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Sample records for enzyminer automatic identification

  1. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  2. Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army's Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

  3. An efficient automatic firearm identification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Zun Liang; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.

    2014-06-01

    Automatic firearm identification system (AFIS) is highly demanded in forensic ballistics to replace the traditional approach which uses comparison microscope and is relatively complex and time consuming. Thus, several AFIS have been developed for commercial and testing purposes. However, those AFIS are still unable to overcome some of the drawbacks of the traditional firearm identification approach. The goal of this study is to introduce another efficient and effective AFIS. A total of 747 firing pin impression images captured from five different pistols of same make and model are used to evaluate the proposed AFIS. It was demonstrated that the proposed AFIS is capable of producing firearm identification accuracy rate of over 95.0% with an execution time of less than 0.35 seconds per image.

  4. Automatic Palette Identification of Colored Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Vinciane

    The median-shift, a new clustering algorithm, is proposed to automatically identify the palette of colored graphics, a pre-requisite for graphics vectorization. The median-shift is an iterative process which shifts each data point to the "median" point of its neighborhood defined thanks to a distance measure and a maximum radius, the only parameter of the method. The process is viewed as a graph transformation which converges to a set of clusters made of one or several connected vertices. As the palette identification depends on color perception, the clustering is performed in the L*a*b* feature space. As pixels located on edges are made of mixed colors not expected to be part of the palette, they are removed from the initial data set by an automatic pre-processing. Results are shown on scanned maps and on the Macbeth color chart and compared to well established methods.

  5. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  6. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  7. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  8. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  9. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  10. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  11. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  12. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  13. Automatic firearm class identification from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Mann, Christopher J.; Bingham, Philip R.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2011-03-01

    We present a machine vision system for automatic identification of the class of firearms by extracting and analyzing two significant properties from spent cartridge cases, namely the Firing Pin Impression (FPI) and the Firing Pin Aperture Outline (FPAO). Within the framework of the proposed machine vision system, a white light interferometer is employed to image the head of the spent cartridge cases. As a first step of the algorithmic procedure, the Primer Surface Area (PSA) is detected using a circular Hough transform. Once the PSA is detected, a customized statistical region-based parametric active contour model is initialized around the center of the PSA and evolved to segment the FPI. Subsequently, the scaled version of the segmented FPI is used to initialize a customized Mumford-Shah based level set model in order to segment the FPAO. Once the shapes of FPI and FPAO are extracted, a shape-based level set method is used in order to compare these extracted shapes to an annotated dataset of FPIs and FPAOs from varied firearm types. A total of 74 cartridge case images non-uniformly distributed over five different firearms are processed using the aforementioned scheme and the promising nature of the results (95% classification accuracy) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  14. Automatic Landmark Identification in Mars Orbital Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Panetta, J.; Greeley, R.; Schorghofer, N.; Bunte, M.; Hoffer, M. P.; Ansar, A.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed new methods for automatically identifying landmarks such as craters, gullies, dark slope streaks, and dust devil tracks in remote sensing imagery. These methods are based on statistical measures of local terrain salience. The salience of a region is defined as the degree to which it differs from its surrounding context. We use pixel intensity histograms to represent each candidate region, and we compute salience in one of two ways. The first method calculates the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the region's histogram and a larger enclosing region. The second method calculates the entropy of the region's histogram independently. The KL-divergence approach is useful for detecting unusual landmarks, while the entropy approach detects high-contrast features such as ridges and crater edges. We have automatically identified landmarks in several Mars surface images collected from orbit (MOC and THEMIS data) and evaluated them against manual annotations of dark slope streaks and dust devil tracks. We have also trained a landmark machine classifier that can assign new landmarks to one of several categories. In an evaluation on dark slope streaks, dust devil tracks, and craters, the classifier achieved an accuracy of 93%. Further, because detections are made based on a generic notion of salience, they are not restricted to known landmark types. It is possible to identify landmarks that do not fit into any existing category as novel features, enabling scientific advances that otherwise rely on serendipity to bring them to light. Automated landmark identification can be useful both onboard a remote spacecraft and in ground-based processing on the Earth. In an onboard setting, salient landmarks can be detected and catalogued as they are observed, providing a highly compressed summary of the region under study (e.g., "five craters, two gullies, and 37 sand dunes" along with their locations). On the ground, gigabyte archives of past images can be analyzed

  15. Automatic enrollment for gait-based person re-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortells, Javier; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Mollineda, Ramón A.

    2015-02-01

    Automatic enrollment involves a critical decision-making process within people re-identification context. However, this process has been traditionally undervalued. This paper studies the problem of automatic person enrollment from a realistic perspective relying on gait analysis. Experiments simulating random flows of people with considerable appearance variations between different observations of a person have been conducted, modeling both short- and longterm scenarios. Promising results based on ROC analysis show that automatically enrolling people by their gait is affordable with high success rates.

  16. All-optical automatic pollen identification: Towards an operational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Stella, Michelle; Konzelmann, Thomas; Calpini, Bertrand; Clot, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    We present results from the development and validation campaign of an optical pollen monitoring method based on time-resolved scattering and fluorescence. Focus is first set on supervised learning algorithms for pollen-taxa identification and on the determination of aerosol properties (particle size and shape). The identification capability provides a basis for a pre-operational automatic pollen season monitoring performed in parallel to manual reference measurements (Hirst-type volumetric samplers). Airborne concentrations obtained from the automatic system are compatible with those from the manual method regarding total pollen and the automatic device provides real-time data reliably (one week interruption over five months). In addition, although the calibration dataset still needs to be completed, we are able to follow the grass pollen season. The high sampling from the automatic device allows to go beyond the commonly-presented daily values and we obtain statistically significant hourly concentrations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for obtaining an operational automatic monitoring system and how the generic validation environment developed for the present campaign could be used for further tests of automatic pollen monitoring devices.

  17. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed. PMID:20693386

  18. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  19. Automatic Parameters Identification of Groundwater Model using Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, P. J.; Chen, Y.; Chang, L.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, parameters identification of groundwater model can be classified into manual parameters identification and automatic parameters identification using optimization method. Parameter searching in manual parameters identification requires heavily interaction with the modeler. Therefore, the identified parameters value is interpretable by the modeler. However, manual method is a complicated and time-consuming work and requires groundwater modeling practice and parameters identification experiences to performing the task. Optimization-based identification is more efficient and convenient comparing to the manual one. Nevertheless, the parameters search in the optimization approach can not directly interactive with modeler and one can only examine the final results. Moreover, because of the simplification of the optimization model, the parameters value obtained by optimization-based identification may not be feasible in reality. In light of previous discussion, this study integrates a rule-based expert system and a groundwater simulation model, MODFLOW 2000, to develop an automatic groundwater parameters identification system. The hydraulic conductivity and specific yield are the parameters to be calibrated in the system. Since the parameter value is automatic searched according the rules that are specified by modeler, it is efficient and the identified parameters value is more interpretable than that by optimized based approach. Beside, since the rules are easy to modify and adding, the system is flexible and can accumulate the expertise experiences. Several hypothesized cases were used to examine the system validity and capability. The result shows a good agreement between the identified and given parameter values and also demonstrates a great potential for extending the system to a fully function and practical field application system.

  20. Automatic seagrass pattern identification on sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Rahman, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Natural and human-induced disturbances are resulting in degradation and loss of seagrass. Freshwater flooding, severe meteorological events and invasive species are among the major natural disturbances. Human-induced disturbances are mainly due to boat propeller scars in the shallow seagrass meadows and anchor scars in the deeper areas. Therefore, there is a vital need to map seagrass ecosystems in order to determine worldwide abundance and distribution. Currently there is no established method for mapping the pothole or scars in seagrass. One of the most precise sensors to map the seagrass disturbance is side scan sonar. Here we propose an automatic method which detects seagrass potholes in sonar images. Side scan sonar images are notorious for having speckle noise and uneven illumination across the image. Moreover, disturbance presents complex patterns where most segmentation techniques will fail. In this paper, by applying mathematical morphology technique and calculating the local standard deviation of the image, the images were enhanced and the pothole patterns were identified. The proposed method was applied on sonar images taken from Laguna Madre in Texas. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Automatic swimming pool identification for fire suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Bo; Buck, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Southern California experienced some of the largest wildfires ever seen in 2003 and 2007. The Cedar fire in 2003 resulted in 2,820 lost structures and 15 deaths, and the Witch fire in 2007 resulted in 1,650 lost structures and 2 deaths according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Fighting fires of this magnitude requires every available resource, and an adequate water supply is vital in the firefighting arsenal. Utilizing the fact that many homes in Southern California have swimming pools, firefighters could have access to strategically placed water supplies. The problem is accurately and quickly identifying which residences have actively filled swimming pools at the time of the emergency. The proposed method approaches the problem by employing satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques. Specifically, swimming pool identification is attempted with Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on multispectral imagery from the Worldview-2 satellite.

  2. MAC, A System for Automatically IPR Identification, Collection and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrão, Carlos

    Controlling Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in the Digital World is a very hard challenge. The facility to create multiple bit-by-bit identical copies from original IPR works creates the opportunities for digital piracy. One of the most affected industries by this fact is the Music Industry. The Music Industry has supported huge losses during the last few years due to this fact. Moreover, this fact is also affecting the way that music rights collecting and distributing societies are operating to assure a correct music IPR identification, collection and distribution. In this article a system for automating this IPR identification, collection and distribution is presented and described. This system makes usage of advanced automatic audio identification system based on audio fingerprinting technology. This paper will present the details of the system and present a use-case scenario where this system is being used.

  3. [Study on the automatic parameters identification of water pipe network model].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Qi-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the problems analysis on development and application of water pipe network model, the model parameters automatic identification is regarded as a kernel bottleneck of model's application in water supply enterprise. The methodology of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification based on GIS and SCADA database is proposed. Then the kernel algorithm of model parameters automatic identification is studied, RSA (Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis) is used for automatic recognition of sensitive parameters, and MCS (Monte-Carlo Sampling) is used for automatic identification of parameters, the detail technical route based on RSA and MCS is presented. The module of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is developed. At last, selected a typical water pipe network as a case, the case study on water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is conducted and the satisfied results are achieved. PMID:20329520

  4. Neural network based algorithm for automatic identification of cough sounds.

    PubMed

    Swarnkar, V; Abeyratne, U R; Amrulloh, Yusuf; Hukins, Craig; Triasih, Rina; Setyati, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of the several respiratory diseases containing diagnostic information. It is the best suitable candidate to develop a simplified screening technique for the management of respiratory diseases in timely manner, both in developing and developed countries, particularly in remote areas where medical facilities are limited. However, major issue hindering the development is the non-availability of reliable technique to automatically identify cough events. Medical practitioners still rely on manual counting, which is laborious and time consuming. In this paper we propose a novel method, based on the neural network to automatically identify cough segments, discarding other sounds such a speech, ambient noise etc. We achieved the accuracy of 98% in classifying 13395 segments into two classes, 'cough' and 'other sounds', with the sensitivity of 93.44% and specificity of 94.52%. Our preliminary results indicate that method can develop into a real-time cough identification technique in continuous cough monitoring systems. PMID:24110049

  5. Automatic Identification And Data Collection Via Barcode Laser Scanning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobeus, Michel

    1986-07-01

    How to earn over 100 million a year by investing 40 million ? No this is not the latest Wall Street "tip" but the costsavings obtained by the U.S. Department of Defense. 2 % savings on annual turnover claim supermarkets ! Millions of Dollars saved report automotive companies ! These are not daydreams, but tangible results measured by users after implemen-ting Automatic Identification and Data Collection systems, based on bar codes. To paraphrase the famous sentence "I think, thus I am", with AI/ADC systems "You knonw, thus you are". Indeed, in today's world, an immediate, accurate and precise information is a vital management need for companies growth and survival. AI/ADC techniques fullfill these objectives by supplying automatically and without any delay nor alteration the right information.

