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Sample records for enzymatic phosphoryl transfer

  1. Arginine coordination in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer: evaluation of the effect of Arg166 mutations in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Patrick J; Lassila, Jonathan Kyle; Fenn, Timothy D; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-07-22

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by approximately 3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 A X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state. PMID:18627128

  2. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase,

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Patrick J.; Lassila, Jonathan Kyle; Fenn, Timothy D.; Zalatan, Jesse G.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio-substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free-energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by ?3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 x-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme, but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state. PMID:18627128

  3. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.J.; Lassila, J.K.; Fenn, T.D.; Zalatan, J.G.; Herschlag, D.

    2009-05-22

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by {approx}3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 {angstrom} X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state.

  4. Theoretical Investigation of the Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer of β-phosphoglucomutase: Revisiting Both Steps of the Catalytic Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Elsasser, Brigitta M.; Dohmeier-Fischer, Silvia; Fels, Gregor

    2012-07-12

    Enzyme catalyzed phosphate transfer is a part of almost all metabolic processes. Such reactions are of central importance for the energy balance in all organisms and play important roles in cellular control at all levels. Mutases transfer a phosphoryl group while nucleases cleave the phosphodiester linkages between two nucleotides. The subject of our present study is the Lactococcus lactis β-phosphoglucomutase (β-PGM), which effectively catalyzes the interconversion of β-D-glucose-1-phosphate (β-G1P) to β- D-glucose-6-phosphate (β-G6P) and vice versa via stabile intermediate β-D-glucose-1,6-(bis)phosphate (β-G1,6diP) in the presence of Mg2+. In this paper we revisited the reaction mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer starting from the bisphosphate β-G1,6diP in both directions (toward β-G1P and β-G6P) combining docking techniques and QM/MM theoretical method at the DFT/PBE0 level of theory. In addition we performed NEB (nudged elastic band) and free energy calculations to optimize the path and to identify the transition states and the energies involved in the catalytic cycle. Our calculations reveal that both steps proceed via dissociative pentacoordinated phosphorane, which is not a stabile intermediate but rather a transition state. In addition to the Mg2+ ion, Ser114 and Lys145 also play important roles in stabilizing the large negative charge on the phosphate through strong coordination with the phosphate oxygens and guiding the phosphate group throughout the catalytic process. The calculated energy barrier of the reaction for the β-G1P to β-G1,6diP step is only slightly higher than for the β-G1,6diP to β-G6P step (16.10 kcal mol-1 versus 15.10 kcal mol-1) and is in excellent agreement with experimental findings (14.65 kcal mol-1).

  5. The substrate reactivity of mu-monothiopyrophosphate with pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase: evidence for a dissociative transition state in enzymatic phosphoryl group transfer.

    PubMed

    Halkides, C J; Lightcap, E S; Frey, P A

    1991-10-22

    mu-Monothiopyrophosphate (MTP), an analogue of pyrophosphate (PPi) with sulfur in place of oxygen in the bridge position, is a substrate for the enzyme pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase. At pH 9.4 and 6 degrees C, the maximal velocity for the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) by MgMTP is about 2.8% of that with MgPPi as the phosphoryl donor. The kinetic mechanism is equilibrium random with rate-limiting transformation of the substrate ternary complex to the product when either MgMTP or MgPPi is the phosphoryl donor. This is known from independent studies to be kinetic mechanism at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C [Bertagnolli, B. L., & Cook, P. F. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 4101-4108]. The dissociation constant of MgPPi is 14 microM, that of MgMTP is 64 microM, and that of F6P from the enzyme is about 5 mM. The Km values for MgPPi and MgMTP are 14.5 and 173 microM, respectively. MgMTP competes with MgPPi for binding to the enzyme. The values of kcat are 3.4 s-1 and 140 s-1 for MgMTP and MgPPi, respectively, at pH 9.4 and 6 degrees C. The estimated rate enhancement factors are 3.6 x 10(5) and 1.4 x 10(14) for the reactions of MgMTP and MgPPi, respectively. Therefore, MgMTP is a reasonably good substrate for PPi-dependent PKF, on the basis of comparisons of kcat. However, the rate enhancement factors show that the enzyme is a poor catalyst for the reaction of MgMTP. Lesser enzymatic catalysis in the reaction of MgMTP compared with MgPPi is largely compensated for by the greater intrinsic reactivity of MgMTP. Thus, the larger substrate MgMTP is well accommodated in the active site, and the dissociative reaction of MgMTP is well accommodated in the transition state. The results are interpreted to indicate a dissociative transition state for phosphoryl group transfer by PPi-dependent PFK. A modified synthesis and purification of MTP are described, in which (trimethylsilyl)trifluoromethanesulfonate and tetra-N-butylammonium iodide are used in place of iodotrimethylsilane to dealkylate tetramethyl-MTP. PMID:1657145

  6. Phosphorylated aminosugars: Synthesis, properties, and reactivity in enzymatic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sem, D.S.; Cleland, W.W. )

    1991-05-21

    A number of phosphorylated aminosugars have been prepared and tested as substrates for metabolic reactions. 6-Aminoglucose is a slow substrate for yeast hexokinase with a V{sub max} that is only 0.012% that of glucose. While V{sub max} is pH independent, V/K decreases below the pK of 9.0 of the amino group. 6-Aminoglucose is a competitive inhibitor vs glucose with a K{sub i} value increasing below the pK of 9 but leveling off at 33 mM below pH 7.16. Thus, protonation decreases binding affinity by 2.4 kcal/mol and only the neutral amine is catalytically competent. 6-Aminoglucose-6-P was synthesized enzymatically with hexokinase. Its pK's determined by {sup 31}P NMR were 2.46 and 8.02 ({alpha} anomer) and 2.34 and 7.85 ({beta} anomer), with a {beta}:{alpha} ratio of 3.0. It is most stable at pH 12, while as a monoanion its half-life is 3 h. The {sup 31}P NMR chemical shifts of the analogues are 8-8.5 ppm at pH 9.5. Their relative stability is 6-aminogluconate-6-P > 3-aminoglyceraldehyde-3-P > 6-aminoglucose-6-P > 6-aminofructose-1,6-bis-P{approx equal}6-aminofructose-6-P > 5-aminoribulose-5-P. These analogues were tested as substrates for their respective enzymes. Phosphorylated aminosugars are thus excellent isosteric analogues of normal metabolic intermediates, except for reactions catalyzed by kinases.

  7. Enzymatic phosphorylation of hair keratin enhances fast adsorption of cationic moieties.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The current study describes the in vitro phosphorylation of a human hair keratin, using protein kinase for the first time. Phosphorylation of keratin was demonstrated by (31)P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) techniques. Phosphorylation induced a 2.5 fold increase of adsorption capacity in the first 10min for cationic moiety like methylene blue (MB). Thorough description of MB adsorption process was performed by several isothermal models. Reconstructed fluorescent microscopy images depict distinct amounts of dye bound to the differently treated hair. The results of this work suggest that the enzymatic phosphorylation of keratins might have significant implications in hair shampooing and conditioning, where short application times of cationic components are of prime importance. PMID:26756110

  8. Biological Phosphoryl-Transfer Reactions: Understanding Mechanism and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Jonathan K.; Zalatan, Jesse G.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoryl-transfer reactions are central to biology. These reactions also have some of the slowest nonenzymatic rates and thus require enormous rate accelerations from biological catalysts. Despite the central importance of phosphoryl transfer and the fascinating catalytic challenges it presents, substantial confusion persists about the properties of these reactions. This confusion exists despite decades of research on the chemical mechanisms underlying these reactions. Here we review phosphoryl-transfer reactions with the goal of providing the reader with the conceptual and experimental background to understand this body of work, to evaluate new results and proposals, and to apply this understanding to enzymes. We describe likely resolutions to some controversies, while emphasizing the limits of our current approaches and understanding. We apply this understanding to enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer and provide illustrative examples of how this mechanistic background can guide and deepen our understanding of enzymes and their mechanisms of action. Finally, we present important future challenges for this field. PMID:21513457

  9. Biological phosphoryl-transfer reactions: understanding mechanism and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Jonathan K; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoryl-transfer reactions are central to biology. These reactions also have some of the slowest nonenzymatic rates and thus require enormous rate accelerations from biological catalysts. Despite the central importance of phosphoryl transfer and the fascinating catalytic challenges it presents, substantial confusion persists about the properties of these reactions. This confusion exists despite decades of research on the chemical mechanisms underlying these reactions. Here we review phosphoryl-transfer reactions with the goal of providing the reader with the conceptual and experimental background to understand this body of work, to evaluate new results and proposals, and to apply this understanding to enzymes. We describe likely resolutions to some controversies, while emphasizing the limits of our current approaches and understanding. We apply this understanding to enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer and provide illustrative examples of how this mechanistic background can guide and deepen our understanding of enzymes and their mechanisms of action. Finally, we present important future challenges for this field. PMID:21513457

  10. Mapping Sites of Protein Phosphorylation by Mass Spectrometry Utilizing a Chemical-Enzymatic Approach: Characterization of Products from α-S1Casein Phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Daniel J.; Holmes, Michael W.; Muddiman, David C.; Madden, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    A novel chemical-enzymatic approach was developed to facilitate identification of phosphorylation sites in isolated phosphoproteins. ESI–TOF mass spectrometry was used to characterize products from the chemical-enzymatic cleavage of specific phosphorylation sites in bovine α-S1 casein and synthetic phosphopeptides containing substitutions at a single phosphorylation site. Further refinements to this approach for identification of protein phosphorylation sites and its utility for the quantification of phosphopeptides by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry are presented. PMID:15822919

  11. Common Hydrogen Bond Interactions in Diverse Phosphoryl Transfer Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Summerton, Jean C.; Martin, Gregory M.; Evanseck, Jeffrey D.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoryl transfer reactions figure prominently in energy metabolism, signaling, transport and motility. Prior detailed studies of selected systems have highlighted mechanistic features that distinguish different phosphoryl transfer enzymes. Here, a top-down approach is developed for comparing statistically the active site configurations between populations of diverse structures in the Protein Data Bank, and it reveals patterns of hydrogen bonding that transcend enzyme families. Through analysis of large samples of structures, insights are drawn at a level of detail exceeding the experimental precision of an individual structure. In phosphagen kinases, for example, hydrogen bonds with the O3? of the nucleotide substrate are revealed as analogous to those in unrelated G proteins. In G proteins and other enzymes, interactions with O3? have been understood in terms of electrostatic favoring of the transition state. Ground state quantum mechanical calculations on model compounds show that the active site interactions highlighted in our database analysis can affect substrate phosphate charge and bond length, in ways that are consistent with prior experimental observations, by modulating hyperconjugative orbital interactions that weaken the scissile bond. Testing experimentally the inference about the importance of O3? interactions in phosphagen kinases, mutation of arginine kinase Arg280 decreases kcat, as predicted, with little impact upon KM. PMID:25238155

  12. Donor interaction studies in phosphites, phosphates and oxyphosphoranes: Models for activated states of phosphoryl transfer enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Paul

    Higher coordination by donor atom interaction in phosphites and phosphates has until recently been a relatively unstudied aspect of phosphorus chemistry. The complexes involved are postulated as models for enzyme-phosphate substrates in phosphoryl transfer systems. Donor atoms employed in these compounds include sulfur and oxygen, which are typically present in enzyme residues at active sites of phosphoryl transfer enzymes. The degree of donor atom coordination is measured by the distance between the central phosphorus atom and the donor atom. This is reinforced by a measurement of the degree of distortion of the tetrahedron toward trigonal bipyramidal structures (in the case of phosphates) and pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal structures (in the case of phosphites). Hypercoordination by donor atom interaction in pentaoxyphosphoranes is well documented. Again, donor atoms used have included sulfur and oxygen. The degree to which the donor atom interacts with the phosphorus is obtained by measuring the distance between the two atoms and by the extent of distortion of the trigonal bipyramid toward an octahedral structure. These measurements are gathered from the molecular structures which are determined by X-ray crystallography. Other methods which are used for structure elucidation include sp1H and sp{31}P NMR spectroscopy. Six phosphites are synthesized, five of which contain the highly electronegative pentafluorophenoxy group. The effect of this group and of the varying aryl substituents on the coordination abilities of sulfur and sulfonyl oxygen atoms is discussed. Also included for comparison are two phosphites which contain no donor atom coordination. Three phosphates are synthesized, one of which contains a pentafluorophenoxy group. The effect on donor coordination by placing a phosphoryl oxygen atom in place of a lone pair in the analogous phosphite structure is discussed. Twelve phosphoranes are synthesized, eight of which exhibit donor atom coordination and are octahedral while four shown no donor interaction and are trigonal bipyramidal. Of the hexacoordinate phosphoranes, five were prepared via oxidative addition of a quinone and two via displacement reactions of monocyclic pentaoxyphosphoranes. Penta- and hexacoordinate phosphoranes are considered as models for activated states for phosphoryl transfer enzymes. The effect on reaction rate of tighter binding in the six-coordinate enzymatic transition state relative to both the five-coordinate transition state and the enzyme-phosphate substrate is discussed. The reactivities of a series of known oxyphosphoranes with respect to nucleophilic displacement by catechols is also described. The effect of varying substituents and extent of donor coordination on reaction rates are discussed.

  13. Vibrationally enhanced tunneling as a mechanism for enzymatic hydrogen transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, W J; Bialek, W

    1992-01-01

    We present a theory of enzymatic hydrogen transfer in which hydrogen tunneling is mediated by thermal fluctuations of the enzyme's active site. These fluctuations greatly increase the tunneling rate by shortening the distance the hydrogen must tunnel. The average tunneling distance is shown to decrease when heavier isotopes are substituted for the hydrogen or when the temperature is increased, leading to kinetic isotope effects (KIEs)--defined as the factor by which the reaction slows down when isotopically substituted substrates are used--that need be no larger than KIEs for nontunneling mechanisms. Within this theory we derive a simple KIE expression for vibrationally enhanced ground state tunneling that is able to fit the data for the bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) system, correctly predicting the large temperature dependence of the KIEs. Because the KIEs in this theory can resemble those for nontunneling dynamics, distinguishing the two possibilities requires careful measurements over a range of temperatures, as has been done for BSAO. PMID:1420907

  14. Phosphoryl Transfer from ?-d-Glucose 1-Phosphate Catalyzed by Escherichia coli Sugar-Phosphate Phosphatases of Two Protein Superfamily Types

    PubMed Central

    Wildberger, Patricia; Pfeiffer, Martin; Brecker, Lothar; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The Cori ester ?-d-glucose 1-phosphate (?Glc 1-P) is a high-energy intermediate of cellular carbohydrate metabolism. Its glycosidic phosphomonoester moiety primes ?Glc 1-P for flexible exploitation in glucosyl and phosphoryl transfer reactions. Two structurally and mechanistically distinct sugar-phosphate phosphatases from Escherichia coli were characterized in this study for utilization of ?Glc 1-P as a phosphoryl donor substrate. The agp gene encodes a periplasmic ?Glc 1-P phosphatase (Agp) belonging to the histidine acid phosphatase family. Had13 is from the haloacid dehydrogenase-like phosphatase family. Cytoplasmic expression of Agp (in E. coli Origami B) gave a functional enzyme preparation (kcat for phosphoryl transfer from ?Glc 1-P to water, 40 s?1) that was shown by mass spectrometry to exhibit no free cysteines and the native intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys189 and Cys195. Enzymatic phosphoryl transfer from ?Glc 1-P to water in H218O solvent proceeded with complete 18O label incorporation into the phosphate released, consistent with catalytic reaction through O-1P, but not C-1O, bond cleavage. Hydrolase activity of both enzymes was not restricted to a glycosidic phosphomonoester substrate, and d-glucose 6-phosphate was converted with a kcat similar to that of ?Glc 1-P. By examining phosphoryl transfer from ?Glc 1-P to an acceptor substrate other than water (d-fructose or d-glucose), we discovered that Agp exhibited pronounced synthetic activity, unlike Had13, which utilized ?Glc 1-P mainly for phosphoryl transfer to water. By applying d-fructose in 10-fold molar excess over ?Glc 1-P (20 mM), enzymatic conversion furnished d-fructose 1-phosphate as the main product in a 55% overall yield. Agp is a promising biocatalyst for use in transphosphorylation from ?Glc 1-P. PMID:25527541

  15. PLD2 has both enzymatic and cell proliferation-inducing capabilities, that are differentially regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Henkels, Karen M.; Short, Stephen; Peng, Hong-Juan; Fulvio, Mauricio Di; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2009-11-13

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) overexpression in mammalian cells results in cell transformation. We have hypothesized that this is due to an increase of de novo DNA synthesis. We show here that overexpression of PLD2-WT leads to an increased DNA synthesis, as measured by the expression levels of the proliferation markers PCNA, p27{sup KIP1} and phospho-histone-3. The enhancing effect was even higher with phosphorylation-deficient PLD2-Y179F and PLD2-Y511F mutants. The mechanism for this did not involve the enzymatic activity of the lipase, but, rather, the presence of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45, as silencing with siRNA for CD45 abrogated the effect. The two Y{yields}F mutants had in common a YxN consensus site that, in the phosphorylated counterparts, could be recognized by SH2-bearing proteins, such as Grb2. Even though Y179F and Y511F cannot bind Grb2, they could still find other protein partners, one of which, we have reasoned, could be CD45 itself. Affinity purified PLD2 is indeed activated by Grb2 and deactivated by CD45 in vitro. We concluded that phosphorylated PLD2, aided by Grb2, mediates lipase activity, whereas dephosphorylated PLD2 mediates an induction of cell proliferation, and the specific residues involved in this newly discovered regulation of PLD2 are Y{sup 179} and Y{sup 511}.

  16. The residual enzymatic phosphorylation activity of hexokinase II mutants is correlated with glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Bloom, L M; Walsh, C T; Botstein, D

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants containing different point mutations in the HXK2 gene were used to study the relationship between phosphorylation by hexokinase II and glucose repression in yeast cells. Mutants showing different levels of hexokinase activity were examined for the degree of glucose repression as indicated by the levels of invertase activity. The levels of hexokinase activity and invertase activity showed a strong inverse correlation, with a few exceptions attributable to very unstable hexokinase II proteins. The in vivo hexokinase II activity was determined by measuring growth rates, using fructose as a carbon source. This in vivo hexokinase II activity was similarly inversely correlated with invertase activity. Several hxk2 alleles were transferred to multicopy plasmids to study the effects of increasing the amounts of mutant proteins. The cells that contained the multicopy plasmids exhibited less invertase and more hexokinase activity, further strengthening the correlation. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the phosphorylation activity of hexokinase II is correlated with glucose repression. Images PMID:2685572

  17. Phosphorylation of the calcium-transporting adenosinetriphosphatase by lanthanum ATP: Rapid phosphoryl transfer following a rate-limiting conformational change

    SciTech Connect

    Hanel, A.M.; Jencks, W.P. )

    1990-05-29

    The calcium-transport ATPase (CaATPase) of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum preincubated with 0.02 mM Ca{sup 2+} ({sup c}E{center dot}Ca{sub 2}) is phosphorylated upon the addition of LaCl{sub 3} and ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP with an observed rate constant of 6.5 s{sup {minus}1}. La{center dot}ATP binds to {sup c}E{center dot}Ca{sub 2} while ATP, Ca{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} dissociate from {sup c}E{center dot}Ca{sub 2}{center dot}La{center dot}ATP at {le}1 s{sup {minus}1}. The reaction of ADP with phosphoenzyme (EP) formed from La{center dot}ATP is biphasic. An initial rapid loss of EP is followed by a slower first-order disappearance, which proceeds to an equilibrium mixture of EP{center dot}ADP and nonphosphorylated enzyme with bound ATP. The fraction of EP that reacts in the burst ({alpha}) and the first-order rate constant for the slow phase (k{sub b}) increase proportionally with increasing concentrations of ADP to give maximum values of 0.35 and 65 s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, at saturating ADP. The burst represents rapid phosphoryl transfer and demonstrates that ATP synthesis and hydrolysis on the enzyme are fast. The phosphorylation of {sup c}E{center dot}Ca{sub 2} by La{center dot}ATP at 6.5 s{sup {minus}1} and the kinetics for the reaction of EP and ADP are consistent with a rate-limiting conformational change in both directions. The conformational change converts {sup c}E{center dot}Ca{sub 2}{center dot}La{center dot}ATP to the form of the enzyme that is activated for phosphoryl transfer. It is concluded that the reaction mechanism of the CaATPase is remarkably similar with Mg{center dot}ATP and La{center dot}ATP; however, the strong binding of La{center dot}ATP slows both the conformational change that is rate limiting for EP formation and the dissociation of La{center dot}ATP.

  18. Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction Snapshots in Crystals: INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM OF PROTEIN KINASE A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT.

    PubMed

    Gerlits, Oksana; Tian, Jianhui; Das, Amit; Langan, Paul; Heller, William T; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2015-06-19

    To study the catalytic mechanism of phosphorylation catalyzed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) a structure of the enzyme-substrate complex representing the Michaelis complex is of specific interest as it can shed light on the structure of the transition state. However, all previous crystal structures of the Michaelis complex mimics of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) were obtained with either peptide inhibitors or ATP analogs. Here we utilized Ca(2+) ions and sulfur in place of the nucleophilic oxygen in a 20-residue pseudo-substrate peptide (CP20) and ATP to produce a close mimic of the Michaelis complex. In the ternary reactant complex, the thiol group of Cys-21 of the peptide is facing Asp-166 and the sulfur atom is positioned for an in-line phosphoryl transfer. Replacement of Ca(2+) cations with Mg(2+) ions resulted in a complex with trapped products of ATP hydrolysis: phosphate ion and ADP. The present structural results in combination with the previously reported structures of the transition state mimic and phosphorylated product complexes complete the snapshots of the phosphoryl transfer reaction by PKAc, providing us with the most thorough picture of the catalytic mechanism to date. PMID:25925954

  19. A redox beginning: Which came first phosphoryl, acyl, or electron transfer ?. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic information available on the synthesis of prebiotic monomers and polymers will be examined in order to illuminate the prebiotic plausibility of polymer syntheses based on (a) phosphoryl transfer that yields phosphodiester polymers, (b) acyl transfer that gives polyamides, and (c) electron transfer that produces polydisulfide or poly(thio)ester polymers. New experimental results on the oxidative polymerization of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol by ferric ions on the surface of ferric hydroxide oxide will be discussed as a chemical model of polymerization by electron transfer. This redox polymerization that yields polymers with a polydisulfide backbone was found to give oligomers up to the 15-mer from 1 mM of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol after one day at 25 C. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the oligomers was carried out on an Alltech OH-100 column eluted with acetonitrile-water.

  20. Unblocking the Sink: Improved CID-Based Analysis of Phosphorylated Peptides by Enzymatic Removal of the Basic C-Terminal Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanucara, Francesco; Chi Hoo Lee, Dave; Eyers, Claire E.

    2013-12-01

    A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available.

  1. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Westereng, Bjørge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Jørgensen, Henning; Larsen Andersen, Mogens; Eijsink, Vincent G.H.; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic oxidation of cell wall polysaccharides by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) plays a pivotal role in the degradation of plant biomass. While experiments have shown that LPMOs are copper dependent enzymes requiring an electron donor, the mechanism and origin of the electron supply in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by long-range electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds new light on how oxidative enzymes present in plant degraders may act in concert. PMID:26686263

  2. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Westereng, Bjrge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Jrgensen, Henning; Larsen Andersen, Mogens; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic oxidation of cell wall polysaccharides by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) plays a pivotal role in the degradation of plant biomass. While experiments have shown that LPMOs are copper dependent enzymes requiring an electron donor, the mechanism and origin of the electron supply in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by long-range electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds new light on how oxidative enzymes present in plant degraders may act in concert. PMID:26686263

  3. Recombinant production of enzymatically active male contraceptive drug target hTSSK2 - Localization of the TSKS domain phosphorylated by TSSK2.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Jagathpala; Sinville, Rondedrick; Shumilin, Igor A; Minor, Wladek; Zhang, Jianhai; Hawkinson, Jon E; Georg, Gunda I; Flickinger, Charles J; Herr, John C

    2016-05-01

    The testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 2 (TSSK2) has been proposed as a candidate male contraceptive target. Development of a selective inhibitor for this kinase first necessitates the production of highly purified, soluble human TSSK2 and its substrate, TSKS, with high yields and retention of biological activity for crystallography and compound screening. Strategies to produce full-length, soluble, biologically active hTSSK2 in baculovirus expression systems were tested and refined. Soluble preparations of TSSK2 were purified by immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by gel filtration chromatography. The biological activities of rec.hTSSK2 were verified by in vitro kinase and mobility shift assays using bacterially produced hTSKS (isoform 2), casein, glycogen synthase peptide (GS peptide) and various TSKS peptides as target substrates. Purified recombinant hTSSK2 showed robust kinase activity in the in vitro kinase assay by phosphorylating hTSKS isoform 2 and casein. The ATP Km values were similar for highly and partially purified fractions of hTSSK2 (2.2 and 2.7 μM, respectively). The broad spectrum kinase inhibitor staurosporine was a potent inhibitor of rec.hTSSK2 (IC50 = 20 nM). In vitro phosphorylation experiments carried out with TSKS (isoform 1) fragments revealed particularly strong phosphorylation of a recombinant N-terminal region representing aa 1-150 of TSKS, indicating that the N-terminus of human TSKS is phosphorylated by human TSSK2. Production of full-length enzymatically active recombinant TSSK2 kinase represents the achievement of a key benchmark for future discovery of TSSK inhibitors as male contraceptive agents. PMID:26777341

  4. Rates and Routes of Electron Transfer of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Hydrogenase enzymes are being used in enzymatic fuel cells immobilized on a graphite or carbon electrode surface, for example. The enzyme is used for the anodic oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) to produce protons and electrons. The association and orientation of the enzyme at the anode electrode for a direct electron transfer is not completely resolved. The distal FeS-cluster in [NiFe]-hydrogenases contains a histidine residue which is known to play a critical role in the intermolecular electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase graphite electrode association was investigated using Brownian Dynamics simulations. Residues that were shown to be in proximity to the electrode surface were identified (His184, Ser196, Glu461, Glu464), and electron transfer routes connecting the distal FeS-cluster with the surface residues were investigated. Several possible pathways for electron transfer between the distal FeS-cluster and the terminal amino acid residues were probed in terms of their rates of electron transfer using DFT methods. The reorganization energies λ of the distal iron-sulfur cluster and coronene as a molecular model for graphite were calculated. The reorganization energy of the distal (His)(Cys)3 cluster was found to be not very different from that of a standard cubane clusters with a (Cys)4 coordination. Electronic coupling matrix elements and rates of electron transfer for the different pathways were calculated according to the Marcus equation. The rates for glutamate-mediated electrode binding were found to be incompatible with experimental data. A direct electron transfer from the histidine ligand of the distal FeS-cluster to the electrode yielded rates of electron transfer in excellent agreement with experiment. A second pathway, however, from the distal FeS-cluster to the Ser196 residue was found to be equally efficient and feasible. PMID:26218232

  5. The effect of some parameters of milk protein coagulation on the transfer of a commercial enzymatic preparation to cheese grain.

    PubMed

    Brakoniecka-Sikorska, A; Reps, A; Jankowska, A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of coagulation conditions of raw, skimmed and pasteurized milk on the transfer of commercial enzymatic preparations (Chymogen, Fromase and Hala) to cheese grain, was studied. It was found that the transfer degree of the above preparations was dependent on some coagulation parameters such as milk acidity and temperature. The duration of cheese grain retention did not have a significant effect on the transfer of the analyzed preparations. PMID:24757787

  6. Secondary sup 18 O isotope effects for hexokinase-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer from ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.; Weiss, P.M.; Cleland, W.W. )

    1991-04-16

    Secondary {sup 18}O isotope effects in the {gamma}-position of ATP have been measured on phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by yeast hexokinase in an effort to deduce the structure of the transition state. The isotope effects were measured by the remote-label method with the exocyclic amino group of adenine as the remote label. With glucose as substrate, the secondary {sup 18}O isotope effect per {sup 18}O was 0.9987 at pH 8.2 and 0.9965 at pH 5.3, which is below the pK of 6.15 seen in the V/K profile for MgATP. With the slow substrate 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, the value was 0.9976 at pH 8.2. While part of the inverse nature of the isotope effect may result from an isotope effect on binding, the more inverse values when catalysis is made more rate limiting by decreasing the pH or switching to a slower substrate suggest a dissociative transition state for phosphoryl transfer, in agreement with predictions from model chemistry. The {sup 18}O equilibrium isotope effect for deprotonation of HATP{sup 3{minus}} is 1.0156, while Mg{sup 2+} coordination to ATP{sup 4{minus}} does not appear to be accompanied by an {sup 18}O isotope effect larger than 1.001.

  7. Application of Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry in Analyses of Non-enzymatically Glycated Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Frolov, Andrej; Tang, Ning; Hoffman, Ralf; van der Goor, Tom; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-03-15

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in diabetes mellitus research, particularly in the context of development of diabetic complications. The fragmentation behavior of glycated peptides produced from reaction of D-glucose with lysine residues was investigated by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that high abundance ions corresponding to various degrees of neutral water losses, as well as furylium ion production, dominate the CID spectra, and that the sequence informative b and y ions were rarely observed when Amadori-modified peptides were fragmented. Contrary to what was observed under CID conditions, ions corresponding to neutral losses of water or furylium ion production were not observed in the ETD spectra. Instead, abundant and almost complete series of c and z type ions were observed regardless of whether the modification site was located in the middle of the sequence or close to the N-terminus, greatly facilitating the peptide sequencing. This study strongly suggests that ETD is a better technique for proteomics studies of non-enzymatically glycated peptides and proteins.

  8. Non-enzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes, uridine diphosphate glucose and cytidine diphosphate choline, and other phosphorylated metabolic intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mar, A.; Dworkin, J.; Oro, J.

    1987-01-01

    Using urea and cyanamide, the two condensing agents considered to have been present on the primitive earth, uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG), cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) were synthesized under simulated prebiotic conditions. The reaction products were separated and identified using paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, enzymatic analyses, and ion-pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The possibility of nonenzymatic synthesis of metabolic intermediates on the primitive earth from simple precursors was thus demonstrated.

  9. Transfer of Ser7 phosphorylated CENP-A from centromere to midbody during mitosis in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, R-M; Tian, X-Y; Huang, X-T; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    Serine 7 of centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a very important mitosis-specific phosphorylation site. In this study, we demonstrate the subcellular distribution of Ser7 phosphorylated CENP-A during mitosis in MCF-7 cells. The Ser7 phosphorylation of CENP-A was observed beginning at prophase at centromeres. Upon progression of mitosis, the fluorescence signals emerged in the central region of the metaphase plate and were maintained until anaphase at centromeres. At late anaphase, the fluorescence signals moved to the midzone gradually and transferred from the centromere to the midbody completely at telophase. They were compacted into the centre of the midbody in a thin cylinder consisting of a sandglass-like "mitotic machine" with microtubules and condensed chromosome. We also found that Ser10 phosphorylated H3 and Thr11 phosphorylated H3 were co-localized at the midbody in two bell-like symmetrical bodies with Ser7 phosphorylated CENP-A during the terminal stage of cytokinesis. Midbody isolation and immunoblotting experiments also indicated that Ser7 phosphorylated CENP-A are components of the midbody. These findings suggest that Ser7 phosphorylated CENP-A acts as a chromosomal passenger protein and may play an important role in cytokinesis. PMID:23890477

  10. Novel Architectures for Achieving Direct Electron Transfer in Enzymatic Biofuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaik, Rita A.

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are a promising source of alternative energy for small device applications, but still face the challenge of achieving direct electron transfer with high enzyme concentrations in a simple system. In this dissertation, methods of constructing electrodes consisting of enzymes attached to nanoparticle-enhanced substrates that serve as high surface area templates are evaluated. In the first method described, glucose oxidase is covalently attached to gold nanoparticles that are assembled onto genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage. The resulting anodes achieve a high peak current per area and a significant improvement in enzyme surface coverage. In the second system, fructose dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound enzyme that has the natural ability to achieve direct electron transfer, is immobilized into a matrix consisting of binders and carbon nanotubes to extend the lifetime of the anode. For the cathode, bilirubin oxidase is immobilized in a carbon nanotube and sol-gel matrix to achieve direct electron transfer. Finally, a full fuel cell consisting of both an anode and cathode is constructed and evaluated with each system described.

  11. Metal-Free cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Can Catalyze Phosphoryl Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    X-ray structures of several ternary product complexes of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc) have been determined with no bound metal ions and with Na+ or K+ coordinated at two metal-binding sites. The metal-free PKAc and the enzyme with alkali metals were able to facilitate the phosphoryl transfer reaction. In all studied complexes, the ATP and the substrate peptide (SP20) were modified into the products ADP and the phosphorylated peptide. The products of the phosphotransfer reaction were also found when ATP-γS, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, reacted with SP20 in the PKAc active site containing no metals. Single turnover enzyme kinetics measurements utilizing 32P-labeled ATP confirmed the phosphotransferase activity of the enzyme in the absence of metal ions and in the presence of alkali metals. In addition, the structure of the apo-PKAc binary complex with SP20 suggests that the sequence of binding events may become ordered in a metal-free environment, with SP20 binding first to prime the enzyme for subsequent ATP binding. Comparison of these structures reveals conformational and hydrogen bonding changes that might be important for the mechanism of catalysis. PMID:24786636

  12. Copper-containing monooxygenases: enzymatic and biomimetic studies of the O-atom transfer catalysis.

    PubMed

    Blain, Ingrid; Slama, Patrick; Giorgi, Michel; Tron, Thierry; Rglier, Marius

    2002-04-01

    This review reports our recent studies or the mechanism of O-atom transfer to a benzylic C-H bond promoted by Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase (DBH) and its biomimetic models. We demonstrate that it is possible to carry out parallel and comparative studies on this enzyme (DBH) and its biomimetic models with the same substrate: 2-aminoindane (3). It was chosen because its two stereogenic centers, both in benzylic positions, make it very powerful for studying the stereochemistry of an O-atom transfer reaction. DBH-catalyzed hydroxylation of 3 produced exclusively 14% of trans-(1S,2S)-2-amino-1-indanol (4) (93% ee). Studies with stereospecifically deuterium-labeled 2-aminoindanes (1R,2S)-3b and (1S,2S)-3a showed that the formation of 4 was the rcsult of an overall process with retention of configuration where an O-atom is stereospecifically inserted in the trans pro-S position of the substrate. With copper(I) and (II) complexes of IndPY2 ligands we studied the reaction with dioxygen and observed an O-atom transfer to a benzylic C-H bond which was performed in the same manner as that of DBH. With the deuterium-labeled cis-2-d-IndPY2 ligand, we demonstrated that the reaction occurs by a stereospecific process with retention of configuration. In both cases (enzymatic vs. biomimetic) the O-atom transfers occur in a two-step process involving radical intermediates. PMID:12069196

  13. Enzyme orientation for direct electron transfer in an enzymatic fuel cell with alcohol oxidase and laccase electrodes.

    PubMed

    Arrocha, Andrs A; Cano-Castillo, Ulises; Aguila, Sergio A; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2014-11-15

    A new full enzymatic fuel cell was built and characterized. Both enzymatic electrodes were molecularly oriented to enhance the direct electron transfer between the enzyme active site and the electrode surface. The anode consisted in immobilized alcohol oxidase on functionalized carbon nanotubes with 4-azidoaniline, which acts as active-site ligand to orientate the enzyme molecule. The cathode consisted of immobilized laccase on functionalized graphite electrode with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzoic acid. The enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol, while in short circuit the highest current intensity of 250 ?A cm(-2) was obtained with methanol. Concerning the power density, the methanol was the best substrate reaching 60 ?W cm(-2), while with ethanol 40 ?W cm(-2) was obtained. PMID:24953844

  14. Dynamic and steady state 1-D model of mediated electron transfer in a porous enzymatic electrode.

    PubMed

    Do, T Q N; Varni?i?, M; Flassig, R J; Vidakovi?-Koch, T; Sundmacher, K

    2015-12-01

    A 1-D mathematical model of a porous enzymatic electrode exhibiting the mediated electron transfer (MET) mechanism has been developed. As a model system, glucose oxidation catalyzed by immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) in the presence of a co-immobilized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) mediator in the porous electrode matrix has been selected. The balance equations for potential fields in the electron- and ion-conducting phases as well as concentration field have been formulated, solved numerically and validated experimentally under steady state conditions. The relevant kinetic parameters of the lumped reaction kinetics have been obtained by global optimization. The confidence intervals (CIs) of each parameter have been extracted from the respective likelihood. The parameter study has shown that the parameters related to mediator consumption/regeneration steps can be responsible for the shift of the reaction onset potential. Additionally, the model has shown that diffusion of the oxidized mediator out of the catalyst layer (CL) plays a significant role only at more positive potentials and low glucose concentrations. Only concentration profiles in different layers influence the electrode performance while other state fields like potential distributions in different phases have no impact on the performance. The concentration profiles reveal that all electrodes work through; the observed limiting currents are diffusion-reaction limiting. The normalized electrode activity decreases with an increase of enzyme loading. According to the model, the reason for this observation is glucose depletion along the CL at higher enzyme loadings. Comparison with experiments advices a decrease of enzyme utilization at higher enzyme loadings. PMID:26257008

  15. Mediation of donor–acceptor distance in an enzymatic methyl transfer reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianyu; Kulik, Heather J.; Martinez, Todd J.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic methyl transfer, catalyzed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), is investigated using binding isotope effects (BIEs), time-resolved fluorescence lifetimes, Stokes shifts, and extended graphics processing unit (GPU)-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approaches. The WT enzyme is compared with mutants at Tyr68, a conserved residue that is located behind the reactive sulfur of cofactor. Small (>1) BIEs are observed for an S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-binary and abortive ternary complex containing 8-hydroxyquinoline, and contrast with previously reported inverse (<1) kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). Extended GPU-based computational studies of a ternary complex containing catecholate show a clear trend in ground state structures, from noncanonical bond lengths for WT toward solution values with mutants. Structural and dynamical differences that are sensitive to Tyr68 have also been detected using time-resolved Stokes shift measurements and molecular dynamics. These experimental and computational results are discussed in the context of active site compaction that requires an ionization of substrate within the enzyme ternary complex. PMID:26080432

  16. Mediation of donor-acceptor distance in an enzymatic methyl transfer reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyu; Kulik, Heather J; Martinez, Todd J; Klinman, Judith P

    2015-06-30

    Enzymatic methyl transfer, catalyzed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), is investigated using binding isotope effects (BIEs), time-resolved fluorescence lifetimes, Stokes shifts, and extended graphics processing unit (GPU)-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approaches. The WT enzyme is compared with mutants at Tyr68, a conserved residue that is located behind the reactive sulfur of cofactor. Small (>1) BIEs are observed for an S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-binary and abortive ternary complex containing 8-hydroxyquinoline, and contrast with previously reported inverse (<1) kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). Extended GPU-based computational studies of a ternary complex containing catecholate show a clear trend in ground state structures, from noncanonical bond lengths for WT toward solution values with mutants. Structural and dynamical differences that are sensitive to Tyr68 have also been detected using time-resolved Stokes shift measurements and molecular dynamics. These experimental and computational results are discussed in the context of active site compaction that requires an ionization of substrate within the enzyme ternary complex. PMID:26080432

  17. Study of the Phosphoryl-Transfer Mechanism of Shikimate Kinase by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Prado, Vernica; Lence, Emilio; Vallejo, Juan A; Beceiro, Alejandro; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R; Gonzlez-Bello, Concepcin

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoryl-transfer mechanism of shikimate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori, which is an attractive target for antibiotic drug discovery, has been studied by 1D (1) H and (31) P?NMR spectroscopy. Metaphosphoric acid proved to be a good mimetic of the metaphosphate intermediate and facilitated the ready and rapid evaluation by NMR spectroscopic analysis of a dissociative mechanism. The required closed form of the active site for catalysis was achieved by the use of ADP (product) or two synthetic ADP analogues (AMPNP, AMPCP). Molecular dynamics simulation studies reported here also revealed that the essential arginine (Arg116/Arg117 in H. pylori and M. tuberculosis, respectively), which activates the ?-phosphate group of ATP for catalysis and triggers the release of the product for turnover, would also be involved in the stabilisation of the metaphosphate intermediate during catalysis. We believe that the studies reported here will be helpful for future structure-based design of inhibitors of this attractive target. The approach is also expected be useful for studies on the possible dissociative mechanism of other kinase enzymes. PMID:26797764

  18. Molecular basis of 1,6-anhydro bond cleavage and phosphoryl transfer by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase.

    PubMed

    Bacik, John-Paul; Whitworth, Garrett E; Stubbs, Keith A; Yadav, Anuj K; Martin, Dylan R; Bailey-Elkin, Ben A; Vocadlo, David J; Mark, Brian L

    2011-04-01

    Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase (AnmK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of the Gram-negative peptidoglycan (PG) recycling intermediate 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid (anhMurNAc) to N-acetylmuramic acid-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6-P). Here we present crystal structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AnmK in complex with its natural substrate, anhMurNAc, and a product of the reaction, ADP. AnmK is homodimeric, with each subunit comprised of two subdomains that are separated by a deep active site cleft, which bears similarity to the ATPase core of proteins belonging to the hexokinase-hsp70-actin superfamily of proteins. The conversion of anhMurNAc to MurNAc-6-P involves both cleavage of the 1,6-anhydro ring of anhMurNAc along with addition of a phosphoryl group to O6 of the sugar, and thus represents an unusual enzymatic mechanism involving the formal addition of H3PO4 to anhMurNAc. The structural complexes and NMR analysis of the reaction suggest that a water molecule, activated by Asp-182, attacks the anomeric carbon of anhMurNAc, aiding cleavage of the 1,6-anhydro bond and facilitating the capture of the ? phosphate of ATP by O6 via an in-line phosphoryl transfer. AnmK is active only against anhMurNAc and not the metabolically related 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl peptides, suggesting that the cytosolic N-acetyl-anhydromuramyl-l-alanine amidase AmpD must first remove the stem peptide from these PG muropeptide catabolites before anhMurNAc can be acted upon by AnmK. Our studies provide the foundation for a mechanistic model for the dual activities of AnmK as a hydrolase and a kinase of an unusual heterocyclic monosaccharide. PMID:21288904

  19. Aluminum coordination chemistry and the inhibition of phosphoryl-transferring enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Furumo, N.C.; Viola, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    Aluminium ion is a potent inhibitor of the enzymes hexokinase (K/sub i/ = 0.16 ..mu..M) and glycerokinase (K/sub i/ = 4.0 ..mu..M). It has been shown that aluminum forms a complex with ATP that is 80 times more stable than the magnesium complex with ATP which is the normal substrate for phosphoryl-transferring enzymes. Kinetic studies performed on several kinases at pH 7.0 have shown that Al-ATP is a competitive inhibitor vs. Mg-ATP with moderate K/sub i/ values (0.1-0.5 mM) for creatine kinase(CK) and myokinase(MK), and weakly competitive (K/sub i/ > 0.5 mM) with acetate, galactose, arginine and gluconate kinases. Equilibrium dialysis binding studies indicate no significant binding of aluminum ion by the enzymes, while the interaction of aluminum ion with ADP and ATP has been characterized by /sup 13/C, /sup 27/Al, and /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy. It appears that the inhibition by aluminum is as the Al-nucleotide complex rather than direct binding of free aluminum ion by the enzyme. Kinetic studies indicate that Al/sup 3 +/ inhibition of CK and MK is pH dependent with decreased values of K/sub i/ at lower pH. At pH 6.1 K/sub i/ = 25 ..mu..M for MK (160 ..mu..M at pH 7.0) and 53 ..mu..M for CK (240 ..mu..M at pH 7.0). This may be due to an increased effective concentration of aluminum ion at lower pH.

  20. Solution NMR of a 463-Residue Phosphohexomutase: Domain 4 Mobility, Substates, and Phosphoryl Transfer Defect

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Akella V.; Anbanandam, A.; Kelm, Allek; Mehra-Chaudhary, Ritcha; Wei, Yirui; Qin, Peiwu; Lee, Yingying; Berjanskii, Mark V.; Mick, Jacob A.; Beamer, Lesa J.; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2012-01-05

    Phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase contributes to the infectivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, retains and reorients its intermediate by 180, and rotates domain 4 to close the deep catalytic cleft. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the backbone of wild-type and S108C-inactivated enzymes were assigned to at least 90%. 13C secondary chemical shifts report excellent agreement of solution and crystallographic structure over the 14 ?-helices, C-capping motifs, and 20 of the 22 ?-strands. Major and minor NMR peaks implicate substates affecting 28% of assigned residues. These can be attributed to the phosphorylation state and possibly to conformational interconversions. The S108C substitution of the phosphoryl donor and acceptor slowed transformation of the glucose 1-phosphate substrate by impairing kcat. Addition of the glucose 1,6-bisphosphate intermediate accelerated this reaction by 2?3 orders of magnitude, somewhat bypassing the defect and apparently relieving substrate inhibition. The S108C mutation perturbs the NMR spectra and electron density map around the catalytic cleft while preserving the secondary structure in solution. Diminished peak heights and faster 15N relaxation suggest line broadening and millisecond fluctuations within four loops that can contact phosphosugars. 15N NMR relaxation and peak heights suggest that domain 4 reorients slightly faster in solution than domains 1?3, and with a different principal axis of diffusion. This adds to the crystallographic evidence of domain 4 rotations in the enzyme, which were previously suggested to couple to reorientation of the intermediate, substrate binding, and product release.

  1. Phosphorylation of membrane-bound guanylate cyclase of sea urchin spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ward, G E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    1986-07-01

    When Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are incubated in seawater containing ammonium hydroxide (pH 8.8), the sperm plasma membrane-bound guanylate cyclase is dephosphorylated, its electrophoretic mobility increases (from an apparent molecular mass of 160 to 150 kD), and its enzymatic activity decreases 3.5-fold. Transfer of these cells into ammonium-free seawater (pH 7.4) results in the rephosphorylation of the cyclase, its reconversion to 160 kD, and recovery of the enzymatic activity lost upon dephosphorylation. This is the first direct demonstration that the activity of membrane-bound guanylate cyclase can be regulated by phosphorylation. A plasma membrane preparation is described that specifically supports the in vitro phosphorylation of the guanylate cyclase. This preparation will be useful in more detailed studies on the relationship between phosphorylation state and enzymatic activity of membrane-bound guanylate cyclase. PMID:2873144

  2. Kinetic isotope effects as a probe of hydrogen transfers to and from common enzymatic cofactors.

    PubMed

    Roston, Daniel; Islam, Zahidul; Kohen, Amnon

    2014-02-15

    Enzymes use a number of common cofactors as sources of hydrogen to drive biological processes, but the physics of the hydrogen transfers to and from these cofactors is not fully understood. Researchers study the mechanistically important contributions from quantum tunneling and enzyme dynamics and connect those processes to the catalytic power of enzymes that use these cofactors. Here we describe some progress that has been made in studying these reactions, particularly through the use of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). We first discuss the general theoretical framework necessary to interpret experimental KIEs, and then describe practical uses for KIEs in the context of two case studies. The first example is alcohol dehydrogenase, which uses a nicotinamide cofactor to catalyze a hydride transfer, and the second example is thymidylate synthase, which uses a folate cofactor to catalyze both a hydride and a proton transfer. PMID:24161942

  3. Kinetic Isotope Effects as a Probe of Hydrogen Transfers to and from Common Enzymatic Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Daniel; Islam, Zahidul; Kohen, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes use a number of common cofactors as sources of hydrogen to drive biological processes, but the physics of the hydrogen transfers to and from these cofactors is not fully understood. Researchers study the mechanistically important contributions from quantum tunneling and enzyme dynamics and connect those processes to the catalytic power of enzymes that use these cofactors. Here we describe some progress that has been made in studying these reactions, particularly through the use of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). We first discuss the general theoretical framework necessary to interpret experimental KIEs, and then describe practical uses for KIEs in the context of two case studies. The first example is alcohol dehydrogenase, which uses a nicotinamide cofactor to catalyze a hydride transfer, and the second example is thymidylate synthase, which uses a folate cofactor to catalyze both a hydride and a proton transfer. PMID:24161942

  4. Cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complex protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul

    2012-01-01

    It has become appreciated over the last several years that protein phosphorylation within the cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complexes is extensive. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation and the balance of energy metabolism in the heart, the potential regulatory effect of these classical signaling events on mitochondrial function is of interest. However, the functional impact of protein phosphorylation and the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for it are relatively unknown. Exceptions include the well-characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase regulatory system. The first task of this review is to update the current status of protein phosphorylation detection primarily in the matrix and evaluate evidence linking these events with enzymatic function or protein processing. To manage the scope of this effort, we have focused on the pathways involved in energy metabolism. The high sensitivity of modern methods of detecting protein phosphorylation and the low specificity of many kinases suggests that detection of protein phosphorylation sites without information on the mole fraction of phosphorylation is difficult to interpret, especially in metabolic enzymes, and is likely irrelevant to function. However, several systems including protein translocation, adenine nucleotide translocase, cytochrome c, and complex IV protein phosphorylation have been well correlated with enzymatic function along with the classical dehydrogenase systems. The second task is to review the current understanding of the kinase/phosphatase system within the matrix. Though it is clear that protein phosphorylation occurs within the matrix, based on 32P incorporation and quantitative mass spectrometry measures, the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for this process is ill-defined. An argument is presented that remnants of the much more labile bacterial protein phosphoryl transfer system may be present in the matrix and that the evaluation of this possibility will require the application of approaches developed for bacterial cell signaling to the mitochondria. PMID:22886415

  5. Enzymatic catalysis and transfers in solution. I. Theory and computations, a unified view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, R. A.

    2006-11-01

    The transfer of hydride, proton, or H atom between substrate and cofactor in enzymes has been extensively studied for many systems, both experimentally and computationally. A simple equation for the reaction rate, an analog of an equation obtained earlier for electron transfer rates, is obtained, but now containing an approximate analytic expression for the bond rupture-bond forming feature of these H transfers. A "symmetrization," of the potential energy surfaces is again introduced [R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 679 (1965); J. Phys. Chem. 72, 891 (1968)], together with Gaussian fluctuations of the remaining coordinates of the enzyme and solution needed for reaching the transition state. Combining the two expressions for the changes in the difference of the two bond lengths of the substrate-cofactor subsystem and in the fluctuation coordinates of the protein leading to the transition state, an expression is obtained for the free energy barrier. To this end a two-dimensional reaction space (m,n) is used that contains the relative coordinates of the H in the reactants, the heavy atoms to which it is bonded, and the protein/solution reorganization coordinate, all leading to the transition state. The resulting expression may serve to characterize in terms of specific parameters (two "reorganization" terms, thermodynamics, and work terms), experimental and computational data for different enzymes, and different cofactor-substrate systems. A related characterization was used for electron transfers. To isolate these factors from nuclear tunneling, when the H-tunneling effect is large, use of deuterium and tritium transfers is of course helpful, although tunneling has frequently and understandably dominated the discussions. A functional form is suggested for the dependence of the deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) on ?G and a different form for the C13 KIE. Pressure effects on deuterium and C13 KIEs are also discussed. Although formulated for a one-step transfer of a light particle in an enzyme, the results would also apply to single-step transfers of other atoms and groups in enzymes and in solution.

  6. Enzymatic-induced upconversion photoinduced electron transfer for sensing tyrosine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiongqiong; Fang, Aijin; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports a novel nanosensor for tyrosine based on photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) between NaYF4:Yb, Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and melanin-like polymers. Melanin-like films were obtained from catalytic oxidation of tyrosine by tyrosinase, and deposited on the surface of UCNPs, and then quenched the fluorescence of UCNPs. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence quenching of UCNPs showed a good linear response to tyrosine concentration in the range of 0.8-100μΜ with a detection limit of 1.1μΜ. Meanwhile, it showed good sensitivity, stability and has been successfully applied to the detection of tyrosine in human serum. PMID:26544870

  7. Miniature direct electron transfer based sulphite/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, T; Pankratov, D; Falk, M; Leimkhler, S; Shleev, S; Wollenberger, U

    2015-04-15

    A direct electron transfer (DET) based sulphite/oxygen biofuel cell is reported that utilises human sulphite oxidase (hSOx) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOx) and nanostructured gold electrodes. For bioanode construction, the nanostructured gold microelectrodes were further modified with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid di(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester) to which polyethylene imine was covalently attached. hSOx was adsorbed onto this chemically modified nanostructured electrode with high surface loading of electroactive enzyme and in presence of sulphite high anodic bioelectrocatalytic currents were generated with an onset potential of 0.05V vs. NHE. The biocathode contained MvBOx directly adsorbed to the deposited gold nanoparticles for cathodic oxygen reduction starting at 0.71V vs. NHE. Both enzyme electrodes were integrated to a DET-type biofuel cell. Power densities of 8 and 1?Wcm(-2) were achieved at 0.15V and 0.45V of cell voltages, respectively, with the membrane based biodevices under aerobic conditions. PMID:25460879

  8. Photosystem II Core Phosphorylation Heterogeneity, Differential Herbicide Binding, and Regulation of Electron Transfer in Photosystem II Preparations from Spinach 1

    PubMed Central

    Giardi, Maria T.; Rigoni, Fernanda; Barbato, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    The effect of photosystem II core phosphorylation on the secondary quinone acceptor of photosystem II (QB) domain environment was analyzed by comparative herbicide-binding studies with photosystem II preparations from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). It was found that phosphorylation reduces the binding affinity for most photosynthetic herbicides. The binding of synthetic quinones and of the electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol is also reduced by photosystem II phosphorylation. Four photosystem II core populations isolated from membranes showed different extents of phosphorylation as well as different degrees of affinity for photosynthetic herbicides. These findings support the idea that heterogeneity of photosystem II observed in vivo could be, in part, due to phosphorylation. Images Figure 1 PMID:16653222

  9. Enzymic phosphoryl transfer to carbon and oxygen acceptors: An investigation of the biosynthesis of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in Tetrahymena pyriformis W. and the kinetic mechanism and cofactor controlled substrate specificity of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This research is concerned with the study of two enzymatic systems which catalyze phosphoryl transfer reactions to carbon and oxygen acceptors. The first portion of this study is concerned with the elucidation of the T. pyriformis 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) biosynthetic pathway. The de novo formation of AEP from exogenously added precursors in Tetrahymena cell-free preparations was evaluated by using radioisotopic techniques and NMR spectral analysis. Incubation of ({sup 32}P)-phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) with cell-free preparations yielded ({sup 32}P)-labelled material that was chromatographically identical to authentic phosphonopyruvate (p-pry). A reexamination of AEP biosynthesis was initiated. In the second portion of this study the kinetic mechanism of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) was examined by carrying-out initial velocity studies. Ca{sup 2+} and Rh(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} (methylenediphosphonate) (Rh(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}PCP) were used as dead-end inhibitors to study the order of binding of Cr(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}PP to the substrate site and Mg{sup 2+} to the low affinity activator site on the enzyme.

  10. Vibrational studies of phosphoryl transfer enzymes: ras- p21(*)magnesium-GTP and Myosin S1(*)magnesium-ADP- vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianghua

    1999-07-01

    We have measured the Raman spectra of monophosphate compounds in aqueous solution. The measured frequencies were correlated with PO valence bond order by using a modification of the Hardcastle- Wachs procedure. The PO bond order and bond length in phosphates can be determined from vibrational spectra by using the derived bond order/stretching frequency correlation and the bond length/bond order correlation of Brown and Wu. The Raman and infrared spectra of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) in aqueous solution were also examined. Frequency shifts were observed as Mg2+ complexes with GDP and GTP in aqueous solution. These results suggested that Mg2+ binds to GDP in a bidentate manner to the ?,? PO bonds and in a tridentate manner to the ?,? and ? PO bonds of MgGTP . We have analyzed the previously obtained isotope edited Raman difference spectra of 1:1 complexes of MgGDP and MgGTP in ras-p21. Frequency changes of the phosphate groups were observed when MgGDP , MgGTP bind to the protein. Employing both the previous empirical relationships between bond orders/lengths and frequencies as well as vibrational analysis from ab initio calculations, the spectral changes can be explained by the change of the Mg2+ binding sites and hydrogen-bonding. Implications of these structural results for the reaction mechanism of GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by the GTPase are discussed. We have analyzed previously obtained isotope edited Raman difference spectra of the non-bridging VO bonds of vanadates, both in solution, and when bound to the myosin S1MgADP complex. By use of ab initio calculations on a model of the vanadate binding site in myosin, the angles between the non-bridging VO bonds and between these bonds and the apical bonds in the myosin S1MgADP -Vi complex were determined. The summed bond order of the two apical bonds between the attacking and leaving group oxygens with the central vanadium ion in the S1MgADP -Vi complex was found to increase only slightly compared with the bond order of the ester V-O bond of a monoester vanadate model compound in solution, suggesting an SN2 like mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer reaction catalyzed by myosin.

  11. Biosynthesis of Rhizobium trifolii capsular polysaccharide: enzymatic transfer of pyruvate substitutions into lipid-bound saccharide intermediates.

    PubMed

    Gardiol, A E; Dazzo, F B

    1986-12-01

    The activity of capsular polysaccharide pyruvyltransferase catalyzing the pyruvylation of acidic heteropolysaccharide was measured in Rhizobium trifolii 843 and 0403 rif. This enzyme activity was determined with EDTA-treated cells, uridine diphosphate-sugar precursors, and phosphoenol [1-14C]pyruvate. Activity was measured by the incorporation of radioactivity into organic solvent-soluble glycoconjugates. Enzymatic pyruvylation of capsular polysaccharide occurred from phosphoenolpyruvate at the lipid-bound saccharide stage. PMID:3782043

  12. Biosynthesis of Rhizobium trifolii capsular polysaccharide: enzymatic transfer of pyruvate substitutions into lipid-bound saccharide intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Gardiol, A E; Dazzo, F B

    1986-01-01

    The activity of capsular polysaccharide pyruvyltransferase catalyzing the pyruvylation of acidic heteropolysaccharide was measured in Rhizobium trifolii 843 and 0403 rif. This enzyme activity was determined with EDTA-treated cells, uridine diphosphate-sugar precursors, and phosphoenol [1-14C]pyruvate. Activity was measured by the incorporation of radioactivity into organic solvent-soluble glycoconjugates. Enzymatic pyruvylation of capsular polysaccharide occurred from phosphoenolpyruvate at the lipid-bound saccharide stage. PMID:3782043

  13. Differential expression of a C-terminal splice variant of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein ? lacking the constitutive-phosphorylated Ser262 that localizes to the Golgi compartment

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, CliveP.; Allen-Baume, Victoria; Radulovic, Marko; Li, Michelle; Skippen, Alison; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian PITP? (phosphatidylinositol transfer protein ?) is a 272-amino-acid polypeptide capable of transferring PtdIns, PtdCho and SM (sphingomyelin) between membrane bilayers. It has been reported that Ser262 present in the C-terminus of PITP? is constitutively phosphorylated and determines Golgi localization. We provide evidence for the expression of an sp (splice) variant of PITP? (PITP?-sp2) where the C-terminal 15 amino acids of PITP?-sp1 are replaced by an alternative C-terminus of 16 amino acids. PITP?-sp1 is the product of the first 11 exons, whereas PITP?-sp2 is a product of the first 10 exons followed by the twelfth exon exon 11 being skipped. Both splice variants are capable of PtdIns and PtdCho transfer, with PITP?-sp2 being unable to transport SM. PITP? is ubiquitously expressed, with the highest amounts of PITP? found in HL60 cells and in rat liver; HL60 cells express only PITP?-sp1, whereas rat liver expresses both sp variants in similar amounts. In both cell types, PITP?-sp1 is constitutively phosphorylated and both the PtdIns and PtdCho forms of PITP?-sp1 are present. In contrast, PITP?-sp2 lacks the constitutively phosphorylated Ser262 (replaced with glutamine). Nonetheless, both PITP? variants localize to the Golgi and, moreover, dephosphorylation of Ser262 of PITP?-sp1 does not affect its Golgi localization. The presence of PITP? sp variants adds an extra level of proteome complexity and, in rat liver, the single gene for PITP? gives rise to seven distinct protein species that can be resolved on the basis of their charge differences. PMID:16780419

  14. Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

  15. A Theoretical Study of Phosphoryl Transfers of Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) and the Possibility of a "Dead-End" Phosphohistidine Intermediate.

