0.0016). Histopathological evaluation of experimental groups revealed a mild to severe degree of hepatic damage when compared to the control group. In Group II, there was only minimal hepatocytes degeneration. In Groups III and IV, there were granular or ballooning hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, sinusoidal and central vein dilatation. It was concluded that lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage occurs after M. piperita and M. spicata administration in rat liver and the damage seems to be dose dependent. PMID:15027812

  9. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-03-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model control. Compared with the model group, CMCS and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly improved serum ALT/AST, attenuated hepatic inflammation and improved peroxidative injury in liver, decreased MMP-2/9 activities in liver tissue, improved integration of scaffold structure, and decreased protein expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. CMCS could protect LSECs from injury and maintain the microvasculature integration in acute injured liver of mice induced by LPS/D-GalN. Its action mechanism was associated with the down-regulation of MMP-2/9 activities and inhibition of peroxidation in injured liver. PMID:24442316

  10. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride?induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Ning; Chen, Ni-Wei; Shen, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Xiang-Yun; Zhang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)?induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL?propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine???lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that endogenous H2S is associated with CCl4?induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, and may exhibit anti?fibrotic effects. Furthermore, H2S reduced the liver expression levels of AGTR1, which may be associated with the delayed progression of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26034979

  11. Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Silibinin Against Diazinon Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free-Radical Damage in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Beydilli, Halil; Yilmaz, Nigar; Cetin, Esin Sakalli; Topal, Yasar; Celik, Ozgur Ilhan; Sahin, Cem; Topal, Hatice; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Sozen, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diazinon (0,0-Diethyl 0-(1-6-methyl-2-isoprophyl 4 pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate) (DI) is a very effective organophosphate pesticide, used widely in agriculture. Consequently, data on poisoning cases secondary to DI exposure are important. The DI may affect a variety of tissues, including liver. Silibinin is a pharmacologically active constitute of Silybum marianum, with documented antioxidant activity. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate both histopathologically and biochemically whether silibinin is protective in DI induced liver damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group - oral corn oil was given; 2) DI group - rats were administered orally 335 mg/kg in the corn oil solution; 3) Silibinin group - 100 mg/kg/day silibinin was given alone orally, every 24 hours for 7 days; 4) Silibinin + DI group - DI plus silibinin was given. All rats were sacrificed at the end of experiment. Superoxide dismutases (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were investigated in serum and liver tissue. In addition, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities were evaluated. The liver tissue was evaluated histopathologically with Hematoxilin & Eosin dye. Results: Biochemically, ALT, AST, NO, MPO in serum and NO, MPO in liver tissue were found to be significantly higher in DI group, compared to control group (P < 0.001). In Group Silibinin + DI, serum AST, ALT, NO, MPO levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01), and both serum and tissue SOD activities were significantly higher, compared to DI group (P < 0.001). Diazinon induced histopathological changes in liver tissue were: severe sinusoidal dilatation, moderate disruption of the radial alignment of hepatocytes around the central vein, severe vacuolization in the hepatocyte cytoplasm, inflammation around central vein and portal region. In rats receiving both DI and silibinin, the DI induced changes accounted for less sinusoidal dilatation, vacuolization in the hepatocyte cytoplasm and the inflammation around central vein and portal region (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The DI was found to induce liver damage by oxidative stress mechanisms. Silibinin reduced the oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant mechanisms, thereby showing protective effect against DI induced liver damage. Further studies with silibinin should be performed regarding DI toxicity. PMID:26023342