  6. Automatic identification of algal community from microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Natchimuthu; Pradeepa, Chinnaraj; Subashini, Parthasarathy; Kalaiselvi, Senthil

    2013-01-01

    A good understanding of the population dynamics of algal communities is crucial in several ecological and pollution studies of freshwater and oceanic systems. This paper reviews the subsequent introduction to the automatic identification of the algal communities using image processing techniques from microscope images. The diverse techniques of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition are considered one by one and their parameters are summarized. Automatic identification and classification of algal community are very difficult due to various factors such as change in size and shape with climatic changes, various growth periods, and the presence of other microbes. Therefore, the significance, uniqueness, and various approaches are discussed and the analyses in image processing methods are evaluated. Algal identification and associated problems in water organisms have been projected as challenges in image processing application. Various image processing approaches based on textures, shapes, and an object boundary, as well as some segmentation methods like, edge detection and color segmentations, are highlighted. Finally, artificial neural networks and some machine learning algorithms were used to classify and identifying the algae. Further, some of the benefits and drawbacks of schemes are examined. PMID:24151424

  7. Feature dependence in the automatic identification of musical woodwind instruments.

    PubMed

    Brown, J C; Houix, O; McAdams, S

    2001-03-01

    The automatic identification of musical instruments is a relatively unexplored and potentially very important field for its promise to free humans from time-consuming searches on the Internet and indexing of audio material. Speaker identification techniques have been used in this paper to determine the properties (features) which are most effective in identifying a statistically significant number of sounds representing four classes of musical instruments (oboe, sax, clarinet, flute) excerpted from actual performances. Features examined include cepstral coefficients, constant-Q coefficients, spectral centroid, autocorrelation coefficients, and moments of the time wave. The number of these coefficients was varied, and in the case of cepstral coefficients, ten coefficients were sufficient for identification. Correct identifications of 79%-84% were obtained with cepstral coefficients, bin-to-bin differences of the constant-Q coefficients, and autocorrelation coefficients; the latter have not been used previously in either speaker or instrument identification work. These results depended on the training sounds chosen and the number of clusters used in the calculation. Comparison to a human perception experiment with sounds produced by the same instruments indicates that, under these conditions, computers do as well as humans in identifying woodwind instruments. PMID:11303920

  8. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.231 Section 80.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a) Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment must meet the technical requirements of...

  9. Automatic identification of fungi under complex microscopic fecal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Haoting; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Juanxiu; Du, Xiaohui; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Automatic identification of fungi in microscopic fecal images provides important information for evaluating digestive diseases. To date, disease diagnosis is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the operator's expertise and subjective factors. The proposed system automatically identifies fungi in microscopic fecal images that contain other cells and impurities under complex environments. We segment images twice to obtain the correct area of interest, and select ten features, including the circle number, concavity point, and other basic features, to filter fungi. An artificial neural network (ANN) system is used to identify the fungi. The first stage (ANN-1) processes features from five images in differing focal lengths; the second stage (ANN-2) identifies the fungi using the ANN-1 output values. Images in differing focal lengths can be used to improve the identification result. The system output accurately detects the image, whether or not it has fungi. If the image does have fungi, the system output counts the number of different fungi types.

  10. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Pillat, V. G.; Guimarães, L. N. F.

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 minutes or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, dip latitude 17.6° S - low latitude) and Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W, dip latitude 5.5° S - near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  11. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillat, Valdir Gil; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Guimarães, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 min or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W, dip latitude 17.6°S-low latitude) and Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.5°S-near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  12. Development of an automatic identification algorithm for antibiogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luan F R; da Silva, Eduardo S; Noronha, Victor T; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Andrade, Marcelino M de

    2015-12-01

    Routinely, diagnostic and microbiology laboratories perform antibiogram analysis which can present some difficulties leading to misreadings and intra and inter-reader deviations. An Automatic Identification Algorithm (AIA) has been proposed as a solution to overcome some issues associated with the disc diffusion method, which is the main goal of this work. AIA allows automatic scanning of inhibition zones obtained by antibiograms. More than 60 environmental isolates were tested using susceptibility tests which were performed for 12 different antibiotics for a total of 756 readings. Plate images were acquired and classified as standard or oddity. The inhibition zones were measured using the AIA and results were compared with reference method (human reading), using weighted kappa index and statistical analysis to evaluate, respectively, inter-reader agreement and correlation between AIA-based and human-based reading. Agreements were observed in 88% cases and 89% of the tests showed no difference or a <4mm difference between AIA and human analysis, exhibiting a correlation index of 0.85 for all images, 0.90 for standards and 0.80 for oddities with no significant difference between automatic and manual method. AIA resolved some reading problems such as overlapping inhibition zones, imperfect microorganism seeding, non-homogeneity of the circumference, partial action of the antimicrobial, and formation of a second halo of inhibition. Furthermore, AIA proved to overcome some of the limitations observed in other automatic methods. Therefore, AIA may be a practical tool for automated reading of antibiograms in diagnostic and microbiology laboratories. PMID:26513468

  13. Automatic identification of activity-rest periods based on actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Cristina; Aboy, Mateo; Fernández, José Ramón; Mojón, Artemio

    2012-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for identification of activity/rest periods based on actigraphy signals designed to be used for a proper estimation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters. Automatic and accurate determination of activity/rest periods is critical in cardiovascular risk assessment applications including the evaluation of dipper versus non-dipper status. The algorithm is based on adaptive rank-order filters, rank-order decision logic, and morphological processing. The algorithm was validated on a database of 104 subjects including actigraphy signals for both the dominant and non-dominant hands (i.e., 208 actigraphy recordings). The algorithm achieved a mean performance above 94.0%, with an average number of 0.02 invalid transitions per 48 h. PMID:22382991

  14. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS)...

  15. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS)...

  16. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  17. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  18. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  19. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  20. Automatic Identification of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in Secondary Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Lee, Chany; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ictal epileptiform discharges (EDs) are characteristic signal patterns of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from patients with epilepsy, which assist with the diagnosis and characterization of various types of epilepsy. The EEG signal, however, is often recorded from patients with epilepsy for a long period of time, and thus detection and identification of EDs have been a burden on medical doctors. This paper proposes a new method for automatic identification of two types of EDs, repeated sharp-waves (sharps), and runs of sharp-and-slow-waves (SSWs), which helps to pinpoint epileptogenic foci in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the experiments with iEEG data acquired from a patient with LGS, our proposed method detected EDs with an accuracy of 93.76% and classified three different signal patterns with a mean classification accuracy of 87.69%, which was significantly higher than that of a conventional wavelet-based method. Our study shows that it is possible to successfully detect and discriminate sharps and SSWs from background EEG activity using our proposed method. PMID:27379172

  1. Search and decoy: the automatic identification of mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Eisenacher, Martin; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Koch, Markus-Hermann; Uszkoreit, Julian; Stephan, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the generation and interpretation of MS/MS spectra for the identification of peptides and proteins has matured to a frequently used automatic workflow in Proteomics. Several software solutions for the automated analysis of MS/MS spectra allow for high-throughput/high-performance analyses of complex samples. Related to MS/MS searches, target-decoy approaches have gained more and more popularity: in a "decoy" part of the search database nonexistent sequences mimic real sequences (the "target" sequences). With their help, the number of falsely identified peptides/proteins can be estimated after a search and the resulting protein list can be cut at a specified false discovery rate (FDR). This is an essential prerequisite for all quantitative approaches, as they rely on correct identifications. Especially the label-free approach "spectral counting"-gaining more and more popularity due to low costs and simplicity-depends directly on the correctness of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). This work's aim is to describe five popular search engines-especially their general properties regarding protein identification, but also their quantification abilities, if those go beyond spectral counting. By doing so, Proteomics researchers are enabled to compare their features and to choose an appropriate solution for their specific question. Furthermore, the search engines are applied to a spectrum data set generated from a complex sample with a Thermo LTQ Velos OrbiTrap (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The results of the search engines are compared, e.g., regarding time requirements, peptides and proteins found, and the search engines' behavior using the decoy approach. PMID:22665317

  2. Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project. Ammunition Logistics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1993-03-01

    The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics & Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army`s Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

  3. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  4. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  5. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a)...

  6. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a)...

  7. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment...; (2) Copies of the test report and test data obtained from the test facility showing that the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment...; (2) Copies of the test report and test data obtained from the test facility showing that the...

  9. Image classification approach for automatic identification of grassland weeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Kühbauch, Walter

    2006-08-01

    The potential of digital image processing for weed mapping in arable crops has widely been investigated in the last decades. In grassland farming these techniques are rarely applied so far. The project presented here focuses on the automatic identification of one of the most invasive and persistent grassland weed species, the broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in complex mixtures of grass and herbs. A total of 108 RGB-images were acquired in near range from a field experiment under constant illumination conditions using a commercial digital camera. The objects of interest were separated from the background by transforming the 24 bit RGB-images into 8 bit intensities and then calculating the local homogeneity images. These images were binarised by applying a dynamic grey value threshold. Finally, morphological opening was applied to the binary images. The remaining contiguous regions were considered to be objects. In order to classify these objects into 3 different weed species, a soil and a residue class, a total of 17 object-features related to shape, color and texture of the weeds were extracted. Using MANOVA, 12 of them were identified which contribute to classification. Maximum-likelihood classification was conducted to discriminate the weed species. The total classification rate across all classes ranged from 76 % to 83 %. The classification of Rumex obtusifolius achieved detection rates between 85 % and 93 % by misclassifications below 10 %. Further, Rumex obtusifolius distribution and the density maps were generated based on classification results and transformation of image coordinates into Gauss-Krueger system. These promising results show the high potential of image analysis for weed mapping in grassland and the implementation of site-specific herbicide spraying.

  10. An automatic identification and monitoring system for coral reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tonde, Chetan; Sundar, Ganesh; Huang, Ning; Barinov, Lev; Baxi, Jigesh; Bibby, James; Rapport, Andrew; Pavoni, Edward; Tsang, Serena; Garcia, Eri; Mateo, Felix; Lubansky, Tanya M.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2012-10-01

    To help gauge the health of coral reef ecosystems, we developed a prototype of an underwater camera module to automatically census reef fish populations. Recognition challenges include pose and lighting variations, complicated backgrounds, within-species color variations and within-family similarities among species. An open frame holds two cameras, LED lights, and two `background' panels in an L-shaped configuration. High-resolution cameras send sequences of 300 synchronized image pairs at 10 fps to an on-shore PC. Approximately 200 sequences containing fish were recorded at the New York Aquarium's Glover's Reef exhibit. These contained eight `common' species with 85-672 images, and eight `rare' species with 5-27 images that were grouped into an `unknown/rare' category for classification. Image pre-processing included background modeling and subtraction, and tracking of fish across frames for depth estimation, pose correction, scaling, and disambiguation of overlapping fish. Shape features were obtained from PCA analysis of perimeter points, color features from opponent color histograms, and `banding' features from DCT of vertical projections. Images were classified to species using feedforward neural networks arranged in a three-level hierarchy in which errors remaining after each level are targeted by networks in the level below. Networks were trained and tested on independent image sets. Overall accuracy of species-specific identifications typically exceeded 96% across multiple training runs. A seaworthy version of our system will allow for population censuses with high temporal resolution, and therefore improved statistical power to detect trends. A network of such devices could provide an `early warning system' for coral ecosystem collapse.

  11. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, Emerson; Wagner, Robert; Robinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with similar lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface based on applying a series of change detection techniques. Manual inspection of the temporal pairs by LROC team members resulted in the discovery of hundreds of new changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. Thus far, the LROC team has identified 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters using the manual approach. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying these changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on albedo variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of X meters). This new approach eliminates the human inspector from scanning up to 5.22*109 pixels in each temporal pair and instead provides cropped cutouts with the detected changes centered in the thumbnail image. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries. In the next two years, the progression of the LRO orbit with respect to beta angle will enable direct illumination matches (<2 degrees

  12. Automatic resource identification for FPGA-based reconfigurable measurement and control systems with mezzanines in FMC standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, Andrzej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a concept of automatic resources identification algorithm used in reconfigurable measurement systems. In the paper is also presented a concept of algorithm for automatic generation of HDL codes (firmware) and management of reconfigurable measurement and control systems. Following sections are described in details: definition of measurement system, FMC boards installation, automatic FPGA startup configuration, automatic FMC detection and automatic card identification. Reconfigurable measurement and control systems are using FPGA devices and mezzanines in FMC standard. This work is a part of a wider project for automatic firmware generation and management of reconfigurable systems.

  13. A review of automatic patient identification options for public health care centers with restricted budgets.

    PubMed

    García-Betances, Rebeca I; Huerta, Mónica K

    2012-01-01

    A comparative review is presented of available technologies suitable for automatic reading of patient identification bracelet tags. Existing technologies' backgrounds, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, are described in relation to their possible use by public health care centers with budgetary limitations. A comparative assessment is presented of suitable automatic identification systems based on graphic codes, both one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D), printed on labels, as well as those based on radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The analysis looks at the tradeoffs of these technologies to provide guidance to hospital administrator looking to deploy patient identification technology. The results suggest that affordable automatic patient identification systems can be easily and inexpensively implemented using 2D code printed on low cost bracelet labels, which can then be read and automatically decoded by ordinary mobile smart phones. Because of mobile smart phones' present versatility and ubiquity, the implantation and operation of 2D code, and especially Quick Response® (QR) Code, technology emerges as a very attractive alternative to automate the patients' identification processes in low-budget situations. PMID:23569629

  14. Automatic removal of crossed-out handwritten text and the effect on writer verification and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Axel; van der Klauw, Harro; Schomaker, Lambert

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for automatically identifying and removing crossed-out text in off-line handwriting. It classifies connected components by simply comparing two scalar features with thresholds. The performance is quantified based on manually labeled connected components of 250 pages of a forensic dataset. 47% of connected components consisting of crossed-out text can be removed automatically while 99% of the normal text components are preserved. The influence of automatically removing crossed-out text on writer verification and identification is also quantified. This influence is not significant.