    PubMed

    DeYonker, Nathan J; Webster, Charles Edwin

    2015-07-14

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a DNA repair enzyme conserved across eukaryotes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond between the tyrosine residue of topoisomerase I and the 3'-phosphate of DNA. Atomic level details of the mechanism of Tdp1 are proposed and analyzed using a fully quantum mechanical, geometrically constrained model. The structural basis for the computational model is the vanadate-inhibited crystal structure of human Tdp1 (hTdp1, Protein Data Bank entry 1RFF ). Density functional theory computations are used to acquire thermodynamic and kinetic data along the catalytic pathway, including the phosphoryl transfer and subsequent hydrolysis. Located transition states and intermediates along the reaction coordinate suggest an associative phosphoryl transfer mechanism with five-coordinate phosphorane intermediates. Similar to both theoretical and experimental results for phospholipase D, the proposed mechanism for hTdp1 also includes the thermodynamically favorable possibility of a four-coordinate phosphohistidine "dead-end" product. PMID:26121557

  16. Modifications on the hydrogen bond network by mutations of Escherichia coli copper efflux oxidase affect the process of proton transfer to dioxygen leading to alterations of enzymatic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Takao; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton transfer pathway to dioxygen in CueO was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glu506 is the key amino acid to transport proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala mutation at Glu506 formed a compensatory proton transfer pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ile mutation at Glu506 shut down the hydrogen bond network. -- Abstract: CueO has a branched hydrogen bond network leading from the exterior of the protein molecule to the trinuclear copper center. This network transports protons in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. We replaced the acidic Glu506 and Asp507 residues with the charged and uncharged amino acid residues. Peculiar changes in the enzyme activity of the mutants relative to the native enzyme indicate that an acidic amino acid residue at position 506 is essential for effective proton transport. The Ala mutation resulted in the formation of a compensatory hydrogen bond network with one or two extra water molecules. On the other hand, the Ile mutation resulted in the complete shutdown of the hydrogen bond network leading to loss of enzymatic activities of CueO. In contrast, the hydrogen bond network without the proton transport function was constructed by the Gln mutation. These results exerted on the hydrogen bond network in CueO are discussed in comparison with proton transfers in cytochrome oxidase.

  17. An enzymatically-sensitized sequential and concentric energy transfer relay self-assembled around semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Anirban; Walper, Scott A; Susumu, Kimihiro; Dwyer, Chris L; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-05-01

    The ability to control light energy within de novo nanoscale structures and devices will greatly benefit their continuing development and ultimate application. Ideally, this control should extend from generating the light itself to its spatial propagation within the device along with providing defined emission wavelength(s), all in a stand-alone modality. Here we design and characterize macromolecular nanoassemblies consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), several differentially dye-labeled peptides and the enzyme luciferase which cumulatively demonstrate many of these capabilities by engaging in multiple-sequential energy transfer steps. To create these structures, recombinantly-expressed luciferase and the dye-labeled peptides were appended with a terminal polyhistidine sequence allowing for controlled ratiometric self-assembly around the QDs via metal-affinity coordination. The QDs serve to provide multiple roles in these structures including as central assembly platforms or nanoscaffolds along with acting as a potent energy harvesting and transfer relay. The devices are activated by addition of coelenterazine H substrate which is oxidized by luciferase producing light energy which sensitizes the central 625 nm emitting QD acceptor by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The sensitized QD, in turn, acts as a relay and transfers the energy to a first peptide-labeled Alexa Fluor 647 acceptor dye displayed on its surface. This dye then transfers energy to a second red-shifted peptide-labeled dye acceptor on the QD surface through a second concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Alexa Fluor 700 and Cy5.5 are both tested in the role of this terminal FRET acceptor. Photophysical analysis of spectral profiles from the resulting sequential BRET-FRET-FRET processes allow us to estimate the efficiency of each of the transfer steps. Importantly, the efficiency of each step within this energy transfer cascade can be controlled to some extent by the number of enzymes/peptides displayed on the QD. Further optimization of the energy transfer process(es) along with potential applications of such devices are finally discussed. PMID:25804284

  18. An enzymatically-sensitized sequential and concentric energy transfer relay self-assembled around semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Anirban; Walper, Scott A.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Dwyer, Chris L.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to control light energy within de novo nanoscale structures and devices will greatly benefit their continuing development and ultimate application. Ideally, this control should extend from generating the light itself to its spatial propagation within the device along with providing defined emission wavelength(s), all in a stand-alone modality. Here we design and characterize macromolecular nanoassemblies consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), several differentially dye-labeled peptides and the enzyme luciferase which cumulatively demonstrate many of these capabilities by engaging in multiple-sequential energy transfer steps. To create these structures, recombinantly-expressed luciferase and the dye-labeled peptides were appended with a terminal polyhistidine sequence allowing for controlled ratiometric self-assembly around the QDs via metal-affinity coordination. The QDs serve to provide multiple roles in these structures including as central assembly platforms or nanoscaffolds along with acting as a potent energy harvesting and transfer relay. The devices are activated by addition of coelenterazine H substrate which is oxidized by luciferase producing light energy which sensitizes the central 625 nm emitting QD acceptor by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The sensitized QD, in turn, acts as a relay and transfers the energy to a first peptide-labeled Alexa Fluor 647 acceptor dye displayed on its surface. This dye then transfers energy to a second red-shifted peptide-labeled dye acceptor on the QD surface through a second concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Alexa Fluor 700 and Cy5.5 are both tested in the role of this terminal FRET acceptor. Photophysical analysis of spectral profiles from the resulting sequential BRET-FRET-FRET processes allow us to estimate the efficiency of each of the transfer steps. Importantly, the efficiency of each step within this energy transfer cascade can be controlled to some extent by the number of enzymes/peptides displayed on the QD. Further optimization of the energy transfer process(es) along with potential applications of such devices are finally discussed.The ability to control light energy within de novo nanoscale structures and devices will greatly benefit their continuing development and ultimate application. Ideally, this control should extend from generating the light itself to its spatial propagation within the device along with providing defined emission wavelength(s), all in a stand-alone modality. Here we design and characterize macromolecular nanoassemblies consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), several differentially dye-labeled peptides and the enzyme luciferase which cumulatively demonstrate many of these capabilities by engaging in multiple-sequential energy transfer steps. To create these structures, recombinantly-expressed luciferase and the dye-labeled peptides were appended with a terminal polyhistidine sequence allowing for controlled ratiometric self-assembly around the QDs via metal-affinity coordination. The QDs serve to provide multiple roles in these structures including as central assembly platforms or nanoscaffolds along with acting as a potent energy harvesting and transfer relay. The devices are activated by addition of coelenterazine H substrate which is oxidized by luciferase producing light energy which sensitizes the central 625 nm emitting QD acceptor by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The sensitized QD, in turn, acts as a relay and transfers the energy to a first peptide-labeled Alexa Fluor 647 acceptor dye displayed on its surface. This dye then transfers energy to a second red-shifted peptide-labeled dye acceptor on the QD surface through a second concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Alexa Fluor 700 and Cy5.5 are both tested in the role of this terminal FRET acceptor. Photophysical analysis of spectral profiles from the resulting sequential BRET-FRET-FRET processes allow us to estimate the efficiency of each of the transfer steps. Importantly, the efficiency of each step within this energy transfer cascade can be controlled to some extent by the number of enzymes/peptides displayed on the QD. Further optimization of the energy transfer process(es) along with potential applications of such devices are finally discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: This material includes control experimental data and select deconvoluted spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00828j

  19. Rate-promoting vibrations and coupled hydrogen-electron transfer reactions in the condensed phase: A model for enzymatic catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincer, Joshua S.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2004-04-01

    A model is presented for coupled hydrogen-electron transfer reactions in condensed phase in the presence of a rate promoting vibration. Large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are found when the hydrogen is substituted with deuterium. While these KIEs are essentially temperature independent, reaction rates do exhibit temperature dependence. These findings agree with recent experimental data for various enzyme-catalyzed reactions, such as the amine dehydrogenases and soybean lipoxygenase. Consistent with earlier results, turning off the promoting vibration results in an increased KIE. Increasing the barrier height increases the KIE, while increasing the rate of electron transfer decreases it. These results are discussed in light of other views of vibrationally enhanced tunneling in enzymes.

  20. Summarizing lecture: factors influencing enzymatic H-transfers, analysis of nuclear tunnelling isotope effects and thermodynamic versus specific effects.

    PubMed

    Marcus, R A

    2006-08-29

    In the articles in this Discussion, a wide variety of topics are treated, including reorganization energy, initially introduced for electron transfers ('environmentally assisted tunnelling'), nuclear tunnelling, H/D and 12C/13C kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), the effect of changes of distal and nearby amino acid residues using site-directed mutagenesis, and dynamics versus statistical effects. A coordinate-free form of semi-classical theory is used to examine topics on data such as tunnelling versus 'over-the-barrier' paths and temperature and pressure effects on KIEs. The multidimensional semi-classical theory includes classically allowed and classically forbidden transitions. More generally, we address the question of relating kinetic to thermodynamic factors, as in the electron transfer field, so learning about specific versus thermodynamic effects in enzyme catalysis and KIEs. PMID:16873131

  1. Structure of NDP-forming Acetyl-CoA synthetase ACD1 reveals a large rearrangement for phosphoryl transfer.

    PubMed

    Weie, Renato H-J; Faust, Annette; Schmidt, Marcel; Schnheit, Peter; Scheidig, Axel J

    2016-02-01

    The NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases (ACDs) catalyze the conversion of various CoA thioesters to the corresponding acids, conserving their chemical energy in form of ATP. The ACDs are the major energy-conserving enzymes in sugar and peptide fermentation of hyperthermophilic archaea. They are considered to be primordial enzymes of ATP synthesis in the early evolution of life. We present the first crystal structures, to our knowledge, of an ACD from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Candidatus Korachaeum cryptofilum. These structures reveal a unique arrangement of the ACD subunits alpha and beta within an ?2?2-heterotetrameric complex. This arrangement significantly differs from other members of the superfamily. To transmit an activated phosphoryl moiety from the Ac-CoA binding site (within the alpha subunit) to the NDP-binding site (within the beta subunit), a distance of 51 has to be bridged. This transmission requires a larger rearrangement within the protein complex involving a 21-aa-long phosphohistidine-containing segment of the alpha subunit. Spatial restraints of the interaction of this segment with the beta subunit explain the necessity for a second highly conserved His residue within the beta subunit. The data support the proposed four-step reaction mechanism of ACDs, coupling acyl-CoA thioesters with ATP synthesis. Furthermore, the determined crystal structure of the complex with bound Ac-CoA allows first insight, to our knowledge, into the determinants for acyl-CoA substrate specificity. The composition and size of loops protruding into the binding pocket of acyl-CoA are determined by the individual arrangement of the characteristic subdomains. PMID:26787904

  2. On the mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPs) and its inhibition by sodium fluoride: potential magnesium and aluminum fluoride complexes of phosphoryl transfer.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Nicole E; Jakeman, David L

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPs) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) using a two-step mechanism invoking a phosphorylated-His intermediate. Formation of PEP is an initial step in gluconeogenesis, and PEPs is essential for growth of Escherichia coli on 3-carbon sources such as pyruvate. The production of PEPs has also been linked to bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance. As such, PEPs is of interest as a target for antibiotic development, and initial investigations of PEPs have indicated inhibition by sodium fluoride. Similar inhibition has been observed in a variety of phospho-transfer enzymes through the formation of metal fluoride complexes within the active site. Herein we quantify the inhibitory capacity of sodium fluoride through a coupled spectrophotometric assay. The observed inhibition provides indirect evidence for the formation of a MgF3(-) complex within the enzyme active site and insight into the phospho-transfer mechanism of PEPs. The effect of AlCl3 on PEPs enzyme activity was also assessed and found to decrease substrate binding and turnover. PMID:25707819

  3. Catalytic metal ions and enzymatic processing of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Cavalli, Andrea; Klein, Michael L; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Dal Peraro, Matteo; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Two-metal-ion-dependent nucleases cleave the phosphodiester bonds of nucleic acids via the two-metal-ion (2M) mechanism. Several high-resolution X-ray structures portraying the two-metal-aided catalytic site, together with mutagenesis and kinetics studies, have demonstrated a functional role of the ions for catalysis in numerous metallonucleases. Overall, the experimental data confirm the general mechanistic hypothesis for 2M-aided phosphoryl transfer originally reported by Steitz and Steitz ( Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993 , 90 ( 14 ), 6498 - 6502 ). This seminal paper proposed that one metal ion favors the formation of the nucleophile, while the nearby second metal ion facilitates leaving group departure during RNA hydrolysis. Both metals were suggested to stabilize the enzymatic transition state. Nevertheless, static X-ray structures alone cannot exhaustively unravel how the two ions execute their functional role along the enzymatic reaction during processing of DNA or RNA strands when moving from reactants to products, passing through metastable intermediates and high-energy transition states. In this Account, we discuss the role of multiscale molecular simulations in further disclosing mechanistic insights of 2M-aided catalysis for two prototypical enzymatic targets for drug discovery, namely, ribonuclease H (RNase H) and type II topoisomerase (topoII). In both examples, first-principles molecular simulations, integrated with structural data, emphasize a cooperative motion of the bimetal motif during catalysis. The coordinated motion of both ions is crucial for maintaining a flexible metal-centered structural architecture exquisitely tailored to accommodate the DNA or RNA sugar-phosphate backbone during phosphodiester bond cleavage. Furthermore, our analysis of RNase H and the N-terminal domain (PAN) of influenza polymerase shows that classical molecular dynamics simulations coupled with enhanced sampling techniques have contributed to describe the modulatory effect of metal ion concentration and metal uptake on the 2M mechanism and efficiency. These aspects all point to the emerging and intriguing role of additional adjacent ions potentially involved in the modulation of phosphoryl transfer reactions and enzymatic turnover in 2M-catalysis, as recently observed experimentally in polymerase ? and homing endonuclease I-DmoI. These computational results, integrated with experimental findings, describe and reinforce the nascent concept of a functional and cooperative dynamics of the catalytic metal ions during the 2M-dependent enzymatic processing of DNA and RNA. Encouraged by the insights provided by computational approaches, we foresee further experiments that will feature the functional and joint dynamics of the catalytic metal ions for nucleic acid processing. This could impact the de novo design of artificial metallonucleases and the rational design of potent metal-chelating inhibitors of pharmaceutically relevant enzymes. PMID:25590654

  4. Cellular regulation by protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Edmond H

    2013-01-11

    A historical account of the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation is presented. This process was uncovered in the mid 1950s in a study undertaken with Edwin G. Krebs to elucidate the complex hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Contrary to the known activation of this enzyme by AMP which serves as an allosteric effector, its hormonal regulation results from a phosphorylation of the protein by phosphorylase kinase following the activation of the latter by Ca(2+) and ATP. The study led to the establishment of the first hormonal cascade of successive enzymatic reactions, kinases acting on kinases, initiated by cAMP discovered by Earl Sutherland. It also showed how two different physiological processes, carbohydrate metabolism and muscle contraction, could be regulated in concert. PMID:23058924

  5. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of glycerol kinase, the ATP molecule, may largely determine the rate of glycerol 3-phosphate production.

  6. An insert-based enzymatic cell culture system to rapidly and reversibly induce hypoxia: investigations of hypoxia-induced cell damage, protein expression and phosphorylation in neuronal IMR-32 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue hypoxia are of high clinical relevance because they are associated with various pathophysiological conditions such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms causing cell damage are still not fully understood, which is at least partially due to the lack of cell culture systems for the induction of rapid and transient hypoxic conditions. The aim of the study was to establish a model that is suitable for the investigation of cellular and molecular effects associated with transient and long-term hypoxia and to gain insights into hypoxia-mediated mechanisms employing a neuronal culture system. A semipermeable membrane insert system in combination with the hypoxia-inducing enzymes glucose oxidase and catalase was employed to rapidly and reversibly generate hypoxic conditions in the culture medium. Hydrogen peroxide assays, glucose measurements and western blotting were performed to validate the system and to evaluate the effects of the generated hypoxia on neuronal IMR-32 cells. Using the insert-based two-enzyme model, hypoxic conditions were rapidly induced in the culture medium. Glucose concentrations gradually decreased, whereas levels of hydrogen peroxide were not altered. Moreover, a rapid and reversible (on-off) generation of hypoxia could be performed by the addition and subsequent removal of the enzyme-containing inserts. Employing neuronal IMR-32 cells, we showed that 3 hours of hypoxia led to morphological signs of cellular damage and significantly increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (a biochemical marker of cell damage). Hypoxic conditions also increased the amounts of cellular procaspase-3 and catalase as well as phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinase Akt, but not Erk1/2 or STAT5. In summary, we present a novel framework for investigating hypoxia-mediated mechanisms at the cellular level. We claim that the model, the first of its kind, enables researchers to rapidly and reversibly induce hypoxic conditions in vitro without unwanted interference of the hypoxia-inducing agent on the cultured cells. The system could help to further unravel hypoxia-associated mechanisms that are clinically relevant in various tissues and organs. PMID:24046359

  7. An insert-based enzymatic cell culture system to rapidly and reversibly induce hypoxia: investigations of hypoxia-induced cell damage, protein expression and phosphorylation in neuronal IMR-32 cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue hypoxia are of high clinical relevance because they are associated with various pathophysiological conditions such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms causing cell damage are still not fully understood, which is at least partially due to the lack of cell culture systems for the induction of rapid and transient hypoxic conditions. The aim of the study was to establish a model that is suitable for the investigation of cellular and molecular effects associated with transient and long-term hypoxia and to gain insights into hypoxia-mediated mechanisms employing a neuronal culture system. A semipermeable membrane insert system in combination with the hypoxia-inducing enzymes glucose oxidase and catalase was employed to rapidly and reversibly generate hypoxic conditions in the culture medium. Hydrogen peroxide assays, glucose measurements and western blotting were performed to validate the system and to evaluate the effects of the generated hypoxia on neuronal IMR-32 cells. Using the insert-based two-enzyme model, hypoxic conditions were rapidly induced in the culture medium. Glucose concentrations gradually decreased, whereas levels of hydrogen peroxide were not altered. Moreover, a rapid and reversible (onoff) generation of hypoxia could be performed by the addition and subsequent removal of the enzyme-containing inserts. Employing neuronal IMR-32 cells, we showed that 3 hours of hypoxia led to morphological signs of cellular damage and significantly increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (a biochemical marker of cell damage). Hypoxic conditions also increased the amounts of cellular procaspase-3 and catalase as well as phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinase Akt, but not Erk1/2 or STAT5. In summary, we present a novel framework for investigating hypoxia-mediated mechanisms at the cellular level. We claim that the model, the first of its kind, enables researchers to rapidly and reversibly induce hypoxic conditions in vitro without unwanted interference of the hypoxia-inducing agent on the cultured cells. The system could help to further unravel hypoxia-associated mechanisms that are clinically relevant in various tissues and organs. PMID:24046359

  8. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials. PMID:26851341

  9. Biofuel Cells: Enhanced Enzymatic Bioelectrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Matthew T.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-07-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells represent an emerging technology that can create electrical energy from biologically renewable catalysts and fuels. A wide variety of redox enzymes have been employed to create unique biofuel cells that can be used in applications such as implantable power sources, energy sources for small electronic devices, self-powered sensors, and bioelectrocatalytic logic gates. This review addresses the fundamental concepts necessary to understand the operating principles of biofuel cells, as well as recent advances in mediated electron transfer- and direct electron transfer-based biofuel cells, which have been developed to create bioelectrical devices that can produce significant power and remain stable for long periods.

  10. Suppression of Akt1 phosphorylation by adenoviral transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chunxia; Yi, Bin; Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 ; Bai, Li; Xia, Yongzhi; Wang, Guansong; Qian, Guisheng; Feng, Hua

    2010-07-02

    Recent findings identify the role of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been identified as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, little is known about the role of PTEN/Akt signaling in hypoxia-associated vascular remodeling. In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced the expression of Akt1 mRNA and phosphorylated protein by at least twofold in rat PASMCs. Phospho-PTEN significantly decreased in the nuclei of PASMCs after hypoxic stimulation. After forcing over-expression of PTEN by adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) transfection, the expression of phospho-Akt1 was significantly suppressed in PASMCs at all time-points measured. Additionally, we showed here that hypoxia increased proliferation of PASMCs by nearly twofold and over-expression of PTEN significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. These findings suggest that phospho-PTEN loss in the nuclei of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions may be the major cause of aberrant activation of Akt1 and may, therefore, play an important role in hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling. Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-PTEN inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt1 in PASMCs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

  11. Toward a systems-level view of dynamic phosphorylation networks

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Robert H.; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how cells sense and respond to their environment, it is important to understand the organization and regulation of the phosphorylation networks that underlie most cellular signal transduction pathways. These networks, which are composed of protein kinases, protein phosphatases and their respective cellular targets, are highly dynamic. Importantly, to achieve signaling specificity, phosphorylation networks must be regulated at several levels, including at the level of protein expression, substrate recognition, and spatiotemporal modulation of enzymatic activity. Here, we briefly summarize some of the traditional methods used to study the phosphorylation status of cellular proteins before focusing our attention on several recent technological advances, such as protein microarrays, quantitative mass spectrometry, and genetically-targetable fluorescent biosensors, that are offering new insights into the organization and regulation of cellular phosphorylation networks. Together, these approaches promise to lead to a systems-level view of dynamic phosphorylation networks. PMID:25177341

  12. The Fic protein Doc uses an inverted substrate to phosphorylate and inactivate EF-Tu

    PubMed Central

    De Gieter, Steven; van Nuland, Nico A.J.; Loris, Remy; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Fic proteins are ubiquitous in all domains of life and play critical roles in multiple cellular processes through AMPylation of (transfer of AMP to) target proteins. Doc from the doc/phd toxin/antitoxin module is a member of the Fic family and inhibits bacterial translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that, in contrast to the predicted AMPylating activity, Doc is a new type of kinase that inhibits bacterial translation by phosphorylating the conserved threonine (Thr382) of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu, rendering it unable to bind aminoacylated tRNAs. We provide evidence that EF-Tu phosphorylation diverged from AMPylation by antiparallel binding of the NTP relative to the catalytic residues of the conserved Fic catalytic core of Doc. The results bring insights into the mechanism and role of phosphorylation of EF-Tu in bacterial physiology as well as represent an example of catalytic plasticity of enzymes and a mechanism for the evolution of new enzymatic activities. PMID:24141193

  13. The Fic protein Doc uses an inverted substrate to phosphorylate and inactivate EF-Tu.

    PubMed

    Castro-Roa, Daniel; Garcia-Pino, Abel; De Gieter, Steven; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2013-12-01

    Fic proteins are ubiquitous in all of the domains of life and have critical roles in multiple cellular processes through AMPylation of (transfer of AMP to) target proteins. Doc from the doc-phd toxin-antitoxin module is a member of the Fic family and inhibits bacterial translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that, in contrast to having AMPylating activity, Doc is a new type of kinase that inhibits bacterial translation by phosphorylating the conserved threonine (Thr382) of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu, rendering EF-Tu unable to bind aminoacylated tRNAs. We provide evidence that EF-Tu phosphorylation diverged from AMPylation by antiparallel binding of the NTP relative to the catalytic residues of the conserved Fic catalytic core of Doc. The results bring insights into the mechanism and role of phosphorylation of EF-Tu in bacterial physiology as well as represent an example of the catalytic plasticity of enzymes and a mechanism for the evolution of new enzymatic activities. PMID:24141193

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of farnesyl laurate in organic solvent: initial water activity, kinetics mechanism, optimization of continuous operation using packed bed reactor and mass transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N K; Kamaruddin, A H; Uzir, M H

    2011-08-01

    The influence of water activity and water content was investigated with farnesyl laurate synthesis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Lipozyme RM IM activity depended strongly on initial water activity value. The best results were achieved for a reaction medium with an initial water activity of 0.11 since it gives the best conversion value of 96.80%. The rate constants obtained in the kinetics study using Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi and Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanisms with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid were compared. The corresponding parameters were found to obey the Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid. Kinetic parameters were calculated based on this model as follows: V (max) = 5.80 mmol l(-1) min(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,A) = 0.70 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,B) = 115.48 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (i) = 11.25 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1). The optimum conditions for the esterification of farnesol with lauric acid in a continuous packed bed reactor were found as the following: 18.18 cm packed bed height and 0.9 ml/min substrate flow rate. The optimum molar conversion of lauric acid to farnesyl laurate was 98.07 0.82%. The effect of mass transfer in the packed bed reactor has also been studied using two models for cases of reaction limited and mass transfer limited. A very good agreement between the mass transfer limited model and the experimental data obtained indicating that the esterification in a packed bed reactor was mass transfer limited. PMID:21327986

  15. The Staphylococcus aureus Autoinducer-2 Synthase LuxS Is Regulated by Ser/Thr Phosphorylation?

    PubMed Central

    Cluzel, Marie-Eve; Zanella-Clon, Isabelle; Cozzone, Alain J.; Ftterer, Klaus; Duclos, Bertrand; Molle, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 (AI-2) producer protein LuxS is phosphorylated by the Ser/Thr kinase Stk1 at a unique position, Thr14. The enzymatic activity of the phosphorylated isoform of LuxS was abrogated compared to that of nonphosphorylated LuxS, thus providing the first evidence of an AI-2-producing enzyme regulated by phosphorylation and demonstrating that S. aureus possesses an original and specific system for controlling AI-2 synthesis. PMID:20870760

  16. The Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 synthase LuxS is regulated by Ser/Thr phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cluzel, Marie-Eve; Zanella-Clon, Isabelle; Cozzone, Alain J; Ftterer, Klaus; Duclos, Bertrand; Molle, Virginie

    2010-12-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 (AI-2) producer protein LuxS is phosphorylated by the Ser/Thr kinase Stk1 at a unique position, Thr14. The enzymatic activity of the phosphorylated isoform of LuxS was abrogated compared to that of nonphosphorylated LuxS, thus providing the first evidence of an AI-2-producing enzyme regulated by phosphorylation and demonstrating that S. aureus possesses an original and specific system for controlling AI-2 synthesis. PMID:20870760

  17. Long-term enzymatic and phenotypic correction in the phenylketonuria mouse model by adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Sook; Kang, Seongman; Jo, Inho; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2004-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The accumulation of phenylalanine leads to severe mental and psychomotor retardation, and hypopigmentation of skin and hair. Low-phenylalanine diet therapy can prevent irreversible damage if instituted from birth. However, poor compliance with the strict lifelong dietary therapy leads to various neurologic and behavioral problems. To develop a safe and promising gene therapy method for PKU, we investigated whether a recombinant adeno-associated virus could be used as a PAH gene transfer vector to reduce the excessive phenylalanine level in the PKU mouse model. A recombinant adeno-associated virus vector encoding the human PAH gene (rAAV-hPAH), driven by EF1-alpha promoter, was infused into PAH-deficient mice, Pah(enu2), via the hepatic portal vein. Two weeks after injection, the plasma phenylalanine level dramatically decreased to 360 microM in male PKU mice, accompanied by the coat color changing to black. The mean plasma phenylalanine level of untreated PKU mice was 1800 microM. The PAH enzyme activities of treated mice increased to 10-17% of wild-type mice. No signs of liver toxicity were observed after gene transfer. The biochemical and phenotypic corrections were sustained for up to 25 wk (25-wk detection period). In contrast, the treatment was less effective in female PKU mice. These results indicate that recombinant adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene therapy can be a useful therapeutic candidate for patients with PKU. Further studies are needed to clarify the differences in PKU pathogenesis in males and females, and to explore alternative administration routes besides hepatic portal vein injection. PMID:15181195

  18. Microwave-mediated enzymatic modifications of DNA.

    PubMed

    Das, Rakha Hari; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Kumar, Saroj; Nahar, Pradip

    2015-02-15

    Here we report microwave-induced specific cleavage, ligation, dephosphorylation, and phosphorylation of nucleic acids catalyzed by restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, T4 polynucleotide kinase, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The microwave-mediated method has dramatically reduced the reaction time to 20 to 50s. In control experiments, the same reactions failed to give the desired reaction products when carried out in the same time periods but without microwave irradiation. Because the microwave method is rapid, it could be a useful alternative to the time-consuming conventional procedure for enzymatic modification of DNA. PMID:25447491

  19. Structural and Biochemical Insights into the Mechanism of Fosfomycin Phosphorylation by Fosfomycin Resistance Kinase FomA

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Bartlett, Sue G.; Doerner, Pamela A.; Newcomer, Marcia E.

    2011-01-01

    We present here the crystal structures of fosfomycin resistance protein (FomA) complexed with MgATP, with ATP and fosfomycin, with MgADP and fosfomycin vanadate, with MgADP and the product of the enzymatic reaction, fosfomycin monophosphate, and with ADP at 1.87, 1.58, 1.85, 1.57, and 1.85 Å resolution, respectively. Structures of these complexes that approximate different reaction steps allowed us to distinguish the catalytically active conformation of ATP and to reconstruct the model of the MgATP·fosfomycin complex. According to the model, the triphosphate tail of the nucleotide is aligned toward the phosphonate moiety of fosfomycin, in contast to the previously published MgAMPPNP complex, with the attacking fosfomycin oxygen positioned 4 Å from the γ-phosphorus of ATP. Site-directed mutagenesis studies and comparison of these structures with that of homologous N-acetyl-l-glutamate and isopentenyl phosphate kinases allowed us to propose a model of phosphorylation of fosfomycin by FomA enzyme. A Mg cation ligates all three phosphate groups of ATP and together with positively charged K216, K9, K18, and H58 participates in the dissipation of negative charge during phosphoryl transfer, indicating that the transferred phosphate group is highly negatively charged, which would be expected for an associative mechanism. K216 polarizes the γ-phosphoryl group of ATP. K9, K18, and H58 participate in stabilization of the transition state. D150 and D208 play organizational roles in catalysis. S148, S149, and T210 participate in fosfomycin binding, with T210 being crucial for catalysis. Hence, it appears that as in the homologous enzymes, FomA-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer takes place by an in-line predominantly associative mechanism. PMID:21728358

  20. A graphene oxide based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingyu; Guo, Jiubiao; Bai, Gongxun; Chan, Chunyu; Liu, Xuan; Ye, Weiwei; Hao, Jianhua; Chen, Sheng; Yang, Mo

    2014-10-23

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most potent toxic bacterial proteins for humans, which make them potential agents for bioterrorism. Therefore, an ultrasensitive detection of BoNTs and their active states is in great need as field-deployable systems for anti-terrorism applications. We report the construction of a novel graphene oxide (GO)-peptide based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of the BoNT serotype A light chain (BoNT-LcA) protease activity. A green fluorescence protein (GFP) modified SNAP-25 peptide substrate (SNAP-25-GFP) was optimally designed and synthesized with the centralized recognition/cleavage sites. This FRET platform was constructed by covalent immobilization of peptide substrate on GO with BSA passivation which have advantages of low non-specific adsorption and high stability in protein abundant solution. BoNT-LcA can specifically cleave SNAP-25-GFP substrate covalently immobilized on GO to release the fragment with GFP. Based on fluorescence signal recovery measurement, the target BoNT-LcA was detected sensitively and selectively with the linear detection range from 1fg/mL to 1pg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) for BoNT-LcA is around 1fg/mL. PMID:25461164

  1. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E. )

    1989-04-01

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with {sup 32}P-{gamma}-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of {sup 35}S-adenosine thiotriphosphate.

  2. Phosphorylation and RLK signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant genomes encode hundreds of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) with an organization of functional domains similar to that of animal receptor kinases. Ligand-dependent phosphorylation has now been demonstrated for several plant RLKs and identification of specific phosphorylation sites followed by thei...

  3. The Enzymatic Paradox of Yeast Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase: Exclusive Arginine Transfer Controlled by a Flexible Mechanism of tRNA Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Eriani, Gilbert; Geslain, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Identity determinants are essential for the accurate recognition of transfer RNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. To date, arginine determinants in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified exclusively in vitro and only on a limited number of tRNA Arginine isoacceptors. In the current study, we favor a full cellular approach and expand the investigation of arginine determinants to all four tRNA Arg isoacceptors. More precisely, this work scrutinizes the relevance of the tRNA nucleotides at position 20, 35 and 36 in the yeast arginylation reaction. We built 21 mutants by site-directed mutagenesis and tested their functionality in YAL5, a previously engineered yeast knockout deficient for the expression of tRNA Arg CCG. Arginylation levels were also monitored using Northern blot. Our data collected in vivo correlate with previous observations. C35 is the prominent arginine determinant followed by G36 or U36 (G/U36). In addition, although there is no major arginine determinant in the D loop, the recognition of tRNA Arg ICG relies to some extent on the nucleotide at position 20. This work refines the existing model for tRNA Arg recognition. Our observations indicate that yeast Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (yArgRS) relies on distinct mechanisms to aminoacylate the four isoacceptors. Finally, according to our refined model, yArgRS is able to accommodate tRNA Arg scaffolds presenting N34, C/G35 and G/A/U36 anticodons while maintaining specificity. We discuss the mechanistic and potential physiological implications of these findings. PMID:26844776

  4. The Enzymatic Paradox of Yeast Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase: Exclusive Arginine Transfer Controlled by a Flexible Mechanism of tRNA Recognition.

    PubMed

    McShane, Ariel; Hok, Eveline; Tomberlin, Jensen; Eriani, Gilbert; Geslain, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Identity determinants are essential for the accurate recognition of transfer RNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. To date, arginine determinants in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified exclusively in vitro and only on a limited number of tRNA Arginine isoacceptors. In the current study, we favor a full cellular approach and expand the investigation of arginine determinants to all four tRNA Arg isoacceptors. More precisely, this work scrutinizes the relevance of the tRNA nucleotides at position 20, 35 and 36 in the yeast arginylation reaction. We built 21 mutants by site-directed mutagenesis and tested their functionality in YAL5, a previously engineered yeast knockout deficient for the expression of tRNA Arg CCG. Arginylation levels were also monitored using Northern blot. Our data collected in vivo correlate with previous observations. C35 is the prominent arginine determinant followed by G36 or U36 (G/U36). In addition, although there is no major arginine determinant in the D loop, the recognition of tRNA Arg ICG relies to some extent on the nucleotide at position 20. This work refines the existing model for tRNA Arg recognition. Our observations indicate that yeast Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (yArgRS) relies on distinct mechanisms to aminoacylate the four isoacceptors. Finally, according to our refined model, yArgRS is able to accommodate tRNA Arg scaffolds presenting N34, C/G35 and G/A/U36 anticodons while maintaining specificity. We discuss the mechanistic and potential physiological implications of these findings. PMID:26844776

  5. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Activities in this project are aimed at overcoming barriers associated with high capital and operating costs and sub-optimal sugar yields resulting from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

  6. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of -endoglucanase with specif...

  7. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  8. Enzymatic substrates in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Orenga, Sylvain; James, Arthur L; Manafi, Mohammed; Perry, John D; Pincus, David H

    2009-11-01

    Enzymatic substrates are powerful tools in biochemistry. They are widely used in microbiology to study metabolic pathways, to monitor metabolism and to detect, enumerate and identify microorganisms. Synthetic enzymatic substrates have been customized for various microbial assays, to detect an expanding range of both new enzymatic activities and target microorganisms. Recent developments in synthetic enzymatic substrates with new spectral, chemical and biochemical properties allow improved detection, enumeration and identification of food-borne microorganisms, clinical pathogens and multi-resistant bacteria in various sample types. In the past 20 years, the range of synthetic enzymatic substrates used in microbiology has been markedly extended supporting the development of new multi-test systems (e.g., Microscan, Vitek 2, Phoenix) and chromogenic culture media. The use of such substrates enables an improvement in time to detection and specificity over conventional tests that employ natural substrates. In the era of intense developments in molecular biology, phenotypic tests involving enzymatic substrates remain useful to analyse both simple and complex samples. Such tests are applicable to diagnostic and research laboratories all over the world. PMID:19679151

  9. Regulation of Adherens Junction Dynamics by Phosphorylation Switches

    PubMed Central

    Bertocchi, Cristina; Vaman Rao, Megha; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    Adherens junctions connect the actin cytoskeleton of neighboring cells through transmembrane cadherin receptors and a network of adaptor proteins. The interactions between these adaptors and cadherin as well as the activity of actin regulators localized to adherens junctions are tightly controlled to facilitate cell junction assembly or disassembly in response to changes in external or internal forces and/or signaling. Phosphorylation of tyrosine, serine, or threonine residues acts as a switch on the majority of adherens junction proteins, turning on or off their interactions with other proteins and/or their enzymatic activity. Here, we provide an overview of the kinases and phosphatases regulating phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and bring examples of phosphorylation events leading to the assembly or disassembly of adherens junctions, highlighting the important role of phosphorylation switches in regulating their dynamics. PMID:22848810

  10. HMA6 and HMA8 are two chloroplast Cu+-ATPases with different enzymatic properties

    PubMed Central

    Sautron, Emeline; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Giustini, Ccile; Pro, Danile; Crouzy, Serge; Ravaud, Stphanie; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Rolland, Norbert; Catty, Patrice; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphn

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) plays a key role in the photosynthetic process as cofactor of the plastocyanin (PC), an essential component of the chloroplast photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Encoded by the nuclear genome, PC is translocated in its apo-form into the chloroplast and the lumen of thylakoids where it is processed to its mature form and acquires Cu. In Arabidopsis, Cu delivery into the thylakoids involves two transporters of the PIB-1 ATPases family, heavy metal associated protein 6 (HMA6) located at the chloroplast envelope and HMA8 at the thylakoid membrane. To gain further insight into the way Cu is delivered to PC, we analysed the enzymatic properties of HMA8 and compared them with HMA6 ones using invitro phosphorylation assays and phenotypic tests in yeast. These experiments reveal that HMA6 and HMA8 display different enzymatic properties: HMA8 has a higher apparent affinity for Cu+ but a slower dephosphorylation kinetics than HMA6. Modelling experiments suggest that these differences could be explained by the electrostatic properties of the Cu+ releasing cavities of the two transporters and/or by the different nature of their cognate Cu+ acceptors (metallochaperone/PC). PMID:26182363

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kolhatkar, Arati G; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T Randall; Willson, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C.; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T. Randall; Willson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  13. Reduction of cysteine sulfinic acid in peroxiredoxin by sulfiredoxin proceeds directly through a sulfinic phosphoryl ester intermediate.

    PubMed

    Jnsson, Thomas J; Murray, Michael S; Johnson, Lynnette C; Lowther, W Todd

    2008-08-29

    Sulfiredoxin (Srx) catalyzes a novel enzymatic reaction, the reduction of protein cysteine sulfinic acid, Cys-SO(2)(-). This reaction is unique to the typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prx) and plays a role in peroxide-mediated signaling by regulating the activity of Prxs. Two mechanistic schemes have been proposed that differ regarding the first step of the reaction. This step involves either the direct transfer of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to the Prx molecule or through Srx acting as a phosphorylated intermediary. In an effort to clarify this step of the Srx reaction, we have determined the 1.8A resolution crystal structure of Srx in complex with ATP and Mg(2+). This structure reveals the role of the Mg(2+) ion to position the gamma-phosphate toward solvent, thus preventing an in-line attack by the catalytic residue Cys-99 of Srx. A model of the quaternary complex is consistent with this proposal. Furthermore, phosphorylation studies on several site-directed mutants of Srx and Prx, including the Prx-Asp mimic of the Prx-SO(2)(-) species, support a mechanism where phosphorylation of Prx-SO(2)(-) is the first chemical step. PMID:18579529

  14. Calcium Activation of the Ca-ATPase Enhances Conformational Heterogeneity Between Nucleotide Binding and Phosphorylation Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2004-04-13

    High-resolution crystal structures obtained in two conformations of the Ca-ATPase suggest that a large-scale rigid-body domain reorientation of approximately 50 involving the nucleotide-binding (N) domain is required to permit the transfer of the -phosphoryl group of ATP to Asp351 in the phosphorylation (P) domain during coupled calcium transport. However, variability observed in the orientation of the N-domain relative to the P-domain in both different crystal structures of the Ca-ATPase following calcium activation, and structures of other P-type ATPases, suggests the presence of conformational heterogeneity in solution which may be modulated by contact interactions within the crystal. Therefore, to address the extent of conformational heterogeneity between these domains in solution, we have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure the spatial separation and conformational heterogeneity between donor (i.e., 5-[[2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]amino] naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) and acceptor (i.e., fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate) chromophores covalently bound to the P- and N-domains, respectively, within the Ca-ATPase stabilized in different enzymatic states associated with the transport cycle. In comparison to the unliganded enzyme, the spatial separation and conformational heterogeneity between these domains is unaffected by enzyme phosphorylation. However, calcium-activation results in a 3.4 increase in the average spatial separation, which increases from 29.4 to 32.8 , in good agreement with the high-resolution structures where these sites are respectively separated by 31.6 (1 IWO.pdb) and 35.9 (1EUL.pdb). Thus, the crystal structures accurately reflect the average solution structures of the Ca-ATPase. However, there is substantial conformational heterogeneity for all enzyme states measured, indicating that formation of catalytically important transition states involves a subpopulation of enzyme intermediates. These results suggest that the approximation of cytoplasmic domains accompanying calcium transport, as observed from crystal structures, occurs in solution within the context of large amplitude domain motions important for catalysis. These domain motions permit substrate (ATP) access and product (ADP) egress, and enhance the probability of a productive juxtaposition of the -phosphoryl moiety of ATP with Asp351 on the phosphosphorylation domain to facilitate enzyme phosphorylation and calcium transport.

  15. Enzymatic Modifications of Polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polysaccharides are often modified chemically in order to improve its properties or to impart specific characteristics. Indeed quite a few commercial products are based on modified polysaccharides. In this talk, I shall describe a new set of modified polysaccharides based on enzymatic reactions. ...

  16. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  17. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant nitrate reductase expressed and purified from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Phillip; Probst, Corinna; Dammeyer, Thorben; Buchmeier, Sabine; Jnsch, Lothar; Wissing, Josef; Tinnefeld, Philip; Mendel, Ralf R; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Kruse, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    We established an expression and purification procedure for recombinant protein production in Neurospora crassa (N. crassa). This Strep-tag based system was successfully used for purifying recombinant N. crassa nitrate reductase (NR), whose enzymatic activity was compared to recombinant N. crassa NR purified from Escherichia coli. The purity of the two different NR preparations was similar but NR purified from N. crassa showed a significantly higher nitrate turnover rate. Two phosphorylation sites were identified for NR purified from the endogenous expression system. We conclude that homologous expression of N. crassa NR yields a higher active enzyme and propose that NR phosphorylation causes enhanced enzymatic activity. PMID:25914160

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  19. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-03-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic explanation for the energy coupling and ATP synthesis carried out in mitochondria and chloroplast thylakoids. The mechanism does not suffer from the flaws in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory that have been pointed out in many studies since its first appearance 50 years ago, when it was hailed as a ground-breaking mechanistic explanation of what is perhaps the most important process in cellular energetics. The new findings fit very well with the predictions of Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis. It is argued that this mechanism, based on at least 15 years of experimental and theoretical work by Sunil Nath, constitutes a fundamentally different theory of the energy conversion process that eliminates all the inconsistencies in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory pointed out by other authors. It is concluded that the energy-transducing complexes in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis are proton-dicarboxylic acid anion cotransporters and not simply electrogenic proton translocators. These results necessitate revision of previous theories of biological energy transduction, coupling, and ATP synthesis. The novel molecular mechanism is extended to cover ATP synthesis in prokaryotes, in particular to alkaliphilic and haloalkaliphilic bacteria, essentially making it a complete theory addressing mechanistic, kinetic, and thermodynamic details. Finally, based on the new interpretation of oxidative phosphorylation, quantitative values for the P/O ratio, the amount of ATP generated per redox package of the reduced substrates, are calculated and compared with experimental values for fermentation on different substrates. It is our hope that the presentation of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation from a wholly new perspective will rekindle scientific discussion of a key process in bioenergetics and catalyze new avenues of research in a truly interdisciplinary field. PMID:25384602

  20. Enzymatically Shifting Nitroxides for EPR Spectroscopy and Overhauser-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Audran, Grard; Bosco, Lionel; Brmond, Paul; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Koonjoo, Neha; Marque, Sylvain R A; Massot, Philippe; Mellet, Philippe; Parzy, Elodie; Thiaudire, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In?vivo investigations of enzymatic processes using non-invasive approaches are a long-lasting challenge. Recently, we showed that Overhauser-enhanced MRI is suitable to such a purpose. A ?-phosphorylated nitroxide substrate prototype exhibiting keto-enol equilibrium upon enzymatic activity has been prepared. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, a large variation of the phosphorus hyperfine coupling constant (?a(P)=4?G) was observed. The enzymatic activities of several enzymes were conveniently monitored by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Using a 0.2?T MRI machine, in?vitro and in?vivo OMRI experiments were successfully performed, affording a 1200% enhanced MRI signal in?vitro, and a 600% enhanced signal in?vivo. These results highlight the enhanced imaging potential of these nitroxides upon specific enzymatic substrate-to-product conversion. PMID:26376730

  1. Graphene based enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Anahita; Othman, Ali; Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Stanciu, Lia; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-04-01

    The excellent electrical conductivity and ease of functionalization make graphene a promising material for use in enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells. Enzyme based biofuel cells have attracted substantial interest due to their potential to harvest energy from organic materials. This review provides an overview of the functional properties and applications of graphene in the construction of biofuel cells as alternative power sources. The review covers the current state-of-the-art research in graphene based nanomaterials (physicochemical properties and surface functionalities), the role of these parameters in enhancing electron transfer, the stability and activity of immobilized enzymes, and how enhanced power density can be achieved. Specific examples of enzyme immobilization methods, enzyme loading, stability and function on graphene, functionalized graphene and graphene based nanocomposite materials are discussed along with their advantages and limitations. Finally, a critical evaluation of the performance of graphene based enzymatic biofuel cells, the current status, challenges and future research needs are provided.

  2. Graphene based enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Anahita; Othman, Ali; Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Stanciu, Lia; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-04-28

    The excellent electrical conductivity and ease of functionalization make graphene a promising material for use in enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells. Enzyme based biofuel cells have attracted substantial interest due to their potential to harvest energy from organic materials. This review provides an overview of the functional properties and applications of graphene in the construction of biofuel cells as alternative power sources. The review covers the current state-of-the-art research in graphene based nanomaterials (physicochemical properties and surface functionalities), the role of these parameters in enhancing electron transfer, the stability and activity of immobilized enzymes, and how enhanced power density can be achieved. Specific examples of enzyme immobilization methods, enzyme loading, stability and function on graphene, functionalized graphene and graphene based nanocomposite materials are discussed along with their advantages and limitations. Finally, a critical evaluation of the performance of graphene based enzymatic biofuel cells, the current status, challenges and future research needs are provided. PMID:25832672

  3. Phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 in human malonyl-CoA decarboxylase expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori regulates catalytic decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Chung, Shin-Kyo; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-11-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is a vital catalytic reaction of lipid metabolism. While it is established that phosphorylation of MCD modulates the enzymatic activity, the specific phosphorylation sites associated with the catalytic function have not been documented due to lack of sufficient production of MCD with proper post-translational modifications. Here, we used the silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid system to express human MCD (hMCD) and mapped phosphorylation effects on enzymatic function. Purified MCD from silkworm displayed post-translational phosphorylation and demonstrated coherent enzymatic activity with high yield (-200?g/silkworm). Point mutations in putative phosphorylation sites, Ser-204 or Tyr-405 of hMCD, identified by bioinformatics and proteomics analyses reduced the catalytic activity, underscoring the functional significance of phosphorylation in modulating decarboxylase-based catalysis. Identified phosphorylated residues are distinct from the decarboxylation catalytic site, implicating a phosphorylation-induced global conformational change of MCD as responsible in altering catalytic function. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 regulates the decarboxylase function of hMCD leveraging the silkworm-based BmNPV bacmid expression system that offers a fail-safe eukaryotic production platform implementing proper post-translational modification such as phosphorylation. PMID:26004805

  4. Enzymatic cascade bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Andrew (Woodinville, WA)

    2007-09-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  5. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  6. Protein phosphorylation in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Dobrov, Z; Jiresov, M; Petrk, T; Rysav, P; Nprstek, J; Janecek, J

    1990-09-01

    The phosphorylated proteins of Streptomyces albus, radioactively labeled with [32P]orthophosphate have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. More than 10 protein species were found to be phosphorylated. With [32P]ATP as substrate cell free extracts phosphorylated endogenous proteins in vitro which were predominantly phosphorylated in vivo. From cell extract which exhibited active phosphorylated in vitro, a protein kinase has been partially purified. The kinase activity was identified in fractions corresponding to a 90 kDa protein. PMID:2276604

  7. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool. PMID:26120796

  8. Chemical and enzymatic characterization of recombinant rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Christian; Bieber, Frank; Linnemann, Julia; Breitling, Reinhard; Lorkowski, Stefan; Reissmann, Siegmund

    2013-05-01

    The stepwise synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (TTP) requires a kinase for phosphorylation in the last step. Because pyruvate kinase (PK) using phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) as substrate can regenerate adenosine triphosphate and phosphorylate thymidine diphosphate as well, we chose this enzyme for the synthesis of TTP via an enzymatic cascade reaction. The metalloenzyme PK shows pronounced promiscuity and therefore fits well to the conditions of this reaction. PK commonly used today is isolated from rabbit muscle. We cloned and expressed the respective open reading frame in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized the His-tagged recombinant enzyme. The enzyme has an activity optimum at 37°C and in the pH range from 7.4 to 7.8. K(M) constants conformed well with the isolated native enzyme for adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to 0.37±0.02 mM and for PEP to 0.07±0.01 mM. The recombinant enzyme shows the following range in its substrate specificity: ADP>dADP>dGDP>dCDP>thymidine diphosphate (TDP). It allows the phosphorylation of TDP to TTP in high yield (up to 95%). The metal ions Mg(2+) and K(+) are necessary for full enzymatic activity. The addition of transition metal ions such as Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) reduces activity. Storage of the enzyme at -20°C retains full activity. PMID:23324382

  9. Covalent Protein Labeling by Enzymatic Phosphocholination.

    PubMed

    Heller, Katharina; Ochtrop, Philipp; Albers, Michael F; Zauner, Florian B; Itzen, Aymelt; Hedberg, Christian

    2015-08-24

    We present a new protein labeling method based on the covalent enzymatic phosphocholination of a specific octapeptide amino acid sequence in intact proteins. The bacterial enzyme AnkX from Legionella pneumophila has been established to transfer functional phosphocholine moieties from synthetically produced CDP-choline derivatives to N-termini, C-termini, and internal loop regions in proteins of interest. Furthermore, the covalent modification can be hydrolytically removed by the action of the Legionella enzyme Lem3. Only a short peptide sequence (eight amino acids) is required for efficient protein labeling and a small linker group (PEG-phosphocholine) is introduced to attach the conjugated cargo. PMID:26147231

  10. Determination of GPCR Phosphorylation Status: Establishing a Phosphorylation Barcode.

    PubMed

    Prihandoko, Rudi; Bradley, Sophie J; Tobin, Andrew B; Butcher, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are rapidly phosphorylated following agonist occupation in a process that mediates receptor uncoupling from its cognate G protein, a process referred to as desensitization. In addition, this process provides a mechanism by which receptors can engage with arrestin adaptor molecules and couple to downstream signaling pathways. The importance of this regulatory process has been highlighted recently by the understanding that ligands can direct receptor signaling along one pathway in preference to another, the phenomenon of signaling bias that is partly mediated by the phosphorylation status or phosphorylation barcode of the receptor. Methods to determine the phosphorylation status of a GPCR in vitro and in vivo are necessary to understand not only the physiological mechanisms involved in GPCR signaling, but also to fully examine the signaling properties of GPCR ligands. This unit describes detailed methods for determining the overall phosphorylation pattern on a receptor (the phosphorylation barcode), as well as mass spectrometry approaches that can define the precise sites that become phosphorylated. These techniques, coupled with the generation and characterization of receptor phosphorylation-specific antibodies, provide a full palate of techniques necessary to determine the phosphorylation status of any given GPCR subtype. 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26344213

  11. Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through targeted drug design. PMID:25375667

  12. The Synthesis of Methylated, Phosphorylated, and Phosphonated 3?-Aminoacyl-tRNASec Mimics**

    PubMed Central

    Rigger, Lukas; Schmidt, Rachel L.; Holman, Kaitlyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty first amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is the only amino acid that is synthesized on its cognate transfer RNA (tRNASec) in all domains of life. The multistep pathway involves O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS), an enzyme that catalyzes the terminal chemical reaction during which the phosphoseryltRNASec intermediate is converted into selenocysteinyl-tRNASec. The SepSecS architecture and the mode of tRNASec recognition have been recently determined at atomic resolution. The crystal structure provided valuable insights that gave rise to mechanistic proposals that could not be validated because of the lack of appropriate molecular probes. To further improve our understanding of the mechanism of the biosynthesis of selenocysteine in general and the mechanism of SepSecS in particular, stable tRNASec substrates carrying aminoacyl moieties that mimic particular reaction intermediates are needed. Here, we report on the accurate synthesis of methylated, phosphorylated, and phosphonated serinyl-derived tRNASec mimics that contain a hydrolysis-resistant ribose 3?-amide linkage instead of the natural ester bond. The procedures introduced allow for efficient site-specific methylation and/or phosphorylation directly on the solid support utilized in the automated RNA synthesis. For the preparation of (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acidoligoribonucleotide conjugates, a separate solid support was generated. Furthermore, we developed a three-strand enzymatic ligation protocol to obtain the corresponding full-length tRNASec derivatives. Finally, we developed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for rapid, qualitative characterization of the SepSecS-tRNA interactions. The novel tRNASec mimics are promising candidates for further elucidation of the biosynthesis of selenocysteine by X-ray crystallography and other biochemical approaches, and could be attractive for similar studies on other tRNA-dependent enzymes. PMID:24127424

  13. Noneluting enzymatic antibiofilm coatings.

    PubMed

    Pavlukhina, Svetlana V; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Xu, Li; Chang, Wei; Yu, Xiaojun; Madhyastha, Srinivasa; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Mentbayeva, Almagul; Khan, Babar; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A

    2012-09-26

    We developed a highly efficient, biocompatible surface coating that disperses bacterial biofilms through enzymatic cleavage of the extracellular biofilm matrix. The coating was fabricated by binding the naturally existing enzyme dispersin B (DspB) to surface-attached polymer matrices constructed via a layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. LbL matrices were assembled through electrostatic interactions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), followed by chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and pH-triggered removal of PMAA, producing a stable PAH hydrogel matrix used for DspB loading. The amount of DspB loaded increased linearly with the number of PAH layers in surface hydrogels. DspB was retained within these coatings in the pH range from 4 to 7.5. DspB-loaded coatings inhibited biofilm formation by two clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm inhibition was ≥98% compared to mock-loaded coatings as determined by CFU enumeration. In addition, DspB-loaded coatings did not inhibit attachment or growth of cultured human osteoblast cells. We suggest that the use of DspB-loaded multilayer coatings presents a promising method for creating biocompatible surfaces with high antibiofilm efficiency, especially when combined with conventional antimicrobial treatment of dispersed bacteria. PMID:22909396

  14. Ribonucleotide reductase and thymidine phosphorylation: two potential targets of azodicarbonamide.

    PubMed

    Fagny, Christine; Vandevelde, Michel; Svoboda, Michal; Robberecht, Patrick

    2002-08-01

    Azodicarbonamide tested as an anti-HIV agent was reported to expulse zinc from viral zinc-cysteine factors and to inhibit calcium mobilization machinery. It has structural analogy with hydroxyurea that inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and could also act on this target. Azodicarbonamide was therefore tested for its capacity to modulate deoxyribonucleotides triphosphate pools alone or in combination with other agents in the lymphoblastic SUP-T1 cell line susceptible to HIV infection. The deoxyribonucleotides triphosphate were evaluated by an enzymatic assay using sequenase. Two hours exposure of SUP-T1 cells to 100 microM azodicarbonamide induced a 50% reduction of each deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate. Among other inhibitors of nucleotide metabolism (hydroxyurea, methotrexate and thymidine), hydroxyurea only reproduces the effect of azodicarbonamide. This suggests, but does not demonstrate directly, that azodicarbonamide inhibits ribonucleotide reductase activity. The combination of azodicarbonamide with each of these inhibitors affected particularly the dCTP pool. During this study it was also suggested that azodicarbonamide could interfere with thymidine phosphorylation. Thymidine phosphorylating activity was measured with 3H-thymidine as substrate. In acellular preparations, azodicarbonamide also non-competitively inhibits thymidine phosphorylating activity. This effect was not reproduced by hydroxyurea. Thus, in vitro azodicarbonamide decreases the intracellular pool of deoxyribonucleotide and thymidine phosphorylation. PMID:12147296

  15. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. ); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. ); Berghman, L.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of organophosphorus compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I.