  12. Interaction of occupational manganese exposure and alcohol drinking aggravates the increase of liver enzyme concentrations from a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over exposure to manganese (Mn) can damage the human central nervous system and potentially cause liver toxicity. Alcohol drinking is also one of the well-known harmful factors to hepatic organism. The interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption to liver function was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 1112 on-the-spot workers were included in the cross-sectional survey from a large scale of manganese exposed workers healthy cohort (MEWHC) in a ferro-manganese refinery company. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic information, occupational history, and alcohol drinking habits. Occupational health examination was carried out for each worker. The five key serum indices, including total bilirubin (TBILI), direct bilirubin (DBILI), indirect bilirubin (IBILI), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST), were determined to evaluate the liver function of each subject. Results Workers exposed to high levels of Mn had significantly elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes (DBILI: 3.84±1.20 ?mol/L, ALT: 27.04±19.12 IU/L, and AST: 29.96±16.68 IU/L), when compared to those in the low-exposure group (DBIL: 3.54±0.85 ?mol/L, ALT: 20.38±10.97 IU/L, and AST: 26.39±8.07 IU/L), all P<0.01. These serum indices had a significantly increasing trend with the elevation of Mn exposure level (Ptrend <0.01). In addition, the workers with alcohol drinking also showed higher concentrations of liver enzymes than those non-drinkers, especially, and there was significant interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption in terms of these three indices (P<0.001). Conclusions Occupational exposure to Mn can lead to a dose-dependent increase of liver enzyme concentrations, and interact with alcohol drinking to potentially aggravate the liver damage. It will be important for Mn exposed workers to control drinking and also assess liver function in the occupational health examination. PMID:23587294

  13. Ameliorating role of rutin on oxidative stress induced by iron overload in hepatic tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Aziza, Samy Ali Hussein; Azab, Mohammed El-Said; El-Shall, Soheir Kamal

    2014-08-01

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. Natural flavonoids, as rutin, are well-known antioxidants and could be efficient protective agents. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective influence of rutin supplementation to improve rat antioxidant systems against IOL-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided to three equal groups. The first group, the control, the second group, iron overload group, the third group was used as iron overload+rutin group. Rats received six doses of ferric hydroxide polymaltose (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one dose every two days, by intraperitoneal injections (IP) and administrated rutin (50 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one daily oral dose until the sacrificed day. Blood samples for serum separation and liver tissue specimens were collected three times, after three, four and five weeks from the onset of the experiment. Serum iron profiles total iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), transferrin (Tf) and Transferrin Saturation% (TS%)}, ferritin, albumin, total Protein, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were determined. Moreover, total iron in the liver, L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA), glutathione (GSH), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Total Nucleic Acid (TNA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also determined. The obtained results revealed that, iron overload (IOL) resulted in significant increase in serum iron, TIBC, Tf, TS% and ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and also increased liver iron, L-MDA and NO levels. Meanwhile, it decreased serum UIBC, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, albumin, total protein and liver GSH, TNA levels and Gpx, CAT and SOD activities when compared with the control group. Rutin administration to iron-overloaded rats resulted in significant decrease in serum total iron, TIBC, Tf, TS%, ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and liver total iron, L-MDA and NO levels with significant increases in serum UIBC, albumin, total protein and total cholesterol levels and in liver GSH, CAT and SOD activities compared with the IOL group. This study provides in vivo evidence that rutin administration can improve the antioxidant defense systems against IOL-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats. This protective effect in liver of iron-loaded rats may be due to both antioxidant and metal chelation activities. PMID:26031015

  14. Honey ameliorates influence of hemorrhage and food restriction on renal and hepatic functions, and hematological and biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Akmal, Mohammod; Al-Waili, Faiza; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Ali, Amjed

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the effects of various diets, including total food restriction with 50% honey feeding, total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding or adlibitum (control group) commercial regular diet, on the hematology and biochemical variables, and to assess the effects of the various diets on the influence of acute blood loss on the same parameters. Thirty Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups, 10 rats each: group A, fed a commercial regular diet; group B, total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding; and group C, total food restriction with 50% honey feeding. After 8 days of feeding, rats were subjected to acute blood loss (6 ml/kg) and blood investigations were performed. After acute blood loss, the same feedings were continued for a further 8 days and the blood tests were repeated at day 8 post-bleeding. Total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding compared with commercial regular diet reduces hematological and biochemical variables. Total food restriction with 50% honey feeding compared with total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding causes a greater reduction in fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and triacylglycerol. Acute blood loss causes elevation of white blood cells, lymphocyte percentage, fasting blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase and triacylglycerol, and a reduction in serum albumen, protein, cholesterol, AST, serum creatinine and hemoglobin; the results are significant (P<0.05) concerning fasting blood glucose, AST, alkaline phosphatase, serum albumin and protein. A significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, white blood cells, BUN, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and triacylglycerol, and a significant elevation of hemoglobin and serum albumin are obtained after acute blood loss in rats on total food restriction with 50% honey feeding as compared with the other two groups. Total food restriction with 50% honey feeding increases serum albumin, serum protein, fasting blood glucose, and causes lower reduction in hemoglobin as compared with the other groups. Conclusively, honey feeding during total food restriction significantly modifies and ameliorates biochemical and hematological changes observed after acute blood loss. This will pave the way to use honey as part of bleeding management and during a food restriction regimen. PMID:17135025