  15. A Novel Method of Automatic Plant Species Identification Using Sparse Representation of Leaf Tooth Features

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Taisong; Hou, Xueliang; Li, Pifan; Zhou, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Automatic species identification has many advantages over traditional species identification. Currently, most plant automatic identification methods focus on the features of leaf shape, venation and texture, which are promising for the identification of some plant species. However, leaf tooth, a feature commonly used in traditional species identification, is ignored. In this paper, a novel automatic species identification method using sparse representation of leaf tooth features is proposed. In this method, image corners are detected first, and the abnormal image corner is removed by the PauTa criteria. Next, the top and bottom leaf tooth edges are discriminated to effectively correspond to the extracted image corners; then, four leaf tooth features (Leaf-num, Leaf-rate, Leaf-sharpness and Leaf-obliqueness) are extracted and concatenated into a feature vector. Finally, a sparse representation-based classifier is used to identify a plant species sample. Tests on a real-world leaf image dataset show that our proposed method is feasible for species identification. PMID:26440281

  16. A Model of Automatic Identification of Groundwater Parameters using an Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P.; Chang, L.; Jung, C.; Huang, C.; Chen, J.; Tsai, P. J.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional methods for identification of groundwater parameters could be categorized into manual identification of parameters and automatic identification of parameters. Manual identification of parameters determines parameter values using a manual decision-making process. The manual identification process is flexible and is also understandable. However, the complete process is time-consuming and requires background knowledge of groundwater simulation. In contrast, automatic identification of parameters, which is traditionally, founded on optimization-based approaches, has a relatively greater degree of computational efficiency. The automatic method uses optimization formulas to represent the concepts of parameter identification and includes objective functions and constraints. However, because the formulas are complicated and abstract, application of this method to complicated field problems may be limited. Larger dimensions of parameters also imply an increased computational load when using the optimization method. This study used a rule-based expert system and a groundwater simulation model, MODFLOW 2000, to develop an automatic system for identification of groundwater parameters that retains the interpretability and flexibility of manual identification and the computational efficiency of automatic identification. With the expert system as the center of parameter modification, the proposed system can increase its capacity for identification by adding new rules. After empirical data on identification of groundwater parameters have been generalized and transformed into rules stored in the knowledge base, the expert system is preceded by rule inference generated by the inference engine. In contrast to traditional procedures, the expert system, due to the inference engine, is not sensitive to the order of the execution of rules. This advantage makes maintaining and expanding the knowledge base easier and more flexible. To demonstrate the accuracy and capacity of

  17. Automatic Identification of Human Erythrocytes in Microscopic Fecal Specimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lei, Haoting; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Liu, Juanxiu; Xie, Yu; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Traditional fecal erythrocyte detection is performed via a manual operation that is unsuitable because it depends significantly on the expertise of individual inspectors. To recognize human erythrocytes automatically and precisely, automatic segmentation is very important for extraction of characteristics. In addition, multiple recognition algorithms are also essential. This paper proposes an algorithm based on morphological segmentation and a fuzzy neural network. The morphological segmentation process comprises three operational steps: top-hat transformation, Otsu's method, and image binarization. Following initial screening by area and circularity, fuzzy c-means clustering and the neural network algorithms are used for secondary screening. Subsequently, the erythrocytes are screened by combining the results of five images obtained at different focal lengths. Experimental results show that even when the illumination, noise pollution, and position of the erythrocytes are different, they are all segmented and labeled accurately by the proposed method. Thus, the proposed method is robust even in images with significant amounts of noise. PMID:26349804

  18. Automatic script identification from images using cluster-based templates

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Kerns, L.; Kelly, P.; Thomas, T.

    1995-02-01

    We have developed a technique for automatically identifying the script used to generate a document that is stored electronically in bit image form. Our approach differs from previous work in that the distinctions among scripts are discovered by an automatic learning procedure, without any handson analysis. We first develop a set of representative symbols (templates) for each script in our database (Cyrillic, Roman, etc.). We do this by identifying all textual symbols in a set of training documents, scaling each symbol to a fixed size, clustering similar symbols, pruning minor clusters, and finding each cluster`s centroid. To identify a new document`s script, we identify and scale a subset of symbols from the document and compare them to the templates for each script. We choose the script whose templates provide the best match. Our current system distinguishes among the Armenian, Burmese, Chinese, Cyrillic, Ethiopic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Roman, and Thai scripts with over 90% accuracy.

  19. Automatic and Direct Identification of Blink Components from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects. PMID:23959240

  20. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  1. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships §...

  2. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.231 Section 80.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.231 Technical...

  3. Phase coherence adaptive processor for automatic signal detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2006-05-01

    A continuously adapting acoustic signal processor with an automatic detection/decision aid is presented. Its purpose is to preserve the signals of tactical interest, and filter out other signals and noise. It utilizes single sensor or beamformed spectral data and transforms the signal and noise phase angles into "aligned phase angles" (APA). The APA increase the phase temporal coherence of signals and leave the noise incoherent. Coherence thresholds are set, which are representative of the type of source "threat vehicle" and the geographic area or volume in which it is operating. These thresholds separate signals, based on the "quality" of their APA coherence. An example is presented in which signals from a submerged source in the ocean are preserved, while clutter signals from ships and noise are entirely eliminated. Furthermore, the "signals of interest" were identified by the processor's automatic detection aid. Similar performance is expected for air and ground vehicles. The processor's equations are formulated in such a manner that they can be tuned to eliminate noise and exploit signal, based on the "quality" of their APA temporal coherence. The mathematical formulation for this processor is presented, including the method by which the processor continuously self-adapts. Results show nearly complete elimination of noise, with only the selected category of signals remaining, and accompanying enhancements in spectral and spatial resolution. In most cases, the concept of signal-to-noise ratio looses significance, and "adaptive automated /decision aid" is more relevant.

  4. Automatic identification of biological microorganisms using three-dimensional complex morphology.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    We propose automated identification of microorganisms using three-dimensional (3-D) complex morphology. This 3-D complex morphology pattern includes the complex amplitude (magnitude and phase) of computationally reconstructed holographic images at arbitrary depths. Microscope-based single-exposure on-line (SEOL) digital holography records and reconstructs holographic images of the biological microorganisms. The 3-D automatic recognition is processed by segmentation, feature extraction by Gabor-based wavelets, automatic feature vector selection by graph matching, training rules, and a decision process. Graph matching combined with Gabor feature vectors measures the similarity of complex geometrical shapes between a reference microorganism and unknown biological samples. Automatic selection of the training data is proposed to achieve a fully automatic recognition system. Preliminary experimental results are presented for 3-D image recognition of Sphacelaria alga and Tribonema aequale alga. PMID:16674207

  5. Automatic source camera identification using the intrinsic lens radial distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kai San; Lam, Edmund Y.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Source camera identification refers to the task of matching digital images with the cameras that are responsible for producing these images. This is an important task in image forensics, which in turn is a critical procedure in law enforcement. Unfortunately, few digital cameras are equipped with the capability of producing watermarks for this purpose. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a high rate of accuracy in the identification by noting the intrinsic lens radial distortion of each camera. To reduce manufacturing cost, the majority of digital cameras are equipped with lenses having rather spherical surfaces, whose inherent radial distortions serve as unique fingerprints in the images. We extract, for each image, parameters from aberration measurements, which are then used to train and test a support vector machine classifier. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the success rate of a source camera identification with five cameras. The results show that this is a viable approach with high accuracy. Additionally, we also present results on how the error rates may change with images captured using various optical zoom levels, as zooming is commonly available in digital cameras.

  6. Automatic identification of model reductions for discrete stochastic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng; Fu, Jin; Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Multiple time scales in cellular chemical reaction systems present a challenge for the efficiency of stochastic simulation. Numerous model reductions have been proposed to accelerate the simulation of chemically reacting systems by exploiting time scale separation. However, these are often identified and deployed manually, requiring expert knowledge. This is time-consuming, prone to error, and opportunities for model reduction may be missed, particularly for large models. We propose an automatic model analysis algorithm using an adaptively weighted Petri net to dynamically identify opportunities for model reductions for both the stochastic simulation algorithm and tau-leaping simulation, with no requirement of expert knowledge input. Results are presented to demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of this approach.

  7. Investigation of Ballistic Evidence through an Automatic Image Analysis and Identification System.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ilker

    2016-05-01

    Automated firearms identification (AFI) systems contribute to shedding light on criminal events by comparison between different pieces of evidence on cartridge cases and bullets and by matching similar ones that were fired from the same firearm. Ballistic evidence can be rapidly analyzed and classified by means of an automatic image analysis and identification system. In addition, it can be used to narrow the range of possible matching evidence. In this study conducted on the cartridges ejected from the examined pistol, three imaging areas, namely the firing pin impression, capsule traces, and the intersection of these traces, were compared automatically using the image analysis and identification system through the correlation ranking method to determine the numeric values that indicate the significance of the similarities. These numerical features that signify the similarities and differences between pistol makes and models can be used in groupings to make a distinction between makes and models of pistols. PMID:27122419

  8. Sensitivity based segmentation and identification in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absher, R.

    1984-03-01

    This research program continued an investigation of sensitivity analysis, and its use in the segmentation and identification of the phonetic units of speech, that was initiated during the 1982 Summer Faculty Research Program. The elements of the sensitivity matrix, which express the relative change in each pole of the speech model to a relative change in each coefficient of the characteristic equation, were evaluated for an expanded set of data which consisted of six vowels contained in single words spoken in a simple carrier phrase by five males with differing dialects. The objectives were to evaluate the sensitivity matrix, interpret its changes during the production of the vowels, and to evaluate inter-speaker variations. It was determined that the sensitivity analysis (1) serves to segment the vowel interval, (2) provides a measure of when a vowel is on target, and (3) should provide sufficient information to identify each particular vowel. Based on the results presented, sensitivity analysis should result in more accurate segmentation and identification of phonemes and should provide a practicable framework for incorporation of acoustic-phonetic variance as well as time and talker normalization.

  9. Automatic identification of oculomotor behavior using pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Korda, Alexandra I; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Matsopoulos, George K; Ventouras, Errikos M; Smyrnis, Nikolaos P

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a methodological scheme for identifying distinct patterns of oculomotor behavior such as saccades, microsaccades, blinks and fixations from time series of eye's angular displacement is presented. The first step of the proposed methodology involves signal detrending for artifacts removal and estimation of eye's angular velocity. Then, feature vectors from fourteen first-order statistical features are formed from each angular displacement and velocity signal using sliding, fixed-length time windows. The obtained feature vectors are used for training and testing three artificial neural network classifiers, connected in cascade. The three classifiers discriminate between blinks and non-blinks, fixations and non-fixations and saccades and microsaccades, respectively. The proposed methodology was tested on a dataset from 1392 subjects, each performing three oculomotor fixation conditions. The average overall accuracy of the three classifiers, with respect to the manual identification of eye movements by experts, was 95.9%. The proposed methodological scheme provided better results than the well-known Velocity Threshold algorithm, which was used for comparison. The findings of the present study indicate that the utilization of pattern recognition techniques in the task of identifying the various eye movements may provide accurate and robust results. PMID:25836568

  10. Automatic limb identification and sleeping parameters assessment for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Baran Pouyan, Maziyar; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad; Matthew Pompeo, M D

    2016-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common among vulnerable patients such as elderly, bedridden and diabetic. PUs are very painful for patients and costly for hospitals and nursing homes. Assessment of sleeping parameters on at-risk limbs is critical for ulcer prevention. An effective assessment depends on automatic identification and tracking of at-risk limbs. An accurate limb identification can be used to analyze the pressure distribution and assess risk for each limb. In this paper, we propose a graph-based clustering approach to extract the body limbs from the pressure data collected by a commercial pressure map system. A robust signature-based technique is employed to automatically label each limb. Finally, an assessment technique is applied to evaluate the experienced stress by each limb over time. The experimental results indicate high performance and more than 94% average accuracy of the proposed approach. PMID:27268736

  11. Automatic Molar Extraction from Dental Panoramic Radiographs for Forensic Personal Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samopa, Febriliyan; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    Measurement of an individual molar provides rich information for forensic personal identification. We propose a computer-based system for extracting an individual molar from dental panoramic radiographs. A molar is obtained by extracting the region-of-interest, separating the maxilla and mandible, and extracting the boundaries between teeth. The proposed system is almost fully automatic; all that the user has to do is clicking three points on the boundary between the maxilla and the mandible.