    2011-09-01

    Data on biocatalytic methods for the preparation of chiral organophosphorus compounds are generalized and described systematically. Various examples of enzymatic and microbiological synthesis of hydroxyphosphonates, aminophosphonates, phosphinites, phosphine oxides and tertiary phosphines are discussed. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  17. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyama, S. Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three areas of catalysis: homegeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic. Explains fundamentals and economic impact of catalysis. Lists and discusses common industrial catalysts. Provides a list of 107 references. (MVL)

  18. How Phosphotransferase System-Related Protein Phosphorylation Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism in Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Deutscher, Josef; Francke, Christof; Postma, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is found only in bacteria, where it catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of numerous monosaccharides, disaccharides, amino sugars, polyols, and other sugar derivatives. To carry out its catalytic function in sugar transport and phosphorylation, the PTS uses PEP as an energy source and phosphoryl donor. The phosphoryl group of PEP is usually transferred via four distinct proteins (domains) to the transported sugar bound to the respective membrane component(s) (EIIC and EIID) of the PTS. The organization of the PTS as a four-step phosphoryl transfer system, in which all P derivatives exhibit similar energy (phosphorylation occurs at histidyl or cysteyl residues), is surprising, as a single protein (or domain) coupling energy transfer and sugar phosphorylation would be sufficient for PTS function. A possible explanation for the complexity of the PTS was provided by the discovery that the PTS also carries out numerous regulatory functions. Depending on their phosphorylation state, the four proteins (domains) forming the PTS phosphorylation cascade (EI, HPr, EIIA, and EIIB) can phosphorylate or interact with numerous non-PTS proteins and thereby regulate their activity. In addition, in certain bacteria, one of the PTS components (HPr) is phosphorylated by ATP at a seryl residue, which increases the complexity of PTS-mediated regulation. In this review, we try to summarize the known protein phosphorylation-related regulatory functions of the PTS. As we shall see, the PTS regulation network not only controls carbohydrate uptake and metabolism but also interferes with the utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus and the virulence of certain pathogens. PMID:17158705

  19. Semisynthesis and Enzymatic Preparation of Post-translationally Modified ?-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Fauvet, Bruno; Lashuel, Hilal A

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) serve as molecular switches for regulating protein folding, function, and interactome and have been implicated in the misfolding and amyloid formation by several proteins linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Understanding the role of individual PTMs in protein misfolding and aggregation requires the preparation of site-specifically modified proteins, as well as the identification of the enzymes involved in regulating these PTMs. Recently, our group has pioneered the development of enzymatic, synthetic, and semisynthetic strategies that allow site-specific introduction of PTMs at single or multiple sites and generation of modified proteins in milligram quantities. In this chapter, we provide detailed description of enzymatic and semisynthetic strategies for the generation of the phosphorylated ?-Synuclein (?-Syn) at S129, (pS129), which has been identified as a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. The semisynthetic method described for generation of ?-Syn-pS129 requires expertise with protein chemical ligation, but can be used to incorporate other PTMs (single or multiple) within the ?-Syn C-terminus if desired. On the other hand, the in vitro kinase-mediated phosphorylation strategy does not require any special setup and is rather easy to apply, but its application is restricted to the generation of ?-Syn_pS129. These methods have the potential to increase the availability of pure and homogenous modified ?-Syn reagents, which may be used as standards in numerous applications, including the search for potential biomarkers of synucleinopathies. PMID:26453202

  20. STAT2 phosphorylation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Hkan C; Gamero, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    STAT2 is an essential transcription factor in type I IFN mediated anti-viral and anti-proliferative signaling. STAT2 function is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, which is the trigger for STAT-dimerization, subsequent nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activation of IFN stimulated genes. Evidence of additional STAT2 phosphorylation sites has emerged as well as novel roles for STAT2 separate from the classical ISGF3-signaling. This review aims to summarize knowledge of phosphorylation-mediated STAT2-regulation and future avenues of related STAT2 research. PMID:24416652

  1. The Serine/threonine kinase Stk33 exhibits autophosphorylation and phosphorylates the intermediate filament protein Vimentin

    PubMed Central

    Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Mujica, Alejandro O; Herrmann, Harald; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2008-01-01

    Background Colocalization of Stk33 with vimentin by double immunofluorescence in certain cells indicated that vimentin might be a target for phosphorylation by the novel kinase Stk33. We therefore tested in vitro the ability of Stk33 to phosphorylate recombinant full length vimentin and amino-terminal truncated versions thereof. In order to prove that Stk33 and vimentin are also in vivo associated proteins co-immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out. For testing the enzymatic activity of immunoprecipitated Stk33 we incubated precipitated Stk33 with recombinant vimentin proteins. To investigate whether Stk33 binds directly to vimentin, an in vitro co-sedimentation assay was performed. Results The results of the kinase assays demonstrate that Stk33 is able to specifically phosphorylate the non-?-helical amino-terminal domain of vimentin in vitro. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments employing cultured cell extracts indicate that Stk33 and vimentin are associated in vivo. Immunoprecipitated Stk33 has enzymatic activity as shown by successful phosphorylation of recombinant vimentin proteins. The results of the co-sedimentation assay suggest that vimentin binds directly to Stk33 and that no additional protein mediates the association. Conclusion We hypothesize that Stk33 is involved in the in vivo dynamics of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton by phosphorylating vimentin. PMID:18811945

  2. Lys169 of human glucokinase is a determinant for glucose phosphorylation: implication for the atomic mechanism of glucokinase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Chenjing; Shi, Ting; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2009-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK), a glucose sensor, maintains plasma glucose homeostasis via phosphorylation of glucose and is a potential therapeutic target for treating maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI). To characterize the catalytic mechanism of glucose phosphorylation by GK, we combined molecular modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, experimental mutagenesis and enzymatic kinetic analysis on both wild-type and mutated GK. Our three-dimensional (3D) model of the GK-Mg(2+)-ATP-glucose (GMAG) complex, is in agreement with a large number of mutagenesis data, and elucidates atomic information of the catalytic site in GK for glucose phosphorylation. A 10-ns MD simulation of the GMAG complex revealed that Lys169 plays a dominant role in glucose phosphorylation. This prediction was verified by experimental mutagenesis of GK (K169A) and enzymatic kinetic analyses of glucose phosphorylation. QM/MM calculations were further used to study the role of Lys169 in the catalytic mechanism of the glucose phosphorylation and we found that Lys169 enhances the binding of GK with both ATP and glucose by serving as a bridge between ATP and glucose. More importantly, Lys169 directly participates in the glucose phosphorylation as a general acid catalyst. Our findings provide mechanistic details of glucose phorphorylation catalyzed by GK, and are important for understanding the pathogenic mechanism of MODY. PMID:19617908

  3. Oxidative and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jui H.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes a molecular mechanism for the coupling of phosphorylation to electron transport in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Justifies the proposed reaction schemes in terms of thermodynamics and biochemical data. Suggests how areobic respiration could have evolved. (EB)

  4. Emergence of pyridoxal phosphorylation through a promiscuous ancestor during the evolution of hydroxymethyl pyrimidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Castro-Fernandez, Victor; Bravo-Moraga, Felipe; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Cesar A; Guixe, Victoria

    2014-08-25

    In the family of ATP-dependent vitamin kinases, several bifunctional enzymes that phosphorylate hydroxymethyl pyrimidine (HMP) and pyridoxal (PL) have been described besides enzymes specific towards HMP. To determine how bifunctionality emerged, we reconstructed the sequence of three ancestors of HMP kinases, experimentally resurrected, and assayed the enzymatic activity of their last common ancestor. The latter has ? 8-fold higher specificity for HMP due to a glutamine residue (Gln44) that is a key determinant of the specificity towards HMP, although it is capable of phosphorylating both substrates. These results show how a specific enzyme with catalytic promiscuity gave rise to current bifunctional enzymes. PMID:24952356

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-08-22

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  6. Blue Light Regulated Two-Component Systems: Enzymatic and Functional Analyses of Light-Oxygen-Voltage(LOV)-Histidine Kinases and Downstream Response Regulators*

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Fernando; Ko, Wen-Huang; Ocasio, Victor; Bogomolni, Roberto A.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2013-01-01

    Light is an essential environmental cue for diverse organisms. Many prokaryotic blue light photoreceptors use Light, Oxygen, Voltage (LOV) sensory domains to control the activities of diverse output domains, including histidine kinases (HK). Upon activation, these proteins autophosphorylate a histidine residue before subsequently transferring the phosphate to an aspartate residue in the receiver domain of a cognate response regulator (RR). Such phosphorylation, activates the output domain of the RR, leading to changes in gene expression, protein-protein interactions or enzymatic activities. Here we focus on one such light sensing LOV-HK from the marine bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis HTCC2594 (EL368), seeking to understand how kinase activity and subsequent downstream effects are regulated by light. We found that photoactivation of EL368 led to a significant enhancement in the incorporation of phosphate within the HK domain. Further enzymatic studies showed that the LOV domain affected both the LOV-HK turnover rate (kcat) and Km in a light-dependent manner. Using in vitro phosphotransfer profiling, we identified two target RRs for EL368 and two additional LOV-HKs (EL346 and EL362) encoded within the host genome. The two RRs include a PhyR-type transcriptional regulator (EL_PhyR) and a receiver-only protein (EL_LovR), reminiscent of stress-triggered systems in other bacteria. Taken together, our data provide a biochemical foundation for this light-regulated signaling module of sensors, effectors and regulators that control bacterial responses to environmental conditions. PMID:23806044

  7. IGF1 regulates PKM2 function through Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Salani, Barbara; Ravera, Silvia; Amaro, Adriana; Salis, Annalisa; Passalacqua, Mario; Millo, Enrico; Damonte, Gianluca; Marini, Cecilia; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Cordera, Renzo; Maggi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) acts at the crossroad of growth and metabolism pathways in cells. PKM2 regulation by growth factors can redirect glycolytic intermediates into key biosynthetic pathway. Here we show that IGF1 can regulate glycolysis rate, stimulate PKM2 Ser/Thr phosphorylation and decrease cellular pyruvate kinase activity. Upon IGF1 treatment we found an increase of the dimeric form of PKM2 and the enrichment of PKM2 in the nucleus. This effect was associated to a reduction of pyruvate kinase enzymatic activity and was reversed using metformin, which decreases Akt phosphorylation. IGF1 induced an increased nuclear localization of PKM2 and STAT3, which correlated with an increased HIF1?, HK2, and GLUT1 expression and glucose entrapment. Metformin inhibited HK2, GLUT1, HIF-1? expression and glucose consumption. These findings suggest a role of IGFIR/Akt axis in regulating glycolysis by Ser/Thr PKM2 phosphorylation in cancer cells. PMID:25790097

  8. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, J B; Ninfa, A J; Stock, A M

    1989-01-01

    Bacteria continuously adapt to changes in their environment. Responses are largely controlled by signal transduction systems that contain two central enzymatic components, a protein kinase that uses adenosine triphosphate to phosphorylate itself at a histidine residue and a response regulator that accepts phosphoryl groups from the kinase. This conserved phosphotransfer chemistry is found in a wide range of bacterial species and operates in diverse systems to provide different regulatory outputs. The histidine kinases are frequently membrane receptor proteins that respond to environmental signals and phosphorylate response regulators that control transcription. Four specific regulatory systems are discussed in detail: chemotaxis in response to attractant and repellent stimuli (Che), regulation of gene expression in response to nitrogen deprivation (Ntr), control of the expression of enzymes and transport systems that assimilate phosphorus (Pho), and regulation of outer membrane porin expression in response to osmolarity and other culture conditions (Omp). Several additional systems are also examined, including systems that control complex developmental processes such as sporulation and fruiting-body formation, systems required for virulent infections of plant or animal host tissues, and systems that regulate transport and metabolism. Finally, an attempt is made to understand how cross-talk between parallel phosphotransfer pathways can provide a global regulatory curcuitry. PMID:2556636

  9. IGF1 regulates PKM2 function through Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Barbara; Ravera, Silvia; Amaro, Adriana; Salis, Annalisa; Passalacqua, Mario; Millo, Enrico; Damonte, Gianluca; Marini, Cecilia; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Cordera, Renzo; Maggi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) acts at the crossroad of growth and metabolism pathways in cells. PKM2 regulation by growth factors can redirect glycolytic intermediates into key biosynthetic pathway. Here we show that IGF1 can regulate glycolysis rate, stimulate PKM2 Ser/Thr phosphorylation and decrease cellular pyruvate kinase activity. Upon IGF1 treatment we found an increase of the dimeric form of PKM2 and the enrichment of PKM2 in the nucleus. This effect was associated to a reduction of pyruvate kinase enzymatic activity and was reversed using metformin, which decreases Akt phosphorylation. IGF1 induced an increased nuclear localization of PKM2 and STAT3, which correlated with an increased HIF1α, HK2, and GLUT1 expression and glucose entrapment. Metformin inhibited HK2, GLUT1, HIF-1α expression and glucose consumption. These findings suggest a role of IGFIR/Akt axis in regulating glycolysis by Ser/Thr PKM2 phosphorylation in cancer cells. PMID:25790097

  10. Filamentous smooth muscle myosin is regulated by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The enzymatic activity of filamentous dephosphorylated smooth muscle myosin has been difficult to determine because the polymer disassembles to the folded conformation in the presence of MgATP. Monoclonal antirod antibodies were used here to "fix" dephosphorylated myosin in the filamentous state. The steady-state actin-activated ATPase of phosphorylated filaments was 30-100-fold higher than that of antibody- stabilized dephosphorylated filaments, suggesting that phosphorylation can activate ATPase activity independent of changes in assembly. The degree of regulation may exceed 100-fold, because steady-state measurements slightly overestimate the rate of product release from dephosphorylated filaments. Single-turnover experiments in the absence of actin showed that although dephosphorylated folded myosin released products at the low rate of 0.0005 s-1 (Cross, R. A., K. E. Cross, A. Sobieszek. 1986. EMBO [Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.] J. 5:2637-2641) the rate of product release from dephosphorylated filaments was only 3-12-fold higher, depending on the ionic strength. The addition of actin did not increase this rate to any appreciable extent. Dephosphorylated filaments and dephosphorylated heavy meromyosin (Sellers, J. R. 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:15815-15819) thus have similar low rates of phosphate release both in the presence and absence of actin. These results show that light chain phosphorylation alone, without invoking other mechanisms, is an effective switch for regulating the activity of smooth muscle myosin filaments. PMID:2531749

  11. Spatiotemporal Investigation of Phosphorylation Events During Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Gheghiani, Lilia; Gavet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is an essential kinase for mitotic commitment and progression through mitosis. In contrast to its well characterized roles during mitosis, the precise molecular events controlled by Plk1 during G2/M progression and their spatiotemporal regulation are still poorly elucidated. We recently investigated Plk1-dependent regulation of Cdc25C phosphatase, an activator of the master mitotic driver Cyclin B1-Cdk1. To this end, we generated a genetically encoded FRET (Frster Resonance Energy Transfer)-based Cdc25C phosphorylation biosensor to observe Cdc25 spatiotemporal phosphorylation during cell cycle progression in live single cell assays. Because this approach proved to be powerful, we provide here guidelines for the development of biosensors for any phosphorylation site of interest. PMID:26254922

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orthophosphate-releasing enzymatic hydrolysis is an alternative means for characterizing organic phosphorus (Po) in animal manure. The approach is not only simple and fast, but can also provide information difficult to obtain by other methods. Currently, commercially available phosphatases are mainl...

  13. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    DOEpatents

    Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.

    1982-01-01

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  14. Multifractality in intracellular enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan S; Salgado, Edgar; Muoz-Diosdado, Alejandro

    2006-05-21

    Enzymatic kinetics adjust well to the Michaelis-Menten paradigm in homogeneous media with dilute, perfectly mixed reactants. These conditions are quite different from the highly structured cell plasm, so applications of the classic kinetics theory to this environment are rather limited. Cytoplasmic structure produces molecular crowding and anomalous diffusion of substances, modifying the mass action kinetic laws. The reaction coefficients are no longer constant but time-variant, as stated in the fractal kinetics theory. Fractal kinetics assumes that enzymatic reactions on such heterogeneous media occur within a non-Euclidian space characterized by a certain fractal dimension, this fractal dimension gives the dependence on time of the kinetic coefficients. In this work, stochastic simulations of enzymatic reactions under molecular crowding have been completed, and kinetic coefficients for the reactions, including the Michaelis-Menten parameter KM, were calculated. The simulations results led us to confirm the time dependence of michaelian kinetic parameter for the enzymatic catalysis. Besides, other chaos related phenomena were pointed out from the obtained KM time series, such as the emergence of strange attractors and multifractality. PMID:16256143

  15. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1982-11-02

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  16. Phosphorylation mechanisms in chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoffstall, Allen M.; Laing, Euton M.

    1985-06-01

    An objective of this work is to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorylation of nucleosides in amide solvents and in urea. A second objective is to assess the importance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nucleotide derivatives in amide environments. Although the most complex amide studied here was N-methylacetamide, inferences are made on the importance of dephosphorylation for nucleotides in oligopeptide environments. Phosphorylations in amide solvents and in urea are suggested to proceed through monomeric metaphosphate, which was first postulated as a reaction intermediate thirty years ago (Butcher and Westheimer, 1955). Phosphorylation of nucleosides and nucleotides and dephosphorylation of nucleotide derivatives have been studied in formamide, N-methylformamide, urea and N-methylacetamide. Hydrated forms of 5'-ADP and 5'ATP are unstable in hot amide solvents and in urea. They decompose to a mixture of adenosine and its phosphorylated derivatives. The rate of decomposition is much slower in N-methylacetamide than in formamide or urea. Experiments designed to prepare oligonucleotides in the presence of oligopeptides have been reported (White, 1983). According to the present study, it is not unreasonable to expect that nucleotide derivatives can be condensed with nucleosides to form oligonucleotides in a peptide environment. However, nucleotide monomers such as 5'-ATP, 5'-ADP or 5'AMP will suffer isomerization or decomposition during condensation use of activated phosphate derivatives is preferable. Monomeric metaphosphate has not been isolated or characterized in amide solvents. It is proposed here as a reaction intermediate, probably in a complexed form with the amide.

  17. Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wang, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shaohua; Han, Pingping; Yang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous increase in fossil fuels consumption and the rapid growth of atmospheric CO2 concentration, the harmonious state between human and nature faces severe challenges. Exploring green and sustainable energy resources and devising efficient methods for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization are urgently required. Converting CO2 into fuels/chemicals/materials as an indispensable element for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization may offer a win-win strategy to both decrease the CO2 concentration and achieve the efficient exploitation of carbon resources. Among the current major methods (including chemical, photochemical, electrochemical and enzymatic methods), the enzymatic method, which is inspired by the CO2 metabolic process in cells, offers a green and potent alternative for efficient CO2 conversion due to its superior stereo-specificity and region/chemo-selectivity. Thus, in this tutorial review, we firstly provide a brief background about enzymatic conversion for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. Next, we depict six major routes of the CO2 metabolic process in cells, which are taken as the inspiration source for the construction of enzymatic systems in vitro. Next, we focus on the state-of-the-art routes for the catalytic conversion of CO2 by a single enzyme system and by a multienzyme system. Some emerging approaches and materials utilized for constructing single-enzyme/multienzyme systems to enhance the catalytic activity/stability will be highlighted. Finally, a summary about the current advances and the future perspectives of the enzymatic conversion of CO2 will be presented. PMID:26055659

  18. Herpes simplex virus 2 VP22 phosphorylation induced by cellular and viral kinases does not influence intracellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiss, Brian J.; Cano, Gina L.; Tavis, John E.; Morrison, Lynda A. . E-mail: morrisla@slu.edu

    2004-12-05

    Phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP22 protein is regulated by cellular kinases and the UL13 viral kinase, but the sites at which these enzymes induce phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 are not known. Using serine-to-alanine mutants to map phosphorylation sites on HSV-2 VP22 in cells, we made three major observations. First, phosphorylation by a cellular kinase mapped to serines 70, 71, and/or 72 within CKII consensus sites analogous to previously identified phosphorylation sites in HSV-1 VP22. Second, we mapped UL13-mediated phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 to serines 28 and 34, describing for the first time UL13-dependent phosphorylation sites on VP22. Third, previously identified VP22-associated cellular kinase sites in HSV-1 VP22 (serines 292 and 294) were not phosphorylated in HSV-2 VP22 (serines 291 and 293). VP22 expressed alone accumulated in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus. Phosphorylation by endogenous cellular kinase(s) did not alter the localization of VP22. Co-expression of HSV-2 VP22 with active UL13, but not with enzymatically inactive UL13, resulted in nuclear accumulation of VP22 and altered nuclear morphology. Surprisingly, redistribution of VP22 to the nucleus occurred independently of UL13-induced phosphorylation of VP22. The altered nuclear morphology of UL13-expressing cells was not due to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 at multiple serine residues is induced by UL13 and cellular kinase(s), and that the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of VP22 is independent of its phosphorylation status but is controlled indirectly by UL13 kinase activity.

  19. Probing phosphorylation-dependent protein interactions within functional domains of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5)

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Amanda J.; Mathias, Rommel A.; Rowland, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Fang; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2014-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical transcriptional regulators, shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular compartments. Within the nucleus, these HDACs repress transcription as components of multi-protein complexes, such as the nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) and beclin-6 co-repressor (BCoR) complexes. Cytoplasmic relocalization releases this transcriptional repressive function. Class IIa HDAC shuttling is controlled, in part, by phosphorylations flanking the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Furthermore, we have reported that phosphorylation within the NLS by the kinase Aurora B modulates the localization and function of the class IIa HDAC5 during mitosis. While we identified numerous additional HDAC5 phosphorylations, their regulatory functions remain unknown. Here we studied phosphorylation sites within functional HDAC5 domains, including the deacetylation domain (DAC, Ser755), nuclear export signal (NES, S1108), and an acidic domain (AD, Ser611). We have generated phosphomutant cell lines to investigate how absence of phosphorylation at these sites impacts HDAC5 localization, enzymatic activity, and protein interactions. Combining molecular biology and quantitative mass spectrometry, we have defined the interactions and HDAC5-containing complexes mediated by site-specific phosphorylation and quantified selected changes using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These results expand the current understanding regarding HDAC regulation, and the functions of this critical family of proteins within human cells. PMID:24920159

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Notch1 signaling: the fulcrum of Notch1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Hee-Sae

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in cell fate determination, cellular development, cellular self-renewal, tumor progression, and has been linked to developmental disorders and carcinogenesis. Notch1 is activated through interactions with the ligands of neighboring cells, and acts as a transcriptional activator in the nucleus. The Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1-IC) regulates the expression of target genes related to tumor development and progression. The Notch1 protein undergoes modification after translation by posttranslational modification enzymes. Phosphorylation modification is critical for enzymatic activation, complex formation, degradation, and subcellular localization. According to the nuclear cycle, Notch1-IC is degraded by E3 ligase, FBW7 in the nucleus via phosphorylation-dependent degradation. Here, we summarize the Notch signaling pathway, and resolve to understand the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of Notch signaling as well as to understand its relation to cancer. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 431-437] PMID:26058398

  1. Enzymic mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation: (coupling unit/coupling sequences/transmembrane orientation/phosphoryl transferase)

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.E.; Vande Zande, H.

    1982-02-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation, like substrate-level phosphorylation, involves oxidative conversion of inorganic phosphate to a reactive species followed by interaction of this species with enzyme-bound ADP to form enzyme-bound ATP. The reactive species is a phosphoryl ester in substrate-level phosphorylation and a phosphonium ion or orthophosphate in oxidative phosphorylation. The coupled synthesis is mediated by a combination of two classical enzymes in substrate-level phosphorylation and by a set of energy-coupled enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation. The full range of experimental evidence supporting this proposed enzymic mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is presented as well as the rationalization of phenomena that hitherto have eluded explanation.

  2. Understanding protein phosphorylation on a systems level

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy; Xie, Zhi; Zhu, Heng

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase phosphorylation is central to the regulation and control of protein and cellular function. Over the past decade, the development of many high-throughput approaches has revolutionized the understanding of protein phosphorylation and allowed rapid and unbiased surveys of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation events. In addition to this technological advancement, there have also been computational improvements; recent studies on network models of protein phosphorylation have provided many insights into the cellular processes and pathways regulated by phosphorylation. This article gives an overview of experimental and computational techniques for identifying and analyzing protein phosphorylation on a systems level. PMID:20056723

  3. Click conjugation of a binuclear terbium(III) complex for real-time detection of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Hiroki; Sumaoka, Jun; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Komiyama, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins is closely associated with various diseases, and, therefore, its detection is vitally important in molecular biology and drug discovery. Previously, we developed a binuclear Tb(III) complex, which emits notable luminescence only in the presence of phosphotyrosine. In this study, we conjugated a newly synthesized binuclear Tb(III) complex to substrate peptides by using click chemistry. Using these conjugates, we were able to detect tyrosine phosphorylation in real time. These conjugates were superior to nonconjugated Tb(III) complexes for the detection of tyrosine phosphorylation, especially when the substrate peptides used were positively charged. Luminescence intensity upon phosphorylation was enhanced 10-fold, making the luminescence intensity of this system one of the largest among lanthanide luminescence-based systems. We also determined Michaelis-Menten parameters for the phosphorylation of various kinase/peptide combinations and quantitatively analyzed the effects of mutations in the peptide substrates. Furthermore, we successfully monitored the inhibition of enzymatic phosphorylation by inhibitors in real time. Advantageously, this system detects only the phosphorylation of tyrosine (phosphorylated serine and threonine are virtually silent) and is applicable to versatile peptide substrates. Our study thus demonstrates the applicability of this system for the analysis of kinase activity, which could lead to drug discovery. PMID:25757507

  4. Autophagy proteins regulate ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Nuria; Athonvarangkul, Diana; Mishall, Priti; Sahu, Srabani; Singh, Rajat

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved pathway that maintains cellular quality control. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) controls various aspects of cell physiology including proliferation. Multiple signalling cascades, including ERK, have been shown to regulate autophagy, however whether autophagy proteins (ATG) regulate cell signalling is unknown. Here we show that growth factor exposure increases the interaction of ERK cascade components with ATG proteins in the cytosol and nucleus. ERK and its upstream kinase MEK localize to the extra-luminal face of autophagosomes. ERK2 interacts with ATG proteins via its substrate-binding domains. Deleting Atg7 or Atg5 or blocking LC3 lipidation or ATG5-ATG12 conjugation decreases ERK phosphorylation. Conversely, increasing LC3-II availability by silencing the cysteine protease ATG4B or acute trehalose exposure increases ERK phosphorylation. Decreased ERK phosphorylation in Atg5?/? cells does not occur from overactive phosphatases. Our findings thus reveal an unconventional function of ATG proteins as cellular scaffolds in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation. PMID:24240988

  5. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of hydrophobic penicillins.

    PubMed

    Luengo, J M

    1995-11-01

    Our knowledge of the enzymes and genes involved in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics has increased notably in the last decade. The purification to homogeneity of some of these proteins as well as their biochemical characterization has allowed some of them to be used for synthesizing many different penicillins and cephalosporin-like products in vitro. In this report we describe the most important advances in this field, placing special emphasis on the enzymatic synthesis of hydrophobic penicillins. The use of purified acyl-CoA: 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase (AT) from Penicillium chrysogenum and several acyl-CoA ligases obtained from different microbial origins has led to the reproduction "in vitro" of the last step involved in in penicillin biosynthesis. By coupling these enzymatic systems (AT and acyl-CoA ligases) an impressive number of beta-lactam antibiotics has been obtained. Thus, most of the known natural penicillins, many of the semisynthetic variants and others, which until now can only be obtained chemically, have been synthesized enzymatically from their natural precursors. Furthermore, the use of heterologous proteins in coupled systems has opened a new and exciting field in beta-lactam antibiotic research, lending new perspectives to the traditional methodology followed by antibiotic fermentation industries. PMID:8557558

  7. Electrochemical enzymatic biosensors using carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Yi-fen; Swisher, Luxi Z.; Syed, Lateef U.; Prior, Allan M.; Nguyen, Thu A.; Hua, Duy H.

    2012-10-01

    The reduction of electrode size down to nanometers could dramatically enhance detection sensitivity and temporal resolution. Nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) are of particular interest for ultrasensitive biosensors. Here we report the study of two types of biosensors for measuring enzyme activities using NEAs fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). VACNFs of ~100 nm in average diameter and 3-5 ?m in length were grown on conductive substrates as uniform vertical arrays which were then encapsulated in SiO2 matrix leaving only the tips exposed. We demonstrate that such VACNF NEAs can be used in profiling enzyme activities through monitoring the change in electrochemical signals induced by enzymatic reactions to the peptides attached to the VACNF tip. The cleavage of the tetrapeptide with a ferrocene tag by a cancerrelated protease (legumain) was monitored with AC voltammetry. Real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) was used for fast label-free detection of two reversible processes, i.e. phosphorylation by c-Src tyrosine kinase and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The REIS data of phosphorylation were slow and unreliable, but those of dephosphorylation showed large and fast exponential decay due to much higher activity of phosphatase PTP1B. The kinetic data were analyzed with a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model to derive the "specificity constant" kcat/Km, which is 8.2x103 M-1s-1 for legumain and (2.1 0.1) x 107 M-1s-1 for phosphatase (PTP1B), well consistent with literature. It is promising to develop VACNF NEA based electrochemical enzymatic biosensors as portable multiplex electronic techniques for rapid cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  8. Phosphorylation regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex function

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic complex deltaretrovirus, which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In addition to the structural and enzymatic viral gene products, HTLV-1 encodes the positive regulatory proteins Tax and Rex along with viral accessory proteins. Tax and Rex proteins orchestrate the timely expression of viral genes important in viral replication and cellular transformation. Rex is a nucleolar-localizing shuttling protein that acts post-transcriptionally by binding and facilitating the export of the unspliced and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HTLV-1 Rex (Rex-1) is a phosphoprotein and general protein kinase inhibition correlates with reduced function. Therefore, it has been proposed that Rex-1 function may be regulated through site-specific phosphorylation. Results We conducted a phosphoryl mapping of Rex-1 over-expressed in transfected 293 T cells using a combination of affinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We achieved 100% physical coverage of the Rex-1 polypeptide and identified five novel phosphorylation sites at Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-97, and Ser-106. We also confirmed evidence of two previously identified residues, Ser-70 and Thr-174, but found no evidence of phosphorylation at Ser-177. The functional significance of these phosphorylation events was evaluated using a Rex reporter assay and site-directed mutational analysis. Our results indicate that phosphorylation at Ser-97 and Thr-174 is critical for Rex-1 function. Conclusion We have mapped completely the site-specific phosphorylation of Rex-1 identifying a total of seven residues; Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-70, Ser-97, Ser-106, and Thr-174. Overall, this work is the first to completely map the phosphorylation sites in Rex-1 and provides important insight into the regulation of Rex-1 function. PMID:19919707

  9. Phosphorylation of Smads by Intracellular Kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Matsuura, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Smad proteins transduce the TGF- family signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. In addition to being phosphorylated by the TGF- family receptors, Smads are phosphorylated by a variety of intracellular kinases. The most studied are by cyclin-dependent kinases, the MAP kinase family members, and GSK-3. Phosphorylation by these kinases regulates Smad activities, leading to various biological effects. This chapter describes the methods for analyzing Smad phosphorylation by these kinases. PMID:26520119

  10. Regulation of CD3-induced phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) tyrosine phosphorylation by CD4 and CD45 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kanner, S B; Deans, J P; Ledbetter, J A

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of the signal transduction cascade in T cells through the T-cell receptor (CD3) coincides with activation of the phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) pathway. activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) occurs through tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells following surface ligation of CD3 receptors with CD3-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Here we show that cross-linking of CD4 molecules with CD3 augments the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 1, while co-ligation of CD3 with CD45 (a receptor tyrosine phosphatase) results in reduced PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Mobilization of intracellular calcium correlated with the extent of PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that PLC gamma 1 enzymatic activity in T cells may be regulated by its phosphorylation state. The time-course of PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells stimulated by soluble anti-CD3 was transient and closely paralleled that of calcium mobilization, while the kinetics in cells stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 were prolonged. The PI-PLC pathway in T cells was not stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 2, a homologue of PLC gamma 1, demonstrating the strict regulation of PLC gamma isoform usage in CD3-stimulated T cells. A 35,000/36,000 MW tyrosine phosphorylated protein in T cells formed stable complexes with PLC gamma 1, and its tyrosine phosphorylation was co-regulated with that of PLC gamma 1 by CD4 and CD45 receptors. Enzymatic activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 1 occurs during growth factor stimulation of fibroblasts, where PLC gamma 1 exists in multi-component complexes. The observation that PLC gamma 1 exists in complexes with unique tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in T cells suggests that haematopoietic lineage-specific proteins associated with PLC gamma 1 may play roles in cellular signalling. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:1533389

  11. Non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Baby, Tessy Theres; Ramaprabhu, S

    2011-06-01

    The present work describes the development of novel ZnO dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) based non-enzymatic glucose biosensor with 1 M NaOH solution as the supporting electrolyte. For a comparison, the same material has been used for the fabrication of enzymatic biosensor and studied its electrochemical activity with phosphate buffer solution as the electrolyte. MWNT have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor decomposition (CCVD) and a simple sol-gel method was used for decorating crystalline ZnO nanoparticles on MWNT. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to study and optimize the electrochemical performance of the resulting enzymatic and non-enzymatic ZnO/MWNT biosensors. The non enzymatic Nafion/ZnO/MWNT/GC electrode shows linearity in the range 700 nM to 31 mM with the detection limit of 500 nM. Similarly enzymatic biosensor fabricated using Nafion/GOD/ZnO/MWNT on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) shows a linearity from 1 microM to 22 mM. This excellent performance of non enzymatic Nafion/ZnO/MWNT/GC is due to high surface area, good electron transfer rate of ZnO/MWNT and the high electrochemical catalytic activity of ZnO in NaOH solution. PMID:21770093

  12. Monitoring protein phosphorylation by acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag in various plants

    PubMed Central

    Bekeov, Slvka; Komis, George; K?enek, Pavel; Vyplelov, Petra; Ove?ka, Miroslav; Luptov?iak, Ivan; Ills, Peter; Kucha?ov, Anna; amaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to rationalize acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag in-gel discrimination of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated plant protein species with standard immunoblot analysis, and optimize sample preparation, efficient electrophoretic separation and transfer. We tested variants of the method including extraction buffers suitable for preservation of phosphorylated protein species in crude extracts from plants and we addressed the importance of the cation (Mn2+ or Zn2+) used in the gel recipe for efficient transfer to PVDF membranes for further immunoblot analysis. We demonstrate the monitoring of Medicago sativa stress-induced mitogen activated protein kinase (SIMK) in stress-treated wild type plants and transgenic SIMKK RNAi line. We further show the hyperosmotically-induced phosphorylation of the previously uncharacterized HvMPK4 of barley. The method is validated using inducible phosphorylation of barley and wheat ?-tubulin and of Arabidopsis MPK6. Acrylamide pendant Phos-Tagoffers a flexible tool for studying protein phosphorylation in crops and Arabidopsis circumventing radioactive labeling and the use of phosphorylation specific antibodies. PMID:26029234

  13. Enzymatically triggered rupture of polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Park, Seung Chul; Reed, Ellen H; Dooley, Kevin P; Wheeler, Samuel F; Lee, Daeyeon; Hammer, Daniel A

    2016-01-20

    Polymersomes are robust vesicles made from amphiphilic block co-polymers. Large populations of uniform giant polymersomes with defined, entrapped species can be made by templating of double-emulsions using microfluidics. In the present study, a series of two enzymatic reactions, one inside and the other outside of the polymersome, were designed to induce rupture of polymersomes. We measured how the kinetics of rupture were affected by altering enzyme concentration. These results suggest that protocells with entrapped enzymes can be engineered to secrete contents on cue. PMID:26616557

  14. The variable surface glycoproteins of Trypanosoma equiperdum are phosphorylated.

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, T; Giroud, C; Baltz, D; Duvillier, G; Degand, P; Demaille, J; Pautrizel, R

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoproteins from three Trypanosoma equiperdum variants were studied by labelling the parasites in vivo with 32P. Phosphoprotein analysis reveals the presence of a 58 000 mol. wt. phosphoprotein ( pp58 ) which is absent when live trypanosomes are pre-treated with proteinase K under conditions where only the surface coat containing the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) is removed. Immunological and fingerprint analysis on labelled pp58 , purified from these variants by affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, clearly identify this component as the VSG. Furthermore, the VSGs seem to be phosphorylated to the extent of 1 mol phosphate per mol glycoprotein. The phosphorylated region is located in the extreme C-terminal region representing approximately 10% of the total molecule. The phosphorylated residue is not an aliphatic or aromatic ester of serine, threonine, or tyrosine, nor an acyl phosphate involving an aspartyl or glutamyl residue, nor phosphohistidine. The evidence that VSGs are phosphorylated could have considerable implications for the transfer and function of these structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6821334

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis supports protein tyrosine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kusebauch, Ulrike; Ortega, Corrie; Ollodart, Anja; Rogers, Richard S.; Sherman, David R.; Moritz, Robert L.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation determines growth and adaptive decisions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). At least 11 two-component systems and 11 Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) mediate phosphorylation on Asp, His, Ser, and Thr. In contrast, protein phosphorylation on Tyr has not been described previously in Mtb. Here, using a combination of phospho-enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry, we show extensive protein Tyr phosphorylation of diverse Mtb proteins, including STPKs. Several STPKs function as dual-specificity kinases that phosphorylate Tyr in cis and in trans, suggesting that dual-specificity kinases have a major role in bacterial phospho-signaling. Mutation of a phosphotyrosine site of the essential STPK PknB reduces its activity in vitro and in live Mtb, indicating that Tyr phosphorylation has a functional role in bacterial growth. These data identify a previously unrecognized phosphorylation system in a human pathogen that claims ∼1.4 million lives every year. PMID:24927537

  16. Phosphorylation of Single Stranded RNA Virus Proteins and Potential for Novel Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Keck, Forrest; Ataey, Pouya; Amaya, Moushimi; Bailey, Charles; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2015-10-01

    Post translational modification of proteins is a critical requirement that regulates function. Among the diverse kinds of protein post translational modifications, phosphorylation plays essential roles in protein folding, protein:protein interactions, signal transduction, intracellular localization, transcription regulation, cell cycle progression, survival and apoptosis. Protein phosphorylation is also essential for many intracellular pathogens to establish a productive infection cycle. Preservation of protein phosphorylation moieties in pathogens in a manner that mirrors the host components underscores the co-evolutionary trajectory of pathogens and hosts, and sheds light on how successful pathogens have usurped, either in part or as a whole, the host enzymatic machinery. Phosphorylation of viral proteins for many acute RNA viruses including Flaviviruses and Alphaviruses has been demonstrated to be critical for protein functionality. This review focuses on phosphorylation modifications that have been documented to occur on viral proteins with emphasis on acutely infectious, single stranded RNA viruses. The review additionally explores the possibility of repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved inhibitors as antivirals for the treatment of acute RNA viral infections. PMID:26473910

  17. CDK-dependent phosphorylation of PHD1 on serine 130 alters its substrate preference in cells.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Brian; Bensaddek, Dalila; Carvalhal, Sara; Moser, Sandra C; Mudie, Sharon; Griffis, Eric R; Swedlow, Jason R; Lamond, Angus I; Rocha, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    PHD1 (also known as EGLN2) belongs to a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) that are involved in the control of the cellular response to hypoxia. PHD1 is also able to regulate mitotic progression through the regulation of the crucial centrosomal protein Cep192, establishing a link between the oxygen-sensing and the cell cycle machinery. Here, we demonstrate that PHD1 is phosphorylated by CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 at S130. This phosphorylation fluctuates with the cell cycle and can be induced through oncogenic activation. Functionally, PHD1 phosphorylation leads to increased induction of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) protein levels and activity during hypoxia. PHD1 phosphorylation does not alter its intrinsic enzymatic activity, but instead decreases the interaction between PHD1 and HIF1?. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of PHD1 at S130 lowers its activity towards HIF1?, this modification increases the activity of PHD1 towards Cep192. These results establish a mechanism by which cell cycle mediators, such as CDKs, temporally control the activity of PHD1, directly altering the regulation of HIF1? and Cep192. PMID:26644182

  18. CDK-dependent phosphorylation of PHD1 on serine 130 alters its substrate preference in cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, Brian; Bensaddek, Dalila; Carvalhal, Sara; Moser, Sandra C.; Mudie, Sharon; Griffis, Eric R.; Swedlow, Jason R.; Lamond, Angus I.; Rocha, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PHD1 (also known as EGLN2) belongs to a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) that are involved in the control of the cellular response to hypoxia. PHD1 is also able to regulate mitotic progression through the regulation of the crucial centrosomal protein Cep192, establishing a link between the oxygen-sensing and the cell cycle machinery. Here, we demonstrate that PHD1 is phosphorylated by CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 at S130. This phosphorylation fluctuates with the cell cycle and can be induced through oncogenic activation. Functionally, PHD1 phosphorylation leads to increased induction of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) protein levels and activity during hypoxia. PHD1 phosphorylation does not alter its intrinsic enzymatic activity, but instead decreases the interaction between PHD1 and HIF1?. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of PHD1 at S130 lowers its activity towards HIF1?, this modification increases the activity of PHD1 towards Cep192. These results establish a mechanism by which cell cycle mediators, such as CDKs, temporally control the activity of PHD1, directly altering the regulation of HIF1? and Cep192. PMID:26644182

  19. Phosphorylation of Single Stranded RNA Virus Proteins and Potential for Novel Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Forrest; Ataey, Pouya; Amaya, Moushimi; Bailey, Charles; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modification of proteins is a critical requirement that regulates function. Among the diverse kinds of protein post translational modifications, phosphorylation plays essential roles in protein folding, protein:protein interactions, signal transduction, intracellular localization, transcription regulation, cell cycle progression, survival and apoptosis. Protein phosphorylation is also essential for many intracellular pathogens to establish a productive infection cycle. Preservation of protein phosphorylation moieties in pathogens in a manner that mirrors the host components underscores the co-evolutionary trajectory of pathogens and hosts, and sheds light on how successful pathogens have usurped, either in part or as a whole, the host enzymatic machinery. Phosphorylation of viral proteins for many acute RNA viruses including Flaviviruses and Alphaviruses has been demonstrated to be critical for protein functionality. This review focuses on phosphorylation modifications that have been documented to occur on viral proteins with emphasis on acutely infectious, single stranded RNA viruses. The review additionally explores the possibility of repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved inhibitors as antivirals for the treatment of acute RNA viral infections. PMID:26473910

  20. Aluminum interaction with human brain tau protein phosphorylation by various kinases

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae; Abou Zeid, M.M.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.); Abdel-Ghany, M.E.; Shalloway, D. . Section of Biochemistry, Mol, and Cell Biology); Blancato, J. . Environmental Monit. Systems Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an indispensable process for energy and signal transduction in biological systems. AlCl[sub 3] at 10 nM to 10 [mu]M range activated in-vitro [[gamma][sup [minus]32]P]ATP phosphorylation of the brain ([tau]) [Gamma] protein in both normal human or E.coli expressed [Gamma] forms; in the presence of the kinases P34,PKP, and PKC. However, higher concentrations of AlCl[sub 3] inhibited the [Gamma] phosphorylation with P34, PKP, and PKC to a maximum at 1 mM level. AlCl[sub 3] at 100 [mu]M to 500 [mu]M range induced non-enzymatic phosphorylation of [Gamma] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GRP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Gamma] by Al[sup 3+] was accompanied in molecular shift and mobility retardation in SDS-PAGE. This may demonstrate the mechanism of the long term neurological effect of Al[sub 3+] in human brain leading to the formation of the neutrofibrillary tangles related to Alzeheimer's disease.

  1. Aluminum interaction with human brain tau protein phosphorylation by various kinases

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae, A.H.; Zeid, M.M.A.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.); Abdel-Ghany, M.E.; Shalloway, D. ); Blancato, J. . Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an indispensable process for energy and signal transduction in biological systems. AlCl[sub 3] at 10 nM to 10 uM range activated in-vitro [[gamma]-[sup 32]P] ATP phosphorylation of the brain (tau) [Tau] protein in both normal human or E. coli expressed [Tau] forms; in the presence of the kinases P34, PKP, and PKC to a maximum at 1 mM level. AlCl[sub 3] at 100 uM to 500 uM range induced non-enzymatic phosphorylation of [Tau] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GTP, and [alpha]-GTP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Tau] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GTP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Tau] by Al[sup 3+] was accompanied by molecular shift and mobility retardation in SDS-PAGE. This may demonstrate the mechanism of the longterm neurological effect of Al[sup 3+] in human brain leading to the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles related to Alzeheimer's disease.

  2. Large-scale determination of absolute phosphorylation stoichiometries in human cells by motif-targeting quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Feng; Wang, Yi-Ting; Yen, Hsin-Yung; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Ku, Wei-Chi; Lin, Pei-Yi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Ishihama, Yasushi; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to model the dynamics of signal transduction networks will depend on accurate methods to quantify levels of protein phosphorylation on a global scale. Here we describe a motif-targeting quantitation method for phosphorylation stoichiometry typing. Proteome-wide phosphorylation stoichiometry can be obtained by a simple phosphoproteomic workflow integrating dephosphorylation and isotope tagging with enzymatic kinase reaction. Proof-of-concept experiments using CK2-, MAPK- and EGFR-targeting assays in lung cancer cells demonstrate the advantage of kinase-targeted complexity reduction, resulting in deeper phosphoproteome quantification. We measure the phosphorylation stoichiometry of >1,000 phosphorylation sites including 366 low-abundance tyrosine phosphorylation sites, with high reproducibility and using small sample sizes. Comparing drug-resistant and sensitive lung cancer cells, we reveal that post-translational phosphorylation changes are significantly more dramatic than those at the protein and messenger RNA levels, and suggest potential drug targets within the kinase–substrate network associated with acquired drug resistance. PMID:25814448

  3. Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean Emily

    Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems, we observed changes in the reaction mechanism and altered contributions of the mutated residues to the enzymatic reaction coordinate, but we did not detect a substantial change in the time of barrier crossing. These results confirm the importance of maintaining the dynamics and structural scaffolding of the hhLDH PV in order to facilitate facile barrier passage. We also utilized TPS to investigate the possible role of fast protein dynamics in the enzymatic reaction coordinate of human dihydrofolate reductase (hsDHFR). We found that sub-picosecond dynamics of hsDHFR do contribute to the reaction coordinate, whereas this is not the case in the E. coli version of the enzyme. This result indicates a shift in the DHFR family to a more dynamic version of catalysis. The second inquiry we addressed in this thesis regarding enzymatic barrier passage concerns the variability of paths through reactive phase space for a given enzymatic reaction. We further investigated the hhLDH-catalyzed reaction using a high-perturbation TPS algorithm. Though we saw that alternate reaction paths were possible, the dominant reaction path we observed corresponded to that previously elucidated in prior hhLDH TPS studies. Since the additional reaction paths we observed were likely high-energy, these results indicate that only the dominant reaction path contributes significantly to the overall reaction rate. In conclusion, we show that the enzymes hhLDH and hsDHFR exhibit paths through reactive phase space where fast protein motions are involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate and exhibit a non-negligible contribution to chemical barrier crossing.

  4. Enzymatic biotransformation of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Couto, S

    2009-11-01

    Environmental pollution by discharge of dye-containing effluents represents a serious ecological concern in many countries. Public demands for colour-free discharges to receiving waters have made decolouration of a variety of industrial wastewater a top priority. The current existing techniques for dye removal have several drawbacks such as high cost, low efficiency, use of large amounts of chemicals and formation of toxic sub-products. This has impelled the search for alternative methods such as those based on oxidative enzymes. This approach is believed to be a promising technology since it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and does not produce sludge. Enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes can be described as the conversion of dye molecules by enzymes into simpler and generally colourless molecules. Detailed characterisation of the metabolites produced during enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes as well as ecotoxicity studies is of great importance to assess the effectiveness of the biodegradation process. However, most reports on the biotreatment of dyes mainly deal with decolouration and there are few reports on the reduction in toxicity or on the identification of the biodegradation products. This implies a limitation to assess their true technical potential. PMID:20214593

  5. Multiple Peroxisomal Enzymatic Deficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Van Hoof, Franois; Misson, Jean-Paul; Evrard, Philippe; Verellen, Gaston; Eyssen, Hendrik J.; Van Eldere, Johan; Schutgens, Ruud B. H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Roels, Frank; Goldfischer, Sidney L.

    1986-01-01

    Biologic, morphologic, and biochemical investigations performed in 2 patients demonstrate multiple peroxisomal deficiencies in the cerebrohepatorenal syndrome of Zellweger (CHRS) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD). Very long chain fatty acids, abnormal bile acids, including bile acid precursors (di- and trihydroxycoprostanoic acids), and C29-dicarboxylic acid accumulated in plasma in both patients. Generalized hyperaminoaciduria was also present. Peroxisomes could not be detected in CHRS liver and kidney; however, in the NALD patient, small and sparse cytoplasmic bodies resembling altered peroxisomes were found in hepatocytes. Hepatocellular and Kupffer cell lysosomes were engorged with ferritin and contained clefts and trilaminar structures believed to represent very long chain fatty acids. Enzymatic deficiencies reflected the peroxisomal defects. Hepatic glycolate oxidase and palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activities were deficient. No particle-bound catalase was found in cultured fibroblasts, and ether glycerolipid (plasmalogen) biosynthesis was markedly reduced. Administration of phenobarbital and clofibrate, an agent that induces peroxisomal proliferation and enzymatic activities, to the NALD patient did not bring about any changes in plasma metabolites, liver peroxisome population, or oxidizing activities. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:2879480

  6. Economics of enzymatic hydrolysis processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have the ability to produce high yields of sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. However, these systems have been plagued with yields, product concentrations, and reactions rates far below those that are theoretically possible. Engineering and economic analyses are presented on several fungal enzyme hydrolysis processes to illustrate the effects of the important process parameters, to quantify the progress that has been made to date, and to estimate the cost reductions that can be made through research improvements. All enzymatic hydrolysis processes require pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and enzyme production. The key effect of pretreatment is to allow access of the enzymes to the substrate. Pretreatments have been devised that make the biomass completely digestible that increase the xylose yield and concentration, and that integrate pretreatment with lignin utilization. Major improvements in enzyme activity and use of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) have greatly reduced the inhibition of the enzymes. It now appears that ethanol inhibition of the yeast is the limiting factor. Enzyme production costs have been dramatically reduced because use of SSF has reduced enzyme loading. However, further improvements may be possible by using soluble carbon sources for production. Over the past decade, the predicted cost of ethanol from such processes has dropped from more than $4.00/gallon to approximately $1.60. Research is currently under way in the United States and has the potential to reduce the projected cost to less than $1.00/gallon. 65 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Enzymatic approach to biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2007-10-31

    The need for alternative energy sources that combine environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity, renewability, and less dependence on petroleum products has never been greater. One such energy source is referred to as biodiesel. This can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, microalgal oils, waste products of vegetable oil refinery or animal rendering, and used frying oils. Chemically, they are known as monoalkyl esters of fatty acids. The conventional method for producing biodiesel involves acid and base catalysts to form fatty acid alkyl esters. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods and alternative substrates. Enzymatic reactions involving lipases can be an excellent alternative to produce biodiesel through a process commonly referred to alcoholysis, a form of transesterification reaction, or through an interesterification (ester interchange) reaction. Protein engineering can be useful in improving the catalytic efficiency of lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. The use of recombinant DNA technology to produce large quantities of lipases, and the use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells, may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. In addition, the enzymatic approach is environmentally friendly, considered a "green reaction", and needs to be explored for industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:17902621

  8. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, Jonathan; Mattingly, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch. The reaction mixture further comprises an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture.

  9. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  10. beta. -Sulfopyruvate: chemical and enzymatic syntheses and enzymatic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.; Griffith, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    BETA-Sulfopyruvic acid (2-carboxy-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid) is prepared in greater than 90% yield by reaction of bromopyruvic acid with sodium sulfite. ..beta..-(/sup 35/S)Sulfopyruvate is prepared by transamination between (/sup 35/)cysteinesulfonate (cysteate) and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate using mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase isolated from rat liver. Following either chemical or enzymatic synthesis the crude reaction product is conveniently purified by chromatography on Dowex 1; ..beta..-sulfopyruvate is isolated as the stable, water-soluble dilithium salt. ..beta..-Sulfopyruvate is shown to be an alternative substrate of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase; in the presence of 0.25 mM NADH, ..beta..-sulfopyruvate is reduced with an apparent K/sub m/ of 6.3 mM and a V/sub max/ equal to about 40% of that observed with oxaloacetate. This finding forms the basis of a convenient spectrophotometric assay of ..beta..-sulfopyruvate.

  11. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler-i?il, Asli; akmaki, Emrah; Vezir Kahraman, Memet

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased.

  12. Phosphorylation of brain proteins in generalized convulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of neuronal proteins is being proposed as a modulating influence on several aspects of neuronal function. By labeling proteins with radioactive phosphorus (/sup 32/P) and then separating these proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the author can determine what factors change the phosphorylation of these proteins. They have used such a system to analyze the effects of generalized convulsions on protein phosphorylation. Electroshock (ES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were utilized to produce generalized convulsions. Brain membranes, taken from rats immediately after a convulsion, exhibited an increase in protein phosphorylation in vitro. The most noticeable change took place in proteins in the 18,000-20,000 MW range. They have designated these proteins as the low molecular weight (LMW) proteins. The change in phosphorylation was basically the same after one convulsions as after six daily convulsions. Twenty-four hours after a single convulsion no change in phosphorylation was observed. When rat membranes are exposed to PTZ in vitro, phosphorylation is increased at 20 sec but has returned to control level at 90 sec of incubation. This effect is produced without a convulsion. In general, as the concentration of magnesium is increased from 5 mM to 10 mM phosphorylation is increased. Increasing the incubation time from 20 sec to 90 sec and increasing the calcium concentration to 10 mM both decrease phosphorylation of the LMW proteins. Human temporal cortex samples present with phosphorylated proteins having patterns very similar to those in rat membranes.

  13. Confident Phosphorylation Site Localization Using the Mascot Delta Score

    PubMed Central

    Savitski, Mikhail M.; Lemeer, Simone; Boesche, Markus; Lang, Manja; Mathieson, Toby; Bantscheff, Marcus; Kuster, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Large scale phosphorylation analysis is more and more getting into focus of proteomic research. Although it is now possible to identify thousands of phosphorylated peptides in a biological system, confident site localization remains challenging. Here we validate the Mascot Delta Score (MD-score) as a simple method that achieves similar sensitivity and specificity for phosphosite localization as the published Ascore, which is mainly used in conjunction with Sequest. The MD-score was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem MS data of 180 individually synthesized phosphopeptides with precisely known phosphorylation sites. We tested the MD-score for a wide range of commonly available fragmentation methods and found it to be applicable throughout with high statistical significance. However, the different fragmentation techniques differ strongly in their ability to localize phosphorylation sites. At 1% false localization rate, the highest number of correctly assigned phosphopeptides was achieved by higher energy collision induced dissociation in combination with an Orbitrap mass analyzer followed very closely by low resolution ion trap spectra obtained after electron transfer dissociation. Both these methods are significantly better than low resolution spectra acquired after collision induced dissociation and multi stage activation. Score thresholds determined from simple calibration functions for each fragmentation method were stable over replicate analyses of the phosphopeptide set. The MD-score outperforms the Ascore for tyrosine phosphorylated peptides and we further show that the ability to call sites correctly increases with increasing distance of two candidate sites within a peptide sequence. The MD-score does not require complex computational steps which makes it attractive in terms of practical utility. We provide all mass spectra and the synthetic peptides to the community so that the development of present and future localization software can be benchmarked and any laboratory can determine MD-scores and localization probabilities for their individual analytical set up. PMID:21057138

  14. Confident phosphorylation site localization using the Mascot Delta Score.

    PubMed

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Lemeer, Simone; Boesche, Markus; Lang, Manja; Mathieson, Toby; Bantscheff, Marcus; Kuster, Bernhard

    2011-02-01

    Large scale phosphorylation analysis is more and more getting into focus of proteomic research. Although it is now possible to identify thousands of phosphorylated peptides in a biological system, confident site localization remains challenging. Here we validate the Mascot Delta Score (MD-score) as a simple method that achieves similar sensitivity and specificity for phosphosite localization as the published Ascore, which is mainly used in conjunction with Sequest. The MD-score was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem MS data of 180 individually synthesized phosphopeptides with precisely known phosphorylation sites. We tested the MD-score for a wide range of commonly available fragmentation methods and found it to be applicable throughout with high statistical significance. However, the different fragmentation techniques differ strongly in their ability to localize phosphorylation sites. At 1% false localization rate, the highest number of correctly assigned phosphopeptides was achieved by higher energy collision induced dissociation in combination with an Orbitrap mass analyzer followed very closely by low resolution ion trap spectra obtained after electron transfer dissociation. Both these methods are significantly better than low resolution spectra acquired after collision induced dissociation and multi stage activation. Score thresholds determined from simple calibration functions for each fragmentation method were stable over replicate analyses of the phosphopeptide set. The MD-score outperforms the Ascore for tyrosine phosphorylated peptides and we further show that the ability to call sites correctly increases with increasing distance of two candidate sites within a peptide sequence. The MD-score does not require complex computational steps which makes it attractive in terms of practical utility. We provide all mass spectra and the synthetic peptides to the community so that the development of present and future localization software can be benchmarked and any laboratory can determine MD-scores and localization probabilities for their individual analytical set up. PMID:21057138

  15. Sweetness and enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Ueno, Y; Kitabatake, N

    2001-10-01

    Hen egg lysozyme elicits a sweet taste sensation for human beings. Effects of reduction of disulfide bonds, heat treatment, and chemical modification of hen egg lysozyme on both sweetness and hydrolytic activity were investigated. Both the sweetness and enzymatic activities were lost when the intradisulfide linkage in a lysozyme molecule was reduced and S-3-(trimethylated amino) propylated. The sweetness and enzymatic activity of lysozyme were lost on heating at 95 degrees C for 18 h. These facts suggest that tertiary structures of lysozyme are indispensable for eliciting a sweet taste as well as enzymatic activity. Although the modification of carboxyl residues in a lysozyme by glycine methylester or aminomethansulfonic acid resulted in the loss of enzymatic activity by blocking the catalytic residues, the sweetness was fully retained. These results indicate that the sweetness of lysozyme was independent of its enzymatic activity. The lysozyme purified from goose egg white similarly elicited a sweet taste, although goose (g-type) lysozyme is quite different from hen egg lysozyme (c-type) on the basis of structural, immunological, and enzymatic properties. These findings indicate that a specific protein property of lysozyme is required for sweetness elicitation and that the enzymatic activity and carbohydrates produced by enzymatic reaction are not related to the sweet taste. PMID:11600047

  16. Phosphorylation in the Catalytic Cleft Stabilizes and Attracts Domains of a Phosphohexomutase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Lee, Yingying; Beamer, Lesa J.; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation can modulate the activities of enzymes. The phosphoryl donor in the catalytic cleft of α-D-phosphohexomutases is transiently dephosphorylated while the reaction intermediate completes a 180° reorientation within the cleft. The phosphorylated form of 52 kDa bacterial phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase is less accessible to dye or protease, more stable to chemical denaturation, and widely stabilized against NMR-detected hydrogen exchange across the core of domain 3 to juxtaposed domain 4 (each by ≥1.3 kcal/mol) and parts of domains 1 and 2. However, phosphorylation accelerates hydrogen exchange in specific regions of domains 1 and 2, including a metal-binding residue in the active site. Electrostatic field lines reveal attraction across the catalytic cleft between phosphorylated Ser-108 and domain 4, but repulsion when Ser-108 is dephosphorylated. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulated the dephosphorylated form to be expanded due to enhanced rotational freedom of domain 4. The contacts and fluctuations of the MD trajectories enabled correct simulation of more than 80% of sites that undergo either protection or deprotection from hydrogen exchange due to phosphorylation. Electrostatic attraction in the phosphorylated enzyme accounts for 1) domain 4 drawing closer to domains 1 and 3; 2) decreased accessibility; and 3) increased stability within these domains. The electrostriction due to phosphorylation may help capture substrate, whereas the opening of the cleft upon transient dephosphorylation allows rotation of the intermediate. The long-range effects of phosphorylation on hydrogen exchange parallel reports on protein kinases, suggesting a conceptual link among these multidomain, phosphoryl transfer enzymes. PMID:25606681

  17. Introduction to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kadenbach, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The basic mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) was revealed in the second half of the twentieth century. The OxPhos complexes I-V have been analyzed concerning their subunit composition, genes, and X-ray structures. This book presents new developments regarding the morphology, biogenesis, gene evolution, heat, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria, as well as the structure and supercomplex formation of OxPhos complexes. In addition, multiple mitochondrial diseases based on mutations of nuclear-encoded genes have been identified. Little is known, however, of the regulation of OxPhos according to the variable cellular demands of ATP. In particular, the functions of the supernumerary (nuclear-encoded) subunits of mitochondrial OxPhos complexes, which are mostly absent in bacteria, remain largely unknown, although the corresponding and conserved core subunits exhibit the same catalytic activity. Identification of regulatory pathways modulating OxPhos activity, by subunit isoform expression, by allosteric interaction with ATP/ADP, by reversible phosphorylation of protein subunits, or by supercomplex formation, will help to understand the role of mitochondria in the many degenerative diseases, mostly based on ROS formation in mitochondria and/or insufficient energy production. PMID:22729852

  18. Prebiotic phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study intended to assess phosphorylation under neither aqueous nor dry thermal conditions. Instead, phosphorylations were attempted in possible nonaqueous prebiotic solvents. Formamide appeared to be the most obvious candidate for phosphorylation studies. Three main classes of phosphorylated products were formed in formamide solution: adenosine monophosphates, cyclic adenosine phosphate, and adenosine diphosphates. Experiments were designed to investigate the extent of phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide, the relative amounts of nucleoside monophosphate, diphosphates and cyclic phosphate formed and the relative effectiveness of different sources of phosphate as phosphorylating agents in formamide. Reaction variables were temperature, nature of the phosphate or condensed phosphate, nucleoside, concentration of reactants and possible effects of additives. Product identification was based on qualitative and quantitative thin layer chromatography.

  19. Phosphorylation of Nucleotide Molecules in Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Keita; Nemoto, Atsushi; Imai, Ei-ichi; Honda, Hajime; Hatori, Kuniyuki; Matsuno, Koichiro

    2004-10-01

    Phosphorylation of AMP into ADP and ATP, that can outrun their hydrolysis, was made possible in a simulated hydrothermal environment when trimetaphosphate was used as the phosphate source. The best yields of phosphorylated products were obtained when the reaction fluids whose temperature was set at about 100 degrees centigrade was injected into the cold environment maintained at 0 degree in a recycling manner. Hydrothermal environments in the primitive ocean could also have served as prebiotic sites for phosphorylation, among others.

  20. Conformational motions regulate phosphoryl transfer in related protein tyrosine phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Whittier, Sean K.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Loria, J. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have implicated a role for conformational motions during the catalytic cycle, acting to optimize the binding pocket or facilitate product release, but a more intimate role in the chemical reaction has not been described. We address this by monitoring active-site loop motion in two protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) using NMR spectroscopy. The PTPs, YopH and PTP1B, have very different catalytic rates, however we find in both that the active-site loop closes to its catalytically competent position at rates that mirror the phosphotyrosine cleavage kinetics. This loop contains the catalytic acid, suggesting that loop closure occurs concomitantly with the protonation of the leaving group tyrosine and explains the different kinetics of two otherwise chemically and mechanistically indistinguishable enzymes. PMID:23970698

  1. Dissecting phosphorylation networks: lessons learned from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Janine; Zhu, Xiaowei; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation continues to be regarded as one of the most important post-translational modifications found in eukaryotes and has been implicated in key roles in the development of a number of human diseases. In order to elucidate roles for the 518 human kinases, phosphorylation has routinely been studied using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. In recent years, a number of technologies have emerged to globally map phosphorylation in yeast. In this article, we review these technologies and discuss how these phosphorylation mapping efforts have shed light on our understanding of kinase signaling pathways and eukaryotic proteomic networks in general. PMID:22087660

  2. Stimulations of Oxygen Uptake by Electron Transfer Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Lips, S. Herman; Biale, Jacob B.

    1966-01-01

    The stimulation of oxygen uptake induced in avocado tissue slices by amytal, azide and cyanide has been studied. The effects of these inhibitors on O2 uptake and on phosphorylation suggest the coexistence of phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating electron transfer systems in the fruit. The reason for the stimulations of O2 uptake is believed to be the result of an increased supply of a limiting cofactor to the phosphorylating sites. The increased availability of cofactor per site is due to the inhibition of part of the cytochrome chain and the consequent reduction in the number of active phosphorylating sites. PMID:16656322

  3. Metabolic, enzymatic and gene involvement in cerebral glucose dysmetabolism after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Amorini, Angela Maria; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Di Pietro, Valentina; Signoretti, Stefano; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the metabolic, enzymatic and gene changes causing cerebral glucose dysmetabolism following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) were evaluated. TBI was induced in rats by dropping 450g from 1 (mild TBI; mTBI) or 2m height (severe TBI; sTBI). After 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120h gene expressions and enzymatic activities of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes, and levels of lactate, ATP, ADP, ATP/ADP (indexing mitochondrial phosphorylating capacity), NADP(+), NADPH and GSH were determined in whole brain extracts (n=9 rats at each time for both TBI levels). Sham-operated animals (n=9) were used as controls. Results demonstrated that mTBI caused a late increase (48-120h post injury) of glycolytic gene expression and enzymatic activities, concomitantly with mitochondrial functional recovery (ATP and ATP/ADP normalization). No changes in lactate and PPP genes and enzymes, were accompanied by transient decrease in GSH, NADP(+), NADPH and NADPH/NADP(+). Animals following sTBI showed early increase (6-24h post injury) of glycolytic gene expression and enzymatic activities, occurring during mitochondrial malfunctioning (50% decrease in ATP and ATP/ADP). Higher lactate and lower GSH, NADP(+), NADPH, NADPH/NADP(+) than controls were recorded at anytime post injury (p<0.01). Both TBI levels caused metabolic and gene changes affecting glucose metabolism. Following mTBI, increased glucose flux through glycolysis is coupled to mitochondrial glucose oxidation. "True" hyperglycolysis occurs only after sTBI, where metabolic changes, caused by depressed mitochondrial phosphorylating capacity, act on genes causing net glycolytic flux increase uncoupled from mitochondrial glucose oxidation. PMID:26844378

  4. Quantification of Protein Kinase Enzymatic Activity in Unfractionated Cell Lysates Using CSox-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jon R.; Peterson, Laura B.; Imperiali, Barbara; Stains, Cliff I.