  15. CASE REPORT: Remote Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Type B Serologically Cured for HBs Antigenemia with Long-Standing Normalization of ALT Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shogo Okoshi; Masato Igarashi; Takeshi Suda; Hiroshi Iwamatsu; Kohji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Ishihara; Norio Ogata; Minoru Nomoto; Toru Takahashi; Takafumi Ichida; Hitoshi Asakura; Koei Nihei; Isao Kurosaki

    2002-01-01

    Serological viral markers of chronic hepatitis B viral infection display a dynamic expression pattern. The first is the HBeAg-positive stage, when virus actively replicates. After active inflammation, triggered by host immune pressure, occurs to eliminate the virus, most patients shift to the HBeAb-positive stage, when levels of HBV DNA generally decrease. In later years, the clearance of HBsAg occurs in

  16. Performance analysis of MBOC, AltBOC and BOC modulations in terms of multipath effects on the carrier tracking loop within GNSS receivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Fantino; Gianluca Marucco; Paolo Mulassano; Marco Pini

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the work is the evaluation of the impact of new modulation strategies foreseen for the galileo signal in space (SIS) on the carrier tracking operation within the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receiver (namely frequency locked loop (FLL)\\/phase locked loop (PLL)) in presence of multipath. Although multipath has more relevant effects in term of measurement errors on

  17. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Corte, A.; Corato, V.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Muzzi, L.; Polli, G. M.; Reccia, L.; Turtù, S.; Bruzzone, P.; Salpietro, E.; Vostner, A.

    2010-04-01

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb3Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb3Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  18. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. della Corte; V. Corato; A. Di Zenobio; C. Fiamozzi Zignani; L. Muzzi; G. M. Polli; L. Reccia; S. Turtù; P. Bruzzone; E. Salpietro; A. Vostner

    2010-01-01

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance,

  19. Positional Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, a Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum: Toward the Identification of the Molecular and Physiological basis of Allelic effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint for agriculture on acid soils, which comprise over half of the world’s potentially arable lands. However, the molecular basis underlying the most accepted tolerance mechanism based on Al-induced organic acid release by root apices, is only now being elucidate...

  20. 302014-15 Suggested Course Plan asTRonauTICal engIneeRIng

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    ASTE 280: Astronautics & Space Environment I ASTE 301A: Thermal and Statistical Systems I ASTE 301B: Thermal and Statistical Systems II ASTE 330: Astronautics & Space Environment II ASTE 421: Space MissionE 441Al: Senior Projects Laboratory AmE 451: Linear Control Systems I ASTE 101l: Intro. to Astronautics

  1. Safety Evaluation of Artocarpus altilis as Pharmaceutical Agent in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Sudha; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the acute toxicity of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark extracts. In acute toxicity study, no mortality or any toxic reaction was recorded in any group after 14 days of administering the extracts (2000?mg?Kg?1 BW). The extracts (ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM) did not cause any behavioural or physical changes in experimental rats. There was no significant (P ? 0.05) difference in the biochemical parameters analysed between the groups. Slight elevation in activities of AST and ALT in extract treated groups was observed, but this did not exert any deleterious effect on the normal metabolism which was supported by the histopathology of liver. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable changes after 14 days of oral administration of ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM extracts. The study contributes to establishing the nontoxic quality parameters of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark parts and the results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses. PMID:24803928

  2. Safety Evaluation of Artocarpus altilis as Pharmaceutical Agent in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Sudha; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the acute toxicity of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark extracts. In acute toxicity study, no mortality or any toxic reaction was recorded in any group after 14 days of administering the extracts (2000?mg?Kg(-1) BW). The extracts (ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM) did not cause any behavioural or physical changes in experimental rats. There was no significant (P ? 0.05) difference in the biochemical parameters analysed between the groups. Slight elevation in activities of AST and ALT in extract treated groups was observed, but this did not exert any deleterious effect on the normal metabolism which was supported by the histopathology of liver. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable changes after 14 days of oral administration of ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM extracts. The study contributes to establishing the nontoxic quality parameters of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark parts and the results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses. PMID:24803928