  12. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  13. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed. PMID:26975238

  14. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  15. An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

  16. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier's subtechniques in course conditions. PMID:27049388

  17. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier’s subtechniques in course conditions. PMID:27049388

  18. Automatic quality assessment and peak identification of auditory brainstem responses with fitted parametric peaks.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Joaquin T; de la Torre, Angel; Alvarez, Isaac; Segura, Jose Carlos; Thornton, A Roger D; Sainz, Manuel; Vargas, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The recording of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is used worldwide for hearing screening purposes. In this process, a precise estimation of the most relevant components is essential for an accurate interpretation of these signals. This evaluation is usually carried out subjectively by an audiologist. However, the use of automatic methods for this purpose is being encouraged nowadays in order to reduce human evaluation biases and ensure uniformity among test conditions, patients, and screening personnel. This article describes a new method that performs automatic quality assessment and identification of the peaks, the fitted parametric peaks (FPP). This method is based on the use of synthesized peaks that are adjusted to the ABR response. The FPP is validated, on one hand, by an analysis of amplitudes and latencies measured manually by an audiologist and automatically by the FPP method in ABR signals recorded at different stimulation rates; and on the other hand, contrasting the performance of the FPP method with the automatic evaluation techniques based on the correlation coefficient, FSP, and cross correlation with a predefined template waveform by comparing the automatic evaluations of the quality of these methods with subjective evaluations provided by five experienced evaluators on a set of ABR signals of different quality. The results of this study suggest (a) that the FPP method can be used to provide an accurate parameterization of the peaks in terms of amplitude, latency, and width, and (b) that the FPP remains as the method that best approaches the averaged subjective quality evaluation, as well as provides the best results in terms of sensitivity and specificity in ABR signals validation. The significance of these findings and the clinical value of the FPP method are highlighted on this paper. PMID:24661606

  19. Signal environment mapping of the Automatic Identification System frequencies from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo; Olsen, Øystein

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents received signal strength data recorded by the NORAIS Receiver on the four VHF channels allocated to the use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The NORAIS Receiver operated on-board the Columbus module of the International Space Station from June 2010 to February 2015. The data shows that a space-based AIS receiver must handle transient strong signals from land-based interference and that the effectiveness of the two long range AIS channels recently allocated is severely reduced in select areas due to land based interference.

  20. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements. PMID:21621759

  1. Automatic classification and speaker identification of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Savage, Anne

    2005-02-01

    A hidden Markov model (HMM) system is presented for automatically classifying African elephant vocalizations. The development of the system is motivated by successful models from human speech analysis and recognition. Classification features include frequency-shifted Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and log energy, spectrally motivated features which are commonly used in human speech processing. Experiments, including vocalization type classification and speaker identification, are performed on vocalizations collected from captive elephants in a naturalistic environment. The system classified vocalizations with accuracies of 94.3% and 82.5% for type classification and speaker identification classification experiments, respectively. Classification accuracy, statistical significance tests on the model parameters, and qualitative analysis support the effectiveness and robustness of this approach for vocalization analysis in nonhuman species. .

  2. Automatic identification of shallow landslides based on Worldview2 remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Rong; Cheng, Xinwen; Chen, Lianjun; Zhang, Haitao; Xiong, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of landslides based on remote sensing images is important for investigating disasters and producing hazard maps. We propose a method to detect shallow landslides automatically using Wordview2 images. Features such as high soil brightness and low vegetation coverage can help identify shallow landslides on remote sensing images. Therefore, soil brightness and vegetation index were chosen as indexes for landslide remote sensing. The back scarp of a landslide can form dark shadow areas on the landslide mass, affecting the accuracy of landslide extraction. To eliminate this effect, the shadow index was chosen as an index. The first principal component (PC1) contained >90% of the image information; therefore, this was also selected as an index. The four selected indexes were used to synthesize a new image wherein information on shallow landslides was enhanced, while other background information was suppressed. Then, PC1 was extracted from the new synthetic image, and an automatic threshold segmentation algorithm was used for segmenting the image to obtain similar landslide areas. Based on landslide features such as slope, shape, and area, nonlandslide areas were eliminated. Finally, four experimental sites were used to verify the feasibility of the developed method.

  3. Semi-automatic stereotactic coordinate identification algorithm for routine localization of Deep Brain Stimulation electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hebb, Adam O; Miller, Kai J

    2010-03-15

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a routine therapy for movement disorders, and has several emerging indications. We present a novel protocol to define the stereotactic coordinates of metallic DBS implants that may be routinely employed for validating therapeutic anatomical targets. Patients were referred for troubleshooting or new DBS implantation. A volumetric MRI of the brain obtained prior to or during this protocol was formatted to the Anterior Commissure-Posterior Commissure (AC-PC) coordinate system. Patients underwent a CT scan of the brain in an extended Hounsfield unit (EHU) mode. A semi-automatic detection algorithm based on a Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) co-registration method was implemented to measure the AC-PC coordinates of each DBS contact. This algorithm was validated using manual DBS contact identification. Fifty MRI-CT image pairs were available in 39 patients with a total of 336 DBS electrodes. The median and mean Euclidean distance errors for automatic identification of electrode locations were 0.20mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. This method is an accurate method of localization of active DBS contacts within the sub-cortical region. As the investigational indications of DBS expand, this method may be used for verification of final implant coordinates, critical for understanding clinical benefit and comparing efficacy between subjects. PMID:20036691

  4. Experiments in automatic word class and word sense identification for information retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Gauch, S.; Futrelle, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Automatic identification of related words and automatic detection of word senses are two long-standing goals of researchers in natural language processing. Word class information and word sense identification may enhance the performance of information retrieval system4ms. Large online corpora and increased computational capabilities make new techniques based on corpus linguisitics feasible. Corpus-based analysis is especially needed for corpora from specialized fields for which no electronic dictionaries or thesauri exist. The methods described here use a combination of mutual information and word context to establish word similarities. Then, unsupervised classification is done using clustering in the word space, identifying word classes without pretagging. We also describe an extension of the method to handle the difficult problems of disambiguation and of determining part-of-speech and semantic information for low-frequency words. The method is powerful enough to produce high-quality results on a small corpus of 200,000 words from abstracts in a field of molecular biology.

  5. Deep learning for automatic localization, identification, and segmentation of vertebral bodies in volumetric MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzani, Amin; Rasoulian, Abtin; Seitel, Alexander; Fels, Sidney; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for vertebra localization, labeling, and segmentation in multi-slice Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Prior work in this area on MR images mostly requires user interaction while our method is fully automatic. Cubic intensity-based features are extracted from image voxels. A deep learning approach is used for simultaneous localization and identification of vertebrae. The localized points are refined by local thresholding in the region of the detected vertebral column. Thereafter, a statistical multi-vertebrae model is initialized on the localized vertebrae. An iterative Expectation Maximization technique is used to register the vertebral body of the model to the image edges and obtain a segmentation of the lumbar vertebral bodies. The method is evaluated by applying to nine volumetric MR images of the spine. The results demonstrate 100% vertebra identification and a mean surface error of below 2.8 mm for 3D segmentation. Computation time is less than three minutes per high-resolution volumetric image.

  6. Automatic Identification of Critical Data Items in a Database to Mitigate the Effects of Malicious Insiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan; Panda, Brajendra

    A major concern for computer system security is the threat from malicious insiders who target and abuse critical data items in the system. In this paper, we propose a solution to enable automatic identification of critical data items in a database by way of data dependency relationships. This identification of critical data items is necessary because insider threats often target mission critical data in order to accomplish malicious tasks. Unfortunately, currently available systems fail to address this problem in a comprehensive manner. It is more difficult for non-experts to identify these critical data items because of their lack of familiarity and due to the fact that data systems are constantly changing. By identifying the critical data items automatically, security engineers will be better prepared to protect what is critical to the mission of the organization and also have the ability to focus their security efforts on these critical data items. We have developed an algorithm that scans the database logs and forms a directed graph showing which items influence a large number of other items and at what frequency this influence occurs. This graph is traversed to reveal the data items which have a large influence throughout the database system by using a novel metric based formula. These items are critical to the system because if they are maliciously altered or stolen, the malicious alterations will spread throughout the system, delaying recovery and causing a much more malignant effect. As these items have significant influence, they are deemed to be critical and worthy of extra security measures. Our proposal is not intended to replace existing intrusion detection systems, but rather is intended to complement current and future technologies. Our proposal has never been performed before, and our experimental results have shown that it is very effective in revealing critical data items automatically.

  7. Evaluating current automatic de-identification methods with Veteran’s health administration clinical documents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) causes a tremendous growth in digital information useful for clinicians, researchers and many other operational purposes. However, this information is rich in Protected Health Information (PHI), which severely restricts its access and possible uses. A number of investigators have developed methods for automatically de-identifying EHR documents by removing PHI, as specified in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act “Safe Harbor” method. This study focuses on the evaluation of existing automated text de-identification methods and tools, as applied to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinical documents, to assess which methods perform better with each category of PHI found in our clinical notes; and when new methods are needed to improve performance. Methods We installed and evaluated five text de-identification systems “out-of-the-box” using a corpus of VHA clinical documents. The systems based on machine learning methods were trained with the 2006 i2b2 de-identification corpora and evaluated with our VHA corpus, and also evaluated with a ten-fold cross-validation experiment using our VHA corpus. We counted exact, partial, and fully contained matches with reference annotations, considering each PHI type separately, or only one unique ‘PHI’ category. Performance of the systems was assessed using recall (equivalent to sensitivity) and precision (equivalent to positive predictive value) metrics, as well as the F2-measure. Results Overall, systems based on rules and pattern matching achieved better recall, and precision was always better with systems based on machine learning approaches. The highest “out-of-the-box” F2-measure was 67% for partial matches; the best precision and recall were 95% and 78%, respectively. Finally, the ten-fold cross validation experiment allowed for an increase of the F2-measure to 79% with partial matches. Conclusions The

  8. Evaluating the state-of-the-art in automatic de-identification.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Ozlem; Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate and survey studies in automatic de-identification, as a part of the i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology to the Bedside) project, authors organized a Natural Language Processing (NLP) challenge on automatically removing private health information (PHI) from medical discharge records. This manuscript provides an overview of this de-identification challenge, describes the data and the annotation process, explains the evaluation metrics, discusses the nature of the systems that addressed the challenge, analyzes the results of received system runs, and identifies directions for future research. The de-indentification challenge data consisted of discharge summaries drawn from the Partners Healthcare system. Authors prepared this data for the challenge by replacing authentic PHI with synthesized surrogates. To focus the challenge on non-dictionary-based de-identification methods, the data was enriched with out-of-vocabulary PHI surrogates, i.e., made up names. The data also included some PHI surrogates that were ambiguous with medical non-PHI terms. A total of seven teams participated in the challenge. Each team submitted up to three system runs, for a total of sixteen submissions. The authors used precision, recall, and F-measure to evaluate the submitted system runs based on their token-level and instance-level performance on the ground truth. The systems with the best performance scored above 98% in F-measure for all categories of PHI. Most out-of-vocabulary PHI could be identified accurately. However, identifying ambiguous PHI proved challenging. The performance of systems on the test data set is encouraging. Future evaluations of these systems will involve larger data sets from more heterogeneous sources. PMID:17600094

  9. Automatic modal identification of cable-supported bridges instrumented with a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Fan, K. Q.; Zheng, G.; Chan, T. H. T.; Ko, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    An automatic modal identification program is developed for continuous extraction of modal parameters of three cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong which are instrumented with a long-term monitoring system. The program employs the Complex Modal Indication Function (CMIF) algorithm to identify modal properties from continuous ambient vibration measurements in an on-line manner. By using the LabVIEW graphical programming language, the software realizes the algorithm in Virtual Instrument (VI) style. The applicability and implementation issues of the developed software are demonstrated by using one-year measurement data acquired from 67 channels of accelerometers deployed on the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. With the continuously identified results, normal variability of modal vectors caused by varying environmental and operational conditions is observed. Such observation is very helpful for selection of appropriate measured modal vectors for structural health monitoring applications.

  10. An Analysis of Serial Number Tracking Automatic Identification Technology as Used in Naval Aviation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csorba, Robert

    2002-09-01

    The Government Accounting Office found that the Navy, between 1996 and 1998, lost 3 billion in materiel in-transit. This thesis explores the benefits and cost of automatic identification and serial number tracking technologies under consideration by the Naval Supply Systems Command and the Naval Air Systems Command. Detailed cost-savings estimates are made for each aircraft type in the Navy inventory. Project and item managers of repairable components using Serial Number Tracking were surveyed as to the value of this system. It concludes that two thirds of the in-transit losses can be avoided with implementation of effective information technology-based logistics and maintenance tracking systems. Recommendations are made for specific steps and components of such an implementation. Suggestions are made for further research.

  11. Benefit Analyses of Technologies for Automatic Identification to Be Implemented in the Healthcare Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krey, Mike; Schlatter, Ueli

    The tasks and objectives of automatic identification (Auto-ID) are to provide information on goods and products. It has already been established for years in the areas of logistics and trading and can no longer be ignored by the German healthcare sector. Some German hospitals have already discovered the capabilities of Auto-ID. Improvements in quality, safety and reductions in risk, cost and time are aspects and areas where improvements are achievable. Privacy protection, legal restraints, and the personal rights of patients and staff members are just a few aspects which make the heath care sector a sensible field for the implementation of Auto-ID. Auto-ID in this context contains the different technologies, methods and products for the registration, provision and storage of relevant data. With the help of a quantifiable and science-based evaluation, an answer is sought as to which Auto-ID has the highest capability to be implemented in healthcare business.