    2014-01-01

    Defining perturbations in protein kinase activity within biological samples can provide insight into disease mechanisms as well as potential targets for drug development. In this protocol, we present a method that utilizes a phosphorylation-sensitive amino acid, termed CSox, to afford kinase-selective biosensors capable of reporting on enzymatic activity directly in biological samples. These sensors produce an increase in fluorescence in response to phosphorylation of an amino acid residue adjacent to CSox. Probes can be designed for either serine/threonine or tyrosine kinases and analysis can be performed using standard fluorescence equipment. The procedures provided herein represent our optimized protocols for the design, validation and application of CSox-based protein kinase activity sensors. PMID:25205563

  5. Analysis and purification of phosphorylated isoprenoids by reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Poulter, C D

    1993-09-01

    Procedures were developed for analysis and purification of phosphorylated isoprenoids by reversed-phase HPLC. Dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5), geranyl diphosphate (C10), farnesyl diphosphate (C15), geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C20), and farnesylgeranyl diphosphate (C25) were cleanly separated on a C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and 25 mM NH4HCO3. Reversed-phase HPLC was used to directly analyze extracts for phosphorylated isoprenoids and to follow the progress of enzyme-catalyzed reactions without having to hydrolyze the phosphate esters before analysis. Examples are provided for geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase, and squalene synthase. The separations were run on preparative scales to purify products from the enzymatic reactions for mass spectrometry and to purify synthetic substrates. PMID:8238912

  6. Microbial Transformation of Antibiotics: Phosphorylation of Clindamycin by Streptomyces coelicolor Müller1

    PubMed Central

    Coats, John H.; Argoudelis, Alexander D.

    1971-01-01

    Addition of clindamycin to whole-cell cultures of Streptomyces coelicolor Müller resulted in the loss of in vitro activity against organisms sensitive to clindamycin. Incubation of such culture filtrates with alkaline phosphatase generated a biologically active material identified as clindamycin. Fermentation broths containing inactivated clindamycin yielded clindamycin 3-phosphate, the structure of which was established by physical-chemical and enzymatic studies. Clindamycin was phosphorylated by lysates and partially purified enzyme preparations from S. coelicolor Müller. These reactions require a ribonucleoside triphosphate and Mg2+. The product of the cell-free reactions was identified as clindamycin 3-phosphate. PMID:5166238

  7. Recent Advances in Carbon Nanotube-Based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cosnier, Serge; Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols, or hydrogen) at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2) at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes (CNT), enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications. PMID:25386555

  8. Purification and phosphorylation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from Kluyveromyces fragilis.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Y; Sy, J

    1984-07-25

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from the yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis was found to have an apparent Mr = 155,000 and to be composed of four Mr = 35,000 subunits. The extent and rate of phosphorylation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2) by yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase were dependent on fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase inhibitors, 5'-AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2). In the absence of inhibitor, the enzyme was slowly phosphorylated with a maximum incorporation of 1 mol of phosphate/mol of enzyme. The presence of both inhibitors greatly increased the phosphorylation rate with a maximum incorporation of 2 mol of phosphate/mol of enzyme. The presence of only one inhibitor led to an intermediate rate of phosphorylation with 2 mol of phosphate incorporated/mol of enzyme. There was no significant change in enzymatic activity after phosphorylation. The estimated sedimentation coefficient of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was lowered by 5'-AMP from 8.2 to 5.7 while Fru-2,6-P2 increased the S value to 8.5. The presence of either Fru-1,6-P2 or Fru-2,6-P2 prevented the 5'-AMP lowering of S value. The susceptibility of enzyme to partial tryptic digestion was not changed by the presence of 5'-AMP. The presence of both Fru-2,6-P2 and 5'-AMP led to the protection of Mr = 35,000 subunit from tryptic digestion while Fru-2,6-P2 alone led to a protection of an Mr = 30,000 peptide fragment. This peptide fragment did not contain the phosphorylation sites. Our results suggest that the rapid regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase following glucose addition is controlled mainly by enzyme inhibitors. PMID:6086609

  9. CK2 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 potentiates cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Wada, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yamaki, Junko; Krebs, Edwin G.; Homma, Yoshimi

    2005-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinase that plays an important role in cell cycle progression. Although its function in this process remains unclear, it is known to be required for the G1 and G2/M phase transitions in yeast. Here, we show that CK2 activity changes notably during cell cycle progression and is increased within 3 h of serum stimulation of quiescent cells. During the time period in which it exhibits high enzymatic activity, CK2 associates with and phosphorylates a key molecule for translation initiation, eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 5. Using MS, we show that Ser-389 and -390 of eIF5 are major sites of phosphorylation by CK2. This is confirmed using eIF5 mutants that lack CK2 sites; the phosphorylation levels of mutant eIF5 proteins are significantly reduced, relative to WT eIF5, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of these mutants reveals that they have a dominant-negative effect on phosphorylation of endogenous eIF5, and that they perturb synchronous progression of cells through S to M phase, resulting in a significant reduction in growth rate. Furthermore, the formation of mature eIF5/eIF2/eIF3 complex is reduced in these cells, and, in fact, restricted diffusional motion of WT eIF5 was almost abolished in a GFP-tagged eIF5 mutant lacking CK2 phosphorylation sites, as measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These results suggest that CK2 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression by associating with and phosphorylating a key molecule for translation initiation. PMID:16227438

  10. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in imidazole as a tool for studying histidine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cebo, Małgorzata; Kielmas, Martyna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Stefanowicz, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Isotope exchange at the histidine C2 atom of imidazole in D2O solution is well known to occur at a significantly slower rate than the exchange of amide protons. Analysis of the kinetics of this isotope-exchange reaction is proposed herein as a method of detecting histidine phosphorylation. This modification of His-containing peptides is challenging to pinpoint because of its instability under acidic conditions as well as during CID-MS analysis. In this work, we investigated the effect of phosphorylation of the histidine side chain in peptides on deuterium-hydrogen exchange (DHX) in the imidazole. The results demonstrate that phosphorylation dramatically slows the rate of the DHX reaction. This phenomenon can be applied to detect phosphorylation of peptides at the histidine residue (e.g., in enzymatic digests). We also found that the influence of the peptide sequence on the exchange kinetics is relatively small. A CID fragmentation experiment revealed that there was no detectable hydrogen scrambling in peptides deuterated at C2 of the imidazole ring. Therefore, MS/MS can be used to directly identify the locations of deuterium ions incorporated into peptides containing multiple histidine moieties. PMID:25354888

  11. Activation of Escherichia coli antiterminator BglG requires its phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Fabian M.; Bahr, Thomas; Stülke, Jörg; Rak, Bodo; Görke, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional antiterminator proteins of the BglG family control the expression of enzyme II (EII) carbohydrate transporters of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the PTS, phosphoryl groups are transferred from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) via the phosphotransferases enzyme I (EI) and HPr to the EIIs, which phosphorylate their substrates during transport. Activity of the antiterminators is negatively controlled by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by the cognate EIIs in response to substrate availability and positively controlled by the PTS. For the Escherichia coli BglG antiterminator, two different mechanisms for activation by the PTS were proposed. According to the first model, BglG is activated by HPr-catalyzed phosphorylation at a site distinct from the EII-dependent phosphorylation site. According to the second model, BglG is not activated by phosphorylation, but solely through interaction with EI and HPr, which are localized at the cell pole. Subsequently BglG is released from the cell pole to the cytoplasm as an active dimer. Here we addressed this discrepancy and found that activation of BglG requires phosphorylatable HPr or the HPr homolog FruB in vivo. Further, we uniquely demonstrate that purified BglG protein becomes phosphorylated by FruB as well as by HPr in vitro. Histidine residue 208 in BglG is essential for this phosphorylation. These data suggest that BglG is in fact activated by phosphorylation and that there is no principal difference between the PTS-exerted mechanisms controlling the activities of BglG family proteins in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22984181

  12. IMPORTANCE OF ENZYMATIC BIOTRANSFORMATION IN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many immunotoxic compounds, such as benzene and other organic solvents, pesticides, mycotoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, can alter immune function only after undergoing enzyme-mediated reactions within various tissues. In the review that follows, the role of enzymatic...

  13. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease recapitulates phosphorylation during development.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Goedert M; Jakes R; Crowther RA; Six J; Lübke U; Vandermeeren M; Cras P; Trojanowski JQ; Lee VM

    1993-06-01

    Tau is a neuronal phosphoprotein whose expression is developmentally regulated. A single tau isoform is expressed in fetal human brain but six isoforms are expressed in adult brain, with the fetal isoform corresponding to the shortest of the adult isoforms. Phosphorylation of tau is also developmentally regulated, as fetal tau is phosphorylated at more sites than adult tau. In Alzheimer disease, the six adult tau isoforms become abnormally phosphorylated and form the paired helical filament, the major fibrous component of the characteristic neurofibrillary lesions. We show here that Ser-202 (in the numbering of the longest human brain tau isoform) is a phosphorylation site that distinguishes fetal from adult tau and we identify it as one of the abnormal phosphorylation sites in Alzheimer disease. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease thus recapitulates normal phosphorylation during development.

  14. Modulation of P1798 lymphosarcoma proliferation by protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff, C.A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of protein kinases in modulating cell proliferation was examined. Studies characterized the regulation of cell proliferation by adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (cA-Pk). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was isolated and examined as a potential substrate regulated by cA-PK in the rapidly proliferating P1798 lymphosarcoma. Modulation of cell proliferation by cA-PK was characterized by quantitating cell division by (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine ((/sup 3/H)-dT) incorporation into DNA, cAMP accumulations, and activation of cA-PK using P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. Epinephrine and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) were demonstrated to suppress (/sup 3/H)-dT incorporation into DNA, to stimulate cAMP accumulation, and to activate cA-PK with dose-dependency. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent MLCK was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. P1798 MLCK phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chains (P-LC) from thymus, cardiac and skeletal muscles. One mol (/sup 32/Pi) was transferred into one mol cardiac or skeletal P-LC by P1798 MLCK. Apparent Km values of 65 ..mu..M and 51 ..mu..M were determined for ATP and cardiac P-LC, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of P1798 MLCK was 135,000. P1798 MLCK was phosphorylated by cA-PK. Phosphorylated MLCK showed a 41% decrease in calcium-dependent activity. Two additional protein kinases from P1798 lymphosarcoma phosphorylated cardiac and skeletal light chains (MLC).

  15. Chaperon-like Activation of Serum-Inducible Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Phosphorylation through Refolding as a Tool for Analysis of Clinical Samples1

    PubMed Central

    Paley, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) expression alters in colorectal (CRC), pancreatic (PC), and cervical (CC) cancers. Here, phosphorylation of unfolded TrpRS and its fragments is stimulated by human cancer sera (CS; n = 13) and serum of rabbit tumor induced by Rous sarcoma virus, unaffected by donor sera (NS; 11/15) and abolished by alkaline phosphatase. At 20 years of follow-up, serum-inducible TrpRS phosphorylation found years before healthy donors (3/15) diagnosed with PC, CRC, or leukemia. I have examined a specificity of serum-inducible TrpRS phosphorylation and found, surprisingly, that serine phosphorylation of unfolded TrpRS is stimulated by anti-TrpRS rabbit antisera but is unaffected by rabbit nonimmune sera and antisera to other antigens. Anti-TrpRS immunoglobulin G (IgG) inhibits phosphorylation of full-length TrpRS and stimulates phosphorylation of its 20-kDa fragment. Phosphorylation of this fragment is stimulated also by CS but not NS. 2-Mercaptoethanol and cyclic AMP exerted synergistic inhibitory effect on TrpRS phosphorylation. Anti-TrpRS sera and casein act as chaperones increasing TrpRS phosphorylation through refolding. Histone-specific protein kinase activity in CS (n = 44) and anti-TrpRS sera was lower than that in NS (n = 11), rabbit nonimmune sera and antisera to other antigens. TrpRS inhibitors, tryptamine, and tryptophanol stimulate in vivo accumulation of enzymatically inactive, nonphosphorylated, aggregated and anti-TrpRS IgG refoldable TrpRS. Phosphorylation of postsurgical tissues (n = 18) reveals TrpRS in ovarian cancer (OVC) and CC but not in normal placenta and liver. In OVC, TrpRS phosphorylation increase correlates with elevated tryptophan-dependent ATP-inorganic pyrophosphate exchange. Although not inducing cancer, TrpRS triggers signaling concomitant with cancer. PMID:22191002

  16. Enzymatic properties of rhea lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Pooart, Jureerut; Torikata, Takao; Araki, Tomohiro

    2005-01-01

    Rhea lysozyme was analyzed for its enzymatic properties both lytic and oligomer activities to reveal the structural and functional relationships of goose type lysozyme. Rhea lysozyme had the highest lytic activity at pH 6, followed by ostrich and goose at pH 5.5-6, whereas the optimum of cassowary was at pH 5. pH profile was correlated to the net charge of each molecule surface. On the other hand, the pH optimum for oligomer substrate was found to be pH 4, indicating the mechanism of rhea catalysis as a general acid. The time-course of the reaction was studied using beta-1,4-linked oligosaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) with a polymerization degree of n ((GlcNAc)n) (n=4, 5, and 6) as the substrate. This enzyme hydrolyzed (GlcNAc)6 in an endo-splitting manner, which produced (GlcNAc)3+(GlcNAc)3 predominating over that to (GlcNAc)2+ (GlcNAc)4. This indicates that the lysozyme hydrolyzed preferentially the third glycosidic linkage from the nonreducing end. Theoretical analysis has shown the highest rate constant value at 1.5 s-1 with (GlcNAc)6. This confirmed six substrate binding subsites as goose lysozyme (Honda, Y., and Fukamizo, T., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1388, 53-65 (1998)). The different binding free energy values for subsites B, C, F, and G from goose lysozyme might responsible for the amino acid substitutions, Asn122Ser and Phe123Met, located at the subsite B. PMID:15665474

  17. Oxidative phosphorylation and lacunar stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Hurford, Robert; Bevan, Steve; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) abnormalities were associated with lacunar stroke, hypothesizing that these would be more strongly associated in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis (LA). Methods: In 1,012 MRI-confirmed lacunar stroke cases and 964 age-matched controls recruited from general practice surgeries, we investigated associations between common genetic variants within the OXPHOS pathway and lacunar stroke using a permutation-based enrichment approach. Cases were phenotyped using MRI into those with multiple infarcts or LA (MLI/LA) and those with isolated lacunar infarcts (ILI) based on the number of subcortical infarcts and degree of LA, using the Fazekas grading. Using gene-level association statistics, we tested for enrichment of genes in the OXPHOS pathway with all lacunar stroke and the 2 subtypes. Results: There was a specific association with strong evidence of enrichment in the top 1% of genes in the MLI/LA (subtype p = 0.0017) but not in the ILI subtype (p = 1). Genes in the top percentile for the all lacunar stroke analysis were not significantly enriched (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Our results implicate the OXPHOS pathway in the pathogenesis of lacunar stroke, and show the association is specific to patients with the MLI/LA subtype. They show that MRI-based subtyping of lacunar stroke can provide insights into disease pathophysiology, and imply that different radiologic subtypes of lacunar stroke subtypes have distinct underlying pathophysiologic processes. PMID:26674331

  18. Histone H1 Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The need for new clinical biomarkers in breast cancer is necessary to further predict prognosis and therapeutic response. In this article, the LC-MS histone H1 phosphorylation profiles were established for three distinct breast cancer cell lines. The results show that the extent of H1 phosphorylation can distinguish between the different cell lines. The histone H1 from the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, was subjected to chemical derivitization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The results suggest that the phosphorylation at threonine 146 is found on both histone H1.2 and histone H1.4. Cell lines were then treated with an extracellular stimulus, estradiol or kinase inhibitor LY294002, to monitor changes in histone H1 phosphorylation. The data show that histone H1 phosphorylation can increase and decrease in response to extracellular stimuli. Finally, primary breast tissues were stained for the histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146. Variable staining patterns across tumor grades and subtypes were observed with pT146 labeling correlating with tumor grade. These results establish the potential for histone H1 phosphorylation at threonine 146 as a clinical biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24601643

  19. Phosphorylation of the hepatitis delta virus antigens.

    PubMed

    Bichko, V; Barik, S; Taylor, J

    1997-01-01

    We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) coupled with 32P labeling and immunoblotting detection with 125I-protein A to detect and quantitate phosphorylation of the large and small forms of the delta antigen (deltaAg-L and deltaAg-S, respectively). Analysis of deltaAg species from the serum and liver of an infected woodchuck as well as deltaAg species expressed in and secreted from transfected Huh7 cells revealed the following. (i) No detectable phosphorylation of deltaAg-S occurred. (ii) In virions from the serum of an infected animal and in the particles secreted from cotransfected cells, none of the deltaAg-L was phosphorylated. (iii) Only in the infected liver and in transfected cells was any phosphorylation detected; it corresponded to a monophosphorylated form of deltaAg-L. Given these results, we carried out serine-to-alanine mutagenesis of the deltaAg-L to determine whether the monophosphorylation was predominantly at a specific site on the unique 19-amino-acid (aa) extension. We mutated each of the two serines, aa 207 and 210, on this extension and also the serine at aa 177. These three mutations had no significant effect on phosphorylation. In contrast, mutagenesis to alanine of the cysteine at aa 211, which normally acts as the acceptor for farnesylation, completely inhibited phosphorylation. Our interpretation is that the site(s) of phosphorylation is probably not in the 19-aa extension unique to deltaAg-L and that phosphorylation of deltaAg-L may depend upon prior farnesylation. The possible significance of the intracellular phosphorylated forms of deltaAg-L is discussed. PMID:8985379

  20. Photoreceptor coupling is controlled by connexin 35 phosphorylation in zebrafish retina

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyan; Chuang, Alice Z.; O'Brien, John

    2010-01-01

    Electrical coupling of neurons is widespread throughout the central nervous system and is observed among retinal photoreceptors from essentially all vertebrates. Coupling dampens voltage noise in photoreceptors and rod-cone coupling provides a means for rod signals to enter the cone pathway, extending the dynamic range of rod-mediated vision. This coupling is dynamically regulated by a circadian rhythm and light adaptation. We examined the molecular mechanism that controls photoreceptor coupling in zebrafish retina. Connexin 35 (homologous to Cx36 of mammals) was found at both cone-cone and rod-cone gap junctions. Photoreceptors showed strong Neurobiotin tracer coupling at night, extensively labeling the network of cones. Tracer coupling was significantly reduced in the daytime, showing a 20-fold lower diffusion coefficient for Neurobiotin transfer. The phosphorylation state of Cx35 at two regulatory phosphorylation sites, Ser110 and Ser276, was directly related to tracer coupling. Phosphorylation was high at night and low during the day. Protein kinase A (PKA) activity directly controlled both phosphorylation state and tracer coupling. Both were significantly increased in the day by pharmacological activation of PKA and significantly reduced at night by inhibition of PKA. The data are consistent with direct phosphorylation of Cx35 by PKA. We conclude that the magnitude of photoreceptor coupling is controlled by the dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Cx35. Furthermore, the nighttime state is characterized by extensive coupling that results in a well-connected cone network. PMID:19955370

  1. Salmonella Biofilm Development Depends on the Phosphorylation Status of RcsB

    PubMed Central

    Latasa, Cristina; Garca, Begoa; Echeverz, Maite; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Valle, Jaione; Campoy, Susana; Garca-del Portillo, Francisco; Solano, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The Rcs phosphorelay pathway is a complex signaling pathway involved in the regulation of many cell surface structures in enteric bacteria. In response to environmental stimuli, the sensor histidine kinase (RcsC) autophosphorylates and then transfers the phosphate through intermediary steps to the response regulator (RcsB), which, once phosphorylated, regulates gene expression. Here, we show that Salmonella biofilm development depends on the phosphorylation status of RcsB. Thus, unphosphorylated RcsB, hitherto assumed to be inactive, is essential to activate the expression of the biofilm matrix compounds. The prevention of RcsB phosphorylation either by the disruption of the phosphorelay at the RcsC or RcsD level or by the production of a nonphosphorylatable RcsB allele induces biofilm development. On the contrary, the phosphorylation of RcsB by the constitutive activation of the Rcs pathway inhibits biofilm development, an effect that can be counteracted by the introduction of a nonphosphorylatable RcsB allele. The inhibition of biofilm development by phosphorylated RcsB is due to the repression of CsgD expression, through a mechanism dependent on the accumulation of the small noncoding RNA RprA. Our results indicate that unphosphorylated RcsB plays an active role for integrating environmental signals and, more broadly, that RcsB phosphorylation acts as a key switch between planktonic and sessile life-styles in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:22582278

  2. The impact of N-terminal phosphorylation on LHCII conformation in state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jin-Hong; Li, Ning; Wang, Man-Liu; Zhang, Yan; L, Shou-Qin; Long, Mian

    2014-06-01

    State transition is an important protection mechanism of plants for maintaining optimal efficiency through redistributing unbalanced excitation energy between photo-system II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). This process depends on the reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the major light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and its bi-directional migration between PSII and PSI. But it remains unclear how phosphorylation/dephosphorylation modulates the LHCII conformation and further regulates its reversible migration. Here molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were employed to elucidate the impact of phosphorylation on LHCII conformation. The results indicated that N-terminal phosphorylation loosened LHCII trimer with decreased hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions and extended the distances between neighboring monomers, which stemmed from the conformational adjustment of each monomer itself. Global conformational change of LHCII monomer started from its stromal Nterminal (including the phosphorylation sites) by enhancing its interaction to lipid membrane and by adjusting the interaction network with surrounded inter-monomer and intra-monomer transmembrane helixes of B, C, and A, and finally triggered the reorientation of transmembrane helixes and transferred the conformational change to luminal side helixes and loops. These results further our understanding in molecular mechanism of LHCII migration during state transition from the phosphorylation-induced microstructural feature of LHCII.

  3. In the Beginning, There Was Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakis, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of reversible protein phosphorylation to cellular regulation cannot be overstated. In eukaryotic cells, protein kinase/phosphatase signaling pathways regulate a staggering number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell death (apoptosis, necroptosis, necrosis), metabolism (at both the cellular and organismal levels), behavior and neurological function, development, and pathogen resistance. Although protein phosphorylation as a mode of eukaryotic cell regulation is familiar to most biochemists, many are less familiar with protein kinase/phosphatase signaling networks that function in prokaryotes. In this thematic minireview series, we present four minireviews that cover the important field of prokaryotic protein phosphorylation. PMID:24554697

  4. Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Swetha, Medchalmi; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IR?) in insulin treated HepG2 cells is inversely correlated to ser(51) phosphorylation in the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2?) that regulates protein synthesis. Insulin stimulates interaction between IR? and PKR, double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, also known as EIF2AK2, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PKR, as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays using anti-IR? and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, recombinant IR? and immunopurified PKR. Further polyIC or synthetic double stranded RNA-induced threonine phosphorylation or activation of immunopurified and cellular PKR is suppressed in the presence of insulin treated purified IR? and cell extracts. Acute, but not chronic, insulin treatment enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of IR?, its interaction with PKR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide that stimulates threonine phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2? phosphorylation and AG 1024, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IR?, reduces PKR association with the receptor, IR? in HepG2 cells. These findings therefore may suggest that tyrosine phosphorylated PKR plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity, whereas, suppression of polyIC-mediated threonine phosphorylation of PKR by insulin compromises its ability to fight against virus infection in host cells. PMID:26321373

  5. Dendritic cells require STAT-1 phosphorylated at its transactivating domain for the induction of peptide-specific CTL.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Andreas; Kratky, Wolfgang; Stockinger, Silvia; Simma, Olivia; Kalinke, Ulrich; Lingnau, Karen; von Gabain, Alexander; Stoiber, Dagmar; Sexl, Veronika; Kolbe, Thomas; Rlicke, Thomas; Mller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2009-08-15

    Phosphorylation of transcription factor STAT-1 on Y701 regulates subcellular localization whereas phosphorylation of the transactivating domain at S727 enhances transcriptional activity. In this study, we investigate the impact of STAT-1 and the importance of transactivating domain phosphorylation on the induction of peptide-specific CTL in presence of the TLR9-dependent immune adjuvant IC31. STAT-1 deficiency completely abolished CTL induction upon immunization, which was strongly reduced in animals carrying the mutation of the S727 phospho-acceptor site. A comparable reduction of CTL was found in mice lacking the type I IFN (IFN-I) receptor, whereas IFN-gamma-deficient mice behaved like wild-type controls. This finding suggests that S727-phosphorylated STAT-1 supports IFN-I-dependent induction of CTL. In adoptive transfer experiments, IFN-I- and S727-phosphorylated STAT-1 were critical for the activation and function of dendritic cells. Mice with a T cell-specific IFN-I receptor ablation did not show impaired CTL responses. Unlike the situation observed for CTL development S727-phosphorylated STAT-1 restrained proliferation of naive CD8(+) T cells both in vitro and following transfer into Rag-deficient mice. In summary, our data reveal a dual role of S727-phosphorylated STAT-1 for dendritic cell maturation as a prerequisite for the induction of CTL activity and for T cell autonomous control of activation-induced or homeostatic proliferation. PMID:19620292

  6. The Chemical Biology of Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, Mary Katherine; Cole, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    The explosion of scientific interest in protein kinase-mediated signaling networks has led to the infusion of new chemical methods and their applications related to the analysis of phosphorylation pathways. We highlight some of these chemical biology approaches across three areas. First, we discuss the development of chemical tools to modulate the activity of protein kinases to explore kinase mechanisms and their contributions to phosphorylation events and cellular processes. Second, we describe chemical techniques developed in the past few years to dissect the structural and functional effects of phosphate modifications at specific sites in proteins. Third, we cover newly developed molecular imaging approaches to elucidate the spatiotemporal aspects of phosphorylation cascades in live cells. Exciting advances in our understanding of protein phosphorylation have been obtained with these chemical biology approaches, but continuing opportunities for technological innovation remain. PMID:19489734

  7. The negative impact of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F.; Gibson, Gary E.; Beal, M. Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    A decline in ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 2048% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ?30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/? or DLD+/? littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on in-house mitochondrial ATP reserves.Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID:23475850

  8. Review: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-07-16

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  9. [Biological aspects of non-enzymatic glycosylation].

    PubMed

    Lozins'ka, L M; Semchyshyn, H M

    2012-01-01

    Non-enzymatic reactions commonly play an ambiguous role in living organism. It is well known that non-enzymatic glycosylation may lead to disruption of the structure and function of biomolecules, thus initiating the development and accompanying different diseases. On the other hand, under certain conditions the products of non-enzymatic glycosylation act as signaling molecules and play an important role in the immune response. Data concerning the influence of non-enzymatic glycosylation and carbonyl stress on living organisms are summarized in the work. The role of reactive carbonyl compounds and reducing carbohydrates in glycation of biomolecules, involvement of non-enzymatic glycosylation in carbonyl stress development and interplay between glycation and free radical processes in living organisms are summarized. The basic ways to prevent glycation and formation of reactive carbonyl compounds that induce carbonyl stress are highlighted. Special attention is paid to the role of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study the glycation processes in vivo. PMID:23342632

  10. Tyrosyl phosphorylation toggles a Runx1 switch

    PubMed Central

    Neel, Benjamin G.; Speck, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Runx1 transcription factor is post-translationally modified by seryl/threonyl phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation that control its interactions with transcription factor partners and epigenetic coregulators. In this issue of Genes & Development, Huang and colleagues (pp. 15871601) describe how the regulation of Runx1 tyrosyl phosphorylation by Src family kinases and the Shp2 phosphatase toggle Runx1's interactions between different coregulatory molecules. PMID:22802526

  11. Detection of Phosphorylation Status of Cytokinetic Components.

    PubMed

    Meitinger, Franz; Palani, Saravanan; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells can be easily cultured, synchronized, and genetically modified making them a convenient model system to study molecular mechanisms underlying cytokinesis. Here, we describe simple methods that allow the analysis of the phosphorylation profile of cytokinetic proteins, both in vivo and in vitro, using standard laboratory equipment. In addition, we compare the ability of three different, standard, and optimized acrylamide gel conditions to separate phosphorylated forms, using the protein Inn1 as an example. PMID:26519316

  12. Protein phosphorylation in neurodegeneration: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Tenreiro, Sandra; Eckermann, Katrin; Outeiro, Tiago F.

    2014-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is a common hallmark in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). In these disorders, the misfolding and aggregation of specific proteins occurs alongside neuronal degeneration in somewhat specific brain areas, depending on the disorder and the stage of the disease. However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms governing protein aggregation, and whether this constitutes a protective or detrimental process. In PD, alpha-synuclein (aSyn) forms protein aggregates, known as Lewy bodies, and is phosphorylated at serine 129. Other residues have also been shown to be phosphorylated, but the significance of phosphorylation in the biology and pathophysiology of the protein is still controversial. In AD and in FTD, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein causes its misfolding and aggregation. Again, our understanding of the precise consequences of tau phosphorylation in the biology and pathophysiology of the protein is still limited. Through the use of a variety of model organisms and technical approaches, we are now gaining stronger insight into the effects of phosphorylation in the behavior of these proteins. In this review, we cover recent findings in the field and discuss how targeting phosphorylation events might be used for therapeutic intervention in these devastating diseases of the nervous system. PMID:24860424

  13. Protein phosphorylation: Localization in regenerating optic axons

    SciTech Connect

    Larrivee, D. )

    1990-09-01

    A number of axonal proteins display changes in phosphorylation during goldfish optic nerve regeneration. (1) To determine whether the phosphorylation of these proteins was closely linked to their synthesis in the retinal ganglion cell body, cycloheximide was injected intraocularly into goldfish whose optic nerves had been regenerating for 3 weeks. Cycloheximide reduced the incorporation of (3H)proline and 32P orthophosphate into total nerve protein by 84% and 46%, respectively. Of the 20 individual proteins examined, 17 contained less than 15% of the (3H)proline label measured in corresponding controls, whereas 18 proteins contained 50% or more of the 32P label, suggesting that phosphorylation was largely independent of synthesis. (2) To determine whether the proteins were phosphorylated in the ganglion cell axons, axonal transport of proteins was blocked by intraocular injection of vincristine. Vincristine reduced (3H)proline labeling of total protein by 88% and 32P labeling by 49%. Among the individual proteins (3H)proline labeling was reduced by 90% or more in 18 cases but 32P labeling was reduced only by 50% or less. (3) When 32P was injected into the cranial cavity near the ends of the optic axons, all of the phosphoproteins were labeled more intensely in the optic tract than in the optic nerve. These results suggest that most of the major phosphoproteins that undergo changes in phosphorylation in the course of regeneration are phosphorylated in the optic axons.

  14. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  15. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied. PMID:26795486

  16. Protein phosphorylation during Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Morales, Alberto; González-López, Lorena; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Cortés-Martínez, Leticia; Torres-Monzón, Jorge Aurelio; Gallegos-Pérez, José Luis; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; James, Anthony A; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Plasmodium gametogenesis within the mosquito midgut is a complex differentiation process involving signaling mediated by phosphorylation, which modulate metabolic routes and protein synthesis required to complete this development. However, the mechanisms leading to gametogenesis activation are poorly understood. We analyzed protein phosphorylation during Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis in vitro in serum-free medium using bidimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with immunoblotting (IB) and antibodies specific to phosphorylated serine, threonine and tyrosine. Approximately 75 protein exhibited phosphorylation changes, of which 23 were identified by mass spectrometry. These included components of the cytoskeleton, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in DNA synthesis and signaling pathways among others. Novel phosphorylation events support a role for these proteins during gametogenesis. The phosphorylation sites of six of the identified proteins, HSP70, WD40 repeat protein msi1, enolase, actin-1 and two isoforms of large subunit of ribonucleoside reductase were investigated using TiO2 phosphopeptides enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, transient exposure to hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleoside reductase, impaired male gametocytes exflagellation in a dose-dependent manner, and provides a resource for functional studies. PMID:26008612

  17. Enzymatic mechanism of copper-containing nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, J

    2015-02-10

    Copper-containing nitrite reductases (CuNiRs) catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, a key step in the denitrification process that maintains balance between organic and inorganic nitrogen. Despite their importance, their functioning is not well understood. In this work, we carry out first-principles calculations and show that the available structural data are consistent only with a single mechanism. For this mechanism, we determine the activation energies, transition states, and minimum energy pathways of CuNiR. The calculations lead to an updated enzymatic mechanism and resolve several controversial issues. In particular, our work identifies the origins of the two protons necessary for the enzymatic function and shows that the transformation from the initial O-coordination of substrate to the final N-coordination of product is achieved by electron transfer from T1 copper to T2 copper, rather than by the previously reported side-on coordination of a NO intermediate, which only takes place in the reduced enzyme. We also examine the role of structural change in the critical residue Asp(98), reported in one experimental study, and find that while the structural change affects the energetics of substrate attachment and product release at the T2 copper reaction center, it does not significantly affect the activation energy and reaction pathways of the nitrite reduction process. PMID:25594136

  18. Use of enzymatic cleaners on US Navy ships. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, R.S.

    1996-03-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, conducted a study to determine the feasibility of using enzymatic and bacterial products in cleaning applications aboard U.S. Navy ships. A review of the most recent technical literature and a survey of potential suppliers were conducted. In addition, shipboard systems, subsystems and housekeeping processes were evaluated to identify suitable applications for enzymatic and bacterial cleaners. The study identified numerous commercial products that, based on manufacturers` claims, would be effective and safe for use aboard ship to clean walls, floors, galley work surfaces, engine and machine parts, drains, pipes, grease traps, collection, holding and transfer (CHT) tanks, ballast tanks and bilge areas. However, the study also revealed the absence of standardized test protocols essential for validation of manufacturers` claims, and recommended the cooperative development of such protocols by representatives from the commercial sector, Government and academia. The need to obtain meaningful cost information based on actual use scenarios and to investigate any permitting issues associated with the discharge of related wastes to pierside facilities was also identified.

  19. Enzymatic enantioselective decarboxylative protonation of heteroaryl malonates.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Ross; Goodall, Mark; Thompson, Mark L; Leigh, James; Breuer, Michael; Baldenius, Kai; Micklefield, Jason

    2015-04-20

    The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher enantioselectivity and more environmentally benign reaction conditions. In this report, AMDase and engineered variants have been used to produce a range of enantioenriched heteroaromatic ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, including pharmaceutical precursors, from readily accessible ?-hydroxymalonates. The enzymatic method described here represents an improvement upon existing synthetic chemistry methods that have been used to produce similar compounds. The relationship between the structural features of these new substrates and the kinetics associated with their enzymatic decarboxylation is explored, which offers further insight into the mechanism of AMDase. PMID:25766433

  20. Enzymatic Enantioselective Decarboxylative Protonation of Heteroaryl Malonates

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Ross; Goodall, Mark; Thompson, Mark L; Leigh, James; Breuer, Michael; Baldenius, Kai; Micklefield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher enantioselectivity and more environmentally benign reaction conditions. In this report, AMDase and engineered variants have been used to produce a range of enantioenriched heteroaromatic α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, including pharmaceutical precursors, from readily accessible α-hydroxymalonates. The enzymatic method described here represents an improvement upon existing synthetic chemistry methods that have been used to produce similar compounds. The relationship between the structural features of these new substrates and the kinetics associated with their enzymatic decarboxylation is explored, which offers further insight into the mechanism of AMDase. PMID:25766433

  1. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Zavada, Scott R; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes-catalytic proteins-owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol-ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  2. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  3. Increased phospholipase A2 activity with phosphorylation of peroxiredoxin 6 requires a conformational change in the protein

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Zhou, Suiping; Dodia, Chandra; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Huang, Shaohui; Speicher, David; Fisher, Aron B.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown previously and confirmed in the present study that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is markedly increased by phosphorylation. This report evaluated the conformation and thermodynamic stability of Prdx6 protein after phosphorylation to understand the physical basis for increased activity. Phosphorylation resulted in decreased negative far-UV CD, increased ANS binding, and lack of rigid tertiary structure, compatible with a change in conformation to that of a molten globule. The ?GDo was 3.3 0.3 kcal mol-1 for Prdx6 and 1.7 0.7 kcal mol-1 for pPrdx6 suggesting that phosphorylation destabilizes the protein. Phosphorylation of Prdx6 changed the conformation of the N-terminal domain exposing Trp 33, as determined by tryptophan fluorescence and NaI fluorescence quenching. The kinetics of interaction of proteins with unilamellar liposomes (DPPC/egg PC/cholesterol/PG; 50:25:15:10, mol/mol) was evaluated with tryptophan fluorescence. pPrdx6 bound to liposomes with higher affinity (Kd, 5.6 1.2 ?M) in comparison to Prdx6 (Kd, 24.9 4.5 ?M). By isothermal titration calorimetry, pPrdx6 bound to liposomes with a large exothermic heat loss (?H = -31.49 0.22 kcal mol-1). Correlating our conformation studies with the published crystal structure of oxidized Prdx6 suggests that phosphorylation results in exposure of hydrophobic residues, thereby providing accessibility to the sites for liposome binding. Because binding of the enzyme to the phospholipid substrate interface is a requirement for PLA2 activity, these results indicate that a change in the conformation of Prdx6 upon its phosphorylation is the basis for enhancement of PLA2 enzymatic activity. PMID:22663767

  4. Structural dynamics of muscle protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Brett A.; Gruber, Simon J.; Thomas, David D.

    2013-01-01

    We have used site-directed spectroscopic probes to detect structural changes, motions, and interactions due to phosphorylation of proteins involved in the regulation of muscle contraction and relaxation. Protein crystal structures provide static snapshots that provide clues to the conformations that are sampled dynamically by proteins in the cellular environment. Our site-directed spectroscopic experiments, combined with computational simulations, extend these studies into functional assemblies in solution, and reveal details of protein regions that are too dynamic or disordered for crystallographic approaches. Here, we discuss phosphorylation-mediated structural transitions in the smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), the striated muscle accessory protein myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C), and the cardiac membrane Ca2+ pump modulator phospholamban (PLB). In each of these systems, phosphorylation near the N terminus of the regulatory protein relieves an inhibitory interaction between the phosphoprotein and its regulatory target. Several additional unifying themes emerge from our studies: (a) The effect of phosphorylation is not to change the affinity of the phosphoprotein for its regulated binding partner, but to change the structure of the bound complex without dissociation. (b) Phosphorylation induces transitions between order and dynamic disorder. (c) Structural states are only loosely coupled to phosphorylation; i.e., complete phosphorylation induces dramatic functional effects with only a partial shift in the equilibrium between ordered and disordered structural states. These studies, which offer atomic-resolution insight into the structural and functional dynamics of these phosphoproteins, were inspired in part by the ground-breaking work in this field by Michael and Kate Barany. PMID:22930331

  5. Enzymatic detoxification of cyanide: clues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Tomao, Paola; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a dreaded chemical because of its toxic properties. Although cyanide acts as a general metabolic inhibitor, it is synthesized, excreted and metabolized by hundreds of organisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, plants, and insects, as a mean to avoid predation or competition. Several cyanide compounds are also produced by industrial activities, resulting in serious environmental pollution. Bioremediation has been exploited as a possible alternative to chemical detoxification of cyanide compounds, and various microbial systems allowing cyanide degradation have been described. Enzymatic pathways involving hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitution/transfer reactions are implicated in detoxification of cyanide by bacteria and fungi. Amongst enzymes involved in transfer reactions, rhodanese catalyzes sulfane sulfur transfer from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of the less toxic thiocyanate. Mitochondrial rhodanese has been associated with protection of aerobic respiration from cyanide poisoning. Here, the biochemical and physiological properties of microbial sulfurtransferases are reviewed in the light of the importance of rhodanese in cyanide detoxification by the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Critical issues limiting the application of a rhodanese-based cellular system to cyanide bioremediation are also discussed. PMID:18685272

  6. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in response to leucine deprivation is mediated by CK2 and PKC.

    PubMed

    Malkani, Niyati; Biggar, Kyle; Shehab, Majida Abu; Li, Shawn Shun-Cheng; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2016-04-15

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), secreted by fetal liver, is a key regulator of IGF-I bioavailability and fetal growth. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation decreases IGF-I bioavailability and diminishes its growth-promoting effects. Growth-restricted fetuses have decreased levels of circulating essential amino acids. We recently showed that IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation (pSer101/119/169) in response to leucine deprivation is regulated via activation of the amino acid response (AAR) in HepG2 cells. Here we investigated nutrient-sensitive protein kinases CK2/PKC/PKA in mediating IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in leucine deprivation. We demonstrated that leucine deprivation stimulated CK2 activity (enzymatic assay) and induced IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (immunoblotting/MRM-MS). Inhibition (pharmacological/siRNA) of CK2/PKC, but not PKA, prevented IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in leucine deprivation. PKC inhibition also prevented leucine deprivation-stimulated CK2 activity. Functionally, leucine deprivation decreased IGF-I-induced-IGF-1R autophosphorylation when CK2/PKC were not inhibited. Our data strongly support that PKC promotes leucine deprivation-induced IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation via CK2 activation, mechanistically linking decreased amino acid availability and reduced fetal growth. PMID:26733150

  7. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkout, Vadym D.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

    2008-12-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap--time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z-ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intactE The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization.

  8. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms

    PubMed Central

    Berkout, Vadym D.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z- ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intact. The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization. PMID:19956340

  9. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Vadym D; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2008-12-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap - time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z- ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intact. The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization. PMID:19956340

  10. Regulation of Elg1 activity by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shkedy, Dganit; Singh, Nishant; Shemesh, Keren; Amir, Ayelet; Geiger, Tamar; Liefshitz, Batia; Harari, Yaniv; Kupiec, Martin

    2015-12-01

    ELG1 is a conserved gene with important roles in the maintenance of genome stability. Elg1's activity prevents gross chromosomal rearrangements, maintains proper telomere length regulation, helps repairing DNA damage created by a number of genotoxins and participates in sister chromatid cohesion. Elg1 is evolutionarily conserved, and its Fanconi Anemia-related mammalian ortholog (also known as ATAD5) is embryonic lethal when lost in mice and acts as a tumor suppressor in mice and humans. Elg1 encodes a protein that forms an RFC-like complex that unloads the replicative clamp, PCNA, from DNA, mainly in its SUMOylated form. We have identified 2 different regions in yeast Elg1 that undergo phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of one of them, S112, is dependent on the ATR yeast ortholog, Mec1, and probably is a direct target of this kinase. We show that phosphorylation of Elg1 is important for its role at telomeres. Mutants unable to undergo phosphorylation suppress the DNA damage sensitivity of ?rad5 mutants, defective for an error-free post-replicational bypass pathway. This indicates a role of phosphorylation in the regulation of DNA repair. Our results open the way to investigate the mechanisms by which the activity of Elg1 is regulated during DNA replication and in response to DNA damage. PMID:26177013

  11. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders.

  12. IFN-? promotes ? phosphorylation without affecting mature tangles.

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; DiNunno, Nadia; Levites, Yona; Cruz, Pedro E; Lewis, Jada; Golde, Todd E; Chakrabarty, Paramita

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory activation precedes and correlates with accumulating ? lesions in Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies. However, the relationship between neuroinflammation and etiology of pathologic ? remains elusive. To evaluate whether inflammatory signaling may promote or accelerate neurofibrillary tangle pathology, we explored the effect of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of a master inflammatory cytokine, IFN-?, on ? phosphorylation. In initial studies in primary neuroglial cultures, rAAV-mediated expression of IFN-? did not alter endogenous ? production or paired helical filament ? phosphorylation. Next, we tested the effect of rAAV-mediated expression of IFN-? in the brains of 2 mouse models of tauopathy: JNPL3 and rTg4510. In both models, IFN-? increased 1) signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 levels and gliosis, and 2) hyperphosphorylation and conformational alterations of soluble ? compared with control cohorts. However, sarkosyl-insoluble phosphorylated ? levels and ubiquitin staining were unaltered in the IFN-? cohorts. Notably, IFN-?-induced ? hyperphosphorylation was associated with release of the inhibitory effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3? function by decreasing Ser9 phosphorylation. Our data suggest that type II IFN signaling can promote ? phosphorylation by modulating cellular kinase activity, though this is insufficient in accelerating neuritic tangle pathology. PMID:26156074

  13. Phosphorylation of atrial natriuretic peptide prohormone

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, J.; Holleman, W.H.; Budzik, G.P.; Marcus, F.

    1987-05-01

    Previously they have shown that atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) are excellent substrates for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The site of in vitro phosphorylation occurs at Ser 104, and is contained in a typical recognition sequence for cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Arg 101-Arg 102-Ser 103-Ser 104. In this report the prohormone pro-ANP, the predominant form present in atrial secretory granules, was purified from rat atria. Like ANP, pro-ANP was also found to be phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro. Peptide mapping studies carried out with in vitro-phosphorylated pro-ANP revealed predominantly one /sup 32/P-labeled peptide. This was demonstrated to be the same hexapeptide, Arg 101-Phe 106, found earlier for phosphorylated ANP. The amino acid sequence analysis also suggests that the site of phosphorylation is located at Ser 104. When isolated rat atria were incubated in the presence of /sup 32/P-orthophosphate, the pro-ANP purified from these atria was observed to be radioactive. The in situ incorporation of /sup 32/P into pro-ANP was confirmed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and autoradiography.

  14. Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2008-01-01

    In this article I review one of the most significant accomplishments of Frank H. Westheimer, one of the most respected chemists of the 20th century. This accomplishment was a series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize what we now call the enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of…

  15. Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2008-01-01

    In this article I review one of the most significant accomplishments of Frank H. Westheimer, one of the most respected chemists of the 20th century. This accomplishment was a series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize what we now call the enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of

  16. Starch: chemistry, microstructure, processing and enzymatic degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is recognized as one of the most abundant and important commodities containing value added attributes for a vast number of industrial applications. Its chemistry, structure, property and susceptibility to various chemical, physical and enzymatic modifications offer a high technological value ...

  17. Inhibition of enzymatic cellulolysis by phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tejirian, Ani; Xu, Feng

    2011-03-01

    Phenolics derived from lignin and other plant components can pose significant inhibition on enzymatic conversion of cellulosic biomass materials to useful chemicals. Understanding the mechanism of such inhibition is of importance for the development of viable biomass conversion technologies. In native plant cell wall, most of the phenolics and derivatives are found in polymeric lignin. When biomass feedstocks are pretreated (prior to enzymatic hydrolysis), simple or oligomeric phenolics and derivatives are often generated from lignin modification/degradation, which can inhibit biomass-converting enzymes. To further understand how such phenolic substances may affect cellulase reaction, we carried out a comparative study on a series of simple and oligomeric phenolics representing or mimicking the composition of lignin or its degradation products. Consistent to previous studies, we observed that oligomeric phenolics could exert more inhibition on enzymatic cellulolysis than simple phenolics. Oligomeric phenolics could inactivate cellulases by reversibly complexing them. Simple and oligomeric phenolics could also inhibit enzymatic cellulolysis by adsorbing onto cellulose. Individual cellulases showed different susceptibility toward these inhibitions. Polyethylene glycol and tannase could respectively bind and degrade the studied oligomeric phenolics, and by doing so mitigate the oligomeric phenolic's inhibition on cellulolysis. PMID:22112906

  18. Ultrasonic acceleration of enzymatic processing of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. It has been found that the intr...

  19. ON THE SIMULATION OF ENZYMATIC DIGEST PATTERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simulation methodology for predicting the time-course of enzymatic digestions is described. The model is based solely on the enzyme’s sub-site architecture and concomitant binding energies. This allows sub-site binding energies to be used to predict the evolution of the relative amounts of differ...

  20. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are

  1. Phosphorylation state-dependent interaction between AKAP7δ/γ and phospholamban increases phospholamban phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rigatti, Marc; Le, Andrew V.; Gerber, Claire; Moraru, Ion I.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in heart rate and contractility in response to sympathetic stimulation occur via activation of cAMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA), leading to phosphorylation of numerous substrates that alter Ca2+ cycling. Phosphorylation of these substrates is coordinated by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which recruit PKA to specific substrates [1]. Phosphorylation of the PKA substrate phospholamban (PLB) is a critical determinant of Ca2+ re-entry into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is coordinated by AKAP7δ/γ [2,3]. Here, we further these findings by showing that phosphorylation of PLB requires interaction with AKAP7δ/γ and that this interaction occurs only when PLB is unphosphorylated. Additionally, we find that two mutants of PLB (R9C and Δ14), which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in humans, prevent association with AKAP7δ/γ and display reduced phosphorylation in vitro. This finding implicates the AKAP7δ/γ-PLB interaction in the pathology of the disease phenotype. Further exploration of the AKAP7δ/γ-PLB association demonstrated a phosphorylation state-dependence of the interaction. Computational modeling revealed that this mode of interaction allows for small amounts of AKAP and PKA (100–200nM) to regulate the phosphorylation of large quantities of PLB (50µM). Our results confirm that AKAP7γ/δ binding to PLB is important for phosphorylation of PLB, and describe a novel phosphorylation state-dependent binding mechanism that explains how phosphorylation of highly abundant PKA substrates can be regulated by AKAPs present at ~100–200 fold lower concentrations. PMID:26027516

  2. Enzymatic route to preparative-scale synthesis of UDPGlcNAc/GalNAc, their analogues and GDPfucose

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guohui; Guan, Wanyi; Cai, Li; Wang, Peng George

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis using glycosyltransferases is a powerful approach to building polysaccharides with high efficiency and selectivity. Sugar nucleotides are fundamental donor molecules in enzymatic glycosylation reactions by Leloir-type glycosyltransferases. The applications of these donors are restricted by their limited availability. In this protocol, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) are phosphorylated by N-acetylhexosamine 1-kinase (NahK) and subsequently pyrophosphorylated by N-acetylglucosamine uridyltransferase (GlmU) to give UDPGlcNAc/GalNAc. Other UDPGlcNAc/GalNAc analogues can also be prepared depending on the tolerance of these enzymes to the modified sugar substrates. Starting from l-fucose, GDPfucose is constructed by one bifunctional enzyme l-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) via two reactions. PMID:20224564

  3. The construction, fouling and enzymatic cleaning of a textile dye surface.

    PubMed

    Onaizi, Sagheer A; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2010-11-01

    The enzymatic cleaning of a rubisco protein stain bound onto Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor chips having a dye-bound upper layer is investigated. This novel method allowed, for the first time, a detailed kinetic study of rubisco cleanability (defined as fraction of adsorbed protein removed from a surface) from dyed surfaces (mimicking fabrics) at different enzyme concentrations. Analysis of kinetic data using an established mathematical model able to decouple enzyme transfer and reaction processes [Onaizi, He, Middelberg, Chem. Eng. Sci. 64 (2008) 3868] revealed a striking effect of dyeing on enzymatic cleaning performance. Specifically, the absolute rate constants for enzyme transfer to and from a dye-bound rubisco stain were significantly higher than reported previously for un-dyed surfaces. These increased transfer rates resulted in higher surface cleanability. Higher enzyme mobility (i.e., higher enzyme adsorption and desorption rates) at the liquid-dye interface was observed, consistent with previous suggestions that enzyme surface mobility is likely correlated with overall enzyme cleaning performance. Our results show that reaction engineering models of enzymatic action at surfaces may provide insight able to guide the design of better stain-resistant surfaces, and may also guide efforts to improve cleaning formulations. PMID:20708195

  4. Gas-Phase Acidities of Phosphorylated Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Stover, Michele L; Plummer, Chelsea E; Miller, Sean R; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2015-11-19

    Gas-phase acidities and heats of formation have been predicted at the G3(MP2)/SCRF-COSMO level of theory for 10 phosphorylated amino acids and their corresponding amides, including phospho-serine (pSer), -threonine (pThr), and -tyrosine (pTyr), providing the first reliable set of these values. The gas-phase acidities (GAs) of the three named phosphorylated amino acids and their amides have been determined using proton transfer reactions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental and predicted GAs. The phosphate group is the deprotonation site for pSer and pThr and deprotonation from the carboxylic acid generated the lowest energy anion for pTyr. The infrared spectra were calculated for six low energy anions of pSer, pThr, and pTyr. For deprotonated pSer and pThr, good agreement is found between the experimental IRMPD spectra and the calculated spectra for our lowest energy anion structure. For pTyr, the IR spectra for a higher energy phosphate deprotonated structure is in good agreement with experiment. Additional experiments tested electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions for pTyr and determined that variations in solvent, temperature, and voltage can result in a different experimental GA value, indicating that ESI conditions affect the conformation of the pTyr anion. PMID:26492552

  5. Phosphorylated silk fibroin matrix for methotrexate release.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim; Srria, Marisa P; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Silk-based matrix was produced for delivery of a model anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX). The calculation of net charge of silk fibroin and MTX was performed to better understand the electrostatic interactions during matrix formation upon casting. Silk fibroin films were cast at pH 7.2 and pH 3.5. Protein kinase A was used to prepare phosphorylated silk fibroin. The phosphorylation content of matrix was controlled by mixing at specific ratios the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated solutions. In vitro release profiling data suggest that the observed interactions are mainly structural and not electrostatical. The release of MTX is facilitated by use of proteolytic enzymes and higher pHs. The elevated ?-sheet content and crystallinity of the acidified-cast fibroin solution seem not to favor drug retention. All the acquired data underline the prevalence of structural interactions over electrostatical interactions between methotrexate and silk fibroin. PMID:25435334

  6. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert . E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chow, K; Ng, D; Stokes, R; Johnson, P

    1994-12-01

    Crude cell extracts from three strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were analyzed for the presence of proteins possessing phosphorylated tyrosine residues. A protein migrating at approximately 55 kDa was detected using an antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody. In addition, less predominant bands were observed between 50 kDa and 60 kDa. That M. tuberculosis contains specific tyrosine phosphorylated proteins implies that M. tuberculosis has tyrosine kinase activity. Examination of other, non-pathogenic mycobacterium species yielded no major antiphosphotyrosine reactive proteins. This suggests that the antiphosphotyrosine reactive protein is specific to M. tuberculosis strains. These results provide evidence that M. tuberculosis contains an antiphosphotyrosine reactive protein. PMID:7529204

  8. Cerebral ribosomal protein phosphorylation in experimental hyperphenylalaninaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S; Morelos, B S

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the effects of phenylalanine loading on ribosomal protein phosphorylation in cerebral cortices of infant rats. Administration of L-phenylalanine intraperitoneally, in doses of 1 or 2 mg/g body wt., resulted within 30 min in a significant decrease in incorporation of radioactivity from intracisternally administered [32P]Pi into constitutive ribosomal proteins of the cerebral 40S subunit. This phenomenon was not accompanied by significant variations in 32P uptake into the cerebral cytosol. Incorporation of radioactivity into ribosomal proteins of the cerebral 60S subunit exhibited only minor variations under these circumstances. Alterations in the phosphorylation state of cerebral 40S ribosomal proteins induced by phenylalanine loading involved principally the S6 protein, which exists in multiple states of phosphorylation. The proportions of the more highly phosphorylated congeners of this protein were markedly decreased, as detected by two-dimensional electrophoretograms and autoradiographs of the cerebral 40S ribosomal proteins. Phenylalanine loading also altered the relative extent of phosphorylation of the S6 protein in cerebral polyribosomes and monoribosomes. In control animals, the specific radioactivity of 40S proteins in cerebral polyribosomes was five to ten times that of 40S proteins in the monoribosome population. At 1 h after phenylalanine administration, the specific radioactivities of 40S proteins in the two ribosome populations tended to approach equality. These alterations in ribosomal protein phosphorylation were accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of polyribosomes in purified ribosome preparations isolated from cerebral cortices of phenylalanine-treated infant rats. In animals given the higher dose of phenylalanine (2 mg/g body wt.), subsequent administration of a mixture of seven neutral amino acids, which resulted in partial recovery of polyribosomes, also tended to reverse the changes in ribosomal protein phosphorylation. Variations in the activities of ribonuclease enzymes in the cerebral cytosol were also observed under these conditions. Administration of phenylalanine increased the activities of cerebral ribonucleases, whereas subsequent treatment with the amino acid mixture partly reversed this effect. The results suggest that alterations in cerebral ribosomal protein phosphorylation, ribosome aggregation and ribosome function are interrelated in experimental hyperphenylalaninaemia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:7470057

  9. Citron Rho-interacting kinase mediates arsenite-induced decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by increasing phosphorylation at threonine 497: Mechanism underlying arsenite-induced vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jungwon; Cho, Du-Hyong; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Sung, Min-Sun; Lee, Jee Young; Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jo, Inho

    2016-01-01

    We reported that arsenite causes an acute decrease in nitric oxide (NO) production by increasing phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase at threonine 497 (eNOS-Thr(497)); however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. Here, we investigated the kinase involving in arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation. Although treatment with H-89, a known protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, inhibited arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation, no inhibition was found in cells treated with other PKA inhibitors, including Rp-8-Br-cAMPS or PKI. Based on previous reports, we also tested whether RhoA mediates arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation and found that arsenite causes an acute increase in RhoA activity. Ectopic expression of dominant negative (DN)-RhoA significantly reversed arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation. An in vitro phosphorylation assay also revealed that the well-known Rho effectors, Rho-associated protein kinase 1/2 (ROCK1/2), directly phosphorylate eNOS-Thr(497). Y27632, a selective ROCK inhibitor, reversed arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation. However, overexpression of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against ROCK1/2 or DN-ROCK did not reverse arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation, thereby providing no conclusive evidence of a role for ROCK1/2. Knockdown of PKC-related protein kinase 1/2, another Rho effector, also did not reverse arsenite-stimulated eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation. In contrast, we found that transfection with an siRNA against citron Rho-interacting kinase (CRIK), the other downstream effector of Rho, significantly reversed the arsenite-induced eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation that was accompanied by restoration of eNOS enzymatic activity repressed by arsenite. Moreover, CRIK directly phosphorylated eNOS-Thr(497)in vitro. Finally, we also found that arsenite increased eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation and decreased acetylcholine-induced vessel relaxation in rat aortas. In conclusion, we demonstrate that arsenite acutely inhibits eNOS enzymatic activity and vessel relaxation in part by increasing the RhoA/CRIK/eNOS-Thr(497) phosphorylation signaling axis, which provides a molecular mechanism underlying arsenite-induced impaired vascular diseases. PMID:26593676

  10. Rapid alteration of protein phosphorylation during postmortem: implication in the study of protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Yanchong; Hu, Wen; Xie, Shutao; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. Postmortem tissues are widely being utilized in the biomedical studies, but the effects of postmortem on protein phosphorylation have not been received enough attention. In the present study, we found here that most proteins in mouse brain, heart, liver, and kidney were rapidly dephosphorylated to various degrees during 20?sec to 10?min postmortem. Phosphorylation of tau at Thr212 and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) at Ser9 was reduced by 50% in the brain with 40?sec postmortem, a regular time for tissue processing. During postmortem, phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and AMP activated kinase (AMPK) was increased in the brain, but not in other organs. Perfusion of the brain with cold or room temperature phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) also caused significant alteration of protein phosphorylation. Cooling down and maintaining mouse brains in the ice-cold buffer prevented the alteration effectively. This study suggests that phosphorylation of proteins is rapidly changed during postmortem. Thus, immediate processing of tissues followed by cooling down in ice-cold buffer is vitally important and perfusion has to be avoided when protein phosphorylation is to be studied. PMID:26511732

  11. Rapid alteration of protein phosphorylation during postmortem: implication in the study of protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Yanchong; Hu, Wen; Xie, Shutao; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. Postmortem tissues are widely being utilized in the biomedical studies, but the effects of postmortem on protein phosphorylation have not been received enough attention. In the present study, we found here that most proteins in mouse brain, heart, liver, and kidney were rapidly dephosphorylated to various degrees during 20?sec to 10?min postmortem. Phosphorylation of tau at Thr212 and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) at Ser9 was reduced by 50% in the brain with 40?sec postmortem, a regular time for tissue processing. During postmortem, phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and AMP activated kinase (AMPK) was increased in the brain, but not in other organs. Perfusion of the brain with cold or room temperature phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) also caused significant alteration of protein phosphorylation. Cooling down and maintaining mouse brains in the ice-cold buffer prevented the alteration effectively. This study suggests that phosphorylation of proteins is rapidly changed during postmortem. Thus, immediate processing of tissues followed by cooling down in ice-cold buffer is vitally important and perfusion has to be avoided when protein phosphorylation is to be studied. PMID:26511732

  12. Phosphorylated FTY720 stimulates ERK phosphorylation in astrocytes via S1P receptors.

    PubMed

    Osinde, Maribel; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2007-04-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1P1-5) are activated by the endogenous agonist S1P and are expressed in the central nervous system. In astrocytes, activation of S1P receptors leads to phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), a signaling cascade which plays intimate roles in cell proliferation. Fingolimod (FTY720) is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and its phosphorylated version (FTY720P) activates S1P receptors. We examined the effects of FTY720P on ERK phosphorylation and determined which S1P receptor subtype(s) mediated this signaling event. FTY720P augmented ERK phosphorylation in cortical cultures prepared from embryonic day 18 rat brains and was blocked by an MEK inhibitor or by pertussis toxin. Co-localisation of phosphorylated ERK occurred in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive astrocytes but not neurons or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, FTY720P stimulated ERK phosphorylation in highly enriched astrocyte cultures made from postnatal day 2 rat cortices. The effects of FTY720P were mimicked by selective S1P1 receptor agonists and blocked by S1P1 receptor antagonists. Collectively, these results demonstrate that FTY720P mediates ERK phosphorylation in astrocytes via the activation of S1P1 receptors. PMID:17379261

  13. Phosphorylation of Lipin 1 and Charge on the Phosphatidic Acid Head Group Control Its Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatase Activity and Membrane Association*

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, James M.; Mullins, Garrett R.; Brindley, David N.; Harris, Thurl E.