  3. Hepatic and intestinal changes in rats treated with T-0126, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki; Miwa, Satoko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yamada, Harutami; Nagata, Koichi; Toriumi, Wataru; Kitamura, Kazuyuki; Kume, Eisuke

    2007-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential toxic effects of 2-week oral treatment with T-0126, a novel microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, on the liver and intestine in male and female rats. Administration of T-0126 decreased serum lipids and resulted in fat accumulation in the liver and the small intestine. In addition, slight changes in the liver, including an increase in serum aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activity, presence of focal inflammatory lesions, and prolongation of PT and APTT were observed after treatment with T-0126. These changes may be related to a mechanism based on malabsorption of fat, fat-soluble antioxidants, and vitamin K, although we cannot exclude other potential mechanisms such as direct cytotoxicity of T-0126. PMID:17538240

  4. Effect of Nifedipine and S-Adenosylmethionine in the liver of rats treated with CCl[sub 4] and ethanol for one month

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrin, C.; Menino, J.M.; Otero, X.; Miguez, J.; Perez-becerra, E.; Barrio, E. (Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    An experimental model of toxic liver injury in rats was employed to assay the effect of Nifedipine (a calcium antagonist blocker) and S-Adenosylmethionine. An important decrease in both perivenular fibrosis and cirrhosis was found. Furthermore, a significant decrease in lactic acid levels was found in the group of animals treated with pharmacologic therapy, although no correlation was seen between lactic acid levels and the different degrees of perivenular fibrosis. No significant variations in ALT and AST enzymes were observed between both groups, as opposed to a significant decrease in LDH enzyme in the Nifedipine+S-Adenosylmethionine group. The results indicate an improvement in the histologic picture of the liver in rats treated by means of pharmacological association, without any change in inflammatory infiltrate and with a slight decrease in necrosis, indicating an action mechanism via creeping fibrosis.

  5. Country report: Clinical chemistry in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Satyawirawan, F S; Silman, E

    1999-01-01

    Seven hundred clinical laboratories in all over 27 provinces in Indonesia participated the Indonesian External Quality Assurance Scheme (Program Nasional Pemantapan Kualitas Laboratorium Kesehatan bidang Kimia Klinik). Among those laboratories, the government laboratory account for 288 (41%), and the rest 412 (59%) are private laboratories. Automatic analyzer was used by approximately 22% of the participating laboratories. Seventeen analytes were included in the program: bilirubin, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total protein, urea, uric acid, triglycerides, AST, ALT, calcium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-GT, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Using WHO scoring system, median overall VIS of 128 was obtained. It means that the all over performance was fairly good . Bilirubin got the best median VIS (33). Sodium (median VIS 177), potassium (162) and chloride (209) got the worst VIS compared to the other parameters. PMID:10926252

  6. [The role of growth factors in pathogenesis of hepatic lesions in patients with metabolic syndrome and chronic non-calculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Virstiuk, N G; Seniutovich, N R

    2013-01-01

    Clinical examination and biochemical studies revealed hepatic functional disorders in 30 (93.75 +/- 4.28%) of 32 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic non-calculous cholecystitis (NCC) and only in 3 (13.63 +/- 7.32%) of 22 patients with CC without MS. Most patients with CC and MS had elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and endothelial growth factor (EGF) suggesting activation of fibrotic processes. They were not significantly different from normal values in patients with CC without MS. Pair correlation analysis revealed the relationship between enhanced activity of the pathological process in the hepatobiliary system and increased FGF and EGS levels. It was confirmed by direct correlation between FGF. EGS levels and ALT, AST activities. Also, FGF and EGS levels were related to leptin and triglyceride levels as well as to HOMA-IR index. PMID:24437150

  7. Effects of traditional homemade koumiss on some hematological and biochemical characteristics in sedentary men exposed to exercise.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, N; K?sadere, ?; Balaban, C; Kadiralieva, N

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of koumiss on some hematological and biochemical characteristics of persons who exercise. Eighteen sedentary males were assigned to three equal groups: koumiss (K), koumiss + exercise (KE) and exercise alone (E). Leukocytes (WBC), differential leucocyte count, erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assessed In blood samples. By the end of the study, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels tended to decrease in all groups, but the decrease was significant only at day 15 for the KE group. HDL tended to be increased in all groups at day 15, but the increase was significant only in the KE group. We found that koumiss had beneficial effects on some hematological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:24893332