  12. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  13. Automatic Identification of Artifact-Related Independent Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. These activities can be decoded by signal processing techniques. However, EEG recordings are always contaminated with artifacts which hinder the decoding process. Therefore, identifying and removing artifacts is an important step. Researchers often clean EEG recordings with assistance from independent component analysis (ICA), since it can decompose EEG recordings into a number of artifact-related and event-related potential (ERP)-related independent components. However, existing ICA-based artifact identification strategies mostly restrict themselves to a subset of artifacts, e.g., identifying eye movement artifacts only, and have not been shown to reliably identify artifacts caused by nonbiological origins like high-impedance electrodes. In this paper, we propose an automatic algorithm for the identification of general artifacts. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts: 1) an event-related feature-based clustering algorithm used to identify artifacts which have physiological origins; and 2) the electrode-scalp impedance information employed for identifying nonbiological artifacts. The results on EEG data collected from ten subjects show that our algorithm can effectively detect, separate, and remove both physiological and nonbiological artifacts. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed EEG signals demonstrates that our proposed method can effectively enhance the signal quality, especially the quality of ERPs, even for those that barely display ERPs in the raw EEG. The performance results also show that our proposed method can effectively identify artifacts and subsequently enhance the classification accuracies compared to four commonly used automatic artifact removal methods. PMID:25415992

  14. Examining the Importance of Assessing Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) for the Identification of Children with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Manolitsis, George; Kirby, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in the identification of poor readers in two alphabetic orthographies: English and Greek. Ninety-seven English-speaking Canadian (mean age = 66.70 months) and 70 Greek children (mean age = 67.60 months) were followed from Kindergarten until Grade 3. In…

  15. Automatic Measurement of Water Levels by Using Image Identification Method in Open Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Yang, Han; Xue Yang, Jia

    2014-05-01

    Water level data is indispensable to hydrology research, and it is important information for hydraulic engineering and overall utilization of water resources. The information of water level can be transmitted to management office by the network so that the management office may well understand whether the river level is exceeding the warning line. The existing water level measurement method can only present water levels in a form of data without any of images, the methods which make data just be a data and lack the sense of reality. Those images such as the rising or overflow of river level that the existing measurement method cannot obtain simultaneously. Therefore, this research employs a newly, improved method for water level measurement. Through the Video Surveillance System to record the images on site, an image of water surface will be snapped, and then the snapped image will be pre-processed and be compared with its altitude reference value to obtain a water level altitude value. With the ever-growing technology, the application scope of image identification is widely in increase. This research attempts to use image identification technology to analyze water level automatically. The image observation method used in this research is one of non-contact water level gage but it is quite different from other ones; the image observation method is cheap and the facilities can be set up beside an embankment of river or near the houses, thus the impact coming from external factors will be significantly reduced, and a real scene picture will be transmitted through wireless transmission. According to the dynamic water flow test held in an indoor experimental channel, the results of the research indicated that all of error levels of water level identification were less than 2% which meant the image identification could achieve identification result at different water levels. This new measurement method can offer instant river level figures and on-site video so that a

  16. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research. PMID:18331979

  17. Field-portable imaging remote sensing system for automatic identification and imaging of hazardous gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, R.; Rusch, P.; Peters, H.; Gerhard, J.; Braun, R.,; Sabbah, S.; Beecken, J.

    2009-09-01

    Hazardous compounds may be released into the atmosphere in the case of fires, chemical accidents, terrorist acts, or war. In these cases, information about the released compounds is required immediately in order to take appropriate measures to protect workers, residents, emergency response personnel at the site of the release, and the environment. Remote sensing by infrared spectroscopy allows detection and identification of hazardous clouds in the atmosphere from long distances. In addition, imaging spectroscopy allows an assessment of the location, the dimensions and the dispersion of a potentially hazardous cloud. This additional information may contribute significantly to a correct assessment of a situation by emergency response forces. Therefore an imaging remote sensing system based on a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a focal plane array detector for automatic identification and imaging of gases has been developed. Imaging systems allow the use of spatial information in addition to spectral information. Thus, in order to achieve low limits of detection, algorithms that combine algorithms for spectral analysis and image analysis have been developed. In this work, the system and first results of measurements are presented.

  18. Automatic Classification of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Nystagmus: Integration of Data Clustering and System Identification.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Smith, Heather L H; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2016-04-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays an important role in our daily activities by enabling us to fixate on objects during head movements. Modeling and identification of the VOR improves our insight into the system behavior and improves diagnosis of various disorders. However, the switching nature of eye movements (nystagmus), including the VOR, makes dynamic analysis challenging. The first step in such analysis is to segment data into its subsystem responses (here slow and fast segment intervals). Misclassification of segments results in biased analysis of the system of interest. Here, we develop a novel three-step algorithm to classify the VOR data into slow and fast intervals automatically. The proposed algorithm is initialized using a K-means clustering method. The initial classification is then refined using system identification approaches and prediction error statistics. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the new algorithm performance is much improved over the previous methods, in terms of higher specificity. PMID:26357393

  19. Automatic Detection and Identification of Seismic Signals Recorded at Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia) Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibs-von Seht, M.; Kniess, R.

    2006-12-01

    A number of different event types can be observed in the records of seismic stations operated on Krakatau volcano (Indonesia). These include volcano-induced signals such as LP, VT, and hybrid-type events as well as signals not originating from the volcano such as local and regional tectonic earthquakes and transient noise signals. The work presented here aims at the realization of a system that automatically detects and identifies the signals in order to estimate and monitor current activity states of the volcano. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was chosen for the identification task. A set of parameters were defined, describing waveform and spectrogram properties of events detected by an STA/LTA algorithm. The parameters are fed into an ANN which is, after a training phase, able to generalize input data and identify corresponding event types. The success of the identification depends on the network architecture and training strategy. Several tests have been performed in order to determine an appropriate network layout and training intensity for the given problem. The resulting network shows a good performance. A practical implementation of the system for the volcano observatory routine is sketched.

  20. Automatic Identification of Named Entities in Literatures Using GenomeNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numa, Masayuki; Kaneta, Yoshikazu; Ohkawa, Takenao

    Information extraction (IE) is essential owing to increase of protein related literature contains active site and interaction information. It is important to identify correctly named entities for the accurate information extraction. Named entities in molecular biology fields is described variously and cannot be identified easily by terminology dictionary. This paper proposes a new method for automatic identification of named entities in literatures using GenomeNet. GenomeNet has text search system for a lot of protein related databases which are updated every day. Our method utilizes the search result of GenomeNet as knowledge base. The search result contains the clues for identifying named entities. Focusing on the clues in the search results, three parameters are defined. And we can identify the named entities to figure out if the three parameters meets the identification condition. We applied proposed method for some protein related literatures to compare with other method. The evaluated value is improved substantially and efffectness of proposed method is clear.

  1. EVEREST: automatic identification and classification of protein domains in all protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Portugaly, Elon; Harel, Amir; Linial, Nathan; Linial, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Background Proteins are comprised of one or several building blocks, known as domains. Such domains can be classified into families according to their evolutionary origin. Whereas sequencing technologies have advanced immensely in recent years, there are no matching computational methodologies for large-scale determination of protein domains and their boundaries. We provide and rigorously evaluate a novel set of domain families that is automatically generated from sequence data. Our domain family identification process, called EVEREST (EVolutionary Ensembles of REcurrent SegmenTs), begins by constructing a library of protein segments that emerge in an all vs. all pairwise sequence comparison. It then proceeds to cluster these segments into putative domain families. The selection of the best putative families is done using machine learning techniques. A statistical model is then created for each of the chosen families. This procedure is then iterated: the aforementioned statistical models are used to scan all protein sequences, to recreate a library of segments and to cluster them again. Results Processing the Swiss-Prot section of the UniProt Knoledgebase, release 7.2, EVEREST defines 20,230 domains, covering 85% of the amino acids of the Swiss-Prot database. EVEREST annotates 11,852 proteins (6% of the database) that are not annotated by Pfam A. In addition, in 43,086 proteins (20% of the database), EVEREST annotates a part of the protein that is not annotated by Pfam A. Performance tests show that EVEREST recovers 56% of Pfam A families and 63% of SCOP families with high accuracy, and suggests previously unknown domain families with at least 51% fidelity. EVEREST domains are often a combination of domains as defined by Pfam or SCOP and are frequently sub-domains of such domains. Conclusion The EVEREST process and its output domain families provide an exhaustive and validated view of the protein domain world that is automatically generated from sequence data. The

  2. The Iqmulus Urban Showcase: Automatic Tree Classification and Identification in Huge Mobile Mapping Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, J.; Bredif, M.; Gierlinger, T.; Krämer, M.; Lindenberg, R.; Liu, K.; Michel, F.; Sirmacek, B.

    2016-06-01

    Current 3D data capturing as implemented on for example airborne or mobile laser scanning systems is able to efficiently sample the surface of a city by billions of unselective points during one working day. What is still difficult is to extract and visualize meaningful information hidden in these point clouds with the same efficiency. This is where the FP7 IQmulus project enters the scene. IQmulus is an interactive facility for processing and visualizing big spatial data. In this study the potential of IQmulus is demonstrated on a laser mobile mapping point cloud of 1 billion points sampling ~ 10 km of street environment in Toulouse, France. After the data is uploaded to the IQmulus Hadoop Distributed File System, a workflow is defined by the user consisting of retiling the data followed by a PCA driven local dimensionality analysis, which runs efficiently on the IQmulus cloud facility using a Spark implementation. Points scattering in 3 directions are clustered in the tree class, and are separated next into individual trees. Five hours of processing at the 12 node computing cluster results in the automatic identification of 4000+ urban trees. Visualization of the results in the IQmulus fat client helps users to appreciate the results, and developers to identify remaining flaws in the processing workflow.

  3. Research of online automatism identification algorithm based on image character sequence look-up table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yueping; Han, Yan; Li, Ruihong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes an effective approach for online inspecting and recognizing the assembly structure inside three-dimensional objects using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system. During the offline study process, the paper obtains a gray image sequence of a standard sample in multiple circumferential orientations. Utilizing the idea of classifying identification, the paper locates and extracts different characters of different parts in each image of the sequence and establishes corresponding character sequence libraries. In online detection stage, the program finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the library with bisearch method and carries out exactness image matching with correlation coefficient weighted of multi-character via Bayes decision. Aiming at the issue of some objects may be occluded by others in a scene, the paper puts forward to rotate the product some certain angles and re-match. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the relationships of misjudgment ratio with product assembling tolerance, the size of target part and identifying velocity. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray automatism detection system has been developed and it is successfully applied in online detecting some axis symmetric products which assembly structures inside are complex.

  4. Automatic type classification and speaker identification of african elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a system for automatically classifying African elephant vocalizations based on systems used for human speech recognition and speaker identification. The experiments are performed on vocalizations collected from captive elephants in a naturalistic environment. Features used for classification include Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and log energy which are the most common features used in human speech processing. Since African elephants use lower frequencies than humans in their vocalizations, the MFCCs are computed using a shifted Mel-Frequency filter bank to emphasize the infrasound range of the frequency spectrum. In addition to these features, the use of less traditional features such as those based on fundamental frequency and the phase of the frequency spectrum is also considered. A Hidden Markov Model with Gaussian mixture state probabilities is used to model each type of vocalization. Vocalizations are classified based on type, speaker and estrous cycle. Experiments on continuous call type recognition, which can classify multiple vocalizations in the same utterance, are also performed. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a universal analysis framework and robust feature set for animal vocalizations that can be applied to many species.

  5. Multi-level Bayesian safety analysis with unprocessed Automatic Vehicle Identification data for an urban expressway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Yu, Rongjie

    2016-03-01

    In traffic safety studies, crash frequency modeling of total crashes is the cornerstone before proceeding to more detailed safety evaluation. The relationship between crash occurrence and factors such as traffic flow and roadway geometric characteristics has been extensively explored for a better understanding of crash mechanisms. In this study, a multi-level Bayesian framework has been developed in an effort to identify the crash contributing factors on an urban expressway in the Central Florida area. Two types of traffic data from the Automatic Vehicle Identification system, which are the processed data capped at speed limit and the unprocessed data retaining the original speed were incorporated in the analysis along with road geometric information. The model framework was proposed to account for the hierarchical data structure and the heterogeneity among the traffic and roadway geometric data. Multi-level and random parameters models were constructed and compared with the Negative Binomial model under the Bayesian inference framework. Results showed that the unprocessed traffic data was superior. Both multi-level models and random parameters models outperformed the Negative Binomial model and the models with random parameters achieved the best model fitting. The contributing factors identified imply that on the urban expressway lower speed and higher speed variation could significantly increase the crash likelihood. Other geometric factors were significant including auxiliary lanes and horizontal curvature. PMID:26722989

  6. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R K

    1980-06-26

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years.