    2013-01-01

    The lipin gene family encodes a class of Mg2+-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatases involved in the de novo synthesis of phospholipids and triglycerides. Unlike other enzymes in the Kennedy pathway, lipins are not integral membrane proteins, and they need to translocate from the cytosol to intracellular membranes to participate in glycerolipid synthesis. The movement of lipin 1 within the cell is closely associated with its phosphorylation status. Although cellular analyses have demonstrated that highly phosphorylated lipin 1 is enriched in the cytosol and dephosphorylated lipin 1 is found on membranes, the effects of phosphorylation on lipin 1 activity and binding to membranes has not been recapitulated in vitro. Herein we describe a new biochemical assay for lipin 1 using mixtures of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylethanolamine that reflects its physiological activity and membrane interaction. This depends on our observation that lipin 1 binding to PA in membranes is highly responsive to the electrostatic charge of PA. The studies presented here demonstrate that phosphorylation regulates the ability of the polybasic domain of lipin 1 to recognize di-anionic PA and identify mTOR as a crucial upstream signaling component regulating lipin 1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate how phosphorylation of lipin 1 together with pH and membrane phospholipid composition play important roles in the membrane association of lipin 1 and thus the regulation of its enzymatic activity. PMID:23426360

  14. The mixed-lineage kinase DLK undergoes Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in cells exposed to vanadate or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).

    PubMed

    Daviau, Alex; Di Fruscio, Marco; Blouin, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Some data in the literature suggest that serine/threonine phosphorylation is required for activation of the mixed-lineage kinases (MLKs), a subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs). In this report, we demonstrate that the MLK family member DLK is activated and concurrently tyrosine-phosphorylated in cells exposed to the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. Tyrosine phosphorylation appears crucial for activation as incubation of vanadate-activated DLK molecules with a tyrosine phosphatase substantially reduced DLK enzymatic activity. Interestingly, the effects of vanadate on DLK are completely blocked by treatment with a Src family kinase inhibitor, PP2, or the expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed against Src. DLK also fails to undergo vanadate-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in fibroblasts which lack expression of Src, Yes and Fyn, but reintroduction of wild-type Src or Fyn followed by vanadate treatment restores this response. In addition to vanadate, stimulation of cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) also induces tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of DLK by a Src-dependent mechanism. DLK seems important for PDGF signaling because its depletion by RNA interference substantially reduces PDGF-stimulated ERK and Akt kinase activation. Thus, our findings suggest that Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of DLK may be important for regulation of its activity, and they support a role for DLK in PDGF signaling. PMID:19146952

  15. In silico modeling of the Menkes copper-translocating P-type ATPase 3rd metal binding domain predicts that phosphorylation regulates copper-binding.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, N A; Kuiper, M J; Dobson, R C J; Pearson, R B; Camakaris, J

    2011-06-01

    The Menkes (ATP7A) P(1B)-type ATPase is a transmembrane copper-translocating protein. It contains six similar high-affinity metal-binding domains (MBDs) in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail that are important for sensing intracellular copper and regulating ATPase function through the transfer of copper between domains. Molecular characterization of copper-binding and transfer is predominantly dependent on NMR structures derived from E. coli expression systems. A limitation of these models is the exclusion of post-translational modifications. We have previously shown that the third copper-binding domain, MBD3, uniquely contains two phosphorylated residues: Thr-327, which is phosphorylated only in the presence of elevated copper; and Ser-339, which is constitutively phosphorylated independent of copper levels. Here, using molecular dynamic simulations, we have incorporated these phosphorylated residues into a model based on the NMR structures of MBD3. Our data suggests that constitutively phosphorylated Ser-339, which is in a loop facing the copper-binding site, may facilitate the copper transfer process by exposing the CxxC copper-binding region of MBD3. Copper-induced phosphorylation of Thr327 is predicted to stabilize this change in conformation. This offers new molecular insights into how cell signaling (phosphorylation) can affect MBD structure and dynamics and how this may in turn affect copper-binding and thus copper-translocation functions of ATP7A. PMID:21258844

  16. Inhibition of phospholamban phosphorylation by O-GlcNAcylation: implications for diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, Shunichi; Asahi, Michio; Takeda, Toshihiro; Otsu, Kinya; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Miyoshi, Eiji; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac-type sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2)-ATPase (SERCA2a) plays a major role in cardiac muscle contractility. Phospholamban (PLN) regulates the function of SERCA2a via its Ser(16)-phosphorylation. Since it has been proposed that the Ser/Thr residues on cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), we examined the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on PLN function in rat adult cardiomyocytes. Studies using enzymatic labeling and co-immunoprecipitation of wild type and a series of mutants of PLN showed that PLN was O-GlcNAcylated and Ser(16) of PLN might be the site for O-GlcNAcylation. In cardiomyocytes treated with O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc), the O-GlcNAcylation was significantly increased compared to non-treated cells. Simultaneously, Ser(16)-phosphorylation of PLN was reduced. In Chinese hamster ovary cells where PLN cDNA and O-GlcNAc transferase siRNA were co-transfected, the Ser(16)-phosphorylation of PLN was significantly increased compared to controls. The same results were observed in heart homogenates from diabetic rats. In a co-immunoprecipitation of PLN with SERCA2a, the physical interaction between the two proteins was increased in PUGNAc-treated cardiomyocytes. Unlike non-treated cells, the activity of SERCA2a and the profiles of calcium transients in PUGNAc-treated cardiomyocytes were not significantly changed even after treatment with catecholamine. These data suggest that PLN is O-GlcNAcylated to induce the inhibition of its phosphorylation, which correlates to the deterioration of cardiac function. This might define a novel mechanism by which PLN regulation of SERCA2a is altered under conditions where O-GlcNAcylation is increased, such as those occurring in diabetes. PMID:20484118

  17. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs) as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings. PMID:19889202

  18. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus open reading frame (ORF) 62 regulatory product by viral ORF 47-associated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ng, T I; Keenan, L; Kinchington, P R; Grose, C

    1994-03-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes within its unique long region a gene product with protein kinase motifs. In a previous study, we demonstrated that immunoprecipitated VZV open reading frame (ORF) 47 protein was associated with a functional protein kinase activity, on the basis of its ability to both autophosphorylate and phosphorylate artificial substrates. To further define potential substrates of ORF 47-associated protein kinase, we analyzed individual viral phosphoproteins to determine whether any were modified by the viral protein kinase. These candidates included gene products of VZV ORFs 4, 61, 62, and 63, which are homologs of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early proteins. Each of the above VZV proteins was coimmunoprecipitated with ORF 47 kinase, and the immune complex was incubated in a protein kinase assay. Under these conditions, only the VZV immediate-early ORF 62 protein was phosphorylated by ORF 47-associated protein kinase. The specificity of this phosphorylation event was analyzed by a competition assay in which a recombinant ORF 47 protein lacking enzymatic activity was able to reduce the amount of phosphorylation of ORF 62 protein by VZV ORF 47-associated kinase. To provide an additional evaluation of specificity, the experiment was repeated with [32P]GTP instead of [32P]ATP, because the VZV ORF 47 kinase has the distinctive property of using GTP as a phosphate donor. Again the ORF 62 substrate was phosphorylated. In summary, the VZV ORF 47-associated protein kinase (the HSV-1 UL13 homolog) catalyzed the in vitro phosphorylation of the VZV ORF 62 protein, the homolog of the HSV-1 ICP4 regulatory protein. PMID:8107200

  19. Measuring Gli2 Phosphorylation by Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ahrends, Robert; Niewiadomski, Pawel; Teruel, Mary N.; Rohatgi, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an important mechanism by which Gli proteins are regulated. When the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is activated, multiple serine and threonine residues of Gli2 are dephosphorylated, while at least one residue undergoes phosphorylation. These changes in phosphorylation have functional relevance for the transcriptional activity of Gli proteins, as shown by in vitro and in vivo assays on Gli mutants lacking the phosphorylated residues. Here, we describe a method of quantitatively monitoring the phosphorylation of Gli proteins by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry of Gli2 immunoprecipitated from cell lysates. This method is broadly applicable to the monitoring of phosphorylation changes of immunoprecipitated Gli proteins when the putative phosphosites are known. PMID:26179043

  20. Glutamate drug reduces dopamine inhibition of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Lu, Justin Y; Seeman, Philip; Liu, Fang

    2016-02-01

    Pomaglumetad methionil (or LY404039) inhibits the phosphorylating action of dopamine on glycogen synthase kinase-3, indicating that the possible clinical action of this compound would be a result of the stimulation of glutamate receptors and inhibition of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:26583745

  1. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life.

  2. Identification of extracellularly phosphorylated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Burghoff, Sandra; Willberg, Wibke; Schrader, Jrgen

    2015-10-01

    Ecto-protein kinases phosphorylate extracellular membrane proteins and exhibit similarities to casein kinases and protein kinases A and C. However, the identification of their protein substrates still remains a challenge because a clear separation from intracellular phosphoproteins is difficult. Here, we describe a straightforward method for the identification of extracellularly phosphorylated membrane proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and K562 cells which used the protease bromelain to selectively remove ectoproteins from intact cells and combined this with the subsequent analysis using IMAC and LC-MS/MS. A "false-positive" strategy in which cells without protease treatment served as controls was applied. Using this approach we identified novel phosphorylation sites on five ectophosphoproteins (NOTCH1, otopetrin 1, regulator of G-protein signalling 13 (RGS13), protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D isoform 3 (PTPRD), usherin isoform B (USH2A)). Use of bromelain appears to be a reliable technique for the further identification of phosphorylated surface-exposed peptides when extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate is elevated during purinergic signalling. PMID:26152529

  3. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life. PMID:26606901

  4. Enzymatic treatment of sanitary landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, A I; Loukidou, M X; Christodoulou, K

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of applying enzymes (bioaugmentation) for enhancement of biological treatability of leachates generated in a typical municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. The basic purpose of enzyme use is to enforce the biodecomposition of organic constituents, as well as to reduce nitrogen content. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch (bio)reactor (SBR) was used for the examination of enzymatic application. The effect of different operation strategies on the efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied to optimize performance, especially for the removal of nitrogen compounds and of biodegradable organic matter. It was found that the enzymatic process was able to remove organic matter effectively (expressed as BOD5 and COD) and nitrogen content, color and turbidity. PMID:11513397

  5. Biofunctional properties of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-03-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  6. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 μg/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 μg/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  7. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  8. Enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone-gelatin blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-04-01

    Blends of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer and gelatin, natural polymer offer a optimal combination of strength, water wettability and cytocompatibility for use as a resorbable biomaterial. The enzymatic degradation of PCL, gelatin and PCL-gelatin blended films was studied in the presence of lipase (Novozym 435, immobilized) and lysozyme. Novozym 435 degraded the PCL films whereas lysozyme degraded the gelatin. Though Novozym 435 and lysozyme individually could degrade PCL-gelatin blended films, the combination of these enzymes showed the highest degradation of these blended films. Moreover, the enzymatic degradation was much faster when fresh enzymes were added at regular intervals. The changes in physico-chemical properties of polymer films due to degradation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These results have important implications for designing resorbable biomedical implants.

  9. A singular enzymatic megacomplex from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Straight, Paul D; Fischbach, Michael A; Walsh, Christopher T; Rudner, David Z; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), polyketide synthases (PKS), and hybrid NRPS/PKS are of particular interest, because they produce numerous therapeutic agents, have great potential for engineering novel compounds, and are the largest enzymes known. The predicted masses of known enzymatic assembly lines can reach almost 5 megadaltons, dwarfing even the ribosome (approximately 2.6 megadaltons). Despite their uniqueness and importance, little is known about the organization of these enzymes within the native producer cells. Here we report that an 80-kb gene cluster, which occupies approximately 2% of the Bacillus subtilis genome, encodes the subunits of approximately 2.5 megadalton active hybrid NRPS/PKS. Many copies of the NRPS/PKS assemble into a single organelle-like membrane-associated complex of tens to hundreds of megadaltons. Such an enzymatic megacomplex is unprecedented in bacterial subcellular organization and has important implications for engineering novel NRPS/PKSs. PMID:17190806

  10. Production of MAG via enzymatic glycerolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamlus, Norul Naziraa Ahmad; Derawi, Darfizzi; Salimon, Jumat

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic glycerolysis of a medium chain methyl ester, methyl laurate was performed using lipase Candida antarctica (Novozyme 435) for 6 hours at 55°C. The percentage of components mixture of product were determined by using gas chromatography technique. The enzymatic reaction was successfully produced monolaurin (45.9 %), dilaurin (47.1 %) and trilaurin (7.0 %) respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate also showed a good separation of component spots. Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR) spectrum showed the presence of ester carbonyl at wavenumber 1739.99 cm-1 and hydrogen bonded O-H at 3512.03 cm-1. The product is potentially to be used as emulsifier and additive in food industry, pharmaceutical, as well as antibacterial.

  11. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  12. Dispersing biofilms with engineered enzymatic bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Timothy K.; Collins, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic biology involves the engineering of biological organisms by using modular and generalizable designs with the ultimate goal of developing useful solutions to real-world problems. One such problem involves bacterial biofilms, which are crucial in the pathogenesis of many clinically important infections and are difficult to eradicate because they exhibit resistance to antimicrobial treatments and removal by host immune systems. To address this issue, we engineered bacteriophage to express a biofilm-degrading enzyme during infection to simultaneously attack the bacterial cells in the biofilm and the biofilm matrix, which is composed of extracellular polymeric substances. We show that the efficacy of biofilm removal by this two-pronged enzymatic bacteriophage strategy is significantly greater than that of nonenzymatic bacteriophage treatment. Our engineered enzymatic phage substantially reduced bacterial biofilm cell counts by ?4.5 orders of magnitude (?99.997% removal), which was about two orders of magnitude better than that of nonenzymatic phage. This work demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of using engineered enzymatic bacteriophage to reduce bacterial biofilms and the applicability of synthetic biology to an important medical and industrial problem. PMID:17592147

  13. Enzymatic transformation of nonfood biomass to starch.

    PubMed

    You, Chun; Chen, Hongge; Myung, Suwan; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Jianyong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2013-04-30

    The global demand for food could double in another 40 y owing to growth in the population and food consumption per capita. To meet the world's future food and sustainability needs for biofuels and renewable materials, the production of starch-rich cereals and cellulose-rich bioenergy plants must grow substantially while minimizing agriculture's environmental footprint and conserving biodiversity. Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass to starch through a nonnatural synthetic enzymatic pathway composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolyase, cellobiose phosphorylase, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase originating from bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. A special polypeptide cap in potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase was essential to push a partially hydrolyzed intermediate of cellulose forward to the synthesis of amylose. Up to 30% of the anhydroglucose units in cellulose were converted to starch; the remaining cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose suitable for ethanol production by yeast in the same bioreactor. Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma. PMID:23589840

  14. Enzymatic transformation of nonfood biomass to starch

    PubMed Central

    You, Chun; Chen, Hongge; Myung, Suwan; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Jianyong; Zhang, Y.-H. Percival

    2013-01-01

    The global demand for food could double in another 40 y owing to growth in the population and food consumption per capita. To meet the world’s future food and sustainability needs for biofuels and renewable materials, the production of starch-rich cereals and cellulose-rich bioenergy plants must grow substantially while minimizing agriculture’s environmental footprint and conserving biodiversity. Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass to starch through a nonnatural synthetic enzymatic pathway composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolyase, cellobiose phosphorylase, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase originating from bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. A special polypeptide cap in potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase was essential to push a partially hydrolyzed intermediate of cellulose forward to the synthesis of amylose. Up to 30% of the anhydroglucose units in cellulose were converted to starch; the remaining cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose suitable for ethanol production by yeast in the same bioreactor. Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma. PMID:23589840

  15. A summary of computational resources for protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yu; Gao, Xinjiao; Cao, Jun; Liu, Zexian; Jin, Changjiang; Wen, Longping; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian

    2010-09-01

    Protein phosphorylation is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification (PTM), and plays important roles in most of biological processes. Identification of site-specific phosphorylated substrates is fundamental for understanding the molecular mechanisms of phosphorylation. Besides experimental approaches, prediction of potential candidates with computational methods has also attracted great attention for its convenience, fast-speed and low-cost. In this review, we present a comprehensive but brief summarization of computational resources of protein phosphorylation, including phosphorylation databases, prediction of non-specific or organism-specific phosphorylation sites, prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites or phospho-binding motifs, and other tools. The latest compendium of computational resources for protein phosphorylation is available at: http://gps.biocuckoo.org/links.php. PMID:20491621

  16. Protein phosphorylation in isolated human adipocytes - Adrenergic control of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, R.M. Columbia Univ College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY ); Paul, S.; Browning, M.D.; Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adrenergic agents on protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes was examined. Freshly isolated human fat cells were incubated with {sup 32}PO{sub 4} in order to label intracellular ATP, then treated with a variety of adrenergic and other pharmacologic agents. Treatment with the {beta}-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol led to a significant increase in phosphate content of at least five protein bands (M{sub r} 52, 53, 63, 67, 84 kDa). The increase in phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the {alpha}-2 agonist clonidine. Epinephrine, a combined {alpha} and {beta} agonist, was less effective at increasing phosphate content of the proteins than was isoproterenol. Neither insulin nor the {alpha}-1 agonist phenylephrine had any discernible effect on the pattern of protein phosphorylation. The 84 kDa phosphorylated peptide band appears to contain hormone-sensitive lipase, a key enzyme in the lipolytic pathway which is activated by phosphorylation. These results are somewhat different than previously reported results for rat adipocytes, and represent the first report of overall pattern and adrenergic modulation of protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes.

  17. Preserved enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase immobilized on unmodified electrodes for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Thai, Ngee Mei; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2007-04-15

    Glucose sensing electrodes have been realized by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on unmodified edge plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (epHOPG) and the native oxide of heavily doped silicon (SiO2/Si). Both kinds of electrode show direct interfacial electron transfer due to the redox process of the immobilized GOx. The measured formal potential of the redox process agrees with that of the native enzyme, suggesting that the immobilized GOx has retained its enzymatic activity. The electron transfer rates of the GOx immobilized electrode are 2s(-1) for GOx/epHOPG electrode and 7.9s(-1) for GOx/SiO2/Si electrode, which are greater than those for which GOx is immobilized on modified electrodes, probably due to the fact that the enzyme makes direct contact to electrode surface. The preservation of the enzymatic activity of the immobilized GOx has been confirmed by observing the response of the GOx/epHOPG and GOx/SiO2/Si electrodes to glucose with a detection limit of 0.050 mM. The response signals the catalyzed oxidation of glucose and, therefore, confirms that the immobilized GOx retained its enzymatic activity. The properties of the electrode as a glucose sensor are presented. PMID:17113278

  18. Tau proteins of Alzheimer paired helical filaments: abnormal phosphorylation of all six brain isoforms.

    PubMed

    Goedert, M; Spillantini, M G; Cairns, N J; Crowther, R A

    1992-01-01

    Preparations of dispersed paired helical filaments (PHFs) from the brains of Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome patients display on gels three principal bands corresponding to abnormally modified forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Interpretation of the pattern is difficult because there are six tau isoforms in normal brain and phosphorylation changes their mobility. By enzymatic dephosphorylation at high temperature, we have shifted the three abnormal bands obtained from dispersed PHFs to align with the six nonphosphorylated tau isoforms. By using antibodies specific for some of the inserts that distinguish the various isoforms and label PHFs, we have established a correspondence between PHFs, abnormal bands, and isoforms. This identification of isoforms is a necessary step in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of PHFs. PMID:1530909

  19. Enzymatic activities of P450c17 stably expressed in fibroblasts from patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martens, J W; Geller, D H; Arlt, W; Auchus, R J; Ossovskaya, V S; Rodriguez, H; Dunaif, A; Miller, W L

    2000-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting approximately 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The clinical features of PCOS include oligo/anovulation, hyperandrogenemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Because P450c17 is the single enzyme catalyzing both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities in the ovary and adrenal, some have suggested that defects in P450c17 may cause the hyperandrogenism of PCOS. Previous studies have shown that serine hyperphosphorylation of P450c17 increases the enzyme's 17,20-lyase activity, thereby favoring androgen production, and that serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-chain (IR-beta) inhibits IR-beta tyrosine phosphorylation, causing insulin resistance in vitro. We previously suggested that a gain of function mutation in a single serine kinase might cause the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance observed in PCOS patients by excessive phosphorylation of both P450c17 and IR-beta. To test this hypothesis, we obtained fibroblasts from nine previously studied patients: three controls, three PCOS patients with normal levels of IR-beta serine phosphorylation, and three PCOS patients with increased levels of IR-beta serine phosphorylation. Initial studies showed that such skin fibroblasts could not be transfected effectively by calcium phosphate, diethylaminoethyl-dextran, lipofection or adenovirus procedures. Therefore, we employed a retroviral infection system to stably express human P450c17 in the primary cultures of fibroblast cells from the PCOS patients and controls and measured the resulting 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. The cells were analyzed in a blinded fashion until the study was complete. The 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities in each cell line correlated well with the amount of P450c17 protein expressed, but there was no correlation between either enzymatic activity (or their ratio) with the clinical phenotype of the cells' donors even when results were corrected for the number of P450c17 complementary DNA inserts per cell line. Overnight incubation with 1 micromol/L insulin also did not affect enzymatic activity. Thus, we were unable to find evidence for the hypothesis that in PCOS a single abnormal kinase hyperphosphorylates both IR-beta, causing insulin resistance, and P450c17, causing hyperandrogenism. However, because fibroblasts do not normally express either P450c17 or the accessory proteins needed for its optimal activity, these results cannot exclude a role for serine phosphorylation in the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance of PCOS. PMID:11095477

  20. Syntheses and insulin-like activity of phosphorylated galactose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Caro, H N; Martn-Lomas, M; Bernab, M

    1993-02-24

    The syntheses of the poly-phosphorylated galactosides 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20, isolated as sodium salts, have been performed. The non-phosphorylated disaccharide 17 and trisaccharide 21 have been prepared via glycosylation of the 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl galactosides 3 and 2, respectively, and subsequent complete deprotection. Preliminary insulin-like activity of the phosphorylated derivatives is reported. PMID:8458006

  1. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Results Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. Conclusions The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for spruce at an elevated agitation suggests that mass transfer at sustained high viscosities plays an important role in determining the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24920958

  2. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, Franois; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate. PMID:24721058

  3. Proteomic analysis of phosphorylation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Lemeer, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Constitutive activity of kinases is known to be crucial for a tumor to maintain its malignant phenotype, a phenomenon which is often referred to as oncogene addiction. The in-depth analysis of aberrant signaling pathways by the analysis of protein phosphorylation has become feasible through recent advances in proteomics technology. In this article we will review developments in the field of phosphoproteomics and its application in cancer research. The most widely used technologies for the generic enrichment of phosphopeptides are discussed as well as targeted approaches for the analysis of a specific subset of phosphopeptides. Validation experiments of phosphorylation sites using targeted mass spectrometry are also explained. Finally, we will highlight applications of phosphoproteomic technology in cancer research using cell lines and tissue. PMID:24666026

  4. Post-Translational Phosphorylation of Serine 74 of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Favors the Enzyme Adopting the Open Conformation Making It Competent for Nucleoside Binding and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Szewczak, Andrzej; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2012-03-26

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) uses either ATP or UTP as a phosphoryl donor to catalyze the phosphorylation of nucleoside acceptors. The kinetic properties of human dCK are modulated in vivo by phosphorylation of serine 74. This residue is a part of the insert region and is distant from the active site. Replacing the serine with a glutamic acid (S74E variant) can mimic phosphorylation of Ser74. To understand how phosphorylation affects the catalytic properties of dCK, we examined the S74E variant of dCK both structurally and kinetically. We observe that the presence of a glutamic acid at position 74 favors the adoption by the enzyme of the open conformation. Glu74 stabilizes the open conformation by directly interacting with the indole side chain of Trp58, a residue that is in the proximity of the base of the nucleoside substrate. The open dCK conformation is competent for the binding of nucleoside but not for phosphoryl transfer. In contrast, the closed conformation is competent for phosphoryl transfer but not for product release. Thus, dCK must make the transition between the open and closed states during the catalytic cycle. We propose a reaction scheme for dCK that incorporates the transition between the open and closed states, and this serves to rationalize the observed kinetic differences between wild-type dCK and the S74E variant.

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  6. Effects of Phosphorylation of ? Subunits of Phycocyanins on State Transition in the Model Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhan, Jiao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Mingkun; He, Chenliu; Ge, Feng; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) is a model cyanobacterium and has been used extensively for studies concerned with photosynthesis and environmental adaptation. Although dozens of protein kinases and phosphatases with specificity for Ser/Thr/Tyr residues have been predicted, only a few substrate proteins are known in Synechocystis. In this study, we report 194 in vivo phosphorylation sites from 149 proteins in Synechocystis, which were identified using a combination of peptide pre-fractionation, TiO(2) enrichment and liquid chromatograpy-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. These phosphorylated proteins are implicated in diverse biological processes, such as photosynthesis. Among all identified phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis, the ? subunits of phycocyanins (CpcBs) were found to be phosphorylated on Ser22, Ser49, Thr94 and Ser154. Four non-phosphorylated mutants were constructed by using site-directed mutagenesis. The in vivo characterization of the cpcB mutants showed a slower growth under high light irradiance and displayed fluorescence quenching to a lower level and less efficient energy transfer inside the phycobilisome (PBS). Notably, the non-phosphorylated mutants exhibited a slower state transition than the wild type. The current results demonstrated that the phosphorylation status of CpcBs affects the energy transfer and state transition of photosynthesis in Synechocystis. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of protein phosphorylation in the regulation of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and may facilitate the elucidation of the entire regulatory network by linking kinases to their physiological substrates. PMID:26315596

  7. Phosphorylation Stoichiometries of Human Eukaryotic Initiation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Andaya, Armann; Villa, Nancy; Jia, Weitao; Fraser, Christopher S.; Leary, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors are the principal molecular effectors regulating the process converting nucleic acid to functional protein. Commonly referred to as eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors), this suite of proteins is comprised of at least 25 individual subunits that function in a coordinated, regulated, manner during mRNA translation. Multiple facets of eIF regulation have yet to be elucidated; however, many of the necessary protein factors are phosphorylated. Herein, we have isolated, identified and quantified phosphosites from eIF2, eIF3, and eIF4G generated from log phase grown HeLa cell lysates. Our investigation is the first study to globally quantify eIF phosphosites and illustrates differences in abundance of phosphorylation between the residues of each factor. Thus, identification of those phosphosites that exhibit either high or low levels of phosphorylation under log phase growing conditions may aid researchers to concentrate their investigative efforts to specific phosphosites that potentially harbor important regulatory mechanisms germane to mRNA translation. PMID:24979134

  8. Regulation of peroxisome dynamics by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schummer, Andreas; Mastalski, Thomas; Platta, Harald W; Warscheid, Bettina

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that can rapidly change in size, abundance, and protein content in response to alterations in nutritional and other environmental conditions. These dynamic changes in peroxisome features, referred to as peroxisome dynamics, rely on the coordinated action of several processes of peroxisome biogenesis. Revealing the regulatory mechanisms of peroxisome dynamics is an emerging theme in cell biology. These mechanisms are inevitably linked to and synchronized with the biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes. To date, the key players and basic principles of virtually all steps in the peroxisomal life cycle are known, but regulatory mechanisms remained largely elusive. A number of recent studies put the spotlight on reversible protein phosphorylation for the control of peroxisome dynamics and highlighted peroxisomes as hubs for cellular signal integration and regulation. Here, we will present and discuss the results of several studies performed using yeast and mammalian cells that convey a sense of the impact protein phosphorylation may have on the modulation of peroxisome dynamics by regulating peroxisomal matrix and membrane protein import, proliferation, inheritance, and degradation. We further put forward the idea to make use of current data on phosphorylation sites of peroxisomal and peroxisome-associated proteins reported in advanced large-scale phosphoproteomic studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes edited by Ralf Erdmann. PMID:26775584

  9. Phosphorylation of proteins in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Londesborough, J.

    1986-02-01

    Cell extracts of the thermophile Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum catalyzed the phosphorylation by (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP of several endogenous proteins with M/sub r/s between 13,000 and 100,000. Serine and tyrosine were the main acceptors. Distinct substrate proteins were found in the soluble (e.g., proteins p66, p63, and p53 of M/sub r/s 66,000, 63,000, and 53,000, respectively) and particulate (p76 and p30) fractions, both of which contained protein kinase and phosphatase activity. The soluble fraction suppressed the phosphorylation of particulate proteins and contained a protein kinase inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p53 was promoted by 10..mu..M fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and suppressed by hexose monophosphates, whereas p30 and p13 were suppressed by 5 ..mu..M brain (but not spinach) calmodulin. Polyamines, including the odd polyamines characteristic of thermophiles, modulated the labeling of most of the phosphoproteins. Apart from p66, all the proteins labeled in vitro were also rapidly labeled in intact cells by /sub 32/P/sub i/. Several proteins strongly labeled in vivo were labeled slowly or not at all in vitro.

  10. Function of platelet 47K protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, T.

    1987-05-01

    To provide insight into the biochemical pathway of platelet activation, they purified both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P47 to homogeneity from human platelets. This study represents the first demonstration of a change of physiological action of P47 in response to phosphorylation in platelet activation. SVI labelled unphosphorylated P47 had an ability to bind with platelet membrane fraction in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Effect of diacylglycerol was inhibitory in this PS dependent P47 binding with membrane. Unphosphorylated P47 had an inhibitory activity in platelet actin polymerization. Molar ratio to inhibit actin polymerization was 1:8 (P47:actin). These activities were Ca independent. Purified TSP-labelled P47 lost the binding ability with membrane, also the inhibitory activity in actin polymerization. Therefore, they propose the hypothesis that unphosphorylated P47 may loosely bind with the inside of plasma membrane of platelet and inhibit actin polymerization as a modulator, when stimulated, protein Kinase C rapidly phosphorylate P47 and induce the activation of cytoskeletal network and subsequently release reaction.

  11. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  12. Activation of NMDA receptors induces protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of matrin 3. Blocking these effects prevents NMDA-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Gennaro; Snchez-Prez, Ana Mara; Montoliu, Carmina; Berezney, Ronald; Malyavantham, Kishore; Costa, Lucio G; Calvete, Juan Jos; Felipo, Vicente

    2005-08-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors leads to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The main substrates phosphorylated by PKA following NMDA receptor activation remain unidentified. The aim of this work was to identify a major substrate phosphorylated by PKA following NMDA receptor activation in cerebellar neurones in culture, and to assess whether this phosphorylation may be involved in neuronal death induced by excessive NMDA receptor activation. The main PKA substrate following NMDA receptor activation was identified by MALDI-TOFF fingerprinting as the nuclear protein, matrin 3. PKA-mediated phosphorylation of matrin 3 is followed by its degradation. NMDA receptor activation in rat brain in vivo by ammonia injection also induced PKA-mediated matrin 3 phosphorylation and degradation in brain cell nuclei. Blocking NMDA receptors in brain in vivo with MK-801 reduced basal phosphorylation of matrin 3, suggesting that it is modulated by NMDA receptors. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 prevents NMDA-induced phosphorylation and degradation of matrin 3 as well as neuronal death. These results suggest that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of matrin 3 may serve as a rapid way of transferring information from synapses containing NMDA receptors to neuronal nuclei under physiological conditions, and may contribute to neuronal death under pathological conditions. PMID:16000164

  13. Heat shock triggers rapid protein phosphorylation in soybean seedings

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, H.B.; Pueppke, S.G.

    1987-10-29

    Heat shock arrests the synthesis of many cellular proteins and simultaneously initiates expression of a unique set of proteins, termed heat shock proteins. We have found that heat shock rapidly triggers phosphorylation of a set of proteins in soybean seedlings. Although the kinetics of phosphorylation and the heat shock response are similar, the major identified phosphorylation products do not comigrate with heat shock proteins on polyacrylamide gels. Cadmium, which is known to induce the heat shock response, stimulates phosphorylation of the same set of proteins. The rapidity of phosphorylation suggests that it may play a pivotal role in sensing and transducing elevated temperature stress in plants.

  14. Phosphorylation Increases Persistence Length and End-to-End Distance of a Segment of Tau Protein.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alexander F; Toptygin, Dmitri; Elam, W Austin; Schrank, Travis P; Hilser, Vincent J

    2016-01-19

    Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins, which lack unique tertiary structure under physiological conditions, are enriched in phosphorylation sites and in significant local bias toward the polyproline II conformation. The overrepresented coincidence of this posttranslational regulatory signal and local conformational bias within unstructured regions raises a question: can phosphorylation serve to manipulate the conformational preferences of a disordered protein? In this study, we use time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a, to our knowledge, novel data analysis method to directly measure the end-to-end distance distribution of a phosphorylatable peptide derived from the human microtubule associated protein tau. Our results show that phosphorylation at threonine or serine extends the end-to-end distance and increases the effective persistence length of the tested model peptides. Unexpectedly, the extension is independent of salt concentration, suggestive of a nonelectrostatic origin. The phosphorylation extension and stiffening effect provides a peptide-scale physical interpretation for the posttranslational regulation of the highly abundant protein-protein interactions found in disordered proteins, as well as a potential insight into the regulatory mechanism of the tau protein's microtubule binding activity. PMID:26789759

  15. Dysfunctional conformational dynamics of protein kinase A induced by a lethal mutant of phospholamban hinder phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggul; Masterson, Larry R.; Cembran, Alessandro; Verardi, Raffaello; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiali; Taylor, Susan S.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between kinases and substrates is crucial for the formation of catalytically committed complexes that enable phosphoryl transfer. However, a clear understanding on how substrates modulate kinase structural dynamics to control catalytic efficiency is still missing. Here, we used solution NMR spectroscopy to study the conformational dynamics of two complexes of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A with WT and R14 deletion phospholamban, a lethal human mutant linked to familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Phospholamban is a central regulator of heart muscle contractility, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase A constitutes a primary response to ?-adrenergic stimulation. We found that the single deletion of arginine in phospholambans recognition sequence for the kinase reduces its binding affinity and dramatically reduces phosphorylation kinetics. Structurally, the mutant prevents the enzyme from adopting conformations and motions committed for catalysis, with concomitant reduction in catalytic efficiency. Overall, these results underscore the importance of a well-tuned structural and dynamic interplay between the kinase and its substrates to achieve physiological phosphorylation levels for proper Ca2+ signaling and normal cardiac function. PMID:25775607

  16. Enzymatic Catalytic Beds For Oxidation Of Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    1993-01-01

    Modules containing beds of enzymatic material catalyzing oxidation of primary alcohols and some other organic compounds developed for use in wastewater-treatment systems of future spacecraft. Designed to be placed downstream of multifiltration modules, which contain filters and sorbent beds removing most of non-alcoholic contaminants but fail to remove significant amounts of low-molecular-weight, polar, nonionic compounds like alcohols. Catalytic modules also used on Earth to oxidize primary alcohols and other compounds in wastewater streams and industrial process streams.

  17. Enzymatic processing of protein-based fibers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiajia; Su, Jing; Wang, Ping; Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qiang; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Wool and silk are major protein fiber materials used by the textile industry. Fiber protein structure-function relationships are briefly described here, and the major enzymatic processing routes for textiles and other novel applications are deeply reviewed. Fiber biomodification is described here with various classes of enzymes such as protease, transglutaminase, tyrosinase, and laccase. It is expected that the reader will get a perspective on the research done as a basis for new applications in other areas such as cosmetics and pharma. PMID:26428240

  18. Structural Basis of Reversible Phosphorylation by Maize Pyruvate Orthophosphate Dikinase Regulatory Protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lun; Chen, Yi-Bo; Zheng, Jiangge; Chen, Zhenhang; Liu, Yujie; Tao, Ye; Wu, Wei; Chen, Zhongzhou; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) is one of the most important enzymes in C4 photosynthesis. PPDK regulatory protein (PDRP) regulates the inorganic phosphate-dependent activation and ADP-dependent inactivation of PPDK by reversible phosphorylation. PDRP shares no significant sequence similarity with other protein kinases or phosphatases. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which PDRP carries out its dual and competing activities, we determined the crystal structure of PDRP from maize (Zea mays). PDRP forms a compact homo-dimer in which each protomer contains two separate N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains. The CTD includes several key elements for performing both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation activities: the phosphate binding loop (P-loop) for binding the ADP and inorganic phosphate substrates, residues Lys-274 and Lys-299 for neutralizing the negative charge, and residue Asp-277 for protonating and deprotonating the target Thr residue of PPDK to promote nucleophilic attack. Surprisingly, the NTD shares the same protein fold as the CTD and also includes a putative P-loop with AMP bound but lacking enzymatic activities. Structural analysis indicated that this loop may participate in the interaction with and regulation of PPDK. The NTD has conserved intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds for PDRP dimerization. Moreover, PDRP is the first structure of the domain of unknown function 299 enzyme family reported. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the catalytic mechanism of PDRP and offers a foundation for the development of selective activators or inhibitors that may regulate photosynthesis. PMID:26620526

  19. Structural Basis of Reversible Phosphorylation by Maize Pyruvate Orthophosphate Dikinase Regulatory Protein1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lun; Chen, Yi-bo; Zheng, Jiangge; Chen, Zhenhang; Liu, Yujie; Tao, Ye; Wu, Wei; Wang, Bai-chen

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) is one of the most important enzymes in C4 photosynthesis. PPDK regulatory protein (PDRP) regulates the inorganic phosphate-dependent activation and ADP-dependent inactivation of PPDK by reversible phosphorylation. PDRP shares no significant sequence similarity with other protein kinases or phosphatases. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which PDRP carries out its dual and competing activities, we determined the crystal structure of PDRP from maize (Zea mays). PDRP forms a compact homo-dimer in which each protomer contains two separate N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains. The CTD includes several key elements for performing both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation activities: the phosphate binding loop (P-loop) for binding the ADP and inorganic phosphate substrates, residues Lys-274 and Lys-299 for neutralizing the negative charge, and residue Asp-277 for protonating and deprotonating the target Thr residue of PPDK to promote nucleophilic attack. Surprisingly, the NTD shares the same protein fold as the CTD and also includes a putative P-loop with AMP bound but lacking enzymatic activities. Structural analysis indicated that this loop may participate in the interaction with and regulation of PPDK. The NTD has conserved intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds for PDRP dimerization. Moreover, PDRP is the first structure of the domain of unknown function 299 enzyme family reported. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the catalytic mechanism of PDRP and offers a foundation for the development of selective activators or inhibitors that may regulate photosynthesis. PMID:26620526

  20. Multistep phosphorylation systems: tunable components of biological signaling circuits.

    PubMed

    Valk, Evin; Venta, Rainis; Ord, Mihkel; Faustova, Ilona; Kivomgi, Mardo; Loog, Mart

    2014-11-01

    Multisite phosphorylation of proteins is a powerful signal processing mechanism that plays crucial roles in cell division and differentiation as well as in disease. We recently demonstrated a novel phenomenon in cell cycle regulation by showing that cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent multisite phosphorylation of a crucial substrate is performed sequentially in the N-to-C terminal direction along the disordered protein. The process is controlled by key parameters, including the distance between phosphorylation sites, the distribution of serines and threonines in sites, and the position of docking motifs. According to our model, linear patterns of phosphorylation along disordered protein segments determine the signal-response function of a multisite phosphorylation switch. Here we discuss the general advantages and engineering principles of multisite phosphorylation networks as processors of kinase signals. We also address the idea of using the mechanistic logic of linear multisite phosphorylation networks to design circuits for synthetic biology applications. PMID:25368420

  1. Ethanol-induced phosphorylation of cytokeratin in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hiromu; Cadrin, M.; French, S.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of ethanol on the phosphorylation of cytokeratins (CKs) in cultured hepatocytes since CK filaments are resulted by phosphorylation and they are abnormal in alcoholic liver disease. Hepatocytes were obtained from 14-day-old rats and cultured for 48 hrs. The hepatocytes were exposed to ethanol for 30 min. The residual insoluble cytoskeletons were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. 2D gel electrophoresis showed CK 55 and CK 49 or 8 and 18 and actin. The CKs had several isoelectric variants. The most basic spot was the dominant protein which was not phosphorylated. The more acidic spots were phosphorylated. After ethanol treatment, the phosphorylation of CK 55 and CK 49 were markedly increased over controls. They compared these results, with the effect of vasopressin, TPA and db-cAMP on the phosphorylation of CKs. Vasopressin and TPA caused the phosphorylation of CK 55 and 49 but db-cAMP did not.

  2. Multistep phosphorylation systems: tunable components of biological signaling circuits

    PubMed Central

    Valk, Evin; Venta, Rainis; Örd, Mihkel; Faustova, Ilona; Kõivomägi, Mardo; Loog, Mart

    2014-01-01

    Multisite phosphorylation of proteins is a powerful signal processing mechanism that plays crucial roles in cell division and differentiation as well as in disease. We recently demonstrated a novel phenomenon in cell cycle regulation by showing that cyclin-dependent kinase–dependent multisite phosphorylation of a crucial substrate is performed sequentially in the N-to-C terminal direction along the disordered protein. The process is controlled by key parameters, including the distance between phosphorylation sites, the distribution of serines and threonines in sites, and the position of docking motifs. According to our model, linear patterns of phosphorylation along disordered protein segments determine the signal-response function of a multisite phosphorylation switch. Here we discuss the general advantages and engineering principles of multisite phosphorylation networks as processors of kinase signals. We also address the idea of using the mechanistic logic of linear multisite phosphorylation networks to design circuits for synthetic biology applications. PMID:25368420

  3. Phosphorylation of the F1Fo ATP synthase β subunit: Functional and structural consequences assessed in a model system

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Lesley A; Youngman, Matthew J; Jensen, Robert E; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2010-01-01

    Rationale We previously discovered several phosphorylations to the β subunit of the mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase complex in isolated rabbit myocytes upon adenosine treatment, an agent that induces cardioprotection. The role of these phosphorylations is unknown. Objective The current study focuses on the functional consequences of phosphorylation of the ATP synthase complex β subunit by generating non-phosphorylatable and phospho-mimetic analogs in a model system, S. cerevisiae. Methods and Results The four amino acid residues with homology in yeast (T58, S213, T262 and T318) were studied with respect to growth, complex and supercomplex formation, and enzymatic activity (ATPase rate). The most striking mutant was the T262 site, for which the phospho-mimetic (T262E) abolished activity, while the non-phosphorylatable strain (T262A) had an ATPase rate equivalent to wild-type. Although T262E, like all of the β subunit mutants, was able to form the intact complex (F1Fo), this strain lacked a free F1 component found in wild-type and had a corresponding increase of lower molecular weight forms of the protein, indicating an assembly/stability defect. In addition, the ATPase activity was reduced but not abolished with the phospho-mimetic mutation at T58, a site that altered the formation/maintenance of dimers of the F1Fo ATP synthase complex. Conclusions Taken together, these data show that pseudo-phosphorylation of specific amino acid residues can have separate and distinctive effects on the F1Fo ATP synthase complex, suggesting the possibility that several of the phosphorylations observed in the rabbit heart can have structural and functional consequences to the F1Fo ATP synthase complex. PMID:20035080

  4. Eukaryotic-Type Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Mediated Phosphorylation of Mycobacterial Phosphodiesterase Affects its Localization to the Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Neha; Chakraborti, Pradip K.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase enzymes, involved in cAMP hydrolysis reaction, are present throughout phylogeny and their phosphorylation mediated regulation remains elusive in prokaryotes. In this context, we focused on this enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene encoded by Rv0805 was PCR amplified and expressed as a histidine-tagged protein (mPDE) utilizing Escherichia coli based expression system. In kinase assays, upon incubation with mycobacterial Clade I eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases (PknA, PknB, and PknL), Ni-NTA purified mPDE protein exhibited transphosphorylation ability albeit with varying degree. When mPDE was co-expressed one at a time with these kinases in E. coli, it was also recognized by an anti-phosphothreonine antibody, which further indicates its phosphorylating ability. Mass spectrometric analysis identified Thr-309 of mPDE as a phosphosite. In concordance with this observation, anti-phosphothreonine antibody marginally recognized mPDE-T309A mutant protein; however, such alteration did not affect the enzymatic activity. Interestingly, mPDE expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis yielded a phosphorylated protein that preferentially localized to cell wall. In contrast, mPDE-T309A, the phosphoablative variant of mPDE, did not show such behavior. On the other hand, phosphomimics of mPDE (T309D or T309E), exhibited similar cell wall anchorage as was observed with the wild-type. Thus, our results provide credence to the fact that eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinase mediated phosphorylation of mPDE renders negative charge to the protein, promoting its localization on cell wall. Furthermore, multiple sequence alignment revealed that Thr-309 is conserved among mPDE orthologs of M. tuberculosis complex, which presumably emphasizes evolutionary significance of phosphorylation at this residue. PMID:26904001

  5. Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin Induces Gm1a Clustering and Trka Phosphorylation in the Host Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kabura, Michiko; Kurosawa, Mie; Tominaga, Kaori; Urano, Shiori; Ueda, Yoshibumi; Kobayashi, Keiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Sakurai, Jun; Terao, Yutaka; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin elicits various immune responses such as the release of cytokines, chemokines, and superoxide via the GM1a/TrkA complex. Alpha-toxin possesses phospholipase C (PLC) hydrolytic activity that contributes to signal transduction in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. Little is known about the relationship between lipid metabolism and TrkA activation by alpha-toxin. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we monitored transbilayer movement of diacylglycerol (DAG) with the yellow fluorescent protein-tagged C1AB domain of protein kinase C-? (EYFP-C1AB). DAG accumulated at the marginal region of the plasma membrane in alpha toxin-treated A549 cells, which also exhibited GM1a clustering and TrkA phosphorylation. Annexin V binding assays showed that alpha-toxin induced the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, H148G, a variant toxin which binds cell membrane and has no enzymatic activity, did not induce DAG translocation, GM1a clustering, or TrkA phosphorylation. Alpha-toxin also specifically activated endogenous phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1), a TrkA adaptor protein, via phosphorylation. U73122, an endogenous PLC inhibitor, and siRNA for PLC?-1 inhibited the formation of DAG and release of IL-8. GM1a accumulation and TrkA phosphorylation in A549 cells treated with alpha-toxin were also inhibited by U73122. These results suggest that the flip-flop motion of hydrophobic lipids such as DAG leads to the accumulation of GM1a and TrkA. We conclude that the formation of DAG by alpha-toxin itself (first step) and activation of endogenous PLC?-1 (second step) leads to alterations in membrane dynamics, followed by strong phosphorylation of TrkA. PMID:25910247

  6. Phosphorylation of human DNA polymerase ? by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2/cyclin A complex is modulated by its association with proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    PubMed Central

    Frouin, Isabelle; Toueille, Magali; Ferrari, Elena; Shevelev, Igor; Hbscher, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    DNA polymerase (Pol) ? is a member of the Pol X family and possesses four different enzymatic activities, being DNA polymerase, terminal transferase, deoxyribose phosphate lyase and polynucleotide synthetase, all localized in its C-terminal region. On the basis of its biochemical properties, Pol ? has been implicated in various DNA repair pathways, such as abasic site translesion DNA synthesis, base excision repair and non-homologous end joining of double strand breaks. However, its role in vivo has not yet been elucidated. In addition, Pol ? has been shown to interact with the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we searched by affinity chromatography for novel partners and we identified the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 as novel partner of Pol ?. Pol ? is phosphorylated in vitro by several Cdk/cyclin complexes, including Cdk2/cyclin A, in its proline-serine-rich domain. While the polymerase activity of Pol ? was not affected by Cdk2/cyclin A phosphorylation, phosphorylation of Pol ? was decreased by its interaction with PCNA. Finally, Pol ? is also phosphorylated in vivo in human cells and this phosphorylation is modulated during the cell cycle. PMID:16174846

  7. Reduced inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated softwood.

    PubMed

    Tengborg, C; Galbe, M; Zacchi, G

    2001-06-01

    Softwood constitutes the main source of lignocellulosic material in Sweden which can be used for ethanol production from renewable resources. To make the biomass-to-ethanol process more economically feasible, it is preferable to include the sugar-rich prehydrolysate, i.e. the liquid obtained after the pretreatment step, in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction. This study shows that the prehydrolysate inhibits cellulose conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. When the prehydrolysate was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion was reduced by up to 36%. However, this inhibition can be overcome by fermentation of the prehydrolysate prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:11397466

  8. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible phosphorylation of Smad3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Matsuura, Isao; He, Dongming; Liu, Fang

    2009-04-10

    Smad proteins transduce the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. Upon TGF-beta treatment, the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptor at the SSXS motif in the C-terminal tail. Here we show that in addition to the C-tail, three (S/T)-P sites in the Smad3 linker region, Ser(208), Ser(204), and Thr(179) are phosphorylated in response to TGF-beta. The linker phosphorylation peaks at 1 h after TGF-beta treatment, behind the peak of the C-tail phosphorylation. We provide evidence suggesting that the C-tail phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation. Although the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the linker phosphorylation, the receptor itself does not phosphorylate these sites. We further show that ERK is not responsible for TGF-beta-dependent phosphorylation of these three sites. We show that GSK3 accounts for TGF-beta-inducible Ser(204) phosphorylation. Flavopiridol, a pan-CDK inhibitor, abolishes TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208), suggesting that the CDK family is responsible for phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208) in response to TGF-beta. Mutation of the linker phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues increases the ability of Smad3 to activate a TGF-beta/Smad-target gene as well as the growth-inhibitory function of Smad3. Thus, these observations suggest that TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 linker sites inhibits its antiproliferative activity. PMID:19218245

  9. Single-molecule spectroscopy exposes hidden states in an enzymatic electron relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Iris; Yuval Aviram, Haim; Armony, Gad; Horovitz, Amnon; Hofmann, Hagen; Haran, Gilad; Fass, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    The ability to query enzyme molecules individually is transforming our view of catalytic mechanisms. Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) is a multidomain catalyst of disulfide-bond formation that relays electrons from substrate cysteines through two redox-active sites to molecular oxygen. The chemical steps in electron transfer have been delineated, but the conformational changes accompanying these steps are poorly characterized. Here we use single-molecule Frster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe QSOX conformation in resting and cycling enzyme populations. We report the discovery of unanticipated roles for conformational changes in QSOX beyond mediating electron transfer between redox-active sites. In particular, a state of the enzyme not previously postulated or experimentally detected is shown to gate, via a conformational transition, the entrance into a sub-cycle within an expanded QSOX kinetic scheme. By tightly constraining mechanistic models, smFRET data can reveal the coupling between conformational and chemical transitions in complex enzymatic cycles.

  10. Enzymatic deconstruction of xylan for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    DODD, DYLAN; CANN, ISAAC K. O.

    2010-01-01

    The combustion of fossil-derived fuels has a significant impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and correspondingly is an important contributor to anthropogenic global climate change. Plants have evolved photosynthetic mechanisms in which solar energy is used to fix CO2 into carbohydrates. Thus, combustion of biofuels, derived from plant biomass, can be considered a potentially carbon neutral process. One of the major limitations for efficient conversion of plant biomass to biofuels is the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall, which is composed mostly of lignocellulosic materials (lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose). The heteropolymer xylan represents the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharide and is composed primarily of xylose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid. Microbes have evolved a plethora of enzymatic strategies for hydrolyzing xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent fermentation to biofuels. Therefore, microorganisms are considered an important source of biocatalysts in the emerging biofuel industry. To produce an optimized enzymatic cocktail for xylan deconstruction, it will be valuable to gain insight at the molecular level of the chemical linkages and the mechanisms by which these enzymes recognize their substrates and catalyze their reactions. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and structural biology have revolutionized our understanding of the microbial xylanolytic enzymes. This review focuses on current understanding of the molecular basis for substrate specificity and catalysis by enzymes involved in xylan deconstruction. PMID:20431716

  11. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  12. Microfluidic enzymatic biosensing systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Mross, Stefan; Pierrat, Sebastien; Zimmermann, Tom; Kraft, Michael

    2015-08-15

    Microfluidic biosensing systems with enzyme-based detection have been extensively studied in the last years owing to features such as high specificity, a broad range of analytes and a high degree of automation. This review gives an overview of the most important factors associated with these systems. In the first part, frequently used immobilization protocols such as physisorption and covalent bonding and detection techniques such as amperometry and fluorescence measurements are discussed with respect to effort, lifetime and measurement range. The Michaelis-Menten model describing the kinetics of enzymatic reactions, the role of redox mediators and the limitations of the linear measurement range of enzymatic sensors are introduced. Several possibilities of extending the linear measurement range in microfluidic systems such as diffusion-limiting membranes and the flow injection setup are presented. Regarding the integration of enzymes into microfluidic systems during the fabrication process, the constraints imposed by the biomolecules due to the limited usage of high temperatures and solvents are addressed. In the second part, the most common forms of enzyme integration into microfluidic systems, i.e. in channels and on electrodes, on microparticles, on paper and thread and as injected enzyme solutions, are reviewed, focusing on fabrication, applications and performance. PMID:25841121

  13. Recycling of cellulosic fibers by enzymatic process.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, K M; Dadashian, F; Montazer, M

    2012-02-01

    In this research, enzymatic treatment as an environmental friendly process has been used for recycling process of old cellulosic wastes such as cotton, viscose, and lyocell. Cellulase hydrolyses cellulosic chains and shortens cellulosic fibers. This study investigates to detect the optimum enzyme concentration and time of treatments for suitable changes of length and weight loss. The main purposes of this article are shortening of cellulosic fibers and evaluating of enzymatic treatment in different kind of cellulosic fibers. According to the data of experiments, with the increase of enzyme concentration and the treatment time, the length and weight loss percentage of the cellulosic fibers has been decreased. The length and weight loss percentage of treated viscose is more than that of lyocell and cotton fibers. Optimized condition, reaction time, and enzyme concentration have been determined by mean length of treated cellulosic samples. Suitable longitudinal distribution of fiber for papermaking industries is in the range of 0 to 4 mm. Optimum enzyme concentration and treatment time for recycling cotton, lyocell, and viscose fibers are 2% and 48 h for cotton and lyocell and 0.5% and 48 h for viscose, respectively. According to the data of experiment, the length of treated fibers is appropriate for its usage as a raw material in papermaking industries. PMID:22161212

  14. Enzymatic characterization of Chlamydophila pneumoniae phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Fabiola; Ciervo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae, an aetiological agent of respiratory infection, is also thought to play an immuno-pathogenetic role in atherosclerosis by contributing to inflammation and plaque instability. Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism and may have a direct or indirect impact on virulence and the inflammatory response. Some aspects of the developmental cycle of C. pneumoniae suggest a direct implication of its PLD (CpPLD) in the pathogenesis, specifically by affecting the regulation of lipid metabolism and lipid exchange between C. pneumoniae and host cells. Our previous studies disclosed a specific anti-CpPLD antibody response in patients with acute coronary syndromes chronically infected with C. pneumoniae, and demonstrated that this antigen is a factor able to drive the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis. Due to the intriguing aspects of the CpPLD, the present study investigated CpPLD enzymatic activity of the protein and the two domains that include one HKD motif each polypeptide. Our results showed that CpPLD was able to synthesize the cardiolipin (CL) but unable to hydrolyze phospholipids. It was also observed that each single HKD motif has an independent CL synthetase activity. This enzymatic activity of CpPLD could be important in the inflammatory process within the atherothrombotic events. PMID:25742148

  15. Mapping the Reaction Coordinates of Enzymatic Defluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Peter W.Y.; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Pai, Emil F.

    2011-09-28

    The carbon-fluorine bond is the strongest covalent bond in organic chemistry, yet fluoroacetate dehalogenases can readily hydrolyze this bond under mild physiological conditions. Elucidating the molecular basis of this rare biocatalytic activity will provide the fundamental chemical insights into how this formidable feat is achieved. Here, we present a series of high-resolution (1.15-1.80 {angstrom}) crystal structures of a fluoroacetate dehalogenase, capturing snapshots along the defluorination reaction: the free enzyme, enzyme-fluoroacetate Michaelis complex, glycolyl-enzyme covalent intermediate, and enzyme-product complex. We demonstrate that enzymatic defluorination requires a halide pocket that not only supplies three hydrogen bonds to stabilize the fluoride ion but also is finely tailored for the smaller fluorine halogen atom to establish selectivity toward fluorinated substrates. We have further uncovered dynamics near the active site which may play pivotal roles in enzymatic defluorination. These findings may ultimately lead to the development of novel defluorinases that will enable the biotransformation of more complex fluorinated organic compounds, which in turn will assist the synthesis, detoxification, biodegradation, disposal, recycling, and regulatory strategies for the growing markets of organofluorines across major industrial sectors.

  16. Enzymatic deconstruction of xylan for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Dylan; Cann, Isaac K O

    2009-02-18

    The combustion of fossil-derived fuels has a significant impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels and correspondingly is an important contributor to anthropogenic global climate change. Plants have evolved photosynthetic mechanisms in which solar energy is used to fix CO(2) into carbohydrates. Thus, combustion of biofuels, derived from plant biomass, can be considered a potentially carbon neutral process. One of the major limitations for efficient conversion of plant biomass to biofuels is the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall, which is composed mostly of lignocellulosic materials (lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose). The heteropolymer xylan represents the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharide and is composed primarily of xylose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid. Microbes have evolved a plethora of enzymatic strategies for hydrolyzing xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent fermentation to biofuels. Therefore, microorganisms are considered an important source of biocatalysts in the emerging biofuel industry. To produce an optimized enzymatic cocktail for xylan deconstruction, it will be valuable to gain insight at the molecular level of the chemical linkages and the mechanisms by which these enzymes recognize their substrates and catalyze their reactions. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and structural biology have revolutionized our understanding of the microbial xylanolytic enzymes. This review focuses on current understanding of the molecular basis for substrate specificity and catalysis by enzymes involved in xylan deconstruction. PMID:20431716

  17. Metabolic fate of orally administered enzymatically synthesized glycogen in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Kojima, Iwao; Kuriki, Takashi; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-04-01

    We developed a new process for enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG), which is equivalent in physicochemical properties to natural-source glycogen (NSG) except its resistant property to degradation by ?-amylase in vitro. In this study the metabolic fates of orally administered ESG in rats were investigated by a single oral administration test and a 2 week ingestion test. The glycemic index of ESG was 79. After the 2 week ingestion of ESG, the cecal content and production of short chain fatty acids were significantly increased, the pH value of cecal content was lowered, and the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in feces were significantly increased. Additionally, plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol were significantly reduced by ESG. In contrast, NSG did not affect these parameters at all. The results collectively suggest that around 20% of orally administered ESG was transferred to the cecum in the form of polymer and assimilated into short chain fatty acids by microbiota and the polymer affected lipid metabolism. PMID:21779577

  18. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martnez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser(65))--which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)--and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser(65). How Ser(65)-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65)) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser(65) by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), thereby promoting Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser(65). Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser(65) in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65), leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser(65)-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). PMID:26116755

  19. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martnez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 invitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity invitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 invitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. PMID:26116755

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent protein kinase D activation.