  8. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT. PMID:26064003

  9. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH) is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and bone marrow transplant (BMT). We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150?mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient's alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were decreased, 1200?U/L and 800?U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37?mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30?mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months. PMID:25374729

  10. The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Chang-Che; Wang, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl(4) by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1-5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced the liver damage including steatosis and fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, HSE significantly decreased the elevation in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also restored the decrease in glutathione content and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during CCl(4) treatment. In the primary culture, HSE also significantly inhibited the activation of the hepatic stellate cells. These results suggested that HSE may protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced fibrosis. This protective effect appears due to HSEs antioxidant properties. PMID:16176854

  11. Drug resistance evaluation of some commonly used anti-coccidial drugs in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harfoush, M A; Hegazy, A M; Soliman, A H; Amer, S

    2010-08-01

    The study investigated some anticoccidial resistance for Amprol, Toltrazuril and sulfaclozine in experimental infected broiler. Eimeria identification depended on necropsy and coproscopic examination. 140 day-old chicks allotted into 7 groups and infected with Eimeria in 2nd day of age. G1: neither infected nor treated (negative control), G2: infected but not treated (positive control), Infected and treated with toltrazuril (G3), or with Amprol+Allicin (G4), or with Amprol+ethobabate (G5), or with Amprol (G6) or with Sulfaclozine (G7). Eimeria infection caused decrease in body gain, total protein, albumin but increase in FCR, ALT, AST, Uric acid, Creatinine. Treatment decreased the harmful effect of infection but some significant differences were between infected treated groups and non infected non-treated one. PMID:21246941

  12. Effects of dietary Crotalaria pallida seeds on the health and performance of laying hens and evaluation of residues in eggs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Almeida, Leidy X; Gardner, Dale R

    2014-10-01

    The effect of three dietary concentrations of Crotalaria pallida (C. pallida) seeds (0, 1, 2, and 3% w/w) of their normal diet were investigated in commercial laying hens during a 35 day feeding trial. All concentrations of C. pallida decreased body weight and feed intake (P < 0.05). Egg mass production and average egg weight were decreased by feeding of ? 2% C. pallida seeds (P < 0.05). All concentrations of C. pallida increased relative lung weight and serum activity of ALT, AST and LDH (P < 0.05); 3% C. pallida seeds decreased liver weight (P < 0.05). Analysis of the C. pallida seeds for dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid content detected usaramine and its N-oxide at a total alkaloid concentration of 0.18% (dry weight). Usaramine was also detected in the eggs of all hens fed C. pallida seeds. PMID:25062989

  13. A point-of-care paper-based fingerstick transaminase test: towards low-cost “lab-on-a-chip” technology for the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nira R.; Colby, Donn; Rolland, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently great need for high-quality, low-cost, point-of-care diagnostics that can benefit patients in resource-limited settings, and correspondingly growing interest in the diagnostic utility of microfluidic platforms based on paper. We describe the development, early clinical testing, and potential clinical impact of a novel paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of AST and ALT in a fingerstick specimen. This device ultimately holds promise for providing universal access to affordable point-of-care screening for drug-induced liver injury in resource-limited settings, and opens the door to development of similar point-of-care clinical assays for other important analytes. PMID:23466712

  14. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of 2-(4-[(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino]-phenyl amino-methyl)-phenol in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sirasanagandla, Swapna; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Shaik, Abdul Nabi; Natava, Rajesh; Surtineni, Venkata Prasad; Cirradur, Suresh Reddy; Chippada, Apparao

    2013-08-01

    Oral administration of 2-(4-[(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino]-phenyl amino-methyl)-phenol (HBPMP) (30 mg/kg) to Streptozotocin (STZ) rats produced significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of HBPMP administration. Treatment of the STZ rats with HBPMP (30 mg/kg/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in their Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) along with an increase in serum High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Activities of Serum Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of blood urea and creatinine were improved to near normal levels in the treated STZ rats indicating the protective role of the HBPMP against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. In conclusion, HBPMP possesses antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. PMID:23827180

  15. [State of homeostasis links in the children with intestinal colic].