  7. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface and the Discovery of New Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with nearly identical lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface using a series of automated change detection techniques. Initial manual inspection of temporal pairs resulted in the discovery of many changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. This manual approach resulted in the identification of 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying temporal changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on reflectance variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of x meters). This new approach reduces the time to manually inspect a temporal pair by over a factor of 200 by providing cropped cutouts with the putative changes centered in a thumbnail. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries (i.e. sub-solar points within 3°), of which over 5000 pairs exist. In our initial scan of 1645 temporal pairs, over 8000 surface changes were identified along with over 50 new impact craters

  8. Maritime surveillance with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and automatic identification system (AIS) onboard a microsatellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, E. H.; Zee, R. E.; Fotopoulos, G.

    2012-11-01

    New developments in small spacecraft capabilities will soon enable formation-flying constellations of small satellites, performing cooperative distributed remote sensing at a fraction of the cost of traditional large spacecraft missions. As part of ongoing research into applications of formation-flight technology, recent work has developed a mission concept based on combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with automatic identification system (AIS) data. Two or more microsatellites would trail a large SAR transmitter in orbit, each carrying a SAR receiver antenna and one carrying an AIS antenna. Spaceborne AIS can receive and decode AIS data from a large area, but accurate decoding is limited in high traffic areas, and the technology relies on voluntary vessel compliance. Furthermore, vessel detection amidst speckle in SAR imagery can be challenging. In this constellation, AIS broadcasts of position and velocity are received and decoded, and used in combination with SAR observations to form a more complete picture of maritime traffic and identify potentially non-cooperative vessels. Due to the limited transmit power and ground station downlink time of the microsatellite platform, data will be processed onboard the spacecraft. Herein we present the onboard data processing portion of the mission concept, including methods for automated SAR image registration, vessel detection, and fusion with AIS data. Georeferencing in combination with a spatial frequency domain method is used for image registration. Wavelet-based speckle reduction facilitates vessel detection using a standard CFAR algorithm, while leaving sufficient detail for registration of the filtered and compressed imagery. Moving targets appear displaced from their actual position in SAR imagery, depending on their velocity and the image acquisition geometry; multiple SAR images acquired from different locations are used to determine the actual positions of these targets. Finally, a probabilistic inference

  9. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammazzalorso, F.; Bednarz, T.; Jelen, U.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  10. Automatic identification and characterization of radial files in light microscopy images of wood

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Guilhem; Borianne, Philippe; Subsol, Gérard; Jaeger, Marc; Caraglio, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Analysis of anatomical sections of wood provides important information for understanding the secondary growth and development of plants. This study reports on a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of cell files in wood images obtained by light microscopy. To facilitate interpretation of the results, reliability coefficients have been determined, which characterize the files, their cells and their respective measurements. Methods Histological sections and blocks of the gymnosperms Pinus canariensis, P. nigra and Abies alba were used, together with histological sections of the angiosperm mahogany (Swietenia spp.). Samples were scanned microscopically and mosaic images were built up. After initial processing to reduce noise and enhance contrast, cells were identified using a ‘watershed’ algorithm and then cell files were built up by the successive aggregation of cells taken from progressively enlarged neighbouring regions. Cell characteristics such as thickness and size were calculated, and a method was developed to determine the reliability of the measurements relative to manual methods. Key Results Image analysis using this method can be performed in less than 20 s, which compares with a time of approx. 40 min to produce the same results manually. The results are accompanied by a reliability indicator that can highlight specific configurations of cells and also potentially erroneous data. Conclusions The method provides a fast, economical and reliable tool for the identification of cell files. The reliability indicator characterizing the files permits quick filtering of data for statistical analysis while also highlighting particular biological configurations present in the wood sections. PMID:24989783

  11. Automatic Identification of the Repolarization Endpoint by Computing the Dominant T-wave on a Reduced Number of Leads

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, C.; Agostinelli, A.; Di Nardo, F.; Fioretti, S.; Burattini, L.

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) T-wave endpoint (Tend) identification suffers lack of reliability due to the presence of noise and variability among leads. Tend identification can be improved by using global repolarization waveforms obtained by combining several leads. The dominant T-wave (DTW) is a global repolarization waveform that proved to improve Tend identification when computed using the 15 (I to III, aVr, aVl, aVf, V1 to V6, X, Y, Z) leads usually available in clinics, of which only 8 (I, II, V1 to V6) are independent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the 8 independent leads are sufficient to obtain a DTW which allows a reliable Tend identification. To this aim Tend measures automatically identified from 15-dependent-lead DTWs of 46 control healthy subjects (CHS) and 103 acute myocardial infarction patients (AMIP) were compared with those obtained from 8-independent-lead DTWs. Results indicate that Tend distributions have not statistically different median values (CHS: 340 ms vs. 340 ms, respectively; AMIP: 325 ms vs. 320 ms, respectively), besides being strongly correlated (CHS: ρ=0.97, AMIP: 0.88; P<10-27). Thus, measuring Tend from the 15-dependent-lead DTWs is statistically equivalent to measuring Tend from the 8-independent-lead DTWs. In conclusion, for the clinical purpose of automatic Tend identification from DTW, the 8 independent leads can be used without a statistically significant loss of accuracy but with a significant decrement of computational effort. The lead dependence of 7 out of 15 leads does not introduce a significant bias in the Tend determination from 15 dependent lead DTWs. PMID:27347218

  12. Automatic Identification of the Repolarization Endpoint by Computing the Dominant T-wave on a Reduced Number of Leads.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, C; Agostinelli, A; Di Nardo, F; Fioretti, S; Burattini, L

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) T-wave endpoint (Tend) identification suffers lack of reliability due to the presence of noise and variability among leads. Tend identification can be improved by using global repolarization waveforms obtained by combining several leads. The dominant T-wave (DTW) is a global repolarization waveform that proved to improve Tend identification when computed using the 15 (I to III, aVr, aVl, aVf, V1 to V6, X, Y, Z) leads usually available in clinics, of which only 8 (I, II, V1 to V6) are independent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the 8 independent leads are sufficient to obtain a DTW which allows a reliable Tend identification. To this aim Tend measures automatically identified from 15-dependent-lead DTWs of 46 control healthy subjects (CHS) and 103 acute myocardial infarction patients (AMIP) were compared with those obtained from 8-independent-lead DTWs. Results indicate that Tend distributions have not statistically different median values (CHS: 340 ms vs. 340 ms, respectively; AMIP: 325 ms vs. 320 ms, respectively), besides being strongly correlated (CHS: ρ=0.97, AMIP: 0.88; P<10(-27)). Thus, measuring Tend from the 15-dependent-lead DTWs is statistically equivalent to measuring Tend from the 8-independent-lead DTWs. In conclusion, for the clinical purpose of automatic Tend identification from DTW, the 8 independent leads can be used without a statistically significant loss of accuracy but with a significant decrement of computational effort. The lead dependence of 7 out of 15 leads does not introduce a significant bias in the Tend determination from 15 dependent lead DTWs. PMID:27347218

  13. Technology Reference and Proof-of-Concept for a Space -Based Automatic Identification System for Maritime Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helleren, Ø.; Olsen, Ø.; Bernsten, P. C.; Strauch, K.; Alagha, N.

    2008-08-01

    There is a growing need to develop a global maritime surveillance capability for safety and security. Space based reception of the automatic identification system (AIS) can improve ship traffic monitoring in the open seas. This paper gives a summary of the findings from a study by the European Space Agency called "Technology Reference and Proof-of Concept for a Space-Based AIS System for Maritime Security". The study was performed by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), together with Kongsberg Seatex AS, Norspace AS and SSTL. The study focused on receiver technologies and antenna concepts, running advanced detection probability simulations to evaluate the best concepts for space-based AIS systems.

  14. Introducing a semi-automatic method to simulate large numbers of forensic fingermarks for research on fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Crystal M; de Jongh, Arent; Meuwly, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Statistical research on fingerprint identification and the testing of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) performances require large numbers of forensic fingermarks. These fingermarks are rarely available. This study presents a semi-automatic method to create simulated fingermarks in large quantities that model minutiae features or images of forensic fingermarks. This method takes into account several aspects contributing to the variability of forensic fingermarks such as the number of minutiae, the finger region, and the elastic deformation of the skin. To investigate the applicability of the simulated fingermarks, fingermarks have been simulated with 5-12 minutiae originating from different finger regions for six fingers. An AFIS matching algorithm was used to obtain similarity scores for comparisons between the minutiae configurations of fingerprints and the minutiae configurations of simulated and forensic fingermarks. The results showed similar scores for both types of fingermarks suggesting that the simulated fingermarks are good substitutes for forensic fingermarks. PMID:22103733

  15. Innovative automatic resonant mode identification for nano-scale dynamic full-field characterization of MEMS using interferometric fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Huang, Yao-Ting; Lai, Huang-Wen; Chen, Jin-Liang; Chang, Calvin C.

    2008-12-01

    A dynamic 3D nano-scale surface profilometer was successfully developed for novel automatic resonant frequency identification using stroboscopic interferometric principle. With rapid increase in the application of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) to industries, the needs of accurate dynamic characterization have become a major challenge in design and fabrication. In view of such, an interferometric microscopy was developed using LED stroboscopic interferometry to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry and characterization of MEMS with a measurement bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz. Most importantly, a novel detection algorithm was also developed employing interferogram fringe density measure for automatic resonant frequency identification. Natural resonant modes of a series of microstructures can be accurately detected, giving values consistent with theoretical ones. To verify the effectiveness of the developed methodology, an AFM cantilever microbeam and a cross-bridge microbeam were measured to analyze their full-field resonant vibratory shapes. Our experimental results confirmed that the resonant vibration of the tested beams can be fully characterized while achieving an accuracy in vertical measurement of 3-5 nm with a vertical measurement range of tens of micrometers.

  16. Automatic photointerpretation for plant species and stress identification (ERTS-A1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanlund, G. D. (Principal Investigator); Kirvida, L.; Johnson, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Automatic stratification of forested land from ERTS-1 data provides a valuable tool for resource management. The results are useful for wood product yield estimates, recreation and wildlife management, forest inventory, and forest condition monitoring. Automatic procedures based on both multispectral and spatial features are evaluated. With five classes, training and testing on the same samples, classification accuracy of 74 percent was achieved using the MSS multispectral features. When adding texture computed from 8 x 8 arrays, classification accuracy of 90 percent was obtained.

  17. A semi-automatic model for sinkhole identification in a karst area of Zhijin County, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Oguchi, Takashi; Wu, Pan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of DEMs derived from ASTER and SRTM remote sensing images and topographic maps to detect and quantify natural sinkholes in a karst area in Zhijin county, southwest China. Two methodologies were implemented. The first is a semi-automatic approach which stepwise identifies the depression using DEMs: 1) DEM acquisition; 2) sink fill; 3) sink depth calculation using the difference between the original and sinkfree DEMs; and 4) elimination of the spurious sinkholes by the threshold values of morphometric parameters including TPI (topographic position index), geology, and land use. The second is the traditional visual interpretation of depressions based on the integrated analysis of the high-resolution aerial photographs and topographic maps. The threshold values of the depression area, shape, depth and TPI appropriate for distinguishing true depressions were abstained from the maximum overall accuracy generated by the comparison between the depression maps produced by the semi-automatic model or visual interpretation. The result shows that the best performance of the semi-automatic model for meso-scale karst depression delineation was using the DEM from the topographic maps with the thresholds area >~ 60 m2, ellipticity >~ 0.2 and TPI <= 0. With these realistic thresholds, the accuracy of the semi-automatic model ranges from 0.78 to 0.95 for DEM resolutions from 3 to 75 m.