    PubMed

    Waldron, R T; Iglesias, T; Rozengurt, E

    1999-02-01

    The novel mouse serine-threonine kinase protein kinase D (PKD) is activated in intact Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated by phorbol esters, cell permeant diacylglycerols, bryostatin, neuropeptides and growth factors via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism requiring protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Structural comparison of the PKD catalytic domain with other kinases reveals a close similarity with MEK family kinases, which are activated upon phosphorylation of key serine and threonine residues in a region termed the activation loop. To study the regulation of PKD, we transfected mutant PKD cDNAs in which putative activation loop serine residues 744 and 748 were mutated to either alanine or glutamic acid into COS-7 cells. Replacement of serines 744 and 748 with alanine prevented activation of the overexpressed PKD form upon phorbol ester treatment of cells, whereas replacement with glutamic acid results in full constitutive activation. Single serine to glutamic acid replacement mutants were partially activated. In vivo 32P-labeling and two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping of PKD and catalytically inactive PKD mutants at serine 744, 748 or at both residues revealed that phorbol ester-sensitive phosphopeptides could be selectively eliminated from patterns observed as a result of these mutations. Treatment of cells with the PKC inhibitor GFI also prevented the appearance of phosphopeptide spots occuring in response to phorbol ester stimulation. These results provide direct evidence that PKD becomes activated in vivo as a consequence of PKC-mediated phosphorylation of serines 744 and 748. These results support our view of PKD as an important clement in PKC signal transduction. PMID:10197446

  1. Roles of subunit phosphorylation in regulating glutamate receptor function.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Q; Guo, Ming-Lei; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Xue, Bing; Fibuch, Eugene E; Mao, Li-Min

    2014-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism for regulating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). Early studies have established that major iGluR subtypes, including α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, are subject to phosphorylation. Multiple serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues predominantly within the C-terminal regions of AMPA receptor and NMDA receptor subunits have been identified as sensitive phosphorylation sites. These distinct sites undergo either constitutive phosphorylation or activity-dependent phosphorylation induced by changing cellular and synaptic inputs. An increasing number of synapse-enriched protein kinases have been found to phosphorylate iGluRs The common kinases include protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, Src/Fyn non-receptor tyrosine kinases, and cyclin dependent kinase-5. Regulated phosphorylation plays a well-documented role in modulating the biochemical, biophysical, and functional properties of the receptor. In the future, identifying the precise mechanisms how phosphorylation regulates iGluR activities and finding the link between iGluR phosphorylation and the pathogenesis of various brain diseases, including psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, chronic pain, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and substance addiction, will be hot topics and could contribute to the development of novel pharmacotherapies, by targeting the defined phosphorylation process, for suppressing iGluR-related disorders. PMID:24291102

  2. Roles of subunit phosphorylation in regulating glutamate receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, John Q.; Guo, Ming-Lei; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Xue, Bing; Fibuch, Eugene E.; Mao, Li-Min

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism for regulating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). Early studies have established that major iGluR subtypes, including ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, are subject to phosphorylation. Multiple serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues predominantly within the C-terminal regions of AMPA receptor and NMDA receptor subunits have been identified as sensitive phosphorylation sites. These distinct sites undergo either constitutive phosphorylation or activity-dependent phosphorylation induced by changing cellular and synaptic inputs as reversible events. An increasing number of synapse-enriched protein kinases have been found to phosphorylate iGluR. The common kinases include protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, Src/Fyn non-receptor tyrosine kinases, and cyclin dependent kinase-5. Regulated phosphorylation plays a well-documented role in modulating the biochemical, biophysical, and functional properties of the receptor. In the future, identifying the precise mechanisms how phosphorylation regulates iGluR activities and finding the link between iGluR phosphorylation and the pathogenesis of various brain diseases, including psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, chronic pain, stroke, Alzheimers disease and substance addiction, will be hot topics and could contribute to the development of novel pharmacotherapies, by targeting the defined phosphorylation process, for suppressing iGluR-related disorders. PMID:24291102

  3. The role of myosin phosphorylation in anaphase chromosome movement.

    PubMed

    Sheykhani, Rozhan; Shirodkar, Purnata V; Forer, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the role of myosin phosphorylation in anaphase chromosome movement. Y27632 and ML7 block two different pathways for phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). Both stopped or slowed chromosome movement when added to anaphase crane-fly spermatocytes. To confirm that the effects of the pharmacological agents were on the presumed targets, we studied cells stained with antibodies against mono- or bi-phosphorylated myosin. For all chromosomes whose movements were affected by a drug, the corresponding spindle fibres of the affected chromosomes had reduced levels of 1P- and 2P-myosin. Thus the drugs acted on the presumed target and myosin phosphorylation is involved in anaphase force production. Calyculin A, an inhibitor of MRLC dephosphorylation, reversed and accelerated the altered movements caused by Y27632 and ML-7, suggesting that another phosphorylation pathway is involved in phosphorylation of spindle myosin. Staurosporine, a more general phosphorylation inhibitor, also reduced the levels of MRLC phosphorylation and caused anaphase chromosomes to stop or slow. The effects of staurosporine on chromosome movements were not reversed by Calyculin A, confirming that another phosphorylation pathway is involved in phosphorylation of spindle myosin. PMID:23566798

  4. SH3 Domain Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites, Role and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tatrov, Zuzana; Brbek, Jan; Rsel, Daniel; Novotn, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains. Results To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to cSrc Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F). This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains. Conclusions While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners. PMID:22615764

  5. Different mechanisms of homologous and heterologous ?-opioid receptor phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Anika; Illing, Susann; Miess, Elke; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of ?-opioid receptor signalling is tightly regulated and ultimately limited by the coordinated phosphorylation of intracellular serine and threonine residues. Here, we review and discuss recent progress in the generation and application of phosphosite-specific ?-opioid receptor antibodies, which have proved to be excellent tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Agonist-induced phosphorylation of ?-opioid receptors occurs at a conserved 10 residue sequence 370TREHPSTANT379 in the receptor's carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Diverse opioids induce receptor phosphorylation at S375, present in the middle of this sequence, but only high-efficacy opioids have the ability to drive higher order phosphorylation on flanking residues (T370, T376 and T379). S375 is the initiating residue in a hierarchical phosphorylation cascade. In contrast, agonist-independent heterologous ?-opioid receptor phosphorylation occurs primarily at T370. The combination of phosphosite-specific antibodies and siRNA knockdown screening also facilitated the identification of relevant kinases and phosphatases. In fact, morphine induces a selective S375 phosphorylation that is predominantly catalysed by GPCR kinase 5 (GRK5), whereas multisite phosphorylation induced by high-efficacy opioids specifically requires GRK2/3. By contrast, T370 phosphorylation stimulated by phorbol esters or heterologous activation of Gq-coupled receptors is mediated by PKC?. Rapid ?-opioid receptor dephosphorylation occurs at or near the plasma membrane and is catalysed by protein phosphatase 1? (PP1?). These findings suggest that there are distinct phosphorylation motifs for homologous and heterologous regulation of ?-opioid receptor phosphorylation. However, it remains to be seen to what extent different ?-opioid receptor phosphorylation patterns contribute to the development of tolerance and dependence in vivo. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24517854

  6. Inhibition of phosphorylation of na+,k+-ATPase by mutations causing familial hemiplegic migraine.

    PubMed

    Schack, Vivien Rodacker; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente

    2012-01-13

    The neurological disorder familial hemiplegic migraine type II (FHM2) is caused by mutations in the ?2-isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. We have studied the partial reaction steps of the Na(+),K(+)-pump cycle in nine FHM2 mutants retaining overall activity at a level still compatible with cell growth. Although it is believed that the pathophysiology of FHM2 results from reduced extracellular K(+) clearance and/or changes in Na(+) gradient-dependent transport processes in neuroglia, a reduced affinity for K(+) or Na(+) is not a general finding with the FHM2 mutants. Six of the FHM2 mutations markedly affect the maximal rate of phosphorylation from ATP leading to inhibition by intracellular K(+), thereby likely compromising pump function under physiological conditions. In mutants R593W, V628M, and M731T, the defective phosphorylation is caused by local perturbations within the Rossmann fold, possibly interfering with the bending of the P-domain during phosphoryl transfer. In mutants V138A, T345A, and R834Q, long range effects reaching from as far away as the M2 transmembrane helix perturb the function of the catalytic site. Mutant E700K exhibits a reduced rate of E(2)P dephosphorylation without effect on phosphorylation from ATP. An extremely reduced vanadate affinity of this mutant indicates that the slow dephosphorylation reflects a destabilization of the phosphoryl transition state. This seems to be caused by insertion of the lysine between two other positively charged residues of the Rossmann fold. In mutants R202Q and T263M, effects on the A-domain structure are responsible for a reduced rate of the E(1)P to E(2)P transition. PMID:22117059

  7. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process. Up to 72% of hexose yield and 94% of pentose yield were obtained using "modified" steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140°C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase (15 FPU/g cellulose) and beta-glucosidase (50 CBU/g cellulose).

  8. StIKKing it to a death kinase: IKKs prevent TNF-α-induced cell death by phosphorylating RIPK1.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Christopher P; Balachandran, Siddharth

    2016-02-01

    Signaling pathways activated by the cytokine TNF-α are among the most intensively studied and well-understood in all mammalian biology. In a simplistic model, two primary signals emanate from the TNF-α receptor, one that activates cell survival via an NF-κB transcriptional response and a second that triggers cell death when cell survival signals are neutralized. The kinase RIPK1 participates in both these axes, and its poly-ubiquitylation was thought to represent the primary mechanism by which it toggles between survival versus death signaling. When RIPK1 is ubiquitylated, it acts non-enzymatically as an adaptor protein in IKK recruitment and subsequent NF-κB activation; when ubiquitylation of RIPK1 is prevented, it functions as a cell death kinase capable of triggering apoptosis or necroptosis. Bertrand and colleagues (Dondelinger et al., 2015) now demonstrate that phosphorylation of RIPK1 represents an additional mechanism by which this protein switches between its life and death duties. They show that both IKK-α and IKK-β phosphorylate RIPK1, dampening its capacity to assemble the death effectors FADD and caspase 8 into a functional pro-apoptotic signalsome. These IKKs also protect against RIPK1-mediated necroptosis. Importantly, IKK-α/β prevent RIPK1-driven cell death independently of NF-κB transcriptional responses. These findings identify phosphorylation of RIPK1 by IKKs as a new mechanism by which cell fate decisions downstream of TNFR1 are regulated. PMID:26630177

  9. CoA Synthase is phosphorylated on tyrosines in mammalian cells, interacts with and is dephosphorylated by Shp2PTP.

    PubMed

    Breus, Oksana; Panasyuk, Ganna; Gout, Ivan T; Filonenko, Valeriy; Nemazanyy, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    CoA Synthase (CoASy, 4'-phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase/dephospho-CoA kinase) mediates two final stages of de novo coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis in higher eukaryotes. Unfortunately very little is known about regulation of this important metabolic pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that CoASy interacts in vitro with Src homology-2 (SH2) domains of a number of signaling proteins, including Src homology-2 domains containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2PTP). Complexes between CoASy and Shp2PTP exist in vivo in mammalian cells and this interaction is regulated in a growth-factor-dependent manner. We have also demonstrated that endogenous CoASy is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo, and that cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases can mediate this phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Shp2PTP-mediated CoASy in vitro dephosphorylation leads to an increase in CoASy enzymatic phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) activity. We therefore argue that CoASy is a novel potential substrate of Shp2PTP and phosphorylation of CoASy at tyrosine residue(s) could represent unrecognized before mechanism of modulation intracellular CoA level in response to hormonal and (or) other extracellular stimuli. PMID:19763791

  10. Nanocelluloses and their phosphorylated derivatives for selective adsorption of Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Borrell, Pere Ferrer; Boi?, Mojca; Kokol, Vanja; Oksman, Kristiina; Mathew, Aji P

    2015-08-30

    The potential of nanoscaled cellulose and enzymatically phosphorylated derivatives as bio-adsorbents to remove metal ions (Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+)) from model water and industrial effluents is demonstrated. Introduction of phosphate groups onto nanocelluloses significantly improved the metal sorption velocity and sorption capacity. The removal efficiency was considered to be driven by the high surface area of these nanomaterials as well as the nature and density of functional groups on the nanocellulose surface. Generally, in the solutions containing only single types of metal ions, the metal ion selectivity was in the order Ag(+)>Cu(2+)>Fe(3+), while in the case of mixtures of ions, the order changed to Ag(+)>Fe(3+)>Cu(2+), irrespective of the surface functionality of the nanocellulose. In the case of industrial effluent from the mirror making industry, 99% removal of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) by phosphorylated nanocellulose was observed. The study showed that phosphorylated nanocelluloses are highly efficient biomaterials for scavenging multiple metal ions, simultaneously, from industrial effluents. PMID:25867590

  11. Small quinolinium-based enzymatic probes via blue-to-red ratiometric fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Du, Jiajun; Liu, Huijing; Bi, Guoqiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-02-01

    A small fluorescence ratiometric probe consisting of a single dye species, N-methyl-6-hydroxyquinolinium (MHQ), and coupled enzymatic substrates, exhibits a dramatic colour change (deep blue to red) and possesses a huge response ratio (over 2000 fold) upon specific recognition of target enzymes. Such dramatic responses are attributed to the excited-state proton transfer processes of MHQ molecules in water. Here the detection of β-galactosidase and porcine pancreatic lipase is successfully demonstrated and this class of molecules has the potential to be developed as a "naked-eye" probe in vitro. PMID:26788553

  12. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Enzymatically-generated Thiocholine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Mellen, Maria C.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-11-01

    A carbon nanotube modified glassy-carbon (CNT/GC) electrode was used for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical measurements of enzymatically-generated thiocholine. Cyclic voltammetric and amperometric characteristics of thiocholine at CNT/GC, glassy carbon, carbon paste, and gold electrodes were compared. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine product including lower oxidation overpotential (0.15 V) and higher sensitivity because of its electrocatalytic activity, fast electron transfer and large surface area. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the operating conditions. Under the optimal batch conditions, a detection limit of 5 ?10 -6 mol/L was obtained with good precision (RSD = 5.2%, n=10). Furthermore, the attractive response of thiocholine on a CNT/GC electrode has allowed it to be used for constant-potential flow injection analysis. The detection limit was greatly improved to 0.3 ?10-6 mol/L. The high sensitivity electrochemical detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine with a CNT sensing platform holds great promise to prepare an acetylcholinesterase biosensor for monitoring organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

  13. Phosphorylation of Tip60 Tyrosine 327 by Abl Kinase Inhibits HAT Activity through Association with FE65.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung Hwa; Kang, Sang Sun

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl coenzyme A to the ? amino group of internal lysine residues is catalyzed by Tip60, which is in the MYST family of nuclear histone acetyltransferases (HATs). The tyrosine phosphorylation of Tip60 seems to be a unique modification. We present evidence that Tip60 is modified on tyrosine 327 by Abl kinase. We show that this causes functional changes in HAT activity and the subcellular localization of TIP60, which forms a complex with Abl kinase. The Tip60 mutation Y327F abolished tyrosine phosphorylation, reduced the inhibition of Tip60 HAT activity, and caused G0-G1 arrest and association with FE65. Thus, our findings for the first time suggested a novel regulation mechanism of Tip60. Regulation was through phosphorylation of tyrosine 327 by Abl tyrosine kinase and depended on environmental conditions, suggesting that the tyrosine residue of Tip60 is important for the activation process. PMID:24044023

  14. Enzymatic Products from Modified Soybean Oil Containing Hydrazinoester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We use soybean oil to produce new, non-petroleum based products. The starting material is the ene reaction product of soybean oil and diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD), which can then be hydrolyzed chemically and enzymatically. Chemical hydrolysis gives hydrazino-fatty acids, whereas enzymatic hydro...

  15. Enzymatic browning and its control in fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic browning of damaged tissues of fruits and vegetables during postharvest handling and processing degrades the sensory properties and nutritional value and discourages the consumer purchase of fresh-cut products. Consequently, enzymatic browning results in significant economic losses for the...

  16. Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

  17. Heavy atom isotope effects on enzymatic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneth, Piotr

    1994-05-01

    The theory of isotope effects, which has proved to be extremely useful in providing geometrical details of transition states in a variety of chemical reactions, has recently found an application in studies of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. These reactions are multistep in nature with few steps being partially rate-limiting, thus interpretation of these isotope effects is more complex. The theoretical framework of heavy-atom isotope effects on enzymatic reactions is critically analyzed on the basis of recent results of: carbon kinetic isotope effects on carbonic anhydrase and catalytic antibodies; multiple carbon, deuterium isotope effects on reactions catalyzed by formate decarboxylase; oxygen isotope effects on binding processes in reactions catalyzed by pyruvate kinase; and equilibrium oxygen isotope effect on binding an inhibitor to lactate dehydrogenase. The advantages and disadvantages of reaction complexity in learning details of formal and molecular mechanisms are discussed in the examples of reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, orotidine decarboxylase and glutamine synthetase.

  18. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. PMID:25708541

  19. Effective enzymatic caffeoylation of natural glucopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Chyba, Andrej; Mastihuba, Vladimr; Mastihubov, Mria

    2016-03-15

    Reaction system was developed for enzymatic caffeoylation of model saccharidic acceptor methyl ?-d-glucopyranoside to obtain exclusively methyl 6-O-caffeoyl-?-d-glucopyranoside. Reaction with starting concentration of acceptor 0.2M provided 73% yield of purified product within 17days. Reactions with low acceptor concentrations (0.04 and 0.08M) run to the completion within 7days. Such highly effective and regioselective reaction was promoted by Lipozyme TL IM in tert-butanol, using vinyl caffeate as acylation donor. The optimized reaction conditions were used in preparative caffeoylation of natural substances-arbutin and salidroside, giving 75% of 6-O-caffeoylated arbutin (robustaside B) and 74% of 6-O-caffeoylated salidroside as the only products after 12 and 16days, respectively. PMID:26896186

  20. Fungal biodegradation and enzymatic modification of lignin

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Syed, Tarannum A.; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, the most abundant aromatic biopolymer on Earth, is extremely recalcitrant to degradation. By linking to both hemicellulose and cellulose, it creates a barrier to any solutions or enzymes and prevents the penetration of lignocellulolytic enzymes into the interior lignocellulosic structure. Some basidiomycetes white-rot fungi are able to degrade lignin efficiently using a combination of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, organic acids, mediators and accessory enzymes. This review describes ligninolytic enzyme families produced by these fungi that are involved in wood decay processes, their molecular structures, biochemical properties and the mechanisms of action which render them attractive candidates in biotechnological applications. These enzymes include phenol oxidase (laccase) and heme peroxidases [lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP)]. Accessory enzymes such as H2O2-generating oxidases and degradation mechanisms of plant cell-wall components in a non-enzymatic manner by production of free hydroxyl radicals (OH) are also discussed. PMID:21968746

  1. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  2. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry to Characterize Enzymatic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Luca; Ciurli, Stefano; Zambelli, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique that measures the heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction as an intrinsic probe to characterize any chemical process that involves heat changes spontaneously occurring during the reaction. The general features of this method to determine the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of enzymatic reactions (kcat, KM, ?H) are described and discussed here together with some detailed applications to specific cases. ITC does not require any modification or labeling of the system under analysis, can be performed in solution, and needs only small amounts of enzyme. These properties make ITC an invaluable, powerful, and unique tool to extend the knowledge of enzyme kinetics to drug discovery. PMID:26794356

  3. Kinetics of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, S.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for sugar production offers advantages of higher conversion, minimal by-product formation, low energy requirements, and mild operating conditions over other chemical conversions. The development of a kinetic model, based on observable, macroscopic properties of the overall system, is helpful in design and economic evaluation of processes for sugar conversion and ethanol production. A kinetic model is presented, incorporating enzyme adsorption, product inhibition, and considers a multiple enzyme and substrate system. This model was capable of simulating saccharification of a lignocellulosic material, rice straw, at high substrate (up to 333 g/L) and enzyme concentrations (up to 9.2 FPU/mL) that are common to proposed process designs. (Refs. 37).

  4. Zinc oxide inverse opal enzymatic biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Xueqiu; Pikul, James H.; King, William P.; Pak, James J.

    2013-06-01

    We report ZnO inverse opal- and nanowire (NW)-based enzymatic glucose biosensors with extended linear detection ranges. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have 0.01-18 mM linear detection range, which is 2.5 times greater than that of ZnO NW sensors and 1.5 times greater than that of other reported ZnO sensors. This larger range is because of reduced glucose diffusivity through the inverse opal geometry. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have an average sensitivity of 22.5 ?A/(mM cm2), which diminished by 10% after 35 days, are more stable than ZnO NW sensors whose sensitivity decreased by 10% after 7 days.

  5. Enzymatic Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2007-01-01

    A novel enzymatic reaction was conducted for producing hydrogen from starch and water at 30oC. The overall reaction comprised of 13 enzymes, 1 cofactor (NADP+), and phosphate was driven by energy stored in carbohydrate starch according to the overall stoichiometry stoichiometric reaction of C6H10O5 (l) + 7 H2O (l) --> 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g). It is spontaneous and unidirectional because of negative Gibbs free energy and the removal of gaseous products from the aqueous reaction solution. With technology improvement and integration with fuel cells, this technology would be suitable for mobile applications and also solve the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in a hydrogen economy.

  6. Differential Effects of an O-GlcNAcase Inhibitor on Tau Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Run, Xiaoqin; Liang, Zhihou; Li, Yi; Liu, Ying; Lee, Moon H.; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Vocadlo, David J.; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau plays a crucial role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau into neurofibrillary tangles is also a hallmark brain lesion of AD. Tau phosphorylation is regulated by tau kinases, tau phosphatases, and O-GlcNAcylation, a posttranslational modification of proteins on the serine or threonine residues with ?-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase, the enzyme catalyzing the transfer of GlcNAc to proteins, and N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA), the enzyme catalyzing the removal of GlcNAc from proteins. Thiamet-G is a recently synthesized potent OGA inhibitor, and initial studies suggest it can influence O-GlcNAc levels in the brain, allowing OGA inhibition to be a potential route to altering disease progression in AD. In this study, we injected thiamet-G into the lateral ventricle of mice to increase O-GlcNAcylation of proteins and investigated the resulting effects on site-specific tau phosphorylation. We found that acute thiamet-G treatment led to a decrease in tau phosphorylation at Thr181, Thr212, Ser214, Ser262/Ser356, Ser404 and Ser409, and an increase in tau phosphorylation at Ser199, Ser202, Ser396 and Ser422 in the mouse brain. Investigation of the major tau kinases showed that acute delivery of a high dose of thiamet-G into the brain also led to a marked activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), possibly as a consequence of down-regulation of its upstream regulating kinase, AKT. However, the elevation of tau phosphorylation at the sites above was not observed and GSK-3? was not activated in cultured adult hippocampal progenitor cells or in PC12 cells after thiamet-G treatment. These results suggest that acute high-dose thiamet-G injection can not only directly antagonize tau phosphorylation, but also stimulate GSK-3? activity, with the downstream consequence being site-specific, bi-directional regulation of tau phosphorylation in the mammalian brain. PMID:22536363

  7. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and (/sup 32/P)phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 ..mu..M Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 ..mu..M methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed.

  8. Phosphorylated silica nanotubes: preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yiren; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the strategy of doping inorganic particles into polymer membranes to modify them has been studied intensively. However, these inorganic particles have a disadvantage without being in good compatibility with the polymers. To enhance the compatibility between inorganic particles and polymers, phosphorylated silica nanotubes (PSNTs) with specific high ratios of length to diameter are prepared. Silica nanotubes (SNTs) are prepared through the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate in a mixture of aqueous ammonia and dl-tartaric acid, then PSNTs are obtained by silylation and phosphorylation modifications. The optimum synthesis conditions of PSNTs are explored; in addition, the as-prepared PSNTs are characterized by Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscope, BET, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the ratio of length to diameter of the PSNTs is approximately 20, the thickness of the tube wall is 20 nm, the specific surface area of the PSNTs is 460.2 m2 g-1, the inner diameter of the PSNTs is 76 nm, many mesopores are distributed in the tube walls of the PSNTs, and the PSNTs have numerous hydroxyl active sites along their length direction. Therefore, PSNTs are desirable as suitable fillers of polymer membranes.

  9. Interaction of diphtheria toxin with phosphorylated molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Proia, R L; Hart, D A; Eidels, L

    1979-01-01

    The binding of diphtheria toxin to 125I-labeled cell surface glycoproteins from hamster thymocytes was shown to be inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides (at 5 mM) was found to be thymidine triphosphate greater than adenosine triphosphate greater than guanosine triphosphate greater than uridine triphosphate greater than cytidine triphosphate. When adenine-containing compounds were used, the relative effectiveness was determined to be adenosine tetraphosphate greater than adenosine triphosphate greater than adenosine diphosphate greater than adenosine monophosphate. In addition, tetrapolyphosphate, tripolyphosphate, inositol hexaphosphate (phytic acid), and the highly phosphorylated proteins casein and phosvitin were also shown to be potent inhibitors of the binding of diphtheria toxin to 125I-labeled cell surface glycoproteins. Diphtheria toxin was shown to bind directly to 125I-casein; this binding was also inhibited by the highly phosphorylated compounds and was decreased by pretreatment of the 125I-casein with alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that diphtheria toxin binds to regions of high phosphate density and raise the possibility that the site on the cell surface glycoproteins to which diphtheria toxin binds might be polyanionic in nature. PMID:528059

  10. ?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Abrogates Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis in Cultured Human Trophoblasts through Phosphorylation of BAD Serine 112

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Rachel G.; Sonnenberg-Hirche, Christina; Smith, Steven D.; Hu, Chaobin; Barton, Aaron; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D. Michael

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that epidermal growth factor (EGF) limits hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cultured human trophoblasts by phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD). Cytotrophoblasts were isolated from placentas of uncomplicated pregnancies at 3840 wk gestation. Primary trophoblasts or transfected JEG3 trophoblast cells were cultured in less than 1 or 20% oxygen in the presence or absence of EGF and signaling pathway inhibitors. BAD, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-BAD, 14-3-3, Bcl-XL, and neoepitopes formed during apoptotic cleavage of cytokeratin 18 intermediate filaments were quantified using immunoblotting. Cultures immunostained by fluorescent antibodies were analyzed by confocal microscopy for BAD and GFP. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to detect molecular interaction between endogenous BAD and GFP-BAD. We found EGF increased the phosphorylation of BADser112 under standard culture conditions. Whereas hypoxia enhanced apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of both BADser136 and BADser155, hypoxia diminished phosphorylation of BADser112, and this effect was reversible by EGF. Transfected GFP-BAD, which directly interacted with endogenous BAD by colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, enhanced hypoxia-induced apoptosis in JEG3 cells. EGF reduced apoptosis in hypoxic JEG3 cells that overexpressed GFP-BAD but not in cells overexpressing GFP-BAD that harbored a serine-to-alanine mutation at the 112 site. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that EGF reduced the proapoptotic interaction of BAD with Bcl-XL. The effect of EGF on phosphorylation of BADser112 was dependent on the action of p38 MAPK. We conclude that EGF signals via p38 MAPK to increase phosphorylation of BADser112 and thereby limit trophoblast apoptosis. PMID:18276761

  12. Phosphorylation Alters Oestrogen Receptor β-Mediated Transcription in Neurones.

    PubMed

    Pinceti, E; Shults, C L; Rao, Y S; Mott, N N; Pak, T R

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear steroid hormone receptors are ubiquitously expressed transcription factors whose activity can be altered by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. The consequences of post-translational modifications have been described for several members of the nuclear steroid hormone receptor superfamily; however, little is known about the effects of oestrogen receptor (ER)β phosphorylation in the brain. Moreover, to our knowledge, the presence of phosphorylated ERβ has not been detected in the brain of any species to date. Oestrogen receptor β is highly expressed in several regions of the brain and in vitro studies have demonstrated that it can be phosphorylated at two serine residues (S87 and S105) in the N-terminal AF-1 region. The present study aimed to determine whether phosphorylated ERβ is detectable in the hippocampus of aged female rats, as well as the functional consequences of ERβ S87 and S105 phosphorylation on transcriptional activity in neuronal cells. First, we used a novel PhosTag(™) approach to detect phosphorylated forms of ERβ in the dorsal hippocampus of aged female rats. The data obtained demonstrated abundant forms of phosphorylated ERβ in the dorsal hippocampus, suggesting that this post-translational modification might be an important regulator of ERβ function. To assess the functional consequences of ERβ phosphorylation in neuronal cells, we created phospho-mimetic (S87E, S105E) and phospho-null (S87A, S105A) ERβ receptors that were transiently transfected in a hippocampal-derived cell line. Collectively, our results showed that phosphorylation of S87 and S105 altered both ligand-independent and ligand-dependent ERβ transcriptional regulation. Overall, these data demonstrate that phosphorylated forms of ERβ are present in the brain of aged female rats and that phosphorylation of ERβ could differentially alter ERβ-mediated gene expression. PMID:26440063

  13. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  14. GAL4 is phosphorylated as a consequence of transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, I; Niedbala, D; Wood, K; Ptashne, M

    1991-01-01

    GAL4 protein isolated from yeast in which it is active is phosphorylated predominantly on two different serine residues. One of these was identified as Ser-837; substitution of this residue for alanine has no detectable effect on transcriptional activation by GAL4. Phosphorylation at Ser-837 requires that both the DNA binding and transcriptional activation functions be intact. We propose that some phosphorylations of GAL4, including that at Ser-837, occur concomitantly with activation of transcription. Images PMID:1961715

  15. Evolutionary constraints of phosphorylation in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gnad, Florian; Forner, Francesca; Zielinska, Dorota F; Birney, Ewan; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Mann, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    High accuracy mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful technology for the large scale identification of serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation in the living cell. However, despite many described phosphoproteomes, there has been no comparative study of the extent of phosphorylation and its evolutionary conservation in all domains of life. Here we analyze the results of phosphoproteomics studies performed with the same technology in a diverse set of organisms. For the most ancient organisms, the prokaryotes, only a few hundred proteins have been found to be phosphorylated. Applying the same technology to eukaryotic species resulted in the detection of thousands of phosphorylation events. Evolutionary analysis shows that prokaryotic phosphoproteins are preferentially conserved in all living organisms, whereas-site specific phosphorylation is not. Eukaryotic phosphosites are generally more conserved than their non-phosphorylated counterparts (with similar structural constraints) throughout the eukaryotic domain. Yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans are two exceptions, indicating that the majority of phosphorylation events evolved after the divergence of higher eukaryotes from yeast and reflecting the unusually large number of nematode-specific kinases. Mitochondria present an interesting intermediate link between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains. Applying the same technology to this organelle yielded 174 phosphorylation sites mapped to 74 proteins. Thus, the mitochondrial phosphoproteome is similarly sparse as the prokaryotic phosphoproteomes. As expected from the endosymbiotic theory, phosphorylated as well as non-phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins are significantly conserved in prokaryotes. However, mitochondrial phosphorylation sites are not conserved throughout prokaryotes, consistent with the notion that serine/threonine phosphorylation in prokaryotes occurred relatively recently in evolution. Thus, the phosphoproteome reflects major events in the evolution of life. PMID:20688971

  16. A novel enzymatic pathway leading to 1-methylinosine modification in Haloferax volcanii tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, H; Constantinesco, F; Foiret, D; Benachenhou, N

    1995-01-01

    Transfer RNAs of the extreme halophile Haloferax volcanii contain several modified nucleosides, among them 1-methylpseudouridine (m1 psi), pseudouridine (psi), 2'-0-methylcytosine (Cm) and 1-methylinosine (m1l), present in positions 54, 55, 56 and 57 of the psi-loop, respectively. At the same positions in tRNAs from eubacteria and eukaryotes, ribothymidine (T-54), pseudouridine (psi-55), non-modified cytosine (C-56) and non-modified adenosine or guanosine (A-57 or G-57) are found in the so-called T psi-loop. Using as substrate a T7 transcript of Haloferax volcanii tRNA(Ile) devoid of modified nucleosides, the enzymatic activities of several tRNA modification enzymes, including those for m1 psi-54, psi-55, Cm-56 and m1l-57, were detected in cell extracts of H.volcanii. Here, we demonstrate that modification of A-57 into m1l-57 in H.volcanii tRNA(Ile) occurs via a two-step enzymatic process. The first step corresponds to the formation of m1A-57 catalyzed by a S-adenosylmethionine-dependent tRNA methyltransferase, followed by the deamination of the 6-amino group of the adenine moiety by a 1-methyladenosine-57 deaminase. This enzymatic pathway differs from that leading to the formation of m1l-37 in the anticodon loop of eukaryotic tRNA(Ala). In the latter case, inosine-37 formation preceeds the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of l-37 into m1l-37. Thus, enzymatic strategies for catalyzing the formation of 1-methylinosine in tRNAs differ in organisms from distinct evolutionary kingdoms. Images PMID:7501451

  17. Identification of novel phosphorylation sites on postsynaptic density proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H; Vinade, L; Dosemeci, A

    2004-08-13

    Phosphorylation of the components of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a protein complex lining the postsynaptic membrane, may regulate synaptic structure and function. We carried out mass spectrometric analyses to identify phosphorylation sites on PSD proteins. Phosphopeptides were isolated from the total tryptic digest of a PSD fraction by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The phosphorylated residues detected following in vitro phosphorylation in the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin included S-1058 on SynGAP and S-1662 and S-1668 on Shank3. Other phosphorylated residues were identified in control samples, presumably reflecting phosphorylation in the intact cell. These included the homologous residues, S-295 on PSD-95 and S-365 on PSD-93, located between the PDZ2 and PDZ3 domains of these proteins; and S-367 located on the actin-binding domain of beta-CaMKII. The sequence RXXSPV emerged as a common phosphorylation motif of three specialized PSD scaffolding proteins, PSD-95, PSD-93, and Shank3. Phosphorylated serine residues in several of the identified phosphorylation sites were followed by prolines, suggesting prominent involvement of proline directed kinases in the regulation of PSD components. PMID:15358237

  18. Cisplatinum and Taxol Induce Different Patterns of p53 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Damia, Giovanna; Filiberti, Laura; Vikhanskaya, Faina; Carrassa, Laura; Taya, Yoichi; D'incalci, Maurizio; Broggini, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Posttranslational modifications of p53 induced by two widely used anticancer agents, cisplatinum (DDP) and taxol were investigated in two human cancer cell lines. Although both drugs were able to induce phosphorylation at serine 20 (Ser20), only DDP treatment induced p53 phosphorylation at serine 15 (Ser15). Moreover, both drug treatments were able to increase p53 levels and consequently the transcription of waf1 and mdm-2 genes, although DDP treatment resulted in a stronger inducer of both genes. Using two ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cell lines, the role of ATM in drug-induced p53 phosphorylations was investigated. No differences in drug-induced p53 phosphorylation could be observed, indicating that ATM is not the kinase involved in these phosphorylation events. In addition, inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity by wortmannin did not abolish p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 and Ser20, again indicating that DNA-PK is unlikely to be the kinase involved. After both taxol and DDP treatments, an activation of hCHK2 was found and this is likely to be responsible for phosphorylation at Ser20. In contrast, only DDP was able to activate ATR, which is the candidate kinase for phosphorylation of Ser15 by this drug. This data clearly suggests that differential mechanisms are involved in phosphorylation and activation of p53 depending on the drug type. PMID:11326311

  19. Cisplatinum and taxol induce different patterns of p53 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Damia, G; Filiberti, L; Vikhanskaya, F; Carrassa, L; Taya, Y; D'incalci, M; Broggini, M

    2001-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of p53 induced by two widely used anticancer agents, cisplatinum (DDP) and taxol were investigated in two human cancer cell lines. Although both drugs were able to induce phosphorylation at serine 20 (Ser20), only DDP treatment induced p53 phosphorylation at serine 15 (Ser15). Moreover, both drug treatments were able to increase p53 levels and consequently the transcription of waf1 and mdm-2 genes, although DDP treatment resulted in a stronger inducer of both genes. Using two ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cell lines, the role of ATM in drug-induced p53 phosphorylations was investigated. No differences in drug-induced p53 phosphorylation could be observed, indicating that ATM is not the kinase involved in these phosphorylation events. In addition, inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity by wortmannin did not abolish p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 and Ser20, again indicating that DNA-PK is unlikely to be the kinase involved. After both taxol and DDP treatments, an activation of hCHK2 was found and this is likely to be responsible for phosphorylation at Ser20. In contrast, only DDP was able to activate ATR, which is the candidate kinase for phosphorylation of Ser15 by this drug. This data clearly suggests that differential mechanisms are involved in phosphorylation and activation of p53 depending on the drug type. PMID:11326311

  20. Phosphorylation of Dopamine Transporter Serine 7 Modulates Cocaine Analog Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Amy E.; Foster, James D.; Gorentla, Balachandra K.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.; Yang, Jae-Won; Sitte, Harald H.; Blakely, Randy D.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.

    2013-01-01

    As an approach to elucidating dopamine transporter (DAT) phosphorylation characteristics, we examined in vitro phosphorylation of a recombinant rat DAT N-terminal peptide (NDAT) using purified protein kinases. We found that NDAT becomes phosphorylated at single distinct sites by protein kinase A (Ser-7) and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ser-13) and at multiple sites (Ser-4, Ser-7, and Ser-13) by protein kinase C (PKC), implicating these residues as potential sites of DAT phosphorylation by these kinases. Mapping of rat striatal DAT phosphopeptides by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography revealed basal and PKC-stimulated phosphorylation of the same peptide fragments and comigration of PKC-stimulated phosphopeptide fragments with NDAT Ser-7 phosphopeptide markers. We further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry that Ser-7 is a site for PKC-stimulated phosphorylation in heterologously expressed rat and human DATs. Mutation of Ser-7 and nearby residues strongly reduced the affinity of rat DAT for the cocaine analog (?)-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane (CFT), whereas in rat striatal tissue, conditions that promote DAT phosphorylation caused increased CFT affinity. Ser-7 mutation also affected zinc modulation of CFT binding, with Ala and Asp substitutions inducing opposing effects. These results identify Ser-7 as a major site for basal and PKC-stimulated phosphorylation of native and expressed DAT and suggest that Ser-7 phosphorylation modulates transporter conformational equilibria, shifting the transporter between high and low affinity cocaine binding states. PMID:23161550

  1. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation by calcium and calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, H; Hadjian, R A; Dwyer, J; Feinstein, M B

    1981-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes prepared from frozen electric organ of Torpedo californica by differential centrifugation and density step gradient centrifugation were assayed for endogenous phosphorylation in the absence and presence of calmodulin and calcium. Each of the membrane fractions exhibited a 3- to 6-fold stimulation of endogenous phosphorylation by calcium and calmodulin. Both calcium and calmodulin were needed for maximal stimulation although calcium alone afforded a small, reproducible stimulation of endogenous phosphorylation. In the presence of fluoride, a phosphatase inhibitor, the calmodulin plus calcium stimulation was increased an additional 3-fold. The phosphorylation reaction was rapid, and maximal phosphorylation was achieved in 2 min. Stimulation of phosphorylation by calcium and calmodulin was completely inhibited by 25 microM trifluoperazine; at 50 microM it inhibited basal phosphorylation by 60%, suggesting that most of the basal phosphorylation may be due to the endogenous calmodulin present in our membrane preparation. NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that at least three of the phosphorylated species (both in the presence and in the absence of calcium and calmodulin) correspond to subunits of the purified acetylcholine receptor from T. californica (i.e., 65,000, 58,000, and 50,000 daltons) which are the beta, gamma, and delta subunits of the receptor. Images PMID:6946419

  2. Analysis of mutations that uncouple transport from phosphorylation in enzyme IIGlc of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system.

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, G J; van Meurs, G; Verwey, M A; Postma, P W; van Dam, K

    1992-01-01

    Mutations that uncouple glucose transport from phosphorylation were isolated in plasmid-encoded Escherichia coli enzyme IIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The uncoupled enzymes IIGlc were able to transport glucose in the absence of the general phosphoryl-carrying proteins of the PTS, enzyme I and HPr, although with relatively low affinity. Km values of the uncoupled enzymes IIGlc for glucose ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 mM, 2 orders of magnitude higher than the value of normal IIGlc. Most of the mutant proteins were still able to phosphorylate glucose and methyl alpha-glucoside (a non-metabolizable glucose analog specific for IIGlc), indicating that transport and phosphorylation are separable functions of the enzyme. Some of the uncoupled enzymes IIGlc transported glucose with a higher rate and lower apparent Km in a pts+ strain than in a delta ptsHI strain lacking the general proteins enzyme I and HPr. Since the properties of these uncoupled enzymes IIGlc in the presence of PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer resembled those of wild-type IIGlc, these mutants appeared to be conditionally uncoupled. Sequencing of the mutated ptsG genes revealed that all amino acid substitutions occurred in a hydrophilic segment within the hydrophobic N-terminal part of IIGlc. These results suggest that this hydrophilic loop is involved in binding and translocation of the sugar substrate. Images PMID:1569016

  3. The UL12 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hikaru; Kato, Akihisa; Mugitani, Michio; Kashima, Yukie; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Arii, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL12 protein (pUL12) is a nuclease that is critical for viral replication in vitro and neurovirulence in vivo. In this study, mass spectrometric analysis of pUL12 and phosphate-affinity SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 (Tyr-371) as a pUL12 phosphorylation site: Tyr-371 is conserved in pUL12 homologs in herpesviruses in all Herpesviridae subfamilies. Replacement of Tyr-371 with phenylalanine (Y371F) in pUL12 (i) abolished its exonuclease activity in HSV-1-infected Vero, HEL, and A549 cells, (ii) reduced viral replication, cell-cell spread, and pUL12 expression in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, (iii) led to aberrant subcellular localization of pUL12 in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, and (iv) reduced HSV-1 neurovirulence in mice. The effects of the pUL12 Y371F mutation in cell cultures and mice were similar to those of a nuclease-dead double mutation in pUL12, although the Y371F mutation reduced viral replication severalfold more than the nuclease-dead double mutation in a cell type- and multiplicity-of-infection-dependent manner. Replacement of Tyr-371 with glutamic acid, which mimics constitutive phosphorylation, restored the wild-type phenotype in cell cultures and mice. These results suggested that phosphorylation of pUL12 Tyr-371 was essential for pUL12 to express its nuclease activity in HSV-1-infected cells and that this phosphorylation promoted viral replication and cell-cell spread in cell cultures and neurovirulence in mice mainly by upregulating pUL12 nuclease activity and, in part, by regulating the subcellular localization and expression of pUL12 in HSV-1-infected cells. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses encode a considerable number of enzymes for their replication. Like cellular enzymes, the viral enzymes need to be properly regulated in infected cells. Although the functional aspects of herpesvirus enzymes have gradually been clarified, information on how most of these enzymes are regulated in infected cells is lacking. In the present study, we report that the enzymatic activity of the herpes simplex virus 1 alkaline nuclease pUL12 was regulated by phosphorylation of pUL12 Tyr-371 in infected cells and that this phosphorylation promoted viral replication and cell-cell spread in cell cultures and neurovirulence in mice, mainly by upregulating pUL12 nuclease activity. Interestingly, pUL12 and tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 appeared to be conserved in all herpesviruses in the family Herpesviridae, raising the possibility that the herpesvirus pUL12 homologs may also be regulated by phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residue. PMID:24991005

  4. Evidence for a specific phosphoryl binding site in swine kidney phosphofructokinase.

    PubMed

    Ashkar, S; Muniyappa, K; Leibach, F; Mendicino, J

    1984-04-01

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from swine kidney was purified by a procedure which included affinity chromatography on Cibacron blue F3GA-Sepharose 4B and ATP-Sepharose 4B columns in order to examine its binding properties. The homogeneous enzyme was purified more than 3000-fold with a yield of 30% and it had a specific activity of 39.8 mumol/min/mg of protein at 25 degrees C. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was 360 000 and it contained 4 identical subunits of molecular weight 88 000. The principal catalytically reacting form of the enzyme had a S20,w of 13.7 S which corresponds to a molecular weight of 360 000 +/- 6 000. The initial velocity patterns in the forward and reverse directions suggested a sequential mechanism for the reaction. The Km values for fructose 6-phosphate, ATP, fructose, 1,6-bisP and ADP were 33 microM, 8.3 microM, 460 microM and 110 microM, respectively. The homogeneous native enzyme binds specifically to phosphoryl groups immobilized in cellulose phosphate columns. ATP and fructose 6-phosphate interacted with the enzyme and decreased its affinity for phosphoryl binding sites. Other metabolites including fructose 1,6-bisP, glucose 6-phosphate and various nucleotides, alone or in various combinations, were ineffective in promoting the dissociation of the enzyme. Allosteric effectors of the enzyme, such as citrate and AMP were also inactive. However, the cooperatively altered the concentration of ATP required to dissociate the enzyme from phosphoryl groups. The bound enzyme was enzymatically inactive. The enzyme was also inactivated when it was treated with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and reduced with sodium borohydride and the inactive enzyme no longer bound to cellulose phosphate. These effects were not observed when treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was carried out in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. These observations and the results of similar studies with swine kidney fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) show that both enzymes share the unique property of binding specifically to phosphoryl groups. FBPase interacts through its allosteric AMP binding site and PFK binds through its fructose 6-P binding site. This specific binding of both enzymes through these sites result in the inactivation of PFK and the desensitization of FBPase to allosteric inhibition by AMP. In the unbound state PFK may be active and FBPase can be inhibited by AMP. Taken collectively, these binding effects could play a role in the reciprocal regulation of these enzymes during gluconeogenesis in kidney. PMID:6234453

  5. The Bacterial Phosphoenolpyruvate:Carbohydrate Phosphotransferase System: Regulation by Protein Phosphorylation and Phosphorylation-Dependent Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aké, Francine Moussan Désirée; Derkaoui, Meriem; Zébré, Arthur Constant; Cao, Thanh Nguyen; Bouraoui, Houda; Kentache, Takfarinas; Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Milohanic, Eliane; Joyet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) carries out both catalytic and regulatory functions. It catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives but also carries out numerous regulatory functions related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate metabolism, to chemotaxis, to potassium transport, and to the virulence of certain pathogens. For these different regulatory processes, the signal is provided by the phosphorylation state of the PTS components, which varies according to the availability of PTS substrates and the metabolic state of the cell. PEP acts as phosphoryl donor for enzyme I (EI), which, together with HPr and one of several EIIA and EIIB pairs, forms a phosphorylation cascade which allows phosphorylation of the cognate carbohydrate bound to the membrane-spanning EIIC. HPr of firmicutes and numerous proteobacteria is also phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the bifunctional HPr kinase/phosphorylase. PTS-mediated regulatory mechanisms are based either on direct phosphorylation of the target protein or on phosphorylation-dependent interactions. For regulation by PTS-mediated phosphorylation, the target proteins either acquired a PTS domain by fusing it to their N or C termini or integrated a specific, conserved PTS regulation domain (PRD) or, alternatively, developed their own specific sites for PTS-mediated phosphorylation. Protein-protein interactions can occur with either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated PTS components and can either stimulate or inhibit the function of the target proteins. This large variety of signal transduction mechanisms allows the PTS to regulate numerous proteins and to form a vast regulatory network responding to the phosphorylation state of various PTS components. PMID:24847021

  6. The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system: regulation by protein phosphorylation and phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Josef; Ak, Francine Moussan Dsire; Derkaoui, Meriem; Zbr, Arthur Constant; Cao, Thanh Nguyen; Bouraoui, Houda; Kentache, Takfarinas; Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Milohanic, Eliane; Joyet, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) carries out both catalytic and regulatory functions. It catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives but also carries out numerous regulatory functions related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate metabolism, to chemotaxis, to potassium transport, and to the virulence of certain pathogens. For these different regulatory processes, the signal is provided by the phosphorylation state of the PTS components, which varies according to the availability of PTS substrates and the metabolic state of the cell. PEP acts as phosphoryl donor for enzyme I (EI), which, together with HPr and one of several EIIA and EIIB pairs, forms a phosphorylation cascade which allows phosphorylation of the cognate carbohydrate bound to the membrane-spanning EIIC. HPr of firmicutes and numerous proteobacteria is also phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the bifunctional HPr kinase/phosphorylase. PTS-mediated regulatory mechanisms are based either on direct phosphorylation of the target protein or on phosphorylation-dependent interactions. For regulation by PTS-mediated phosphorylation, the target proteins either acquired a PTS domain by fusing it to their N or C termini or integrated a specific, conserved PTS regulation domain (PRD) or, alternatively, developed their own specific sites for PTS-mediated phosphorylation. Protein-protein interactions can occur with either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated PTS components and can either stimulate or inhibit the function of the target proteins. This large variety of signal transduction mechanisms allows the PTS to regulate numerous proteins and to form a vast regulatory network responding to the phosphorylation state of various PTS components. PMID:24847021

  7. Phorbol esters potentiate tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors in A431 membranes by a calcium-independent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, S O; Palfrey, H C; King, A C

    1984-01-01

    Incubation of membranes prepared from A431 cells with either epidermal growth factor (EGF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulates the transfer of 32phosphate from [gamma-32P]ATP into 8-10 membrane proteins. The major phosphorylated protein migrates on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels with an apparent Mr of 180,000, corresponding to the previously identified EGF receptor. Stimulation of EGF receptor phosphorylation by PMA does not require Ca2+, suggesting that prior activation of protein kinase C is not a prerequisite for phosphate transfer. PMA-enhanced phosphorylation proceeds at 4 degrees C and requires Mn2+, both properties of tyrosine-specific protein kinases. Phospho amino acid analysis of the Mr 180,000 receptor band shows that only tyrosine residues are phosphorylated when A431 membranes are treated with either EGF or PMA. Moreover, proteolysis reveals that these residues are located in the same peptides of the receptor. These results demonstrate that a potent tumor-promoting phorbol ester can mimic a critical early response usually elicited by EGF. Images PMID:6326119

  8. Effects of targeted phosphorylation site mutations in the DNA-PKcs phosphorylation domain on low and high LET radiation sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    CARTWRIGHT, IAN M.; BELL, JUSTIN J.; MAEDA, JUNKO; GENET, MATTHEW D.; ROMERO, ASHLEY; FUJII, YOSHIHIRO; FUJIMORI, AKIRA; KITAMUTA, HISASHI; KAMADA, TADASHI; CHEN, DAVID J.; KATO, TAKAMITSU A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of targeted mutations in the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and phosphorylation domains on the survival of cells in response to different qualities of ionizing radiation. Mutated Chinese hamster ovary V3 cells were exposed to 500 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 200 keV/?m monoenergetic Fe ions; 290 MeV/nucleon initial energy and average 50 keV/?m spread-out Bragg peak C ions; 70 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 1 keV/?m monoenergetic protons; and 0.663 MeV initial energy and 0.3 keV/?m Cs137 ? radiation. The results demonstrated that sensitivity to high linear energy transfer radiation is increased when both S2056 and T2609 clusters each contain a point mutation or multiple mutations are present in either cluster, whereas the phosphoinositide 3 kinase cluster only requires a single mutation to induce the sensitized phenotype of V3 cells. Additionally, the present study demonstrated that sensitivity to DNA cross-linking damage by cisplatin only requires a single mutation in one of the three clusters and that additional point mutations do not increase cell sensitivity. PMID:25789011

  9. Phosphorylated ?-Synuclein in Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Shi, Min; Chung, Kathryn A.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Leverenz, James B.; Berg, Daniela; Srulijes, Karin; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Hurtig, Howard; Litvan, Irene; Schiess, Mya C.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Masuda, Masami; Hasegawa, Masato; Lin, Xiangmin; Pan, Catherine; Galasko, Douglas; Goldstein, David S.; Jensen, Poul Henning; Yang, Hui; Cain, Kevin C.; Zhang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylated ?-synuclein (PS-129), a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease (PD), was identified by mass spectrometry in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A highly sensitive and specific assay was established and used to measure PS-129, along withtotal ?-synuclein, in the CSF of patients with PD, other parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and healthy individuals (a total of ~600 samples). PS-129 CSF concentrations correlated weakly with PD severity and, when combined with total ?-synuclein CSF concentrations, contributed to distinguishing PD from MSA and PSP. Further rigorous validation in independent cohorts of patients, especially those where samples have been collected longitudinally, will determine whether PS-129 CSF concentrations will be useful for diagnosing PD and for monitoring PD severity and progression. PMID:22344688

  10. A grammar inference approach for predicting kinase specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. PMID:25886273

  11. A Grammar Inference Approach for Predicting Kinase Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. PMID:25886273

  12. Mechanistic and physiological consequences of HPr(ser) phosphorylation on the activities of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in gram-positive bacteria: studies with site-specific mutants of HPr.

    PubMed Central

    Reizer, J; Sutrina, S L; Saier, M H; Stewart, G C; Peterkofsky, A; Reddy, P

    1989-01-01

    The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of its sugar substrates. The protein-kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of serine 46 in the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, inhibits PTS activity, but neither the mechanism of this inhibition nor its physiological significance is known. Site-specific HPr mutants were constructed in which serine 46 was replaced by alanine (S46A), threonine (S46T), tyrosine (S46Y) or aspartate (S46D). The purified S46D protein exhibited markedly lower Vmax and higher Km values than the wild-type, S46T or S46A protein for the phosphoryl transfer reactions involving HPr(His approximately P). Interactions of HPr with the enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer to and from HPr regulated the kinase-catalyzed reaction. These results establish the inhibitory effect of a negative charge at position 46 on PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer and suggest that HPr is phosphorylated on both histidyl and seryl residues by enzymes that recognize its tertiary rather than its primary structure. In vivo studies showed that a negative charge on residue 46 of HPr strongly inhibits PTS-mediated sugar uptake, but that competition of two PTS permeases for HPr(His approximately P) is quantitatively more important to the regulation of PTS function than serine 46 phosphorylation. Images PMID:2507315

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kadenbach, Bernhard

    2003-06-01

    This article reviews parameters of extrinsic uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in mitochondria, based on induction of a proton leak across the inner membrane. The effects of classical uncouplers, fatty acids, uncoupling proteins (UCP1-UCP5) and thyroid hormones on the efficiency of OxPhos are described. Furthermore, the present knowledge on intrinsic uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase (decrease of H(+)/e(-) stoichiometry=slip) is reviewed. Among the three proton pumps of the respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria, only cytochrome c oxidase is known to exhibit a slip of proton pumping. Intrinsic uncoupling was shown after chemical modification, by site-directed mutagenesis of the bacterial enzyme, at high membrane potential DeltaPsi, and in a tissue-specific manner to increase thermogenesis in heart and skeletal muscle by high ATP/ADP ratios, and in non-skeletal muscle tissues by palmitate. In addition, two mechanisms of respiratory control are described. The first occurs through the membrane potential DeltaPsi and maintains high DeltaPsi values (150-200 mV). The second occurs only in mitochondria, is suggested to keep DeltaPsi at low levels (100-150 mV) through the potential dependence of the ATP synthase and the allosteric ATP inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase at high ATP/ADP ratios, and is reversibly switched on by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation. Finally, the regulation of DeltaPsi and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria at high DeltaPsi values (150-200 mV) are discussed. PMID:12765765

  14. Impact of mass transport on the enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Schrter, Sandra; Stahmann, Klaus-Peter; Schnitzlein, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the capillary segmented flow reactor as a potentially appropriate reactor device for the enzymatic hydrolysis of vegetable oils, a study was made to reveal the impact of incident mass transfer processes on the hydrolysis rate. As demonstrated by means of experiments performed in a modified Lewis-cell type contactor, which allows the independent adjustment of flow rates for both phases, the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of rapeseed oil is strongly governed by mass transport processes taking place in both phases. In the oil phase, any increase in convective mass transfer results in an enhancement of hydrolysis rate due to facilitated removal of fatty acids from interface layer which is known to inhibit the activity of the enzyme adsorbed at the interface. At asynchronous condition when solely the water phase is agitated, however, convective mass transport in the interface layer has an inverse effect on the hydrolysis rate due to the generation of considerable shear stress in the vicinity of the interface unfavorable for the performance of the enzymes. By operating at synchronous agitation conditions, the shear stress can considerably be reduced. Generally, the positive effect of mass transport in the oil phase compensates the negative one in the aqueous phase thus resulting in an overall increase in hydrolysis rate of 57% with increasing stirrer rates. The results can be applied to the operation of segmented-flow capillary reactors by choosing the oil phase as disperse phase and the water phase as continuous phase, respectively. PMID:25007743

  15. Developmental regulation of tau phosphorylation, tau kinases, and tau phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Run, Xiaoqin; Liang, Zhihou; Li, Yi; Liu, Fei; Liu, Ying; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Tau is a neuronal microtubule-associated protein. Its hyperphosphorylation plays a critical role in Alzheimer disease (AD). Expression and phosphorylation of tau are regulated developmentally, but its dynamic regulation and the responsible kinases or phosphatases remain elusive. Here, we studied the developmental regulation of tau in rats during development from embryonic day 15 through the age of 24 months. We found that tau expression increased sharply during the embryonic stage and then became relatively stable, whereas tau phosphorylation was much higher in developing brain than in mature brain. However, the extent of tau phosphorylation at seven of the 14 sites studied was much less in developing brain than in AD brain. Tau phosphorylation during development matched the period of active neurite outgrowth in general. Tau phosphorylation at various sites had different topographic distributions. Several tau kinases appeared to regulate tau phosphorylation collectively at overlapping sites, and the decrease of overall tau phosphorylation in adult brain might be due to the higher levels of tau phosphatases in mature brain. These studies provide new insight into the developmental regulation of site-specific tau phosphorylation and identify the likely sites required for the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau in AD. PMID:19183272

  16. A peek into the complex realm of histone phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Taraswi; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2011-12-01

    Although discovered long ago, posttranslational phosphorylation of histones has been in the spotlight only recently. Information is accumulating almost daily on phosphorylation of histones and their roles in cellular physiology and human diseases. An extensive cross talk exists between phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications, which together regulate various biological processes, including gene transcription, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Recent research on histone phosphorylation has demonstrated that nearly all histone types are phosphorylated at specific residues and that these modifications act as a critical intermediate step in chromosome condensation during cell division, transcriptional regulation, and DNA damage repair. As with all young fields, apparently conflicting and sometimes controversial observations about histone phosphorylations and their true functions in different species are found in the literature. Accumulating evidence suggests that instead of functioning strictly as part of a general code, histone phosphorylation probably functions by establishing cross talk with other histone modifications and serving as a platform for recruitment or release of effector proteins, leading to a downstream cascade of events. Here we extensively review published information on the complexities of histone phosphorylation, the roles of proteins recognizing these modifications and the resuting physiological outcome, and, importantly, future challenges and opportunities in this fast-moving field. PMID:22006017

  17. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the highly purified aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex from rabbit reticulocytes was examined. The synthetase complex contained, in addition to eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, three unidentified proteins and was free of endogenous protein kinase activity. Incubation of the complex with casein kinase I in the presence of ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of four synthetases, the glutamyl-, isoleucyl-, methionyl-, and lysyl-tRNA synthetases. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I altered binding to tRNA-Sepharose such that the phosphorylated complex eluted at 190 mM NaCl instead of the 275 mM salt observed for the nonphosphorylated form. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I resulted in a significant inhibition of aminoacylation with the four synthetases; the activities of the nonphosphorylated synthetases were unchanged. One of the unidentified proteins in the complex (M/sub r/ 37,000) was also an excellent substrate for casein kinase I. A comparison of the properties and two-dimensional phosphopeptide pattern of this protein with that of casein kinase I suggest that the 37,000 dalton protein in the synthetase complex is an inactive form of casein kinase I. Two other protein kinases were shown to phosphorylate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the complex. The phosphorylation of threonyl-tRNA synthetase was also investigated. Five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the high molecular weight complex were shown to be phosphorylated in rabbit reticulocytes following labeling with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate.

  18. Mitochondrial Phosphorylation in Apoptosis: Flipping the Death Switch

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Natalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Apoptosis is a complex cellular process subject to multiple layers of regulation. One such layer of regulation includes post-translational modifications, including acetylation and phosphorylation. In particular, phosphorylation of proteins directly implicated in the apoptotic process has been extensively documented. Importantly, these phosphorylation events often have functional consequences, affecting the onset of apoptotic cell death. Recent Advances: Large-scale proteomics studies have identified multiple novel phosphorylation sites on proteins involved in the apoptotic process. The delineation of the regulation and functional consequences of these phosphorylation events will be important in understanding the regulatory complexity of apoptosis. Critical Issues: Multiple mitochondrial-localized proteins involved in apoptosis are functionally affected by phosphorylation, which can ultimately dictate whether a cell lives or dies. The dynamic interplay between these phosphorylated proteins and their regulatory enzymes is critical for understanding the complex cellular decision to undergo apoptosis. Future Directions: Detailed analysis of the kinetic and spatial regulation of phosphorylation events on apoptotic proteins, as well as how these dynamics influence the cell death process, will illuminate the complex interplay between the network of proteins that control the decision to undergo cell death. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 572582. PMID:23088365

  19. Novel Role of Src in Priming Pyk2 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Finlay, Darren; Zharkikh, Irina; Vuori, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and plays an important role in diverse cellular events downstream of the integrin-family of receptors, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. Here, we have identified a novel role for Src kinase in priming Pyk2 phosphorylation and subsequent activation upon cell attachment on the integrin-ligand fibronectin. By using complementary methods, we show that Src activity is indispensable for the initial Pyk2 phosphorylation on the Y402 site observed in response to cell attachment. In contrast, the initial fibronectin-induced autophosphorylation of FAK in the homologous Y397 site occurs in a Src-independent manner. We demonstrate that the SH2-domain of Src is required for Src binding to Pyk2 and for Pyk2 phosphorylation at sites Y402 and Y579. Moreover, Y402 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for the subsequent Y579 phosphorylation. While this initial phosphorylation of Pyk2 by Src is independent of Pyk2 kinase activity, subsequent autophosphorylation of Pyk2 in trans is required for full Pyk2 phosphorylation and activation. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel function of Src in priming Pyk2 (but not FAK) phosphorylation and subsequent activation downstream of integrins, and shed light on the signaling events that regulate the function of Pyk2. PMID:26866924

  20. Multiple Phosphorylations of Cytochrome c Oxidase and their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Stefan; Hüttemann, Maik; Ramzan, Rabia; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Icksoo; Müller, Thorsten; Langenfeld, Elmar; Meyer, Helmut E.; Kadenbach, Bernhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Marcus, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is regulated by isozyme expression, allosteric effectors such as the ATP/ADP ratio, and reversible phosphorylation. Of particular interest is the ‘allosteric ATP-inhibition’, which has been hypothesized to keep the mitochondrial membrane potential at low healthy values (< 140 mV), thus preventing the formation of superoxide radical anions, which have been implicated in multiple degenerative diseases. It has been proposed that the ‘allosteric ATPinhibition’ is switched on by the protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of COX. The goal of this study was to identify the phosphorylation site(s) involved in the ‘allosteric ATPinhibition’ of COX. We report the mass spectrometric identification of four new phosphorylation sites in bovine heart COX. The identified phosphorylation sites include Tyr-218 in subunit II, Ser-1 in subunit Va, Ser-2 in subunit Vb, and Ser-1 in subunit VIIc. With the exeption of for Ser- 2 in subunit Vb, the identified phosphorylation sites were found in enzyme samples with and without ‘allosteric ATP inhibition’, making Ser-2 of subunit Vb a candidate site enabling allosteric regulation. We therefore hypothesize that additional phosphorylation(s) may be required for the ‘allosteric ATP-inhibition’, and that these sites may be easily dephosphorylated or difficult to identify by mass spectrometry. PMID:22522801

  1. Pragmatic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative

  2. Enzymatic detection of troponin C and melittin bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeetender, Amritsar; Stiharu, Ion; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2005-04-01

    One of the major goals of biosensor technology is to detect and quantify in detail analytes with very high accuracy. To achieve this, much of the emphasis in sensor fabrication has been laid on antibody-antigen interaction. The consequence of this focus of enzyme biosensor studies is the development of critical techniques which can be extended in the detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Biosensors for AMI have attracted considerable interest in the last few years since the monitoring of a specific substance is central in enzymatic reactions. This interest has led to the investigation of biochemical markers of myocardial injury. These biomarkers facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of patients with AMI. Serial measurements of biochemical markers are now universally accepted as an important determinant in AMI diagnosis. Due to their high sensitivity and specificity over other biomarkers, the troponins are the markers of choice for the diagnosis or exclusion of AMI. The present techniques used in the identification of the troponins are lengthy and require large amount of specimen solution. The present research is directed towards the identification of optical detection procedures that are compatible to the miniaturization. In the present study an effort has been made to study the antigen-antibody reaction of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C (TnC) and bee venom melittin (ME). Fluorescence energy transfer experiments were done to investigate the Ca 2+ -dependant interaction of TnC-ME in a 1:1 complex. Experiments were also conducted on TnC-ME binding at different ratios. These results validate the biosensor technology and illustrate how a biosensor can be developed based on the study of interaction between monoclonal antibody and antigen reaction in real time. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of a biosensor for the detection of AMI.