    PubMed

    Horlenko, O M; Dubinina, U H

    2014-11-01

    The state of homeostasis links in the children with intestinal colic is represented by the following parameters and clinical characteristics. The data of investigated children's contingent with intestinal colic prevailed by following comorbidities: SARS--12 (18.18% ± 4.78%), protein-energy malnutrition--9 (12.85% ± 3.82%), pneumonia--6 (8.57% ± 3.57%), atopic dermatitis--7 (10.00% ±.3.57%). All children have a next complaints: flatulence (100%), in the 62 children (88.57% ± 3.82%) were identificated frequent regurgitation, in the 48 (80.33%)--hyperbilirubinemia. ALT levels were elevated in 25 children (41%) and 31 (51.66%) children had increased levels of AST. IL8 level were elevated in the 40 children (71.42%). The level of antibodies to elastase was greatly increased in all 56 (100%) children. PMID:25528833

  16. EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF MARKER ENZYMES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Ragavan, B.; Krishnakumari, S.

    2005-01-01

    Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy. PMID:22557182

  17. Pharmacological evaluation of antihypertensive effect of aerial parts of Thymus linearis benth.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Haroon-Ur-Rash; Karim, Sabeha; Rasool, Shahid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Khan, Kifayatullah; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally Thymus linearis Benth. have been used for treatment of various diseases including hypertension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of aqueous methanolic extract of aerial parts of Thymus linearis Benth. in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Acute and subchronic studies were also conducted. The aqueous methanolic extract produced a significant decrease in SBP, DBP, MBP and heart rate of both normotensive and hypertensive rats. LDv, of the extract was found to be 3000 mg/kg. The extract also exhibited a reduction in serum ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels, while a significant increase in HDL level was observed. It is conceivable therefore, that Thymus linearis Benth. contains certain active compound(s) that are possibly responsible for the observed antihypertensive activity. Moreover, these findings further authenticate the traditional use of this plant in folklore medicine. PMID:25272894

  18. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) stem in the hepatic gene expression profile of normal mice using DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Im, Ryanghyok; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2008-12-01

    Kothala himbutu is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Kothala himbutu stem (KTE) in normal mice. The mice were divided into two groups: one was administered KTE and the other distilled water for 3 weeks. During the test period, the groups showed no significant differences in body weight gain or plasma parameters, such as fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, or aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that expression of genes of known function, such as those for the stress response, ribosomal proteins, transcription, cell function, the inflammatory/immune response, and metabolism (xenobiotic, glutathione, etc.) remained largely unaffected by KTE. However some genes such as catechol-o-methyltransferase and succinyl-CoA synthetase were regulated by KTE, indicating that KTE is not toxic to normal mice and might be effective as a functional food. PMID:19060410

  19. Purification and characterization of an antitumor polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huan; Tang, Guo; Zeng, Guang; Yang, Yongjin; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Dongli; Liu, Hongchen; Zhou, Ningxin

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component (POP) from Portulaca oleracea and found that it had pronounced anti-tumor effects in vivo model. Tumor weight, immune organ index and T lymphocyte subsets were employed to detect the immunoregulatory and antitumor effects of POP after administration. Hematological and biochemical analyses were also investigated in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects related to POP treatment. POP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable sarcoma 180 and potentiate the animal's immune responses including an increase in the number of white blood cell (WBC) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, as well as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+). Furthermore the serum aspartate transanimase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels in S180-bearing mice were significantly reversed by POP. Considering all these results, it is suggested that the anti-tumor effect elicited by POP could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. PMID:23499074

  20. HCV infection induces the upregulation of miR-221 in NF-?B dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cui-Ling; Xu, Gang; Ren, Hao; Zhao, Lan-Juan; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhong-Tian; Wang, Wen

    2015-01-22

    The upregulation of miR-221 has been reported in variety of cancer, including HCV associated HCC, the mechanism of upregulation of miR-221 however remains unclear. In this study, it was found that miR-221 was significantly upregulated in serum of patients with HCV associated chronic hepatitis (cHCV), which suggested the possible biological significance of miR-221 in HCV infection. Important, the upregulated miR-221 was positive correlation with serum miR-122, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), which are reported as biomarkers for liver injuries. Further studies indicated that HCVcc infection activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and the upregulation of miR-221 by HCVcc infection could totally blocked by NF-?B inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, PDTC). In conclusion, HCVcc infection could upregulate the expression of miR-221 in NF-?B dependent manner. PMID:25433287