  18. Automatic Identification and Storage of Significant Points in a Computer-Based Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Paul; Adrion, W. Richards; Hanson, Allen

    2007-01-01

    We describe an automatic classroom capture system that detects and records significant (stable) points in lectures by sampling and analyzing a sequence of screen capture frames from a PC used for presentations, application demonstrations, etc. The system uses visual inspection techniques to scan the screen capture stream to identify points to…

  19. Call recognition and individual identification of fish vocalizations based on automatic speech recognition: An example with the Lusitanian toadfish.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Manuel; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, M Clara P; Teixeira, Carlos J C

    2015-12-01

    The study of acoustic communication in animals often requires not only the recognition of species specific acoustic signals but also the identification of individual subjects, all in a complex acoustic background. Moreover, when very long recordings are to be analyzed, automatic recognition and identification processes are invaluable tools to extract the relevant biological information. A pattern recognition methodology based on hidden Markov models is presented inspired by successful results obtained in the most widely known and complex acoustical communication signal: human speech. This methodology was applied here for the first time to the detection and recognition of fish acoustic signals, specifically in a stream of round-the-clock recordings of Lusitanian toadfish (Halobatrachus didactylus) in their natural estuarine habitat. The results show that this methodology is able not only to detect the mating sounds (boatwhistles) but also to identify individual male toadfish, reaching an identification rate of ca. 95%. Moreover this method also proved to be a powerful tool to assess signal durations in large data sets. However, the system failed in recognizing other sound types. PMID:26723348

  20. A tool for developing an automatic insect identification system based on wing outlines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, He-Ping; Ma, Chun-Sen; Wen, Hui; Zhan, Qing-Bin; Wang, Xin-Li

    2015-01-01

    For some insect groups, wing outline is an important character for species identification. We have constructed a program as the integral part of an automated system to identify insects based on wing outlines (DAIIS). This program includes two main functions: (1) outline digitization and Elliptic Fourier transformation and (2) classifier model training by pattern recognition of support vector machines and model validation. To demonstrate the utility of this program, a sample of 120 owlflies (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae) was split into training and validation sets. After training, the sample was sorted into seven species using this tool. In five repeated experiments, the mean accuracy for identification of each species ranged from 90% to 98%. The accuracy increased to 99% when the samples were first divided into two groups based on features of their compound eyes. DAIIS can therefore be a useful tool for developing a system of automated insect identification. PMID:26251292

  1. A tool for developing an automatic insect identification system based on wing outlines.

    PubMed

    Yang, He-Ping; Ma, Chun-Sen; Wen, Hui; Zhan, Qing-Bin; Wang, Xin-Li

    2015-01-01

    For some insect groups, wing outline is an important character for species identification. We have constructed a program as the integral part of an automated system to identify insects based on wing outlines (DAIIS). This program includes two main functions: (1) outline digitization and Elliptic Fourier transformation and (2) classifier model training by pattern recognition of support vector machines and model validation. To demonstrate the utility of this program, a sample of 120 owlflies (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae) was split into training and validation sets. After training, the sample was sorted into seven species using this tool. In five repeated experiments, the mean accuracy for identification of each species ranged from 90% to 98%. The accuracy increased to 99% when the samples were first divided into two groups based on features of their compound eyes. DAIIS can therefore be a useful tool for developing a system of automated insect identification. PMID:26251292

  2. Automatic Recognition of Coronal Type II Radio Bursts: The Automated Radio Burst Identification System Method and First Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2010-02-01

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ~1000 km s-1. The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. This Letter presents a new method developed to detect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describes its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ~80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio burst is also presented.

  3. Automatic recognition of type III solar radio bursts: Automated Radio Burst Identification System method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2009-04-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing role of technology, including complicated electronic systems, spacecraft, etc., modern society has become more vulnerable to a set of extraterrestrial influences (space weather) and requires continuous observation and forecasts of space weather. The major space weather events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a real-time space weather forecast. Coronal type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and near its harmonic by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration of the coronal burst being about 1-3 s. This paper presents a new method developed to detect coronal type III bursts automatically and its implementation in a new Automated Radio Burst Identification System. The central idea of the implementation is to use the Radon transform for more objective detection of the bursts as approximately straight lines in dynamic spectra. Preliminary tests of the method with the use of the spectra obtained during 13 days show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜84%, while no false positives are observed and 23 events not listed previously are found. Prospects for improvements are discussed. The first automatically detected coronal type III radio bursts are presented.

  4. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: the tubular breast cancer pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue areas within paraffin blocks: no utilities have been developed for the identification of areas to be punched from the donor block and assembled in the recipient block. Results The presented work supports, in the specific case of a primary subtype of breast cancer (tubular breast cancer), the semi-automatic discrimination and localization between normal and pathological regions within the tissues. The diagnosis is performed by analysing specific morphological features of the sample such as the absence of a double layer of cells around the lumen and the decay of a regular glands-and-lobules structure. These features are analysed using an algorithm which performs the extraction of morphological parameters from images and compares them to experimentally validated threshold values. Results are satisfactory since in most of the cases the automatic diagnosis matches the response of the pathologists. In particular, on a total of 1296 sub-images showing normal and pathological areas of breast specimens, algorithm accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are respectively 89%, 84% and 94%. Conclusions The proposed work is a first attempt to demonstrate that automation in the Tissue MicroArray field is feasible and it can represent an important tool for scientists to cope with this high-throughput technique. PMID:21087464

  5. Need of a consistent and convenient nucleus identification in ENDF files for the automatic construction of the depletion chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosca, Pietro; Mounier, Claude

    2016-03-01

    The automatic construction of evolution chains recently implemented in GALILEE system is based on the analysis of several ENDF files : the multigroup production cross sections present in the GENDF files processed by NJOY from the ENDF evaluation, the decay file and the fission product yields (FPY) file. In this context, this paper highlights the importance of the nucleus identification to properly interconnect the data mentioned above. The first part of the paper describes the present status of the nucleus identification among the several ENDF files focusing, in particular, on the use of the excited state number and of the isomeric state number. The second part reviews the problems encountered during the automatic construction of the depletion chains using recent ENDF data. The processing of the JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 (decay and FPY) and the JEFF-3.2 (production cross section) points out problems about the compliance or not of the nucleus identifiers with the ENDF-6 format and sometimes the inconsistencies among the various ENDF files. In addition, the analysis of EAF-2003 and EAF-2010 shows some incoherence between the ZA product identifier and the reaction identifier MT for the reactions (n, pα) and (n, 2np). As a main result of this work, our suggestion is to change the ENDF format using systematically the isomeric state number to identify the nuclei. This proposal is already compliant to a huge amount ENDF data that are not in agreement with the present ENDF format. This choice is the most convenient because, ultimately, it allows one to give human readable names to the nuclei of the depletion chains.

  6. Robust features for the automatic identification of autism spectrum disorder in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is commonly reported that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit hyper-reactivity or hypo-reactivity to sensory stimuli. Electroencephalography (EEG) is commonly used to study neural sensory reactivity, suggesting that statistical analysis of EEG recordings is a potential means of automatic classification of the disorder. EEG recordings taken from children, however, are frequently contaminated with large amounts of noise, making analysis difficult. In this paper, we present a method for the automatic extraction of noise-robust EEG features, which serve to quantify neural sensory reactivity. We show the efficacy of a system for the classification of ASD using these features. Methods An oddball paradigm was used to elicit event-related potentials from a group of 19 ASD children and 30 typically developing children. EEG recordings were taken and robust features were extracted. A support vector machine, logistic regression, and a naive Bayes classifier were used to classify the children as having ASD or being typically developing. Results A classification accuracy of 79% was achieved, making our method competitive with other automatic diagnosis methods based on EEG. Additionally, we found that classification performance is reduced if eye blink artifacts are removed during preprocessing. Conclusions This study shows that robust EEG features that quantify neural sensory reactivity are useful for the classification of ASD. We showed that noise-robust features are crucial for our analysis, and observe that traditional preprocessing methods may lead to poor classification performance in the face of a large amount of noise. Further exploration of alternative preprocessing methods is warranted. PMID:24936212

  7. Automatic NMR-based identification of chemical reaction types in mixtures of co-occurring reactions.

    PubMed

    Latino, Diogo A R S; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the (1)H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the (1)H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of

  8. Automatic NMR-Based Identification of Chemical Reaction Types in Mixtures of Co-Occurring Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Latino, Diogo A. R. S.; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the 1H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the 1H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of the

  9. Accuracy of computerized automatic identification of cephalometric landmarks by a designed software

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, S; Oshagh, M; Gozin, F; Salehi, P; Danaei, S M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design software for localization of cephalometric landmarks and to evaluate its accuracy in finding landmarks. Methods 40 digital cephalometric radiographs were randomly selected. 16 landmarks which were important in most cephalometric analyses were chosen to be identified. Three expert orthodontists manually identified landmarks twice. The mean of two measurements of each landmark was defined as the baseline landmark. The computer was then able to compare the automatic system's estimate of a landmark with the baseline landmark. The software was designed using Delphi and Matlab programming languages. The techniques were template matching, edge enhancement and some accessory techniques. Results The total mean error between manually identified and automatically identified landmarks was 2.59 mm. 12.5% of landmarks had mean errors less than 1 mm. 43.75% of landmarks had mean errors less than 2 mm. The mean errors of all landmarks except the anterior nasal spine were less than 4 mm. Conclusions This software had significant accuracy for localization of cephalometric landmarks and could be used in future applications. It seems that the accuracy obtained with the software which was developed in this study is better than previous automated systems that have used model-based and knowledge-based approaches. PMID:23236215

  10. Automatic identification of ROI in figure images toward improving hybrid (text and image) biomedical document retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Govindaraju, Venu; Thoma, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical images are often referenced for clinical decision support (CDS), educational purposes, and research. They appear in specialized databases or in biomedical publications and are not meaningfully retrievable using primarily textbased retrieval systems. The task of automatically finding the images in an article that are most useful for the purpose of determining relevance to a clinical situation is quite challenging. An approach is to automatically annotate images extracted from scientific publications with respect to their usefulness for CDS. As an important step toward achieving the goal, we proposed figure image analysis for localizing pointers (arrows, symbols) to extract regions of interest (ROI) that can then be used to obtain meaningful local image content. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques can then associate local image ROIs with identified biomedical concepts in figure captions for improved hybrid (text and image) retrieval of biomedical articles. In this work we present methods that make robust our previous Markov random field (MRF)-based approach for pointer recognition and ROI extraction. These include use of Active Shape Models (ASM) to overcome problems in recognizing distorted pointer shapes and a region segmentation method for ROI extraction. We measure the performance of our methods on two criteria: (i) effectiveness in recognizing pointers in images, and (ii) improved document retrieval through use of extracted ROIs. Evaluation on three test sets shows 87% accuracy in the first criterion. Further, the quality of document retrieval using local visual features and text is shown to be better than using visual features alone.

  11. Progress towards an unassisted element identification from Laser Induced Breakdown Spectra with automatic ranking techniques inspired by text retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, G.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Palleschi, V.; Sorrentino, F.; Tognoni, E.

    2010-08-01

    In this communication, we will illustrate an algorithm for automatic element identification in LIBS spectra which takes inspiration from the vector space model applied to text retrieval techniques. The vector space model prescribes that text documents and text queries are represented as vectors of weighted terms (words). Document ranking, with respect to relevance to a query, is obtained by comparing the vectors representing the documents with the vector representing the query. In our case, we represent elements and samples as vectors of weighted peaks, obtained from their spectra. The likelihood of the presence of an element in a sample is computed by comparing the corresponding vectors of weighted peaks. The weight of a peak is proportional to its intensity and to the inverse of the number of peaks, in the database, in its wavelength neighboring. We suppose to have a database containing the peaks of all elements we want to recognize, where each peak is represented by a wavelength and it is associated with its expected relative intensity and the corresponding element. Detection of elements in a sample is obtained by ranking the elements according to the distance of the associated vectors from the vector representing the sample. The application of this approach to elements identification using LIBS spectra obtained from several kinds of metallic alloys will be also illustrated. The possible extension of this technique towards an algorithm for fully automated LIBS analysis will be discussed.

  12. A hybrid model for automatic identification of risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in both the UK and worldwide. The detection of related risk factors and tracking their progress over time is of great importance for early prevention and treatment of CAD. This paper describes an information extraction system that was developed to automatically identify risk factors for heart disease in medical records while the authors participated in the 2014 i2b2/UTHealth NLP Challenge. Our approaches rely on several nature language processing (NLP) techniques such as machine learning, rule-based methods, and dictionary-based keyword spotting to cope with complicated clinical contexts inherent in a wide variety of risk factors. Our system achieved encouraging performance on the challenge test data with an overall micro-averaged F-measure of 0.915, which was competitive to the best system (F-measure of 0.927) of this challenge task. PMID:26375492

  13. Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2010-02-28

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Automatic Identification of Web-Based Risk Markers for Health Events

    PubMed Central

    Borsa, Diana; Hayward, Andrew C; McKendry, Rachel A; Cox, Ingemar J

    2015-01-01

    Background The escalating cost of global health care is driving the development of new technologies to identify early indicators of an individual’s risk of disease. Traditionally, epidemiologists have identified such risk factors using medical databases and lengthy clinical studies but these are often limited in size and cost and can fail to take full account of diseases where there are social stigmas or to identify transient acute risk factors. Objective Here we report that Web search engine queries coupled with information on Wikipedia access patterns can be used to infer health events associated with an individual user and automatically generate Web-based risk markers for some of the common medical conditions worldwide, from cardiovascular disease to sexually transmitted infections and mental health conditions, as well as pregnancy. Methods Using anonymized datasets, we present methods to first distinguish individuals likely to have experienced specific health events, and classify them into distinct categories. We then use the self-controlled case series method to find the incidence of health events in risk periods directly following a user’s search for a query category, and compare to the incidence during other periods for the same individuals. Results Searches for pet stores were risk markers for allergy. We also identified some possible new risk markers; for example: searching for fast food and theme restaurants was associated with a transient increase in risk of myocardial infarction, suggesting this exposure goes beyond a long-term risk factor but may also act as an acute trigger of myocardial infarction. Dating and adult content websites were risk markers for sexually transmitted infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conclusions Web-based methods provide a powerful, low-cost approach to automatically identify risk factors, and support more timely and personalized public health efforts to bring human and economic benefits. PMID

  15. A smart pattern recognition system for the automatic identification of aerospace acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, R. H.; Fuller, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    An intelligent air-noise recognition system is described that uses pattern recognition techniques to distinguish noise signatures of five different types of acoustic sources, including jet planes, propeller planes, a helicopter, train, and wind turbine. Information for classification is calculated using the power spectral density and autocorrelation taken from the output of a single microphone. Using this system, as many as 90 percent of test recordings were correctly identified, indicating that the linear discriminant functions developed can be used for aerospace source identification.