  3. Ecological and enzymatic responses to petroleum contamination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Lan, Tian; Lu, Diannan; Liu, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The changes in microbial ecology interpreted from taxonomic and functional genes and biological functions represented by urease and dehydrogenase activities were monitored in soil contaminated with different petroleum hydrocarbons including crude oil, diesel, n-hexadecane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It was shown that the presence of n-hexadecane stimulated the activity of indigenous microorganisms, especially alkane degrading bacteria, and led to over 20% degradation of n-hexadecane within one month. No obvious degradation of the other three types of petroleum hydrocarbons was observed. The stimulation effect was most marked in the soil spiked with a medium concentration (2500 mg kg(-1) dry soil) of n-hexadecane. However, the presence of PAHs completely inhibited the previously-mentioned bioactivities of the soil. The content of PAH degrading bacteria, however, increased more than 10-fold, indicating the selection effect of PAHs on soil bacteria. The impacts of diesel and crude oil on the microbial ecology and biological functions varied significantly with their concentration. The disclosure of the ecological and enzymatic responses could be helpful in soil bioremediation. PMID:24765642

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.

    PubMed

    Jooste, T; Garca-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Grgens, J F

    2013-04-01

    Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase. PMID:23436225

  5. New enzymatic assay of iron in serum.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Hamasaki, H; Furukata, C; Nonobe, M

    1994-05-01

    A new enzymatic method for assaying iron in serum samples, suitable for automated analyzers, is reported. Three reagent mixtures are used: dilution buffer (pH 3.0; ascorbate), reagent 1 (pH 6.7; apoaconitase), and reagent 2 (pH 7.7; citrate, magnesium, and isocitrate dehydrogenase). Sera are diluted with dilution buffer. Fe3+ is liberated from transferrin in sera under acidic conditions, and then reduced by ascorbate. Reagent 1 is added to diluted specimens, and apoaconitase is reactivated by Fe2+ at neutral pH. The resulting solutions are mixed with reagent 2, so that holoaconitase hydrolyzes citrate to isocitrate and the isocitrate and NADP+ are converted to 2-oxoglutarate, NADPH, and CO2. Serum iron is determined linearly up to 70 mumol/L, with within-run CVs < or = 2.4% and day-to-day CVs < or = 2.9%. This method (y) gives results correlating with those of a Reference Method (x) proposed by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology: y = 0.98x + 0.38 mumol/L (n = 72, r = 0.996, Sylx = 0.63 mumol/L). The mean (+/- SD) serum iron concentrations measured by our method were 18.5 +/- 5.4 and 15.2 +/- 6.0 mumol/L for 63 males and 166 females, respectively. PMID:8174249

  6. Nanostructured Organometallic Polymers for Enzymatic Bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon Jeong; Lee, Jungphil

    2012-02-01

    The development of efficient enzymatic biofuel cell is a subject of considerable studies in past decades for potential applications such as biomedical devices and microchip systems. One of the key challenges in advancing the technology lies in the power densities of the system. Limitations have been arisen from the buried redox active sites within enzyme structure and poor interplay between redox reactions. In present study, a glucose oxidase is employed as a model enzyme and ferrocene-containing organometallic block copolymers are chosen for the electron mediators. Wiring of glucose oxidase into electrode surface was successfully achieved by cross-linked networks of organometallic polymers and remarkably, catalytic current densities of the fabricated electrodes have proven be a sensitive function of the morphologies of electron mediators. Different nanoscale morphologies, i.e., bicontinous structure, nanowires, and nanoparticles, have been derived and the use of bicontinous morphology confirms 2-50 times improved catalytic current response than the values obtained from other morphologies. The bio-sensing ability of the fabricated electrode with structural optimization was also exploited and good sensitivity is obtained at the physiological concentration of glucose in blood.

  7. Enzymatic production of hydrogen from glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is to optimize conditions for the enzymatic production of hydrogen gas from biomass-derived glucose. This new project is funded at 0.5 PY level of effort for FY 1995. The rationale for the work is that cellulose is, potentially, a vast source of hydrogen and that enzymes offer a specific and efficient method for its extraction with minimal environmental impact. This work is related to the overall hydrogen program goal of technology development and validation. The approach is based on knowledge that glucose is oxidized by the NADP{sup +} requiring enzyme glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and that the resulting NADPH can donate its electrons to hydrogenase (H{sub 2}ase) which catalyzes the evolution of H{sub 2}. Thus hydrogen production from glucose was achieved using calf liver GDH and Pyrococcus furiosus H{sub 2}ase yielding 17% of theoretical maximum expected. The cofactor NADP{sup +} for this reaction was regenerated and recycled. Current and future work includes understanding the rate limiting steps of this process and the stabilization/immobilization of the enzymes for long term hydrogen production. Cooperative interactions with the Universities of Georgia and Bath for obtaining thermally stable enzymes are underway.

  8. Total enzymatic synthesis of cholecystokinin CCK-5.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; Xiang, G Y; Lu, Z M; Guo, L; Eckstein, H

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the enzymatic synthesis of the C-terminal fragment H-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 of cholecystokinin. Immobilized enzymes were used for the formation of all peptide bonds except thermolysin. Beginning the synthesis with phenylacetyl (PhAc) glycine carboxamidomethyl ester (OCam) and H-Trp-OMe by using immobilized papain as biocatalyst in buffered ethyl acetate, the dipeptide methyl ester was then coupled directly with Met-OEt.HCl by alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in a solvent free system. For the 3+2 coupling PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt had to be converted into its OCam ester. The other fragment H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 resulted from the coupling of Cbo-Asp(OMe)-OH with H-Phe-NH2.HCl and thermolysin as catalyst, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Finally PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 was obtained in a smooth reaction from PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OCam and H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 with alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in acetonitrile, followed by basic hydrolysis of the beta-methyl ester. The PhAc-group is removed with penicillin G amidase and CCK-5 is obtained in an overall isolated yield of 19.6%. PMID:15309578

  9. Enzymatic detection of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Molla, Gianluca; Piubelli, Luciano; Volont, Federica; Pilone, Mirella S

    2012-01-01

    D: -Amino acids play several key roles and are widely diffused in living organisms, from bacteria (in which D-alanine is a component of the cell wall) to mammals (where D-serine is involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system). The study of the biological processes involving D-amino acids and their use as clinical or biotechnological biomarkers requires reliable methods of quantifying them. Although "traditional" analytical techniques have been (and still are) employed for such tasks, enzymatic assays based on enzymes which possess a strict stereospecificity (i.e., that are only active on the D-enantiomers of amino acids) allowed the set-up of low-cost protocols with a high sensitivity and selectivity and suitable for determining the D-amino acid content of complex biological samples. The most exploited enzyme in these assays is D-amino acid oxidase, a flavoenzyme that exclusively oxidizes D-amino acids and possesses with a broad substrate specificity and a high kinetic efficiency. PMID:21956570

  10. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from wood.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Consolación; Reyes-Sosa, Francisco Manuel; Díez, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Current research and development in cellulosic ethanol production has been focused mainly on agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops such as corn stover and switchgrass; however, woody biomass remains a very important feedstock for ethanol production. The precise composition of hemicellulose in the wood is strongly dependent on the plant species, therefore different types of enzymes are needed based on hemicellulose complexity and type of pretreatment. In general, hardwood species have much lower recalcitrance to enzymes than softwood. For hardwood, xylanases, beta-xylosidases and xyloglucanases are the main hemicellulases involved in degradation of the hemicellulose backbone, while for softwood the effect of mannanases and beta-mannosidases is more relevant. Furthermore, there are different key accessory enzymes involved in removing the hemicellulosic fraction and increasing accessibility of cellulases to the cellulose fibres improving the hydrolysis process. A diversity of enzymatic cocktails has been tested using from low to high densities of biomass (2-20% total solids) and a broad range of results has been obtained. The performance of recently developed commercial cocktails on hardwoods and softwoods will enable a further step for the commercialization of fuel ethanol from wood. PMID:26833542

  12. Heptad-Specific Phosphorylation of RNA PolymeraseII CTD.

    PubMed

    Schller, Roland; Forn, Ignasi; Straub, Tobias; Schreieck, Amelie; Texier, Yves; Shah, Nilay; Decker, Tim-Michael; Cramer, Patrick; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-21

    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) consists of heptad repeats with the consensus motif Y1-S2-P3-T4-S5-P6-S7. Dynamic phosphorylation of the CTD coordinates Pol II progression through the transcription cycle. Here, we use genetic and mass spectrometric approaches to directly detect and map phosphosites along the entire CTD. We confirm phosphorylation of CTD residues Y1, S2, T4, S5, and S7 in mammalian and yeast cells. Although specific phosphorylation signatures dominate, adjacent CTD repeats can be differently phosphorylated, leading to a high variation of coexisting phosphosites in mono- and di-heptad CTD repeats. Inhibition of CDK9 kinase specifically reduces S2 phosphorylation levels within the CTD. PMID:26799765

  13. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  14. Isolation of regulatory-competent, phosphorylated cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Icksoo; Salomon, Arthur R; Yu, Kebing; Samavati, Lobelia; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Httemann, Maik

    2009-01-01

    The role of posttranslational modifications, specifically reversible phosphorylation as a regulatory mechanism operating in the mitochondria, is a novel research direction. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system is a particularly interesting unit because it is responsible for the production of the vast majority of cellular energy in addition to free radicals, two factors that are aberrant in numerous human diseases and that may be influenced by reversible phosphorylation of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. We here describe a detailed protocol for the isolation of mammalian liver and heart mitochondria and subsequently cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) under conditions maintaining the physiological phosphorylation state. The protocol employs the use of activated vanadate, an unspecific tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, fluoride, an unspecific serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, and EGTA, a calcium chelator to prevent the activation of calcium-dependent protein phosphatases. CcO purified without manipulation of signaling pathways shows strong tyrosine phosphorylation on subunits II and IV, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation of subunit I can be induced by the cAMP- and TNFalpha-dependent pathways in liver. Using our protocol on cow liver tissue we further show the identification of a new phosphorylation site on CcO subunit IV tyrosine 11 of the mature protein (corresponding to tyrosine 33 of the precursor peptide) via immobilized metal affinity chromatography/nano-liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IMAC/nano-LC/ESI-MS). This phosphorylation site is located close to the ATP and ADP binding site, which adjusts CcO activity to cellular energy demand, and we propose that phosphorylation of tyrosine 11 enables allosteric regulation. PMID:19426869

  15. Regulation of renal fibrosis by Smad3 Thr388 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xinli; Li, Xueling; Zheng, Yaowu; Ren, Yi; Puelles, Victor G; Caruana, Georgina; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Li, Jinhua

    2014-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) promotes tissue fibrosis via receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor-activated Smad2/3, together with Smad4. Of these, Smad3 plays a major profibrotic role in mouse models of tissue fibrosis. Transcriptional activity of the Smad3 protein is regulated by phosphorylation of residues in the C-terminal domain and the linker region. Herein, we examined the role of a novel phosphorylation site within the MH2 domain (T388) in the regulation of Smad3 activity. Confocal microscopy using an Smad3 phosphorylated T388-specific antibody identified phosphorylation of Smad3 T388 in myofibroblasts and tubular epithelial cells in human focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and mouse models of unilateral ureteric obstruction and diabetic nephropathy, whereas phosphorylated T388 was largely absent in normal kidney. In vitro, TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad3 T388 in a biphasic pattern. A point mutation of T388/V in an Smad3 construct demonstrated that phosphorylation of T388 promotes Smad3 binding to Smad4 and CDK8, but was not necessary for nuclear translocation. Furthermore, T388 phosphorylation was required for TGF-β-induced collagen I gene promoter activity and extracellular matrix production in cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, our study identifies phosphorylation of T388 in the Smad3 MH2 domain as an important mechanism that regulates the profibrotic TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway, which has direct relevance to human and experimental fibrotic kidney disease. PMID:24485922

  16. Augmented Phosphorylation of Cardiac Troponin I in Hypertensive Heart Failure*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xintong; Sumandea, C. Amelia; Chen, Yi-Chen; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Zhang, Jiang; Balke, C. William; Sumandea, Marius P.; Ge, Ying

    2012-01-01

    An altered cardiac myofilament response to activating Ca2+ is a hallmark of human heart failure. Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is critical in modulating contractility and Ca2+ sensitivity of cardiac muscle. cTnI can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) at Ser22/23 and protein kinase C (PKC) at Ser22/23, Ser42/44, and Thr143. Whereas the functional significance of Ser22/23 phosphorylation is well understood, the role of other cTnI phosphorylation sites in the regulation of cardiac contractility remains a topic of intense debate, in part, due to the lack of evidence of in vivo phosphorylation. In this study, we utilized top-down high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) combined with immunoaffinity chromatography to determine quantitatively the cTnI phosphorylation changes in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of hypertensive heart disease and failure. Our data indicate that cTnI is hyperphosphorylated in the failing SHR myocardium compared with age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The top-down electron capture dissociation MS unambiguously localized augmented phosphorylation sites to Ser22/23 and Ser42/44 in SHR. Enhanced Ser22/23 phosphorylation was verified by immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Immunoblot analysis also revealed up-regulation of PKC-? and -?, decreased PKC?, but no changes in PKA or PKC-? levels in the SHR myocardium. This provides direct evidence of in vivo phosphorylation of cTnI-Ser42/44 (PKC-specific) sites in an animal model of hypertensive heart failure, supporting the hypothesis that PKC phosphorylation of cTnI may be maladaptive and potentially associated with cardiac dysfunction. PMID:22052912

  17. Global IRS-1 phosphorylation analysis in insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Langlais, P.; Yi, Z.; Finlayson, J.; Luo, M.; Mapes, R.; De Filippis, E.; Meyer, C.; Plummer, E.; Tongchinsub, P.; Mattern, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis IRS-1 serine phosphorylation is often elevated in insulin resistance models, but confirmation in vivo in humans is lacking. We therefore analysed IRS-1 phosphorylation in human muscle in vivo. Methods We used HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)-MS/MS to quantify IRS-1 phosphorylation basally and after insulin infusion in vastus lateralis muscle from lean healthy, obese non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic volunteers. Results Basal Ser323 phosphorylation was increased in type 2 diabetic patients (2.10.43, p?0.05, fold change vs lean controls). Thr495 phosphorylation was decreased in type 2 diabetic patients (p?0.05). Insulin increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser527 (1.40.17, p?0.01, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal) and Ser531 (1.30.16, p?0.01, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal) in the lean controls and suppressed phosphorylation at Ser348 (0.560.11, p?0.01, fold change, 240 min after insulin infusion vs basal), Thr446 (0.640.16, p?0.05, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal), Ser1100 (0.770.22, p?0.05, fold change, 240 min after insulin infusion vs basal) and Ser1142 (1.30.2, p?0.05, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal). Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that, unlike some aspects of insulin signalling, the ability of insulin to increase or suppress certain IRS-1 phosphorylation sites is intact in insulin resistance. However, some IRS-1 phosphorylation sites do not respond to insulin, whereas other Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites are either increased or decreased in insulin resistance. PMID:21850561

  18. Characterization of Ser338 Phosphorylation for Raf-1 Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Mengwei; Gong, Jun; Luo, Lingqi; Zhou, Jing; Xiang, Xiaoqin; Huang, Wei; Huang, Qiren; Luo, Xixi; Olbrot, Martin; Peng, Yihong; Chen, Changyan; Luo, Zhijun

    2008-01-01

    Raf kinases are essential for regulating cell proliferation, survival, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms by which Raf is activated are still incompletely understood. Phosphorylation plays a critical role in Raf activation in response to mitogens. The present study characterizes phosphorylation of Ser338, a crucial event for Raf-1 activation. Here we report that mutation of Lys375 to Met diminishes phosphorylation of Ser338 on both wild type Raf-1 in cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and a constitutively active mutant in which Tyr340/Tyr341 are replaced by 2 aspartic acids, a conserved substitution present in natural B-Raf. The loss of Ser338 phosphorylation in these Raf mutants is not engendered by a mutation-induced conformational change, inasmuch as mutation of another site (Ser471 to Ala) in the activation segment also abolishes Ser338 phosphorylation, whereas both the kinase-dead mutants of Raf-1 are phosphorylated well by active Pak1. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Ser338 is inhibited by Sorafenib, a Raf kinase inhibitor, but not by the MEK inhibitor U0126. Interestingly, a kinase-dead mutation and Sorafenib also markedly reduce phosphorylation of Ser445 on B-Raf, a site equivalent to Raf-1 Ser338. Finally, our data reveal that Ser338 is phosphorylated on inactive Raf-1 by an active mutant of Raf-1 when they are dimerized in cells and that artificial dimerization of Raf-1 causes Ser338 phosphorylation, accompanied by activation of ERK1/2. Altogether, our data suggest that Ser338 on Raf-1 is autophosphorylated in response to mitogens. PMID:18775988

  19. Recent insights in enzymatic synthesis of fructooligosaccharides from inulin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Singh, Rupinder Pal; Kennedy, John F

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, people are paying more attention to their dietary habits, and functional foods are playing a key role in maintaining the health of man. Prebiotics are considered as a main component of the functional foods which are usually composed of short chains of carbohydrates. Fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) are considered as one of the main group of prebiotics which have recognisable bifidogenic properties. FOSs are obtained either by extraction from various plant materials or by enzymatic synthesis from different substrates. Enzymatically, these can be obtained either from sucrose using fructosyltransferase or from inulin by endoinulinase. Inulin is a potent substrate for the enzymatic production of FOSs. This review article will provide an overview on the inulin as potent substrate, microbial sources of endoinulinases, enzymatic synthesis of FOSs from inulin, commercial status of FOSs, and their future perspectives. PMID:26791586

  20. Enzymatic treatment of duck hepatitis B virus: Topology of the surface proteins for virions and noninfectious subviral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Claudia; Matschl, Urte; Bruns, Michael . E-mail: mbruns@hpi.uni-hamburg.de

    2007-03-01

    The large surface antigen L of duck hepatitis B virus exhibits a mixed topology with the preS domains of the protein alternatively exposed to the particles' interior or exterior. After separating virions from subviral particles (SVPs), we compared their L topologies and showed that both particle types exhibit the same amount of L with the following differences: 1-preS of intact virions was enzymatically digested with chymotrypsin, whereas in SVPs only half of preS was accessible, 2-phosphorylation of L at S118 was completely removed by phosphatase treatment only in virions, 3-iodine-125 labeling disclosed a higher ratio of exposed preS to S domains in virions compared to SVPs. These data point towards different surface architectures of virions and SVPs. Because the preS domain acts in binding to a cellular receptor of hepatocytes, our findings implicate the exclusion of SVPs as competitors for the receptor binding and entry of virions.

  1. Enzymatic synthesis of blood group A and B trisaccharide analogues.

    PubMed

    Seto, N O; Compston, C A; Szpacenko, A; Palcic, M M

    2000-02-25

    Glycosyltransferases A and B utilize the donor substrates UDP-GalNAc and UDP-Gal, respectively, in the biosynthesis of the human blood group A and B trisaccharide antigens from the O(H)-acceptor substrates. These enzymes were cloned as synthetic genes and expressed in Escherichia coli, thereby generating large quantities of enzyme for donor specificity evaluations. The amino acid sequence of glycosyltransferase A only differs from glycosyltransferase B by four amino acids, and alteration of these four amino acid residues (Arg-176-->Gly, Gly-235-->Ser, Leu-266-->Met and Gly-268-->Ala) can change the donor substrate specificity from UDP-GalNAc to UDP-Gal. Crossovers in donor substrate specificity have been observed, i.e., the A transferase can utilize UDP-Gal and B transferase can utilize UDP-GalNAc donor substrates. We now report a unique donor specificity for each enzyme type. Only A transferase can utilize UDP-GlcNAc donor substrates synthesizing the blood group A trisaccharide analog alpha-D-Glcp-NAc-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)]-beta-D-Galp-O-(CH2 )7CH3 (4). Recombinant blood group B was shown to use UDP-Glc donor substrates synthesizing blood group B trisaccharide analog alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)]-beta-D-Galp-O-(CH2) 7CH3 (5). In addition, a true hybrid enzyme was constructed (Gly-235-->Ser, Leu-266-->Met) that could utilize both UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc. Although the rate of transfer with UDP-GlcNAc by the A enzyme was 0.4% that of UDP-GalNAc and the rate of transfer with UDP-Glc by the B enzyme was 0.01% that of UDP-Gal, these cloned enzymes could be used for the enzymatic synthesis of blood group A and B trisaccharide analogs 4 and 5. PMID:10724530

  2. The in vivo phosphorylation sites of rat brain dynamin I.

    PubMed

    Graham, Mark E; Anggono, Victor; Bache, Nicolai; Larsen, Martin R; Craft, George E; Robinson, Phillip J

    2007-05-18

    Dynamin I (dynI) is phosphorylated in synaptosomes at Ser(774) and Ser(778) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 to regulate recruitment of syndapin I for synaptic vesicle endocytosis, and in PC12 cells on Ser(857). Hierarchical phosphorylation of Ser(774) precedes phosphorylation of Ser(778). In contrast, Thr(780) phosphorylation by cdk5 has been reported as the sole site (Tomizawa, K., Sunada, S., Lu, Y. F., Oda, Y., Kinuta, M., Ohshima, T., Saito, T., Wei, F. Y., Matsushita, M., Li, S. T., Tsutsui, K., Hisanaga, S. I., Mikoshiba, K., Takei, K., and Matsui, H. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 163, 813-824). To resolve the discrepancy and to better understand the biological roles of dynI phosphorylation, we undertook a systematic identification of all phosphorylation sites in rat brain nerve terminal dynI. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, exclusively phospho-serine residues were found. Thr(780) phosphorylation was not detectable. Mutation of Ser(774), Ser(778), and Thr(780) confirmed that Thr(780) phosphorylation is restricted to in vitro conditions. Mass spectrometry of (32)P-labeled phosphopeptides separated by two-dimensional mapping revealed seven in vivo phosphorylation sites: Ser(774), Ser(778), Ser(822), Ser(851), Ser(857), Ser(512), and Ser(347). Quantification of (32)P radiation in each phosphopeptide showed that Ser(774) and Ser(778) were the major sites (up to 69% of the total), followed by Ser(851) and Ser(857) (12%), and Ser(853) (2%). Phosphorylation of Ser(851) and Ser(857) was restricted to the long tail splice variant dynIxa and was not hierarchical. Co-purified, (32)P-labeled dynIII was phosphorylated at Ser(759), Ser(763), and Ser(853). Ser(853) is homologous to Ser(851) in dynIxa. The results identify all major and several minor phosphorylation sites in dynI and provide the first measure of their relative abundance and relative responses to depolarization. The multiple phospho-sites suggest subtle regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis by new protein kinases and new protein-protein interactions. The homologous dynI and dynIII phosphorylation indicates a high mechanistic similarity. The results suggest a unique role for the long splice variants of dynI and dynIII in nerve terminals. PMID:17376771

  3. Convergent evolution of similar enzymatic function on different protein folds: the hexokinase, ribokinase, and galactokinase families of sugar kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Bork, P.; Sander, C.; Valencia, A.

    1993-01-01

    Kinases that catalyze phosphorylation of sugars, called here sugar kinases, can be divided into at least three distinct nonhomologous families. The first is the hexokinase family, which contains many prokaryotic and eukaryotic sugar kinases with diverse specificities, including a new member, rhamnokinase from Salmonella typhimurium. The three-dimensional structure of hexokinase is known and can be used to build models of functionally important regions of other kinases in this family. The second is the ribokinase family, of unknown three-dimensional structure, and comprises pro- and eukaryotic ribokinases, bacterial fructokinases, the minor 6-phosphofructokinase 2 from Escherichia coli, 6-phosphotagatokinase, 1-phosphofructokinase, and, possibly, inosine-guanosine kinase. The third family, also of unknown three-dimensional structure, contains several bacterial and yeast galactokinases and eukaryotic mevalonate and phosphomevalonate kinases and may have a substrate binding region in common with homoserine kinases. Each of the three families of sugar kinases appears to have a distinct three-dimensional fold, since conserved sequence patterns are strikingly different for the three families. Yet each catalyzes chemically equivalent reactions on similar or identical substrates. The enzymatic function of sugar phosphorylation appears to have evolved independently on the three distinct structural frameworks, by convergent evolution. In addition, evolutionary trees reveal that (1) fructokinase specificity has evolved independently in both the hexokinase and ribokinase families and (2) glucose specificity has evolved independently in different branches of the hexokinase family. These are examples of independent Darwinian adaptation of a structure to the same substrate at different evolutionary times. The flexible combination of active sites and three-dimensional folds observed in nature can be exploited by protein engineers in designing and optimizing enzymatic function. PMID:8382990

  4. Role of substrate unbinding in MichaelisMenten enzymatic reactions

    PubMed Central

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Urbakh, Michael; Klafter, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The MichaelisMenten equation provides a hundred-year-old prediction by which any increase in the rate of substrate unbinding will decrease the rate of enzymatic turnover. Surprisingly, this prediction was never tested experimentally nor was it scrutinized using modern theoretical tools. Here we show that unbinding may also speed up enzymatic turnoverturning a spotlight to the fact that its actual role in enzymatic catalysis remains to be determined experimentally. Analytically constructing the unbinding phase space, we identify four distinct categories of unbinding: inhibitory, excitatory, superexcitatory, and restorative. A transition in which the effect of unbinding changes from inhibitory to excitatory as substrate concentrations increase, and an overlooked tradeoff between the speed and efficiency of enzymatic reactions, are naturally unveiled as a result. The theory presented herein motivates, and allows the interpretation of, groundbreaking experiments in which existing single-molecule manipulation techniques will be adapted for the purpose of measuring enzymatic turnover under a controlled variation of unbinding rates. As we hereby show, these experiments will not only shed first light on the role of unbinding but will also allow one to determine the time distribution required for the completion of the catalytic step in isolation from the rest of the enzymatic turnover cycle. PMID:24616494

  5. Enzymatically induced motion at nano- and micro-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gáspár, Szilveszter

    2014-06-01

    In contrast to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent motor enzymes, other enzymes are little-known as ``motors'' or ``pumps'', that is, for their ability to induce motion. The enhanced diffusive movement of enzyme molecules, the self-propulsion of enzyme-based nanomotors, and liquid pumping with enzymatic micropumps were indeed only recently reported. Enzymatically induced motion can be achieved in mild conditions and without the use of external fields. It is thus better suited for use in living systems (from single-cell to whole-body) than most other ways to achieve motion at small scales. Enzymatically induced motion is thus not only new but also important. Therefore, the present work reviews the most significant discoveries in enzymatically induced motion. As we will learn, freely diffusing enzymes enhance their diffusive movement by nonreciprocal conformational changes which parallel their catalytic cycles. Meanwhile, enzyme-modified nano- and micro-objects turn chemical energy into kinetic energy through mechanisms such as bubble recoil propulsion, self-electrophoresis, and self-diffusiophoresis. Enzymatically induced motion of small objects ranges from enhanced diffusive movement to directed motion at speeds as high as 1 cm s-1. In spite of the progress made in understanding how the energy of enzyme reactions is turned into motion, most enzymatically powered devices remain inefficient and need improvements before we will witness their application in real world environments.

  6. Enzymatically induced motion at nano- and micro-scales.

    PubMed

    Gáspár, Szilveszter

    2014-07-21

    In contrast to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent motor enzymes, other enzymes are little-known as "motors" or "pumps", that is, for their ability to induce motion. The enhanced diffusive movement of enzyme molecules, the self-propulsion of enzyme-based nanomotors, and liquid pumping with enzymatic micropumps were indeed only recently reported. Enzymatically induced motion can be achieved in mild conditions and without the use of external fields. It is thus better suited for use in living systems (from single-cell to whole-body) than most other ways to achieve motion at small scales. Enzymatically induced motion is thus not only new but also important. Therefore, the present work reviews the most significant discoveries in enzymatically induced motion. As we will learn, freely diffusing enzymes enhance their diffusive movement by nonreciprocal conformational changes which parallel their catalytic cycles. Meanwhile, enzyme-modified nano- and micro-objects turn chemical energy into kinetic energy through mechanisms such as bubble recoil propulsion, self-electrophoresis, and self-diffusiophoresis. Enzymatically induced motion of small objects ranges from enhanced diffusive movement to directed motion at speeds as high as 1 cm s(-1). In spite of the progress made in understanding how the energy of enzyme reactions is turned into motion, most enzymatically powered devices remain inefficient and need improvements before we will witness their application in real world environments. PMID:24931666

  7. Enzymatic Basis for N-Glycan Sialylation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lu; Forouhar, Farhad; Thieker, David; Gao, Zhongwei; Ramiah, Annapoorani; Moniz, Heather; Xiang, Yong; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Milaninia, Sahand; Su, Min; Bridger, Robert; Veillon, Lucas; Azadi, Parastoo; Kornhaber, Gregory; Wells, Lance; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Woods, Robert J.; Tong, Liang; Moremen, Kelley W.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids play critical roles in biological recognition, targeting, and modulation of functions in animal systems. Many classes of glycan structures are capped with terminal sialic acid residues, which contribute to biological functions by either forming or masking glycan recognition sites on the cell surface or secreted glycoconjugates. Sialylated glycans are synthesized in mammals by a single conserved family of sialyltransferases that have diverse linkage and acceptor specificities. We examined the enzymatic basis for glycan sialylation in animal systems by determining the crystal structures of rat ST6GAL1, an enzyme that creates terminal α2,6-sialic acid linkages on complex-type N-glycans, at 2.4 Å resolution. Crystals were obtained from enzyme preparations generated in mammalian cells. The resulting structure revealed an overall protein fold broadly resembling the previously determined structure of pig ST3GAL1, including a CMP-sialic acid-binding site assembled from conserved sialylmotif sequence elements. Significant differences in structure and disulfide bonding patterns were found outside the sialylmotif sequences, including differences in residues predicted to interact with the glycan acceptor. Computational substrate docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to predict and evaluate the CMP-sialic acid donor and glycan acceptor interactions, and the results were compared with kinetic analysis of active site mutants. Comparisons of the structure with pig ST3GAL1 and a bacterial sialyltransferase revealed a similar positioning of donor, acceptor, and catalytic residues that provide a common structural framework for catalysis by the mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases. PMID:24155237

  8. Enzymatic processes for the purification of trehalose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Ta; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Shaw, Je-Fu

    2013-01-01

    A dual-enzyme process aiming at facilitating the purification of trehalose from maltose is reported in this study. Enzymatic conversion of maltose to trehalose usually leads to the presence of significant amount of glucose, by-product of the reaction, and unreacted maltose. To facilitate the separation of trehalose from glucose and unreacted maltose, sequential conversion of maltose to glucose and glucose to gluconic acid under the catalysis of glucoamylase and glucose oxidase, respectively, is studied. This study focuses on the hydrolysis of maltose with immobilized glucoamylase on Eupergit C and CM Sepharose. CM Sepharose exhibited a higher protein adsorption capacity, 49.35 1.43 mg/g, and was thus selected as carrier for the immobilization of glucoamylase. The optimal reaction temperature and reaction pH of the immobilized glucoamylase for maltose hydrolysis were identified as 40C and 4.0, respectively. Under such conditions, the unreacted maltose in the product stream of trehalose synthase-catalyzed reaction was completely converted to glucose within 35 min, without detectable trehalose degradation. The conversion of maltose to glucose could be maintained at 0.92 even after 80 cycles in repeated-batch operations. It was also demonstrated that glucose thus generated could be readily oxidized into gluconic acid, which can be easily separated from trehalose. We thus believe the proposed process of maltose hydrolysis with immobilized glucoamylase, in conjunction with trehalose synthase-catalyzed isomerization and glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation, is promising for the production and purification of trehalose on industrial scales. PMID:23172769

  9. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from Styela clava flesh tissue in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo zebrafish model

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seok-Chun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In this study, potential anti-inflammatory effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from Styela clava flesh tissue was assessed via nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccahride (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo zebrafish model. MATERIALS/METHODS We investigated the ability of enzymatic hydrolysates from Styela clava flesh tissue to inhibit LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the molecular mechanism through which this inhibition occurred. In addition, we evaluated anti-inflammatory effect of enzymatic hydrolysates against a LPS-exposed in in vivo zebrafish model. RESULTS Among the enzymatic hydrolysates, Protamex-proteolytic hydrolysate exhibited the highest NO inhibitory effect and was fractionated into three ranges of molecular weight by using ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (MWCO 5 kDa and 10 kDa). The above 10 kDa fraction down-regulated LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby reducing production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The above 10 kDa fraction suppressed LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In addition, the above 10 kDa fraction inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Furthermore, NO production in live zebrafish induced by LPS was reduced by addition of the above 10 kDa fraction from S. clava enzymatic hydrolysate. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggested that hydrolysates derived from S. clava flesh tissue would be new anti-inflammation materials in functional resources. PMID:26060532

  11. Non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant variations in tender and mature leaves of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Family: Loganiaceae).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Remya; Zhao, Chang-Xing; Gopal, Rengasamy; Jaleel, C Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, Strychnos nux-vomica, an important plant used in traditional medicine, was evaluated for its antioxidant potential. The antioxidant potentials were examined in terms of non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules studied were ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and reduced glutathione. The estimated antioxidant enzymes were superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The analyses were carried out in the field-collected leaf samples. It was found that plant contained a significant quantity of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in the leaves. These findings have high significance in the pharmacological industry; however, a detailed investigation is needed to confirm this conclusion, by radical scavenging ability, which is underway in our laboratory. PMID:19200926

  12. Isomerization of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 1-O, 4-O, and 6-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and the enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl glycerol by a hormone metabolizing complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalczyk, S.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    The first compound in the series of reactions leading to the ester conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in kernels of Zea mays sweet corn is the acyl alkyl acetal, 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose (1-O-IAGlu). The enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of this compound is UDP-glucose:indol-3-ylacetate glucosyl-transferase (IAGlu synthase). The IAA moiety of the high energy compound 1-O-IAGlu may be enzymatically transferred to myo-inositol or to glycerol or the 1-O-IAGlu may be enzymatically hydrolyzed. Alternatively, nonenzymatic acyl migration may occur to yield the 2-O, 4-O, and 6-O esters of IAA and glucose. The 4-O and 6-O esters may then be enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield free IAA and glucose. This work reports new enzymatic activities, the transfer of IAA from 1-O-IAGlu to glycerol, and the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-O and 6-O-IAGlu. Data is also presented on the rate of non-enzymatic acyl migration of IAA from the 1-O to the 4-O and 6-O positions of glucose. We also report that enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of 1-O-IAGlu and the hydrolysis of 1-O, 4-O, and 6-O-IAGlu fractionate as a hormone metabolizing complex. The association of synthetic and hydrolytic capabilities in enzymes which cofractionate may have physiological significance.

  13. Effects of Coxiella burnetii on MAPKinases phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Boucherit, Nicolas; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; Mottola, Giovanna; Trouplin, Virginie; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Q fever is a disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Acute Q fever is characterized by efficient immune response, whereas chronic Q fever is characterized by dysregulated immune response as demonstrated by the lack of granulomas, the failure of C. burnetii to induce lymphoproliferation, and interferon-? production. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in innate immune responses and control of bacterial infections. However, its role in Q fever has not been addressed. First, we investigated the activation of MAPKs p38, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in murine macrophages stimulated with C. burnetii. Coxiella burnetii NM phase I (virulent) and NM phase II (avirulent) induced the activation of JNK and ERK1/2. Avirulent C. burnetii activate p38, whereas C. burnetii did not induce the phosphorylation of p38. Second, the level of p38 activation was studied in Q fever patients. We found that p38 was activated in monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy donors and patients with acute Q fever in response to a potent agonist such as lipopolysaccharide. Interestingly, p38 was not activated in patients with active chronic Q fever and was activated in patients with cured chronic Q fever. These results suggest that the determination of p38 activation may serve as a tool for measuring Q fever activity. PMID:22092597

  14. Sanguinarine inhibits VEGF-induced Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Basini, Giuseppina; Santini, Sujen Eleonora; Bussolati, Simona; Grasselli, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of vascular growth by sprouting of preexisting vessels. This process impacts significantly on many important disease states including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and arthritis. Endothelial cells receive multiple information from their environment, which leads them to progress along all stages of new vessel formation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in particular appears to be a master regulator of this process. This molecule interacts with cellular receptors and communicates with cell nucleus through a network of intracellular signaling, most of all by activating Akt pathway. This activation accounts for many of VEGF effects, including cell survival, migration, tube formation, and promotion of NO release. Sanguinarine (SA), an alkaloid isolated from Sanguinaria canadensis, is known for its antiangiogenetic effects by suppressing basal and VEGF-induced new vessel growth. This article was aimed to evaluate the possible effect of SA (300 nM) on Akt phosphorylation in a porcine aortic endothelial cell line. The alkaloid significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the VEGF-induced Akt increase, thus suggesting that this mode of action could be responsible, at least partially, for the antiangiogenetic effect of SA. PMID:17404049

  15. Mimicking respiratory phosphorylation using purified enzymes.

    PubMed

    von Ballmoos, Christoph; Biner, Olivier; Nilsson, Tobias; Brzezinski, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation is a striking example of the functional association of multiple enzyme complexes, working together to form ATP from cellular reducing equivalents. These complexes, such as cytochrome c oxidase or the ATP synthase, are typically investigated individually and therefore, their functional interplay is not well understood. Here, we present methodology that allows the co-reconstitution of purified terminal oxidases and ATP synthases in synthetic liposomes. The enzymes are functionally coupled via proton translocation where upon addition of reducing equivalents the oxidase creates and maintains a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient that energizes the synthesis of ATP by the F1F0 ATP synthase. The method has been tested with the ATP synthases from Escherichia coli and spinach chloroplasts, and with the quinol and cytochrome c oxidases from E. coli and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, respectively. Unlike in experiments with the ATP synthase reconstituted alone, the setup allows in vitro ATP synthesis under steady state conditions, with rates up to 90 ATP×s(-1)×enzyme(-1). We have also used the novel system to study the phenomenon of "mild uncoupling" as observed in mitochondria upon addition of low concentrations of ionophores (e.g. FCCP, SF6847) and the recoupling effect of 6-ketocholestanol. While we could reproduce the described effects, our data with the in vitro system does not support the idea of a direct interaction between a mitochondrial protein and the uncoupling agents as proposed earlier. PMID:26707617

  16. Rosamines targeting the cancer oxidative phosphorylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siang Hui; Wu, Liangxing; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Burgess, Kevin; Lee, Hong Boon

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism is pivotal to cancer, so mitochondria are potential targets for anticancer therapy. A prior study has demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of a new class of mitochondria-targeting rosamines. This present study describes in vitro cytotoxicity of second-generation rosamine analogs, their mode of action, and their in vivo efficacies in a tumor allografted mouse model. Here, we showed that these compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity (average IC50<0.5 M), inhibited Complex II and ATP synthase activities of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway and induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. A NCI-60 cell lines screen further indicated that rosamine analogs 4 and 5 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with Log10GI50?=?-7 (GI50?=?0.1 M) and were more effective against a colorectal cancer sub-panel than other cell lines. Preliminary in vivo studies on 4T1 murine breast cancer-bearing female BALB/c mice indicated that treatment with analog 5 in a single dosing of 5 mg/kg or a schedule dosing of 3 mg/kg once every 2 days for 6 times (q2d6) exhibited only minimal induction of tumor growth delay. Our results suggest that rosamine analogs may be further developed as mitochondrial targeting agents. Without a doubt proper strategies need to be devised to enhance tumor uptake of rosamines, i.e. by integration to carrier molecules for better therapeutic outcome. PMID:24622277

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of Phosphorylated Proteins of E. coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soung, George Y.; Miller, Jennifer L.; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of bacterial ribosomal proteins has been known for decades; however, there is still very limited information available on specific locations of the phosphorylation sites in ribosomal proteins and the role they might play in protein synthesis. In this study, we have mapped the specific phosphorylation sites in twenty-four E. coli ribosomal proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Specific detection of phosphorylation was achieved by either phosphorylation specific visualization techniques, ProQ staining and antibodies for phospho-Ser, Thr, and Tyr, or by mass spectrometry equipped with a capability to detect addition and the loss of the phosphate moiety. Enrichment by immobilized metal affinity and/or strong cation exchange chromatography was used to improve the success of detection of the low abundance phosphopeptides. We found the small subunit (30S) proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S11, S12, S13, S18, and S21 and the large subunit (50S) proteins L1, L2, L3, L5, L6, L7/L12, L13, L14, L16, L18, L19, L21, L22, L28, L31 to be phosphorylated at one or more residues. Potential roles for each specific site in ribosome function were deduced through careful evaluation of the given site of the phosphorylation in 3D-crystal structure models of ribosomes and the previous mutational studies of E. coli ribosomal proteins. PMID:19469554

  18. Phosphorylation regulates FOXC2-mediated transcription in lymphatic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Konstantin I; Agalarov, Yan; Valmu, Leena; Samuilova, Olga; Liebl, Johanna; Houhou, Nawal; Maby-El Hajjami, Hlne; Norrmn, Camilla; Jaquet, Muriel; Miura, Naoyuki; Zangger, Nadine; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo; Delorenzi, Mauro; Petrova, Tatiana V

    2013-10-01

    One of the key mechanisms linking cell signaling and control of gene expression is reversible phosphorylation of transcription factors. FOXC2 is a forkhead transcription factor that is mutated in the human vascular disease lymphedema-distichiasis and plays an essential role in lymphatic vascular development. However, the mechanisms regulating FOXC2 transcriptional activity are not well understood. We report here that FOXC2 is phosphorylated on eight evolutionarily conserved proline-directed serine/threonine residues. Loss of phosphorylation at these sites triggers substantial changes in the FOXC2 transcriptional program. Through genome-wide location analysis in lymphatic endothelial cells, we demonstrate that the changes are due to selective inhibition of FOXC2 recruitment to chromatin. The extent of the inhibition varied between individual binding sites, suggesting a novel rheostat-like mechanism by which expression of specific genes can be differentially regulated by FOXC2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, unlike the wild-type protein, the phosphorylation-deficient mutant of FOXC2 failed to induce vascular remodeling in vivo. Collectively, our results point to the pivotal role of phosphorylation in the regulation of FOXC2-mediated transcription in lymphatic endothelial cells and underscore the importance of FOXC2 phosphorylation in vascular development. PMID:23878394

  19. Signal processing by protein tyrosine phosphorylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification controlling many biological processes. Most phosphorylation occurs on serine and threonine, and to a less extend on tyrosine (Tyr). In animals, Tyr phosphorylation is crucial for the regulation of many responses such as growth or differentiation. Only recently with the development of mass spectrometry, it has been reported that Tyr phosphorylation is as important in plants as in animals. The genes encoding protein Tyr kinases and protein Tyr phosphatases have been identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Putative substrates of these enzymes, and thus Tyr-phosphorylated proteins have been reported by proteomic studies based on accurate mass spectrometry analysis of the phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins. Biochemical approaches, pharmacology and genetic manipulations have indicated that responses to stress and developmental processes involve changes in protein Tyr phosphorylation. The aim of this review is to present an update on Tyr phosphorylation in plants in order to better assess the role of this post-translational modification in plant physiology. PMID:21628997

  20. Phosphorylation Regulates FOXC2-Mediated Transcription in Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Konstantin I.; Agalarov, Yan; Valmu, Leena; Samuilova, Olga; Liebl, Johanna; Houhou, Nawal; Maby-El Hajjami, Hlne; Norrmn, Camilla; Jaquet, Muriel; Miura, Naoyuki; Zangger, Nadine; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo; Delorenzi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    One of the key mechanisms linking cell signaling and control of gene expression is reversible phosphorylation of transcription factors. FOXC2 is a forkhead transcription factor that is mutated in the human vascular disease lymphedema-distichiasis and plays an essential role in lymphatic vascular development. However, the mechanisms regulating FOXC2 transcriptional activity are not well understood. We report here that FOXC2 is phosphorylated on eight evolutionarily conserved proline-directed serine/threonine residues. Loss of phosphorylation at these sites triggers substantial changes in the FOXC2 transcriptional program. Through genome-wide location analysis in lymphatic endothelial cells, we demonstrate that the changes are due to selective inhibition of FOXC2 recruitment to chromatin. The extent of the inhibition varied between individual binding sites, suggesting a novel rheostat-like mechanism by which expression of specific genes can be differentially regulated by FOXC2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, unlike the wild-type protein, the phosphorylation-deficient mutant of FOXC2 failed to induce vascular remodeling in vivo. Collectively, our results point to the pivotal role of phosphorylation in the regulation of FOXC2-mediated transcription in lymphatic endothelial cells and underscore the importance of FOXC2 phosphorylation in vascular development. PMID:23878394

  1. PAK1-mediated MORC2 phosphorylation promotes gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiling; Song, Yanyan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Chunyu; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Furong; Cai, Xinze; Miao, Zhifeng; Xu, Hongde; Xu, Huimian; Cao, Liu; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To date, microrchidia (MORC) family CW-type zinc-finger 2 (MORC2), has been found to be involved in p21-activated kinase1 (PAK1) pathway to maintain genomic integrity. Here, we explore its novel role in cancer. We demonstrate that PAK1-mediated MORC2 phosphorylation promotes cell cycle progression, defective phosphorylation of MORC2-S677A results in attenuated cell proliferation and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells, which is significantly enhanced in overexpression of phospho-mimic MORC2-S677E form, suggesting the importance of MORC2 phosphorylation in tumorigenesis. More importantly, phosphorylation of MORC2 correlates positively with PAK1 expression in clinical gastric cancer. Furthermore, high expression of PAK1 and phosphorylation of MORC2 appear to be associated with poor prognosis of clinical gastric cancer. Collectively, these findings revealed a novel function of MORC2 phosphorylation in promoting gastric cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, suggesting that blocking PAK1-mediated MORC2 phosphorylation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:25888627

  2. Enzyme adsorption, precipitation and crosslinking of glucose oxidase and laccase on polyaniline nanofibers for highly stable enzymatic biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ryang Eun; Hong, Sung-Gil; Ha, Su; Kim, Jungbae

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells have many great features as a small power source for medical, environmental and military applications. Both glucose oxidase (GOx) and laccase (LAC) are widely used anode and cathode enzymes for enzymatic biofuel cells, respectively. In this paper, we employed three different approaches to immobilize GOx and LAC on polyaniline nanofibers (PANFs): enzyme adsorption (EA), enzyme adsorption and crosslinking (EAC) and enzyme adsorption, precipitation and crosslinking (EAPC) approaches. The activity of EAPC-LAC was 32 and 25 times higher than that of EA-LAC and EAC-LAC, respectively. The half-life of EAPC-LAC was 53 days, while those of EA-LAC and EAC-LAC were 6 and 21 days, respectively. Similar to LAC, EAPC-GOx also showed higher activity and stability than EA-GOx and EAC-GOx. For the biofuel cell application, EAPC-GOx and EAPC-LAC were applied over the carbon papers to form enzyme anode and cathode, respectively. In order to improve the power density output of enzymatic biofuel cell, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) were introduced as the electron transfer mediators on the enzyme anode and enzyme cathode, respectively. BQ- and ABTS-mediated enzymatic biofuel cells fabricated by EAPC-GOx and EAPC-LAC showed the maximum power density output of 37.4 ?W/cm(2), while the power density output of 3.1 ?W/cm(2) was shown without mediators. Under room temperature and 4C for 28 days, enzymatic biofuel cells maintained 54 and 70% of its initial power density, respectively. PMID:25248697

  3. Regulation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation by the neuropeptide PACAP38.

    PubMed

    Toda, Alyssa M A; Huganir, Richard L

    2015-05-26

    Dynamic changes in synaptic strength are thought to be critical for higher brain function such as learning and memory. Alterations in synaptic strength can result from modulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function and trafficking to synaptic sites. The phosphorylation state of AMPAR subunits is one mechanism by which cells regulate receptor function and trafficking. Receptor phosphorylation is in turn regulated by extracellular signals; these include neuronal activity, neuropeptides, and neuromodulators such as dopamine and norepinephrine (NE). Although numerous studies have reported that the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) alters hippocampal CA1 synaptic strength and GluA1 synaptic localization, its effect on AMPAR phosphorylation state has not been explored. We determined that PACAP38 stimulation of hippocampal cultures increased phosphorylation of S845, and decreased phosphorylation of T840 on the GluA1 AMPAR subunit. Increases in GluA1 S845 phosphorylation primarily occurred via PAC1 and VPAC2 receptor activation, whereas a reduction in GluA1 T840 phosphorylation was largely driven by PAC1 receptor activation and to a lesser extent by VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptor activation. GluA1 S845 phosphorylation could be blocked by a PKA inhibitor, and GluA1 T840 dephosphorylation could be blocked by a protein phosphatase 1/2A (PP1/PP2A) inhibitor and was partly blocked by a NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. These results demonstrate that the neuropeptide PACAP38 inversely regulates the phosphorylation of two distinct sites on GluA1 and may play an important role modulating AMPAR function and synaptic plasticity in the brain. PMID:25964356

  4. The Excitotoxin Quinolinic Acid Induces Tau Phosphorylation in Human Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Kaka; Cullen, Karen M.; Braidy, Nady; Brew, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the tryptophan catabolites produced through the kynurenine pathway (KP), and more particularly the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA), are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that the KP is over activated in AD brain and that QA accumulates in amyloid plaques and within dystrophic neurons. We hypothesized that QA in pathophysiological concentrations affects tau phosphorylation. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that QA is co-localized with hyperphosphorylated tau (HPT) within cortical neurons in AD brain. We then investigated in vitro the effects of QA at various pathophysiological concentrations on tau phosphorylation in primary cultures of human neurons. Using western blot, we found that QA treatment increased the phosphorylation of tau at serine 199/202, threonine 231 and serine 396/404 in a dose dependent manner. Increased accumulation of phosphorylated tau was also confirmed by immunocytochemistry. This increase in tau phosphorylation was paralleled by a substantial decrease in the total protein phosphatase activity. A substantial decrease in PP2A expression and modest decrease in PP1 expression were observed in neuronal cultures treated with QA. These data clearly demonstrate that QA can induce tau phosphorylation at residues present in the PHF in the AD brain. To induce tau phosphorylation, QA appears to act through NMDA receptor activation similar to other agonists, glutamate and NMDA. The QA effect was abrogated by the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Using PCR arrays, we found that QA significantly induces 10 genes in human neurons all known to be associated with AD pathology. Of these 10 genes, 6 belong to pathways involved in tau phosphorylation and 4 of them in neuroprotection. Altogether these results indicate a likely role of QA in the AD pathology through promotion of tau phosphorylation. Understanding the mechanism of the neurotoxic effects of QA is essential in developing novel therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:19623258

  5. Phosphorylation of bovine interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggert, B.; Lee, L.; Chader, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    IRBP is the major soluble (glycolipo) protein of the interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) and a putative intercellular retinoid-transport vehicle. The authors have now examined phosphorylation of proteins in a crude bovine IPM wash using ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of IPM proteins showed several phosphorylated protein bands, one of them migrating in the same position as purified IRBP. When an aliquot of phosphorylated IPM proteins was incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol and subjected to either size-exclusion or ion-exchange HPLC, a peak of /sup 32/P was observed in both cases which coincided with /sup 3/H-retinol binding and had a retention time identical to that of purified IRBP. When phosphorylated IPM was subjected to Con A Sepharose affinity chromatography and the 50mM methyl ..cap alpha..-D-mannoside eluate chromatographed on ion-exchange HPLC, the /sup 32/P-peak was not present although a substantial amount of non-phosphorylated IRBP was recovered as assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. However, when the Con A Sepharose beads were dissolved in SDS and subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, a band of phosphorylated IRBP was observed, indicating that the phosphorylated IRBP was more tightly bound to the Con A Sepharose. The authors conclude that a fraction of IRBP can be phosphorylated by a yet to be characterized protein kinase and that the binding characteristics of IRBP are markedly altered by phosphorylation.

  6. [Regulation of pollen tube growth by reversible protein phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Suo, Jinwei; Dai, Shaojun

    2014-08-01

    The tip-growth of pollen tube is regulated by diverse signaling and metabolic processes, including Rop GTPase signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, Ca(2+) signaling, actin dynamics, vesicular trafficking, and cell wall re-modulation. These processes are regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation events: (1) The activities of Rop regulatory proteins (GEF, GDI, and GAP) that regulate Rop GTPase are variable under different protein phosphorylation states. In addition, various protein kinases function as the downstream effectors of Rop GTPase, and participate in the downstream pathways of Rop signaling. (2) Reversible protein phosphorylation can activate/inactivate the plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) channels and/or Ca(2+) pump, as well as control the release of intracellular Ca(2+), thereby regulating the formation of Ca(2+) gradient in pollen tube tip. In addition, protein kinases function as Ca(2+) sensors and phosphorylate the target proteins involved in the downstream regulatory pathways of Ca(2+) signaling. (3) The dynamics of actin polymerization and depolymerization are regulated by reversible phosphorylation of actin binding proteins (e.g., ADF and profilin). (4) Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates the activities of endo/exocytosis-related proteins and PM phospholipid metabolism that are involved in the membrane trafficking. (5) Reversible protein phosphorylation participates in the pollen tube cell wall re-modulation through regulating the function and subcellular distribution of cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase and sucrose synthase. (6) The activities of transcription regulatory protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor are regulated by protein phosphorylation, modulating the RNA transcription and protein synthesis. In this review, we present an overview of the functions of protein reversible phosphorylation in the aforementioned processes during the pollen tube tip-growth. PMID:25143274

  7. Acute exercise modifies titin phosphorylation and increases cardiac myofilament stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Anna E.; Kreiner, Matthias; Ktter, Sebastian; Lassak, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank; Krger, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Titin-based myofilament stiffness is largely modulated by phosphorylation of its elastic I-band regions N2-Bus (decreases passive stiffness, PT) and PEVK (increases PT). Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute exercise changes titin phosphorylation and modifies myofilament stiffness. Adult rats were exercised on a treadmill for 15 min, untrained animals served as controls. Titin phosphorylation was determined by Western blot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies to Ser4099 and Ser4010 in the N2-Bus region (PKG and PKA-dependent. respectively), and to Ser11878 and Ser 12022 in the PEVK region (PKC? and CaMKII?-dependent, respectively). Passive tension was determined by step-wise stretching of isolated skinned cardiomyocytes to sarcomere length (SL) ranging from 1.9 to 2.4 ?m and showed a significantly increased PT from exercised samples, compared to controls. In cardiac samples titin N2-Bus phosphorylation was significantly decreased by 40% at Ser4099, however, no significant changes were observed at Ser4010. PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 was significantly increased, which is probably mediated by the observed exercise-induced increase in PKC? activity. Interestingly, relative phosphorylation of Ser12022 was substantially decreased in the exercised samples. Surprisingly, in skeletal samples from acutely exercised animals we detected a significant decrease in PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 and an increase in Ser12022 phosphorylation; however, PKC? activity remained unchanged. In summary, our data show that a single exercise bout of 15 min affects titin domain phosphorylation and titin-based myocyte stiffness with obviously divergent effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. The observed changes in titin stiffness could play an important role in adapting the passive and active properties of the myocardium and the skeletal muscle to increased physical activity. PMID:25477822

  8. Phosphate ions and glutaminyl cyclases catalyze the cyclization of glutaminyl residues by facilitating synchronized proton transfers.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Franziska; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Weichler, Teresa; Ludwig, Hans-Henning; Tittmann, Kai; Schilling, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Phosphate ions and glutaminyl cyclase (QC) both catalyze the formation of pyroglutamate (pE, pGlu) from N-terminal glutamine residues of peptides and proteins. Here, we studied the mechanism of glutamine cyclization using kinetic secondary deuterium and solvent isotope effects. The data suggest that proton transfer(s) are rate determining for the spontaneous reaction, and that phosphate and QC are accelerating the reaction by promoting synchronized proton transfers in a concerted mechanism. Thus, non-enzymatic and enzymatic catalysis of pyroglutamate formation exploit a similar mode of transition-state stabilization. PMID:25981125

  9. Effect of non-enzymatic proteins on enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of different lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Non-enzymatic proteins were added during hydrolysis of cellulose and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of different biomass materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model non-enzymatic protein, increased cellulose and xylose conversion efficiency and also enhanced the ethanol yield during SSF of rice straw subjected to varied pretreatments. Corn steep liquor, yeast extract, and peptone also exerted a similar effect as BSA and enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Compared to the glucose yields obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw in the absence of additives, the glucose yields after 72h of hydrolysis increased by 12.7%, 13.5%, and 13.7% after addition of the corn steep liquor, yeast extract, and peptone, respectively. This study indicated the use of BSA as an alternative to intensive pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for enhancing enzymatic digestibility. The utilization of non-enzymatic protein additives is promising for application in glucose and ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25974351

  10. Streptolydigin, an Inhibitor of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rat Liver Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Fritz

    1969-01-01

    Streptolydigin interferes with oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. The agent acts primarily as an uncoupler of respiration-associated phosphorylation but also impairs respiration to various degrees depending on the substrate. Streptolydigin partially inhibits electron flow at a point past the cytochrome b and prior to the cytochrome c reduction site. Streptolydigin also inhibits the function of the enzyme ribonucleic acid polymerase in whole bacterial cells and cell-free systems. The streptolydigin concentrations that cause effective inhibition of ribonucleic acid polymerase in cell-free systems are approximately 10 times less than those required to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. PMID:4311869

  11. The maternal age effect: a hypothesis based on oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Martin; Di Matteo, Loredana; Dale, Brian

    2005-11-01

    The 'maternal age effect' in human reproduction, characterized by a negative relationship between maternal age and reproductive efficiency, remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Current data suggest that oocyte physiology determines this relationship. In this review, we present a hypothesis of a mitochondrial role in the physiology of ageing in human oocytes. We suggest that the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in the ageing human oocyte is degraded by free radical attack on the primordial oocytes residing in the ovary. Although deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation can be accounted for in the short term by anaerobic respiration, we suggest that, in the long term, the level of oxidative phosphorylation strongly influences oocyte quality. PMID:16388700

  12. Cyanogen induced phosphorylation of D-fructose. [prebiotic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, CH.; Kawatsuji, M.; Halmann, M.

    1975-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a phosphorylated sugar, identified as alpha-D-fructopyranose, can be formed as the result of cyanogen-induced phosphorylation of D-fructose at pH 8.8. The product was isolated from barium and cyclohexylammonium salts and identified on the basis of its chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, its lability to hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase, the rate of its acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, and the results of periodate oxidation and optical rotatory measurements. These results support the suggestion that the cyanogen-induced phosphorylation of free sugars could be a possible process for formation of sugar phosphates under prebiotic conditions (Halman et al., 1969).

  13. Phosphorylation of tRNA by T4 polynucleotide kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lillehaug, J R; Kleppe, K

    1977-01-01

    The phosphorylation of various intact tRNA species by T4 polynucleotide kinase has been studied. The apparent Michaelis constant was on the average found to be 100 times lower than for some single-stranded DNAs previously studied. (J.R. Lillehaug and K. Kleppe, (1975) Biochemistry, 14, 1221). Conditions which result in complete phosphorylation of different tRNA species have also been established. Studies on equilibrium constants and the reversibility of the reaction revealed that the phosphorylation reaction is not a true equilibrium reaction under the conditions used in this work. PMID:190592

  14. Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

    2012-11-01

    We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

  15. Analysis of the sodium chloride-dependent respiratory kinetics of wheat mitochondria reveals differential effects on phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating electron transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, R P; Che-Othman, M H; Millar, A H; Taylor, N L

    2016-04-01

    A number of previous studies have documented the gross response of mitochondrial respiration to salinity treatment, but it is unclear how NaCl directly affects the kinetics of plant phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating electron transport pathways. This study investigates the direct effects of NaCl upon different respiratory pathways in wheat, by measuring rates of isolated mitochondrial oxygen consumption across different substrate oxidation pathways in saline media. We also profile the abundance of respiratory proteins by using targeted selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry of mitochondria isolated from control and salt-treated wheat plants. We show that all pathways of electron transport were inhibited by NaCl concentrations above 400 mM; however electron transfer chains showed divergent responses to NaCl concentrations between 0 and 200 mM. Stimulation of oxygen consumption was measured in response to NaCl in scenarios where exogenous NADH was provided as substrate and electron flow was coupled to the generation of a proton gradient across the inner membrane. Protein abundance measurements show that several enzymes with activities less affected by NaCl are induced by salinity, whereas enzymes with activities inhibited by NaCl are depleted. These data deepen our understanding of how plant respiration responds to NaCl, offering new mechanistic explanations for the divergent salinity responses of whole-plant respiratory rate in the literature. PMID:26470009

  16. Taking electrons out of bioelectronics: bioprotonic memories and enzymatic logic gates (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In living systems, protonic and ionic currents are the basis for all information processing. As such, artificial devices based on protonic and ionic currents offer an exciting opportunity for bioelectronics. Proton transport in nature is important for ATP oxidative phosphorylation, the HCVN1 voltage gated proton channel, light activated proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin, and the proton conducting single water file of the antibiotic gramicidin. In these systems, protons move along hydrogen bond networks formed by water and the hydrated biomolecules (proton wires). We have previously demonstrated complementary H+- and OH-- FETs with acid and base doped biopolymer proton wires and PdHx proton conducting contacts. Here, I will discuss proton-conducting devices based oh highly conductive proton wires that emulate brain synapses, display memristive behaviour, and are connected to form shift registries. Furthermore, I will present the integration of these devices with enzymatic logic gates for integrated biotic-abiotic protonic information processing. Preliminary results on using these devices to affect biological function will be discussed.

  17. Redox polymer mediation for enzymatic biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaway, Joshua

    Mediated biocatalytic cathodes prepared from the oxygen-reducing enzyme laccase and redox-conducting osmium hydrogels were characterized for use as cathodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. A series of osmium-based redox polymers was synthesized with redox potentials spanning the range from 0.11 V to 0.85 V (SHE), and the resulting biocatalytic electrodes were modeled to determine reaction kinetic constants using the current response, measured osmium concentration, and measured apparent electron diffusion. As in solution-phase systems, the bimolecular rate constant for mediation was found to vary greatly with mediator potential---from 250 s-1M-1 when mediator and enzyme were close in potential to 9.4 x 10 4 s-1M-1 when this overpotential was large. Optimum mediator potential for a cell operating with a non-limiting platinum anode and having no mass transport limitation from bulk solution was found to be 0.66 V (SHE). Redox polymers were synthesized under different concentrations, producing osmium variation. An increase from 6.6% to 7.2% osmium increased current response from 1.2 to 2.1 mA/cm2 for a planar film in 40°C oxygen-saturated pH 4 buffer, rotating at 900 rpm. These results translated to high surface area electrodes, nearly doubling current density to 13 mA/cm2, the highest to date for such an electrode. The typical fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was replaced by a bacterially-expressed small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in biocatalytic films that reduced oxygen at increased pH, with full functionality at pH 7, producing 1.5 mA/cm 2 in planar configuration. Current response was biphasic with pH, matching the activity profile of the free enzyme in solution. The mediated enzyme electrode system was modeled with respect to apparent electron diffusion, mediator concentration, and transport of oxygen from bulk solution, all of which are to some extent controlled by design. Each factor was found to limit performance in certain circumstances. In systems relying on stagnant solution, oxygen transport was found to dominate. However, if mass transport was efficient, differences in mediator design greatly affected performance.

  18. Cold-Resistant and Cold-Sensitive Maize Lines Differ in the Phosphorylation of the Photosystem II Subunit, CP29.

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, S.; Dainese, P.; Lannoye, R.; Bassi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of low temperature on the relative contributions of the reaction center and the antenna activities to photosystem II (PSII) electron transport were estimated by chlorophyll fluorescence. The inhibition of PSII photochemistry resulted from photo-damage to the reaction center and/or a reduced probability of excitation energy trapping by the reaction center. Although chill treatment did not modify the proportion of the dimeric to monomeric PSII, it destabilized its main light-harvesting complex. Full protection of the reaction center was achieved only in the presence of the phosphorylated PSII subunit, CP29. In a nonphosphorylating genotype the chill treatment led to photoinhibitory damage. The phosphorylation of CP29 modified neither its binding to the PSII core nor its pigment content. Phosphorylated CP29 was isolated by flat-bed isoelectric focusing. Its spectral characteristics indicated a depletion of the chlorophyll spectral forms with the highest excitation transfer efficiency to the reaction center. It is suggested that phosphorylated CP29 performs its regulatory function by an yet undescribed mechanism based on a shift of the equilibrium for the excitation energy toward the antenna. PMID:12223798

  19. SCF(beta-TRCP) and phosphorylation dependent ubiquitinationof I kappa B alpha catalyzed by Ubc3 and Ubc4.

    PubMed

    Strack, P; Caligiuri, M; Pelletier, M; Boisclair, M; Theodoras, A; Beer-Romero, P; Glass, S; Parsons, T; Copeland, R A; Auger, K R; Benfield, P; Brizuela, L; Rolfe, M

    2000-07-20

    NF kappa B is an important transcriptional regulator of multiple pro-inflammatory genes. In non-stimulated cells NF kappa B is anchored in the cytoplasm via the inhibitory protein I kappa B alpha. Following exposure to diverse pro-inflammatory signals (e.g. TNF alpha, IL1, LPS) various signal transduction cascades are initiated converging on the I kappa B kinase (IKK). IKK phosphorylates I kappa B alpha on serines 32 and 36 signaling the inhibitory protein for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. The SCF beta-TRCP complex is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for mediating phosphorylation dependent ubiquitination of I kappa B alpha. Here we reconstitute phosphorylation dependent ubiquitination of I kappa B alpha using recombinant components. Our results suggest that the cullin specificity of the SCF complex may reflect its ability to associate with Rbx1. We demonstrate specific ubiquitination of I kappa B alpha by Ubc3 and Ubc4 in a phosphorylation and SCF beta-TRCP dependent manner and that both are capable of associating with the SCF beta-TRCP complex isolated from human cells. Finally, we show that Ubc4 is in excess to Ubc3 in THP.1 cells and 19 times more efficient in catalyzing the reaction, suggesting that Ubc4 is the preferentially used Ubc in this reaction in vivo. Our results also suggest that ubiquitin is transferred directly from the Ubc to phospho-I kappa B alpha in a SCF beta-TRCP dependent reaction. Oncogene (2000) 19, 3529 - 3536 PMID:10918611

  20. Ca/sup + +/- and cyclic AMP-induced changes in intact cell phosphorylation of ileal microvillus membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, G.W.G.; Hannah, C.M.; Cohen, M.; Donowitz, M.

    1986-03-05

    Pieces of rabbit distal ileal mucosa, with the muscularis propria and serosa removed, were incubated for 90 minutes in Krebs-Ringer bicarborate buffer (KRB) with /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ to label the intracellular nucleotide pools. After rinsing, the mucosal pieces were transferred to KRB in the absence and presence of 10 ..mu..M A23187 or 10 mM theophylline. After a further 10 minutes the cells were scraped off and microvillus membranes prepared. The membranes were solubilized, subjected to two dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, and analyzed by densitometry. A23187 increased the phosphorylation of four microvillus membrane proteins with M/sub r/ of 32, 52, 110 and 116K. Increased phosphorylation of the 52 and 116K proteins has also been detected in microvillus membranes subjected to Ca/sup + +/ and calmodulin in the presence of ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP. Theophylline increased the phosphorylation of the same 32 and 52K proteins and, additionally, of a second 32K peptide. While any of these proteins could be involved in the control of electrolyte transport, it is noteworthy that increased Ca/sup + +/, and increased cyclic AMP levels exert similar effects upon intestinal electrolyte transport. That A23187 and theophylline both increase the phosphorylation of the 32 and 52K proteins increases the possibility that these are involved in ion transport.

  1. Phosphorylation-induced torsion-angle strain in the active center of HPr, detected by NMR and restrained molecular dynamics refinement.

    PubMed Central

    Van Nuland, N. A.; Wiersma, J. A.; Van Der Spoel, D.; De Groot, B. L.; Scheek, R. M.; Robillard, G. T.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the phosphorylated form of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr from Escherichia coli has been solved by NMR and compared with that of unphosphorylated HPr. The structural changes that occur upon phosphorylation of His 15, monitored by changes in NOE patterns, 3JNHH alpha-coupling constants, and chemical shifts, are limited to the region around the phosphorylation site. The His15 backbone torsion angles become strained upon phosphorylation. The release of this strain during the phosphoryl-transfer to Enzyme II facilitates the transport of carbohydrates across the membrane. From an X-ray study of Streptococcus faecalis HPr (Jia Z, Vandonselaar M, Quail JW, Delbaere LTJ, 1993, Nature 361:94-97), it was proposed that the observed torsion-angle strain at residue 16 in unphosphorylated S. faecalis HPr has a role to play in the protein's phosphocarrier function. The model predicts that this strain is released upon phosphorylation. Our observations on E. coli HPr in solution, which shows strain only after phosphorylation, and the fact that all other HPrs studied thus far in their unphosphorylated forms show no strain either, led us to investigate the possibility that the crystal environment causes the strain in S. faecalis HPr. A 1-ns molecular dynamics simulation of S. faecalis HPr, under conditions that mimic the crystal environment, confirms the observations from the X-ray study, including the torsion-angle strain at residue 16. The strain disappeared, however, when S. faecalis HPr was simulated in a water environment, resulting in an active site configuration virtually the same as that observed in all other unphosphorylated HPrs. This indicates that the torsion-angle strain at Ala 16 in S. faecalis HPr is a result of crystal contacts or conditions and does not play a role in the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. PMID:8868480

  2. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penaranda, Frank E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: international comparison of R&D expenditures in 1989; NASA Technology Transfer Program; NASA Technology Utilization Program thrusts for FY 1992 and FY 1993; National Technology Transfer Network; and NTTC roles.

  3. Enzymatic accessibility of fiber hemp is enhanced by enzymatic or chemical removal of pectin.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, A; Zhang, J; Brock, T; Maijala, P; Viikari, L

    2012-03-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes, steam explosion and alkaline treatment were used to assess the role of pectin for the accessibility of hydrolytic enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a potential energy crop especially in boreal climate with a low need of fertilizers, was used in the study either as untreated or anaerobically preserved raw material. Addition of pectinases increased the hydrolysis yield by 26%, 54%, and 64% from the theoretical carbohydrates of untreated, acid, and alkali-preserved materials, respectively. Steam explosion and hot alkali treatment increased the conversion of the total carbohydrates by 78% and 60%, respectively, compared to the untreated hemp. Elevated separation of cells within the hemp stalk tissues and an increased surface area was revealed after hot alkali or pectinase treatments, contributing to the increased conversion to sugars by commercial enzymes. PMID:22237172

  4. Phosphorylation of a neuronal-specific beta-tubulin isotype

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Nido, J.; Serrano, L.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Avila, J. )

    1990-08-15

    Adult rats were intracraneally injected with ({sup 32}P) phosphate and brain microtubules isolated. The electrophoretically purified, in vivo phospholabeled, beta-tubulin was digested with the V8-protease and the labeled peptide purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Its amino acid sequence corresponds to the COOH-terminal sequence of a minor neuronal beta 3-tubulin isoform from chicken and human. The phosphorylation site was at serine 444. A synthetic peptide with sequence EMYEDDEEESESQGPK, corresponding to that of the COOH terminus of beta 3-tubulin, was efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase II at the same serine 444. The functional meaning of tubulin phosphorylation is still unclear. However, the modification of the protein takes place after microtubule assembly, and phosphorylated tubulin is mainly present in the assembled microtubule protein fraction.

  5. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H; De Robertis, Edward M

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state. PMID:21990430

  6. Evidence of histidine phosphorylation in isocitrate lyase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Roberston, E.F.; Hoyt, J.C.; Reeves, H.C.

    1987-05-01

    Escherichia coli isocitrate lyase can be phosphorylated in vitro in an ATP-dependent reaction. Partially purified extracts were incubated with ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by a Western blot and autoradiography. Radioactivity was associated with the lyase only when blotting was performed under alkaline conditions. This suggests that phosphate groups are attached to the lyase via an acid-labile P-N bond rather than a more stable P-O bond. Treatment of the lyase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine modifying agent, blocks incorporation of /sup 32/P-phosphate. Treatment with phosphoramidate, a histidine phosphorylating agent, alters the isoelectric point of the lyase suggesting that the enzyme can be phosphorylated at histidine residues. Loss of catalytic activity after treatment with potato acid phosphatase indicates that isocitrate lyase activity may be modulated by phosphorylation.

  7. Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W. (Stony Brook, NY); Appella, Ettore (Montgomery, MD); Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu (Montgomery, MD)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

  8. Abiotic regioselective phosphorylation of adenosine with borate in formamide.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Hutter, Daniel; Benner, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, Schoffstall and his coworkers used formamide as a solvent to permit the phosphorylation of nucleosides by inorganic phosphate to give nucleoside phosphates, which (due to their thermodynamic instability with respect to hydrolysis) cannot be easily created in water by an analogous phosphorylation (the "water problem" in prebiotic chemistry). More recently, we showed that borate could stabilize certain carbohydrates against degradation (the "asphalt problem"). Here, we combine the two concepts to show that borate can work in formamide to guide the reactivity of nucleosides under conditions where they are phosphorylated. Specifically, reaction of adenosine in formamide with inorganic phosphate and pyrophosphate in the presence of borate gives adenosine-5'-phosphate as the only detectable phosphorylated product, with formylation (as opposed to hydrolysis) being the competing reaction. PMID:25826074

  9. Interphase H1 phosphorylation: Regulation and functions in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ruiqi; Mizzen, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    Many metazoan cell types differentially express multiple non-allelic amino acid sequence variants of histone H1. Although early work revealed that H1 variants, collectively, are phosphorylated during interphase and mitosis, differences between individual H1 variants in the sites they possess for mitotic and interphase phosphorylation have been elucidated only relatively recently. Here, we review current knowledge on the regulation and function of interphase H1 phosphorylation, with a particular emphasis on how differences in interphase phosphorylation among the H1 variants of mammalian cells may enable them to have differential effects on transcription and other chromatin processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone H1, edited by Dr. Albert Jordan. PMID:26657617

  10. Transfer Hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Martin

    2016-01-11

    Transfer hydrogenation is without question a common technology in industry and academia. Unlike its countless varieties, conceptually related transfer hydrosilylations had essentially been unreported until the recent development of a radical and an ionic variant. The new methods are both based on a silicon-substituted cyclohexa-1,4-diene and hinge on the aromatization of the corresponding cyclohexadienyl radical and cation intermediates, respectively, concomitant with homo- or heterolytic fission of the Si?C bond. Both the radical and ionic transfer hydrosilylation are brought into context with one other in this Minireview, and early insight into the possibility of transfer hydrosilylation is included. Although the current state-of-the-art is certainly still limited, the recent advances have already revealed the promising potential of transfer hydrosilylation. PMID:26597123

  11. Transference symptom.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Franois

    2008-08-01

    Transference symptom is a hazy notion in Freud's writings. The notion is presented here as a particular moment in the crystallization of the transference neurosis. It results from a double cathexis of the analytic frame and the analyst resulting in a symbolic distortion that is represented plastically within the session, as occurs in dreams. The transference symptom proceeds from two different preconscious cathexes, one attached to the reality of the frame, the other to the drive linked to the analyst. A psychic space is thereby opened up for interpreting both the resistance and the unconscious derivatives of infantile conflict. The transference symptom is a compromise formation that includes the analyst and questions the countertransference stance. Three different analytic situations give rise to transference symptoms according to the relative balance between frame and process in the analytic encounter. The concept is compared with enactment. PMID:18816340

  12. Glucocorticoids Antagonize Ap-1 by Inhibiting the Activation/Phosphorylation of Jnk without Affecting Its Subcellular Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez, Mara Victoria; Jimnez, Benilde; Berciano, Mara T.; Gonzlez-Sancho, Jos Manuel; Caelles, Carme; Lafarga, Miguel; Muoz, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory actions of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated by their transrepression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) transcription factors. Inhibition of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, the main mediator of AP-1 activation, has been described in extracts of hormone-treated cells. Here, we show by confocal laser microscopy, enzymatic assays, and immunoblotting that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone inhibited tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?)induced phosphorylation and activation of JNK in the cytoplasm and nucleus of intact HeLa cells. As a result, c-Jun NH2-terminal domain phosphorylation and induction were impaired. Dexamethasone did not block the TNF-?induced JNK nuclear translocation, but rather induced, per se, nuclear accumulation of the enzyme. Consistently with previous findings, a glucocorticoid receptor mutant (GRdim), which is deficient in dimerization, DNA binding, and transactivation, but retains AP-1 transrepressing activity, was as efficient as wild-type GR in mediating the same effects of dexamethasone on JNK in transfected Cos-7 cells. Our results show that glucocorticoids antagonize the TNF-?induced activation of AP-1 by causing the accumulation of inactive JNK without affecting its subcellular distribution. PMID:10974006

  13. Pathophysiological implications of mitochondrial oxidative stress mediated by mitochondriotropic agents and polyamines: the role of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Grancara, Silvia; Zonta, Francesca; Ohkubo, Shinji; Brunati, Anna Maria; Agostinelli, Enzo; Toninello, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondria, once merely considered as the "powerhouse" of cells, as they generate more than 90 % of cellular ATP, are now known to play a central role in many metabolic processes, including oxidative stress and apoptosis. More than 40 known human diseases are the result of excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), bioenergetic collapse and dysregulated apoptosis. Mitochondria are the main source of ROS in cells, due to the activity of the respiratory chain. In normal physiological conditions, ROS generation is limited by the anti-oxidant enzymatic systems in mitochondria. However, disregulation of the activity of these enzymes or interaction of respiratory complexes with mitochondriotropic agents may lead to a rise in ROS concentrations, resulting in oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induction and triggering of the apoptotic pathway. ROS concentration is also increased by the activity of amine oxidases located inside and outside mitochondria, with oxidation of biogenic amines and polyamines. However, it should also be recalled that, depending on its concentration, the polyamine spermine can also protect against stress caused by ROS scavenging. In higher organisms, cell signaling pathways are the main regulators in energy production, since they act at the level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and participate in the induction of the MPT. Thus, respiratory complexes, ATP synthase and transition pore components are the targets of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Increased ROS may also regulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of target proteins by activating Src kinases or phosphatases, preventing or inducing a number of pathological states. PMID:25792113

  14. Inhibition of tau phosphorylating protein kinase cdk5 prevents beta-amyloid-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A; Toro, R; Cáceres, A; Maccioni, R B

    1999-10-15

    The key target of this study was the tau protein kinase II system (TPK II) involving the catalytic subunit cdk5 and the regulatory component p35. TPK II is one of the tau phosphorylating systems in neuronal cells, thus regulating its functions in the cytoskeletal dynamics and the extension of neuronal processes. This research led to demonstration that the treatment of rat hippocampal cells in culture with fibrillary beta-amyloid (Abeta) results in a significant increase of the cdk5 enzymatic activity. Interestingly, the data also showed that the neurotoxic effect of 1-20 microM Abeta on primary cultures markedly diminished with co-incubation of hippocampal cells with the amyloid fibers plus the cdk5 inhibitor butyrolactone I. This inhibitor protected brain cells against Abeta-induced cell death in a concentration dependent fashion. Moreover, death was also prevented by a cdk5 antisense probe, but not by an oligonucleotide with a random sequence. The cdk5 antisense also reduced neuronal expression of cdk5 compared with the random oligonucleotide. The studies indicate that cdk5 plays a major role in the molecular path leading to the neurodegenerative process triggered by the amyloid fibers in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. These findings are of interest in the context of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:10526177

  15. CIP2A regulates cancer metabolism and CREB phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Lei, Ningjing; Chai, Yurong; Chan, Edward K.L.; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a recently characterized endogenous inhibitor of the phosphatase activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which extends the half-life of oncogenic protein c-myc and promotes in vivo tumor growth. The function of CIP2A in cancer progression is still poorly understood. To uncover the underlying mechanism of CIP2A-mediated cell proliferation, we implemented two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteomic approach to examine lung cancer cell H1299 with and without CIP2A. We found 47 proteins differentially expressed where 19 proteins were upregulated and 28 proteins were downregulated. These were categorized into functional groups as metabolism (25%), transcriptional and translational control (23%), and signaling pathway and protein degradation (20%). On one hand, we validate our proteomic work by measuring the metabolic change. The knockdown of CIP2A decreased the expression of LDH-A as well as the enzymatic activity, accompanying with decreased lactate production, increased NADH/NAD+ ratio and ROS production. On the other hand, we found CIP2A may regulate CREB activity through bioinformatics analysis. Our following experiments showed that, CIP2A positively regulated the phosphorylation of CREB in response to the serum treatment. Therefore, our proteomic study suggested CIP2A mediate cancer progression through metabolic pathway and intracellular signaling cascade. PMID:25325377

  16. Nodularin exposure induces SOD1 phosphorylation and disrupts SOD1 co-localization with actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Hjørnevik, Linda V; Fismen, Lise; Young, Fiona M; Solstad, Therese; Fladmark, Kari E

    2012-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is induced in primary hepatocytes by the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase inhibiting cyanobacterial toxin nodularin after only minutes of exposure. Nodularin-induced apoptosis involves a rapid development of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be delayed by the Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN93. This apoptosis model provides us with a unique population of highly synchronized dying cells, making it possible to identify low abundant phosphoproteins participating in apoptosis signaling. Here, we show that nodularin induces phosphorylation and possibly also cysteine oxidation of the antioxidant Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), without altering enzymatic SOD1 activity. The observed post-translational modifications of SOD1 could be regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II. In untreated hepatocytes, a high concentration of SOD1 was found in the sub-membranous area, co-localized with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In the early phase of nodularin exposure, SOD1 was found in high concentration in evenly distributed apoptotic buds. Nodularin induced a rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and, at the time of polarized budding, SOD1 and actin filaments no longer co-localized. PMID:23242317

  17. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G; Lee, Gilbert R; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-02-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with mutations in BRCA genes. BRCA1 and BRCA2 have essential roles in repairing DNA double-strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907 (PARP1 pTyr907 or pY907). PARP1 pY907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. The combination of c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models, and we observed similar synergistic effects in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that the abundance of PARP1 pY907 may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients whose tumors show high c-Met expression and who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  18. Mengovirus-induced rearrangement of the nuclear pore complex: hijacking cellular phosphorylation machinery.

    PubMed

    Bardina, Maryana V; Lidsky, Peter V; Sheval, Eugene V; Fominykh, Ksenia V; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Polyakov, Vladimir Y; Agol, Vadim I

    2009-04-01

    Representatives of several picornavirus genera have been shown previously to significantly enhance non-controllable bidirectional exchange of proteins between nuclei and cytoplasm. In enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, enhanced permeabilization of the nuclear pores appears to be primarily due to proteolytic degradation of some nucleoporins (protein components of the pore), whereas this effect in cardiovirus-infected cells is triggered by the leader (L) protein, devoid of any enzymatic activities. Here, we present evidence that expression of L alone was sufficient to cause permeabilization of the nuclear envelope in HeLa cells. In contrast to poliovirus, mengovirus infection of these cells did not elicit loss of nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153 from the nuclear pore complex. Instead, nuclear envelope permeabilization was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation of Nup62 in cells infected with wild-type mengovirus, whereas both of these alterations were suppressed in L-deficient virus mutants. Since phosphorylation of Nup62 (although less prominent) did accompany permeabilization of the nuclear envelope prior to its mitotic disassembly in uninfected cells, we hypothesize that cardiovirus L alters the nucleocytoplasmic traffic by hijacking some components of the normal cell division machinery. The variability and biological significance of picornaviral interactions with the nucleocytoplasmic transport in the infected cells are discussed. PMID:19144712

  19. The Lipid Kinase Phosphatidylinositol-4 Kinase III Alpha Regulates the Phosphorylation Status of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Ins; Radujkovic, Danijela; Klein, Rahel; Ruggieri, Alessia; Rebhan, Ilka; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lohmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III alpha (PI4KIII?) is an essential host factor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. PI4KIII? catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) accumulating in HCV replicating cells due to enzyme activation resulting from its interaction with nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A). This study describes the interaction between PI4KIII? and NS5A and its mechanistic role in viral RNA replication. We mapped the NS5A sequence involved in PI4KIII? interaction to the carboxyterminal end of domain 1 and identified a highly conserved PI4KIII? functional interaction site (PFIS) encompassing seven amino acids, which are essential for viral RNA replication. Mutations within this region were also impaired in NS5A-PI4KIII? binding, reduced PI4P levels and altered the morphology of viral replication sites, reminiscent to the phenotype observed by silencing of PI4KIII?. Interestingly, abrogation of RNA replication caused by mutations in the PFIS correlated with increased levels of hyperphosphorylated NS5A (p58), indicating that PI4KIII? affects the phosphorylation status of NS5A. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PI4KIII? or pharmacological ablation of kinase activity led to a relative increase of p58. In contrast, overexpression of enzymatically active PI4KIII? increased relative abundance of basally phosphorylated NS5A (p56). PI4KIII? therefore regulates the phosphorylation status of NS5A and viral RNA replication by favoring p56 or repressing p58 synthesis. Replication deficiencies of PFIS mutants in NS5A could not be rescued by increasing PI4P levels, but by supplying functional NS5A, supporting an essential role of PI4KIII? in HCV replication regulating NS5A phosphorylation, thereby modulating the morphology of viral replication sites. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PI4KIII? activity affects the NS5A phosphorylation status. Our results highlight the importance of PI4KIII? in the morphogenesis of viral replication sites and its regulation by facilitating p56 synthesis. PMID:23675303

  20. Resources for Assignment of Phosphorylation Sites on Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Macek, Boris; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory posttranslational modification that plays a significant role in major cellular signaling processes. Phosphorylation events can be systematically identified, quantified, and localized on protein sequence using publicly available bioinformatic tools. Here we present the software tools commonly used by the phosphoproteomics community, discuss their underlying principles of operation, and provide a protocol for large-scale phosphoproteome data analysis using the MaxQuant software suite. PMID:26584934

  1. Tau Phosphorylation by GSK3 in Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Jess; Len-Espinosa, Gonzalo; Garca, Esther; Garca-Escudero, Vega; Hernndez, Flix; DeFelipe, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Almost a 20% of the residues of tau protein are phosphorylatable amino acids: serine, threonine, and tyrosine. In this paper we comment on the consequences for tau of being a phosphoprotein. We will focus on serine/threonine phosphorylation. It will be discussed that, depending on the modified residue in tau molecule, phosphorylation could be protective, in processes like hibernation, or toxic like in development of those diseases known as tauopathies, which are characterized by an hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau. PMID:22675648

  2. Fission Yeast Rad52 Phosphorylation Restrains Error Prone Recombination Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Angela; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Tessier, Ludovic; Sage, Evelyne; Francesconi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Rad52 is a key protein in homologous recombination (HR), a DNA repair pathway dedicated to double strand breaks and recovery of blocked or collapsed replication forks. Rad52 allows Rad51 loading on single strand DNA, an event required for strand invasion and D-loop formation. In addition, Rad52 functions also in Rad51 independent pathways because of its ability to promote single strand annealing (SSA) that leads to loss of genetic material and to promote D-loops formation that are cleaved by Mus81 endonuclease. We have previously reported that fission yeast Rad52 is phosphorylated in a Sty1 dependent manner upon oxidative stress and in cells where the early step of HR is impaired because of lack of Rad51. Here we show that Rad52 is also constitutively phosphorylated in mus81 null cells and that Sty1 partially impinges on such phosphorylation. As upon oxidative stress, the Rad52 phosphorylation in rad51 and mus81 null cells appears to be independent of Tel1, Rad3 and Cdc2. Most importantly, we show that mutating serine 365 to glycine (S365G) in Rad52 leads to loss of the constitutive Rad52 phosphorylation observed in cells lacking Rad51 and to partial loss of Rad52 phosphorylation in cells lacking Mus81. Contrariwise, phosphorylation of Rad52-S365G protein is not affected upon oxidative stress. These results indicate that different Rad52 residues are phosphorylated in a Sty1 dependent manner in response to these distinct situations. Analysis of spontaneous HR at direct repeats shows that mutating serine 365 leads to an increase in spontaneous deletion-type recombinants issued from mitotic recombination that are Mus81 dependent. In addition, the recombination rate in the rad52-S365G mutant is further increased by hydroxyurea, a drug to which mutant cells are sensitive. PMID:24748152

  3. Enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve biogas production.

    PubMed

    Ziemi?ski, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska, M

    2012-06-01

    The effect of enzymatic pretreatment of sugar beet pulp and spent hops prior to methane fermentation was determined in this study. These industrial residues were subjected to enzymatic digestion before anaerobic fermentation because of high fiber content (of 85.1% dry matter (DM) and 57.7% DM in sugar beet pulp and spent hops, respectively). Their 24h hydrolysis with a mix of enzymatic preparations Celustar XL and Agropect pomace (3:1, v/v), with endoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase activities, was most effective. Reducing sugars concentrations in hydrolysates of sugar beet pulp and spent hops were by 88.9% and 59.4% higher compared to undigested materials. The highest yield of biogas was obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sugar beet pulp (183.39 mL/d from 1g COD at fermenter loading with organic matter of 5.43 g COD/L d). Fermentation of sugar beet pulp gave 19% less biogas. Methane fermentation of spent hops hydrolysate yielded 121.47 mL/d biogas from 1g COD (at 6.02 g COD/L d, 13% more than from spent hops). These results provide evidence that suitable enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes improve biogas yield from anaerobic fermentation. PMID:22342637

  4. Phosphorylation-directed assembly of a single quantum dot based nanosensor for protein kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases play crucial roles in intracellular signal transduction and metabolic pathways, and the monitoring of protein kinase activity is essential to the understanding of fundamental biochemical processes and the clinical diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate the phosphorylation-directed assembly of a single quantum dot (QD)-based nanosensor for sensitive detection of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). This assay involves (1) the PKA-directed simultaneous phosphorylation and biotinylation of cyanine 5 (Cy5)-labeled substrate peptides, (2) the assembly of phosphorylated and biotinylated peptides onto the surface of the QD, and (3) the illumination of Cy5 by means of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the QD and Cy5. With an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue, ?-biotin-ATP, as the phosphoryl donor, the PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation reaction incorporates the biotin-conjugated phosphate group into the substrate peptides to form the biotinylated peptides. The biotin entity subsequently drives the assembly of peptides onto the surface of streptavidin-functionalized QD to form the sandwiched Cy5-peptide-QD nanostructure, enabling the occurrence of FRET between the QD and Cy5. The FRET signal can be easily recorded by either the conventional fluorescence spectrometer or the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In contrast, the absence of PKA cannot lead to the formation of Cy5-peptide-QD complex and no Cy5 signal can be detected. This protein kinase-actuated FRET assay is straightforward, without the involvement of either washing or separation steps, and has a significant advantage of high sensitivity with a detection limit of 9.3 10(-6) U/?L. Moreover, this method can be used to estimate the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of PKA inhibitor H-89 (N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride) and to monitor forskolin (Fsk)/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-triggered activation of PKA in cell lysates, thus holding great potential for further applications in protein kinase-related biological researches and drug discovery. PMID:25827722

  5. Nicotine Enhances the Antiapoptotic Function of Mcl-1 through Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Xin, Meiguo; Wang, Ton; Zhang, Yangde; Deng, Xingming

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer has a strong etiological association with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, a major component in tobacco smoke, functions as a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis following various stresses. However, the mechanism of action remains elusive. Mcl-1, a major antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl2 family, is extensively expressed in both small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, suggesting that Mcl-1 may be a therapeutic target of patients with lung cancer. Here we found that nicotine induces Mcl-1 phosphorylation through activation of ERK1/2 in association with increased chemoresistance of human lung cancer cells. Since nicotine stimulates Mcl-1 phosphorylation and survival in cells expressing WT but has no such effects in cells expressing T163A Mcl-1 mutant, this indicates that nicotine induces Mcl-1 phosphorylation exclusively at the T 163 site and that phosphorylation of Mcl-1 at T163 is required for nicotine-induced survival. Mechanistically, nicotine-induced Mcl-1 phosphorylation significantly enhances the half-life of Mcl-1, which renders Mcl-1 a long-term survival activity. Specific depletion of Mcl-1 by RNA interferenceblocks nicotine-stimulated survival and enhances apoptotic cell death. Thus, nicotine-enhanced survival of lung cancer cells may occur through activation of Mcl-1 by phosphorylation at T163 site, which may contribute to development of human lung cancer and/or chemoresistance. PMID:19903766

  6. Phosphorylation of mutant huntingtin at serine 116 modulates neuronal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Watkin, Erin E; Arbez, Nicolas; Waldron-Roby, Elaine; O'Meally, Robert; Ratovitski, Tamara; Cole, Robert N; Ross, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation has been shown to have a significant impact on expanded huntingtin-mediated cellular toxicity. Several phosphorylation sites have been identified on the huntingtin (Htt) protein. To find new potential therapeutic targets for Huntington's Disease (HD), we used mass spectrometry to identify novel phosphorylation sites on N-terminal Htt, expressed in HEK293 cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis we introduced alterations of phosphorylation sites in a N586 Htt construct containing 82 polyglutamine repeats. The effects of these alterations on expanded Htt toxicity were evaluated in primary neurons using a nuclear condensation assay and a direct time-lapse imaging of neuronal death. As a result of these studies, we identified several novel phosphorylation sites, validated several known sites, and discovered one phospho-null alteration, S116A, that had a protective effect against expanded polyglutamine-mediated cellular toxicity. The results suggest that S116 is a potential therapeutic target, and indicate that our screening method is useful for identifying candidate phosphorylation sites. PMID:24505464

  7. Multisite phosphorylation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L.; Huber, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase is phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro on serine residues. Phosphorylation of SPS in vivo yields twelve major phosphopeptides after a tryptic digest and two dimensional mapping. The in vivo labeling of three of these SPS P-peptides is reduced in illuminated leaves where the extracted enzyme is activated relative to that of dark leaves. Two of these inhibitory sites are phosphorylated as well when SPS is inactivated in vitro using ({sup 32}P)ATP. In vivo phosphorylation of two other sites is enhanced during mannose feeding of the leaves (in light or dark) which produces the highest activation state of SPS. Overall, the results confirm that light-dark regulation of SPS activity occurs as a result of regulatory seryl-phosphorylation and involves a balance between phosphorylation of sites which inhibit or stimulate activity. Regulation of the SPS protein kinase that inhibits activity is relatively unaffected by phosphate but inhibited by G1c 6-P (IC{sub 50}{approx}5 mM), which may explain the control of SPS activation state by light-dark signals.

  8. Tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Yasuoka, Chie; Kageyama, Kan; Wada, Yoshinao; Kondo, Takahito

    2002-09-20

    In mouse pancreatic insulin-producing betaTC cells, oxidative stress due to H(2)O(2) causes tyrosine phosphorylation in various proteins. To identify proteins bearing phosphotyrosine under stress, the proteins were affinity purified using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody-conjugated agarose column. A protein of 180kDa was identified as clathrin heavy chain (CHC) by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitated CHC showed tyrosine phosphorylation upon H(2)O(2) treatment and the phosphorylation was suppressed by the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2. The phosphorylation status of CHC affected the intracellular localization of CHC and the clathrin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin under oxidative stress. In conclusion, CHC is a protein that is phosphorylated at tyrosine by H(2)O(2) and this phosphorylation status is implicated in the intracellular localization and functions of CHC under oxidative stress. The present study demonstrates that oxidative stress affects intracellular vesicular trafficking via the alteration of clathrin-dependent vesicular trafficking. PMID:12237126

  9. Phospho-oligosaccharide dependent phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Puerta, J; Mato, J M; Alemany, S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of insulin on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation has been shown to be mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in intact adipocytes. We demonstrate that the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to intact adipocytes enhances the phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase in the same tryptic peptide as insulin does. The addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to an adipocyte extract also results in an increase in ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation but in a different site than that observed in intact cells. The phospho-oligosaccharide-dependent incorporation of phosphate into ATP citrate lyase in intact cells is resistant to isopropanol and acetic acid, but the phosphoenzyme phosphorylated in cell extracts is acid labile. In cell extracts, the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide markedly inhibits ATP hydrolysis, which may explain the effect of this molecule on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation in broken cells. These results support the hypothesis that this phospho-oligosaccharide mediates some of the effects of insulin on protein phosphorylation. They also indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results obtained by adding phospho-oligosaccharide to broken cell preparations. PMID:2119547

  10. Characterisation and properties of homo- and heterogenously phosphorylated nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Vanja; Boi?, Mojca; Vogrin?i?, Robert; Mathew, Aji P

    2015-07-10

    Nano-sized cellulose ester derivatives having phosphoryl side groups were synthesised by phosphorylation of nanofibrilated cellulose (NFC) and nanocrystaline cellulose (NCC), using different heterogeneous (in water) and homogeneous (in molten urea) processes with phosphoric acid as phosphoryl donor. The phosphorylation mechanism, efficacy, stability, as well as its influence on the NC crystallinity and thermal properties, were evaluated using ATR-FTIR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, potentiometric titration, capillary electrophoresis, X-ray diffraction, colorimetry, thermogravimmetry and SEM. Phosphorylation under both processes created dibasic phosphate and monobasic tautomeric phosphite groups at C6 and C3 positioned hydroxyls of cellulose, yielded 60-fold (?1,173 mmol/kg) and 2-fold (?1.038 mmol/kg) higher surface charge density for p-NFC and p-NCC, respectively, under homogenous conditions. None of the phosphorylations affected neither the NC crystallinity degree nor the structure, and noticeably preventing the derivatives from weight loss during the pyrolysis process. The p-NC showed high hydrolytic stability to water at all pH mediums. Reusing of the treatment bath was examined after the heterogeneous process. PMID:25857987

  11. Phosphorylation pattern of Rubisco activase in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, E; Daventure, M; Jossier, M; Hodges, M; Zivy, M; Tcherkez, G

    2014-05-01

    Rubisco activase (RCA) is an ancillary photosynthetic protein essential for Rubisco activity. Some data suggest that post-translational modifications (such as reduction of disulphide bridges) are involved in the regulation of RCA activity. However, despite the key role of protein phosphorylation in general metabolic regulation, RCA phosphorylation has not been well characterised. We took advantage of phosphoproteomics and gas exchange analyses with instant sampling adapted to Arabidopsis rosettes to examine the occurrence and variations of phosphopeptides associated with RCA in different photosynthetic contexts (CO2 mole fraction, light and dark). We detected two phosphopeptides from RCA corresponding to residues Thr 78 and Ser 172, and show that the former is considerably more phosphorylated in the dark than in the light, while the latter show no light/dark pattern. The CO2 mole fraction did not influence phosphorylation of either residue. Phosphorylation thus appears to be a potential mechanism associated with RCA dark inactivation, when Rubisco-catalysed carboxylation is arrested. Since Thr 78 and Ser 172 are located in the N and Walker domains of the protein, respectively, the involvement of phosphorylation in protein-protein interaction and catalysis is likely. PMID:24119201

  12. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with (32P)H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected by both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis.

  13. Whose Entropy: A Maximal Entropy Analysis of Phosphorylation Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remacle, F.; Graeber, T. G.; Levine, R. D.

    2011-07-01

    High throughput experiments, characteristic of studies in systems biology, produce large output data sets often at different time points or under a variety of related conditions or for different patients. In several recent papers the data is modeled by using a distribution of maximal information-theoretic entropy. We pose the question: `whose entropy' meaning how do we select the variables whose distribution should be compared to that of maximal entropy. The point is that different choices can lead to different answers. Due to the technological advances that allow for the system-wide measurement of hundreds to thousands of events from biological samples, addressing this question is now part of the analysis of systems biology datasets. The analysis of the extent of phosphorylation in reference to the transformation potency of Bcr-Abl fusion oncogene mutants is used as a biological example. The approach taken seeks to use entropy not simply as a statistical measure of dispersion but as a physical, thermodynamic, state function. This highlights the dilemma of what are the variables that describe the state of the signaling network. Is what matters Boolean, spin-like, variables that specify whether a particular phosphorylation site is or is not actually phosphorylated. Or does the actual extent of phosphorylation matter. Last but not least is the possibility that in a signaling network some few specific phosphorylation sites are the key to the signal transduction even though these sites are not at any time abundantly phosphorylated in an absolute sense.

  14. Gain and loss of phosphorylation sites in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Radivojac, Predrag; Baenziger, Peter H.; Kann, Maricel G.; Mort, Matthew E.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Mooney, Sean D.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Coding-region mutations in human genes are responsible for a diverse spectrum of diseases and phenotypes. Among lesions that have been studied extensively, there are insights into several of the biochemical functions disrupted by disease-causing mutations. Currently, there are more than 60 000 coding-region mutations associated with inherited disease catalogued in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD, August 2007) and more than 70 000 polymorphic amino acid substitutions recorded in dbSNP (dbSNP, build 127). Understanding the mechanism and contribution these variants make to a clinical phenotype is a formidable problem. Results: In this study, we investigate the role of phosphorylation in somatic cancer mutations and inherited diseases. Somatic cancer mutation datasets were shown to have a significant enrichment for mutations that cause gain or loss of phosphorylation when compared to our control datasets (putatively neutral nsSNPs and random amino acid substitutions). Of the somatic cancer mutations, those in kinase genes represent the most enriched set of mutations that disrupt phosphorylation sites, suggesting phosphorylation target site mutation is an active cause of phosphorylation deregulation. Overall, this evidence suggests both gain and loss of a phosphorylation site in a target protein may be important features for predicting cancercausing mutations and may represent a molecular cause of disease for a number of inherited and somatic mutations. Contact: sdmooney@iupui.edu PMID:18689832

  15. Nucleoplasmin associates with and is phosphorylated by casein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Vancurova, I; Paine, T M; Lou, W; Paine, P L

    1995-02-01

    Nucleoplasmin is a phosphorylated nuclear-accumulating protein. We report herein that the kinetics of its cytoplasm-->nucleus transport are affected by its degree of phosphorylation. Therefore, we sought to identify any protein kinase which specifically associates with nucleoplasmin. We discovered that nucleoplasmin co-isolates by two independent methods (immunoabsorption and chromatography) in a complex including a kinase which phosphorylates nucleoplasmin. The co-purifying kinase is casein kinase II-like because: (i) it phosphorylates casein; (ii) its phospho-transferase activity can be competed out by GTP; (iii) it is stimulated by polylysine; and (iv) it is inhibited by heparin. Moreover, a polyclonal antibody to the alpha (38 kDa) and alpha' (36 kDa) catalytic subunits of casein kinase II specifically recognizes 38 and 36 kDa polypeptides in the nucleoplasmin-complex, and a specific inhibitor of casein kinase II inhibits nucleoplasmin's nuclear transport. Additionally, we found that phosphorylation of nucleoplasmin by its associated casein kinase II is strongly inhibited by histones and that, in addition to nucleoplasmin, another protein (p100) in the nucleoplasmin-complex is phosphorylated by casein kinase II. PMID:7769018

  16. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Instrumentation for Real-time Enzymatic Reaction Rate Measurements by NMR.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Riccardo; Fernandes, Laetitia; Comment, Arnaud; Pidial, Laetitia; Tavitian, Bertrand; Vasos, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of NMR-based investigations is low sensitivity. This prompts for long acquisition times, thus preventing real-time NMR measurements of metabolic transformations. Hyperpolarization via dissolution DNP circumvents part of the sensitivity issues thanks to the large out-of-equilibrium nuclear magnetization stemming from the electron-to-nucleus spin polarization transfer. The high NMR signal obtained can be used to monitor chemical reactions in real time. The downside of hyperpolarized NMR resides in the limited time window available for signal acquisition, which is usually on the order of the nuclear spin longitudinal relaxation time constant, T1, or, in favorable cases, on the order of the relaxation time constant associated with the singlet-state of coupled nuclei, TLLS. Cellular uptake of endogenous molecules and metabolic rates can provide essential information on tumor development and drug response. Numerous previous hyperpolarized NMR studies have demonstrated the relevancy of pyruvate as a metabolic substrate for monitoring enzymatic activity in vivo. This work provides a detailed description of the experimental setup and methods required for the study of enzymatic reactions, in particular the pyruvate-to-lactate conversion rate in presence of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), by hyperpolarized NMR. PMID:26967906

  17. Chemical and enzymatic synthesis of tRNAs for high-throughput crystallization.

    PubMed Central

    Sherlin, L D; Bullock, T L; Nissan, T A; Perona, J J; Lariviere, F J; Uhlenbeck, O C; Scaringe, S A

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of large quantities of RNA molecules of a defined sequence is a prerequisite for biophysical analysis, and is particularly important to the determination of high-resolution structure by X-ray crystallography. We describe improved methods for the production of multimilligram quantities of homogeneous tRNAs, using a combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic approaches. Transfer RNA half-molecules with a break in the anticodon loop were chemically synthesized on a preparative scale, ligated enzymatically, and cocrystallized with an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, yielding crystals diffracting to 2.4 A resolution. Multimilligram quantities of tRNAs with greatly reduced 3' heterogeneity were also produced via transcription by T7 RNA polymerase, utilizing chemically modified DNA half-molecule templates. This latter approach eliminates the need for large-scale plasmid preparations, and yields synthetase cocrystals diffracting to 2.3 A resolution at much lower RNA:protein stoichiometries than previously required. These two approaches developed for a tRNA-synthetase complex permit the detailed structural study of "atomic-group" mutants. PMID:11720294

  18. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2?min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3?min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin ?v?3, but not in those by integrin ?5?1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics. PMID:25056908

  19. Mechanisms for enzymatic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Drohat, Alexander C.; Maiti, Atanu

    2014-01-01

    DNA glycosylases remove damaged or enzymatically modified nucleobases from DNA, thereby initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which is found in all forms of life. These ubiquitous enzymes promote genomic integrity by initiating repair of mutagenic and/or cytotoxic lesions that arise continuously due to alkylation, deamination, or oxidation of the normal bases in DNA. Glycosylases also perform essential roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, by targeting enzymatically-modified forms of the canonical DNA bases. Monofunctional DNA glycosylases hydrolyze the N-glycosidic bond to liberate the target base, while bifunctional glycosylases mediate glycosyl transfer using an amine group of the enzyme, generating a Schiff base intermediate that facilitates their second activity, cleavage of the DNA backbone. Here we review recent advances in understanding the chemical mechanism of monofunctional DNA glycosylases, with an emphasis on how the reactions are influenced by properties of the nucleobase leaving-group, the moiety that varies across the vast range of substrates targeted by these enzymes. PMID:25181003

  20. Highly ordered Ni-Ti-O nanotubes for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Gao, Ang; Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming; Tang, Bin; Chu, Paul K

    2015-06-01

    Anodization is used to fabricate Ni-Ti-O nanotube (NT) electrodes for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the materials are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show amorphous and highly ordered NTs with diameter of 50nm, length of 800nm, and Ni/Ti ratio (at %) of 0.35 can be fabricated in ethylene glycol electrolyte supplemented with 0.2 wt.% NH4F and 0.5 vol.% H2O at 30C and 25V for 1h. Electrochemical experiments indicate that at an applied potential of 0.60V vs. Ag/AgCl, the electrode exhibits a linear response window for glucose concentrations from 0.002mM to 0.2mM with a response time of 10s, detection limit of 0.13?M (S/N=3), and sensitivity of 83?AmM(-1)cm(-2). The excellent performance of the electrode is attributed to its large specific area and fast electron transfer between the NT walls. The good electrochemical performance of the Ni-Ti-O NTs as well as their simple and low-cost preparation method make the strategy promising in non-enzymatic glucose detection. PMID:25842105

  1. Mechanisms for enzymatic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond in DNA.

    PubMed

    Drohat, Alexander C; Maiti, Atanu

    2014-11-14

    DNA glycosylases remove damaged or enzymatically modified nucleobases from DNA, thereby initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which is found in all forms of life. These ubiquitous enzymes promote genomic integrity by initiating repair of mutagenic and/or cytotoxic lesions that arise continuously due to alkylation, deamination, or oxidation of the normal bases in DNA. Glycosylases also perform essential roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, by targeting enzymatically-modified forms of the canonical DNA bases. Monofunctional DNA glycosylases hydrolyze the N-glycosidic bond to liberate the target base, while bifunctional glycosylases mediate glycosyl transfer using an amine group of the enzyme, generating a Schiff base intermediate that facilitates their second activity, cleavage of the DNA backbone. Here we review recent advances in understanding the chemical mechanism of monofunctional DNA glycosylases, with an emphasis on how the reactions are influenced by the properties of the nucleobase leaving-group, the moiety that varies across the vast range of substrates targeted by these enzymes. PMID:25181003

  2. In Vitro Phosphorylation Does not Influence the Aggregation Kinetics of WT α-Synuclein in Contrast to Its Phosphorylation Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Sarah; Gerard, Melanie; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Taymans, Jean-Marc; Baekelandt, Veerle; Engelborghs, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) into fibrils is characteristic for several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ninety percent of α-SYN deposited in Lewy Bodies, a pathological hallmark of PD, is phosphorylated on serine129. α-SYN can also be phosphorylated on tyrosine125, which is believed to regulate the membrane binding capacity and thus possibly its normal function. A better understanding of the effect of phosphorylation on the aggregation of α-SYN might shed light on its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In this study we compare the aggregation properties of WT α-SYN with the phospho-dead and phospho-mimic mutants S129A, S129D, Y125F and Y125E and in vitro phosphorylated α-SYN using turbidity, thioflavin T and circular dichroism measurements as well as transmission electron microscopy. We show that the mutants S129A and S129D behave similarly compared to wild type (WT) α-SYN, while the mutants Y125F and Y125E fibrillate significantly slower, although all mutants form fibrillar structures similar to the WT protein. In contrast, in vitro phosphorylation of α-SYN on either S129 or Y125 does not significantly affect the fibrillization kinetics. Moreover, FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), enzymes with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, still accelerate the aggregation of phosphorylated α-SYN in vitro, as was shown previously for WT α-SYN. In conclusion, our results illustrate that phosphorylation mutants can display different aggregation properties compared to the more biologically relevant phosphorylated form of α-SYN. PMID:24434619

  3. In vitro phosphorylation does not influence the aggregation kinetics of WT ?-synuclein in contrast to its phosphorylation mutants.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Sarah; Gerard, Melanie; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Taymans, Jean-Marc; Baekelandt, Veerle; Engelborghs, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (?-SYN) into fibrils is characteristic for several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Ninety percent of ?-SYN deposited in Lewy Bodies, a pathological hallmark of PD, is phosphorylated on serine129. ?-SYN can also be phosphorylated on tyrosine125, which is believed to regulate the membrane binding capacity and thus possibly its normal function. A better understanding of the effect of phosphorylation on the aggregation of ?-SYN might shed light on its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In this study we compare the aggregation properties of WT ?-SYN with the phospho-dead and phospho-mimic mutants S129A, S129D, Y125F and Y125E and in vitro phosphorylated ?-SYN using turbidity, thioflavin T and circular dichroism measurements as well as transmission electron microscopy. We show that the mutants S129A and S129D behave similarly compared to wild type (WT) ?-SYN, while the mutants Y125F and Y125E fibrillate significantly slower, although all mutants form fibrillar structures similar to the WT protein. In contrast, in vitro phosphorylation of ?-SYN on either S129 or Y125 does not significantly affect the fibrillization kinetics. Moreover, FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), enzymes with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, still accelerate the aggregation of phosphorylated ?-SYN in vitro, as was shown previously for WT ?-SYN. In conclusion, our results illustrate that phosphorylation mutants can display different aggregation properties compared to the more biologically relevant phosphorylated form of ?-SYN. PMID:24434619

  4. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein expression, genetic abnormalities, and phosphorylation in soft tissue tumors: Phosphorylation is associated with recurrent metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yukinao; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Koji; Arakawa, Fumiko; Haraguchi, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Shinji; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Shoda, Takanori; Hamada, Tetsuya; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto; Nagata, Kensei; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Gene and protein abnormalities of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) play an important role in the pathogenesis of various cancers and serve as important therapeutic targets. We investigated ALK protein expression, phosphorylation, and genetic aberrations using fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) in 81soft tissue tumor samples: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, n=1; alveolar soft part sarcoma, n=2; leiomyosarcoma, n=10; well-differentiated liposarcoma, n=7; pleomorphic liposarcoma, n=2; extraskeletal osteosarcoma, n=1; epithelioid sarcoma, n=1; synovial sarcoma, n=4; malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, n=4; undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, n=19; rhabdomyosarcoma, n=6; myxofibrosarcoma, n=8; myxoid liposarcoma, n=11; fibrosarcoma, n=4; and desmoid-type fibromatosis, n=1. ALK protein expression, gene signal gain (without translocation), and phosphorylation were observed in 33/81 (40.7%), 55/81 (67.9%), and 30/81 (37.0%) tumor samples, respectively. ALK protein expression was statistically associated with phosphorylation, but not with gene signal gain. ALK phosphorylation-positive cases showed a statistically worse metastasis-free survival compared with phosphorylation-negative cases (P=0.0215). Particularly, metastasis of myxoid liposarcoma was associated with ALK phosphorylation (P=0.0019), but not with ALK protein expression or gene signal gain. However, the prognosis had no association with ALK protein expression, gene signal gain, or phosphorylation. ALK protein expression and phosphorylation play an important role in tumor biology and provide potential therapeutic targets for soft tissue tumors. Future research should focus on the oncogenic role and the efficacy of potential inhibitors of ALK. PMID:25683346

  5. Enzymatic activity regulated by a surfactant and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhong; Zhai, Tao; Du, Kun; Li, Yanxin; Feng, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Circular dichroism spectra reveal that sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) at low concentrations can effectively prevent the aggregation of lysozyme molecules, while SDBS at high concentrations can lead to conformational and structural change of the protein. SDBS is able to inhibit the enzymatic activity of lysozyme in a highly efficient dose-dependent manner. The interaction mechanism of SDBS with lysozyme has been investigated by measuring optical spectra. Based on fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, microenvironmental change in and around the active site region induced by SDBS has been revealed and explained. Two-dimensional FTIR spectra have been analyzed to identify the secondary structures and residues of lysozyme, which have a preferential interaction with SDBS. Hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was used to detach SDBS from the inactivated enzyme, and complete recovery of enzymatic activity was achieved. Thus, the enzymatic activity of lysozyme can be regulated by SDBS and HP-?-CD. PMID:24012663

  6. Investigations in sono-enzymatic degradation of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Chakma, Sankar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2016-03-01

    The drug ibuprofen (IBP) appears frequently in the wastewater discharge from pharmaceutical industries. This paper reports studies in degradation of IBP employing hybrid technique of sono-enzymatic treatment. This paper also establishes synergy between individual mechanisms of enzyme and sonolysis for IBP degradation by identification of degradation intermediates, and Arrhenius & thermodynamic analysis of the experimental data. Positive synergy between sonolysis and enzyme treatment is attributed to formation of hydrophilic intermediates during degradation. These intermediates form due to hydroxylation and oxidation reactions induced by radicals formed during transient cavitation. Activation energy and enthalpy change in sono-enzymatic treatment are lower as compared to enzyme treatment, while frequency factor and entropy change are higher as compared to sonolysis. Degradation of IBP in sono-enzymatic treatment is revealed to be comparable with other hybrid techniques like photo-Fenton, sono-photocatalysis, and sono-Fenton. PMID:26552749

  7. Multiple enzymatic profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from oysters.

    PubMed

    Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Conde Amorim, Ludimila M M; Arajo, Rayza Lima; dos Fernandes Vieira, Regine H Silva

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic characterization of vibrios has been used as a virulence indicator of sanitary interest. The objective of this study was to determine the enzymatic profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (n=70) isolated from Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters. The strains were examined for the presence of gelatinase (GEL), caseinase (CAS), elastase (ELAS), phospholipase (PHOS), lipase (LIP), amilase (AML) and DNase. All enzymes, except elastase, were detected in more than 60% of the strains. The most recurrent enzymatic profiles were AML + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n=16; 22.9%) and AML + CAS + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n=21; 30%). Considering the fact that exoenzyme production by vibrios is closely related to virulence, one must be aware of the bacteriological risk posed to human health by the consumption of raw or undercooked oysters. PMID:24401782

  8. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for enzymatic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeetender, Amritsar; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Stiharu, Ion G.; Balagopal, Ganesharam

    2004-08-01

    Early enzymatic identification and confirmation is essential for diagnosis and prevention as in the case of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Biochemical markers continue to be an important clinical tool for the enzymatic detection. The advent of MEMS devices can enable the use of various microstructures for the detection of enzymes. In this study, the concept of MEMS is applied for the detection of enzyme reaction, in which microcantilevers undergo changes in mechanical behavior that can be optically detected when enzyme molecules adsorb on their surface. This paper presents the static behavior of microcantilevers under Horse Radish Peroxide (HRP) enzyme reaction. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of MEMS sensors for enzymatic detection. The surface stress produced due to enzyme reactions results in the bending of cantilevers as similar to the influencing of thermal stress in the cantilevers. This paper also reports the influence of thermal gradient on the microcantilevers.

  9. Neocartilage integration in temporomandibular joint discs: physical and enzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Meghan K; Arzi, Boaz; Prouty, Shannon M; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-02-01

    Integration of engineered musculoskeletal tissues with adjacent native tissues presents a significant challenge to the field. Specifically, the avascularity and low cellularity of cartilage elicit the need for additional efforts in improving integration of neocartilage within native cartilage. Self-assembled neocartilage holds significant potential in replacing degenerated cartilage, though its stabilization and integration in native cartilage require further efforts. Physical and enzymatic stabilization methods were investigated in an in vitro model for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc degeneration. First, in phase 1, suture, glue and press-fit constructs were compared in TMJ disc intermediate zone defects. In phase 1, suturing enhanced interfacial shear stiffness and strength immediately; after four weeks, a 15-fold increase in stiffness and a ninefold increase in strength persisted over press-fit. Neither suture nor glue significantly altered neocartilage properties. In phase 2, the effects of the enzymatic stabilization regimen composed of lysyl oxidase, CuSO4 and hydroxylysine were investigated. A full factorial design was employed, carrying forward the best physical method from phase 1, suturing. Enzymatic stabilization significantly increased interfacial shear stiffness after eight weeks. Combined enzymatic stabilization and suturing led to a fourfold increase in shear stiffness and threefold increase in strength over press-fit. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of a collagen-rich interface. Enzymatic treatment additionally enhanced neocartilage mechanical properties, yielding a tensile modulus over 6 MPa and compressive instantaneous modulus over 1200 kPa at eight weeks. Suturing enhances stabilization of neocartilage, and enzymatic treatment enhances functional properties and integration of neocartilage in the TMJ disc. Methods developed here are applicable to other orthopaedic soft tissues, including knee meniscus and hyaline articular cartilage. PMID:25519993

  10. Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2000-02-15

    Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

  11. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology. PMID:26163747

  12. [New enzymatic strategies for enantiomers of lactams and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Forr, Eniko

    2011-01-01

    To fulfil the requirements of modern go-ahead research, new direct and indirect enzymatic strategies and new techniques have been devised for the preparation of enantiopure beta- and gamma-lactams and beta- and gamma-amino acids, and some of them have been scaled up. For example, a formal total synthesis of enantiopure Anatoxina, a neurotoxic alkaloid, but a potent and stereospecific agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors has been introduced. An efficient and very simple method has been developed for the synthesis of the antibacterial cispentacin [(1R,2S)-2-amino-1-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid] and 8 new derivatives. A highly efficient enzymatic procedure has been elaborated for the synthesis of the blockbuster drug Abacavir and Carbovir intermediate (1S,4R)-4-aminocyclopent-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid. The first enzymatic method has been devised for the synthesis of (R)-3-amino-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butanoic acid, the intermediate for the new antidiabetic drug Sitagliptine. Direct enzymatic strategies have been reported for the synthesis of (2R,3S)-3-phenylisoserine, a key intermediate of the side-chain of the antitumor product Taxol. A new enzymatic method has been developed for the total synthesis of crispine A enant