  16. Towards the automatic identification of cloudiness condition by means of solar global irradiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, G.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the design of an automatic algorithm for classification of the cloudiness condition based only on global irradiance measurements. Clouds are a major modulating factor for the Earth radiation budget. They attenuate the solar radiation and control the terrestrial radiation participating in the energy balance. Generally, cloudiness is a limiting factor for the solar radiation reaching the ground, highly contributing to the Earth albedo. Additionally it is the main responsible for the high variability shown by the downward irradiance measured at ground level. Being a major source for the attenuation and high-frequency variability of the solar radiation available for energy purposes in solar power plants, the characterization of the cloudiness condition is of great interest. This importance is even higher in Southern Europe, where very high irradiation values are reached during long periods within the year. Thus, several indexes have been proposed in the literature for the characterization of the cloudiness condition of the sky. Among these indexes, those exclusively involving global irradiance are of special interest since this variable is the most widely available measurement in most radiometric stations. Taking this into account, this study proposes an automatic algorithm for classifying the cloudiness condition of the sky into three categories: cloud-free, partially cloudy and overcast. For that aim, solar global irradiance was measured by Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometer installed on the terrace of the Physics building in the Campus of Badajoz (Spain) of the University of Extremadura. Measurements were recorded at one-minute basis for a period of study extending from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. The algorithm is based on the clearness index kt, which is calculated as the ratio between the solar global downward irradiance measured at ground and the solar downward irradiance at the top of the atmosphere. Since partially cloudy conditions

  17. Evaluation of an automatic gas chromatographic system for the identification of bacterial infective agents

    PubMed Central

    Arcelloni, C.; Griffini, A.; Paroni, R.; Bonini, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    The potential clinical application of gas chromatography to microbial identifcation was evaluated. A completely automated system, the MIS (Microbial Identification System; Hewlett- Packard) can analyse and identify pure strains by comparison of their cellular fatty acids patterns (C9-C20) with the reference parameters stored in a library. Three hundred and sixty-seven strains were tested, comparing the gas chromatographic results with those obtained by the traditional microbiological methods in the bacteriology laboratory of our Institute. A standardized extractive procedure was followed to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), but some modifications to the recommended procedure were introduced in the bacterial growth procedures: colonies harvested not only from the recommended growth media but also from selective media routinely used in the bacteriology laboratory were successfully examined. These modifications did not influence the results but improved the ease for the user; good agreement with the comparison method was observed as far as identifications of genus and species are concerned for 238 cases. The major advantages of this computerized system are a reduction in the time required to obtain the final results, the elimination of human errors by using the autosampler and a better inter-laboratory comparability of results owing to a higher degree of objectivity. On the other hand, the limited throughput of MIS (only 40 samples in 24 h) prevents its use in a large routine laboratory; this technology is appropriate in emergency cases, in taxonomic studies and as a confirmatory method. PMID:18924676

  18. Automatic Identification of Critical Follow-Up Recommendation Sentences in Radiology Reports

    PubMed Central

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Gunn, Martin L.; Xia, Fei; Payne, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Communication of follow-up recommendations when abnormalities are identified on imaging studies is prone to error. When recommendations are not systematically identified and promptly communicated to referrers, poor patient outcomes can result. Using information technology can improve communication and improve patient safety. In this paper, we describe a text processing approach that uses natural language processing (NLP) and supervised text classification methods to automatically identify critical recommendation sentences in radiology reports. To increase the classification performance we enhanced the simple unigram token representation approach with lexical, semantic, knowledge-base, and structural features. We tested different combinations of those features with the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) classification algorithm. Classifiers were trained and tested with a gold standard corpus annotated by a domain expert. We applied 5-fold cross validation and our best performing classifier achieved 95.60% precision, 79.82% recall, 87.0% F-score, and 99.59% classification accuracy in identifying the critical recommendation sentences in radiology reports. PMID:22195225

  19. Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiangmin; Einstein, Daniel R.; Dyedov, Vladimir; Carson, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and accurate reconstruction of imaging-derived geometries and subsequent quality mesh generation are enabling technologies for both clinical and research simulations. A challenging part of this process is the introduction of computable, orthogonal boundary patches, namely the outlets, into treed structures, such as vasculature, arterial or airway trees. We present efficient and robust algorithms for automatically identifying and truncating the outlets for complex geometries. Our approach is based on a conceptual decomposition of objects into tips, segments, and branches, where the tips determine the outlets. We define the tips by introducing a novel concept called the average interior center of curvature (AICC) and identify the tips that are stable and noise resistant. We compute well-defined orthogonal planes, which truncate the tips into outlets. The rims of the outlets are connected into curves, and the outlets are then closed using Delaunay triangulation. We illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach with a variety of complex lung and coronary artery geometries. PMID:19526263

  20. Automatic identification and truncation of boundary outlets in complex imaging-derived biomedical geometries.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiangmin; Einstein, Daniel R; Dyedov, Vladimir; Carson, James P

    2009-09-01

    Efficient and accurate reconstruction of imaging-derived geometries and subsequent quality mesh generation are enabling technologies for both clinical and research simulations. A challenging part of this process is the introduction of computable, orthogonal boundary patches, namely, the outlets, into treed structures, such as vasculature, arterial or airway trees. We present efficient and robust algorithms for automatically identifying and truncating the outlets for complex geometries. Our approach is based on a conceptual decomposition of objects into tips, segments, and branches, where the tips determine the outlets. We define the tips by introducing a novel concept called the average interior center of curvature and identify the tips that are stable and noise resistant. We compute well-defined orthogonal planes, which truncate the tips into outlets. The rims of the outlets are connected into curves, and the outlets are then closed using Delaunay triangulation. We illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach with a variety of complex lung and coronary artery geometries. PMID:19526263

  1. Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Xiangmin; Einstein, Daniel R.; Dyedov, Volodymyr; Carson, James P.

    2009-09-01

    Fast and accurate reconstruction of imaging-derived geometries and subsequent quality mesh generation for biomedical computation are enabling technologies for both clinical and research simulations. Often, the transformation of image to mesh is the rate-limiting step, requiring arduous manual manipulations. A challenging part of this process is the introduction of computable, orthogonal boundary patches, namely the outlets, into treed structures, such as vasculature, arterial or airway trees. Herein, we present efficient and robust algorithms for automatically identifying and truncating the outlets for complex biomedical geometries. Our approach is based on a conceptual decomposition of objects into three different types of local structures, including tips, segments, and branches, where the tips determine the outlets. We define the tips by introducing a novel geometric concept called the average interior center of curvature (AICC), and identify those that are physically stable and numerically noise resistant through successive inflation and deflation tests. We compute well-defined orthogonal planes, which truncate the tips into outlets. The rims of the outlets are then connected into curves, and the outlets are then closed using Delaunay triangulation with the curves as the boundary constraints. Our approach is efficient, with near linear time complexity. We illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach with a variety of complex lung and coronary artery geometries.

  2. An Automatic Quality Control Pipeline for High-Throughput Screening Hit Identification.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yufeng; Chen, Kaisheng; Zhong, Yang; Zhou, Bin; Ainscow, Edward; Wu, Ying-Ta; Zhou, Yingyao

    2016-09-01

    The correction or removal of signal errors in high-throughput screening (HTS) data is critical to the identification of high-quality lead candidates. Although a number of strategies have been previously developed to correct systematic errors and to remove screening artifacts, they are not universally effective and still require fair amount of human intervention. We introduce a fully automated quality control (QC) pipeline that can correct generic interplate systematic errors and remove intraplate random artifacts. The new pipeline was first applied to ~100 large-scale historical HTS assays; in silico analysis showed auto-QC led to a noticeably stronger structure-activity relationship. The method was further tested in several independent HTS runs, where QC results were sampled for experimental validation. Significantly increased hit confirmation rates were obtained after the QC steps, confirming that the proposed method was effective in enriching true-positive hits. An implementation of the algorithm is available to the screening community. PMID:27313114

  3. Beginning the 21st century with advanced automatic part identification (API): updated May 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-10-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Part Identification (API) system is being undertaken by the Rockwell Aerospace Division. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data- density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a camera linked to a IBM-compatible microcomputer. Application of Compressed Symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  4. Automatic identification of resting state networks: an extended version of multiple template-matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guaje, Javier; Molina, Juan; Rudas, Jorge; Demertzi, Athena; Heine, Lizette; Tshibanda, Luaba; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven; Gómez, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging in resting state (fMRI-RS) constitutes an informative protocol to investigate several pathological and pharmacological conditions. A common approach to study this data source is through the analysis of changes in the so called resting state networks (RSNs). These networks correspond to well-defined functional entities that have been associated to different low and high brain order functions. RSNs may be characterized by using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA provides a decomposition of the fMRI-RS signal into sources of brain activity, but it lacks of information about the nature of the signal, i.e., if the source is artifactual or not. Recently, a multiple template-matching (MTM) approach was proposed to automatically recognize RSNs in a set of Independent Components (ICs). This method provides valuable information to assess subjects at individual level. Nevertheless, it lacks of a mechanism to quantify how much certainty there is about the existence/absence of each network. This information may be important for the assessment of patients with severely damaged brains, in which RSNs may be greatly affected as a result of the pathological condition. In this work we propose a set of changes to the original MTM that improves the RSNs recognition task and also extends the functionality of the method. The key points of this improvement is a standardization strategy and a modification of method's constraints that adds flexibility to the approach. Additionally, we also introduce an analysis to the trustworthiness measurement of each RSN obtained by using template-matching approach. This analysis consists of a thresholding strategy applied over the computed Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) between the set of templates and the ICs. The proposed method was validated on 2 two independent studies (Baltimore, 23 healthy subjects and Liege, 27 healthy subjects) with different configurations of MTM. Results suggest that the method will provide

  5. Tools for the automatic identification and classification of RNA base pairs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanwang; Jossinet, Fabrice; Leontis, Neocles; Chen, Li; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen; Westhof, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Three programs have been developed to aid in the classification and visualization of RNA structure. BPViewer provides a web interface for displaying three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of individual base pairs or base pair collections. A web server, RNAview, automatically identifies and classifies the types of base pairs that are formed in nucleic acid structures by various combinations of the three edges, Watson–Crick, Hoogsteen and the Sugar edge. RNAView produces two-dimensional (2D) diagrams of secondary and tertiary structure in either Postscript, VRML or RNAML formats. The application RNAMLview can be used to rearrange various parts of the RNAView 2D diagram to generate a standard representation (like the cloverleaf structure of tRNAs) or any layout desired by the user. A 2D diagram can be rapidly reformatted using RNAMLview since all the parts of RNA (like helices and single strands) are dynamically linked while moving the selected parts. With the base pair annotation and the 2D graphic display, RNA motifs are rapidly identified and classified. A survey has been carried out for 41 unique structures selected from the NDB database. The statistics for the occurrence of each edge and of each of the 12 bp families are given for the combinations of the four bases: A, G, U and C. The program also allows for visualization of the base pair interactions by using a symbolic convention previously proposed for base pairs. The web servers for BPViewer and RNAview are available at http://ndbserver.rutgers.edu/services/. The application RNAMLview can also be downloaded from this site. The 2D diagrams produced by RNAview are available for RNA structures in the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) at http://ndbserver.rutgers.edu/atlas/. PMID:12824344

  6. Automatic identification of responses from porphyry intrusive systems within magnetic data using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Eun-Jung; Fu, Shih Ching; Kovesi, Peter; Dentith, Michael; Bourne, Barry; Hope, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    Direct targeting of mineral deposits using magnetic data may be facilitated by hydrothermal alteration associated with the mineralising event if the alteration changes the magnetic properties of the host rock. Hydrothermal alteration associated with porphyry-style mineralisation typically comprises concentric near-circular alteration zones surrounding a roughly circular central intrusion. The intrusion itself and the proximal alteration zone are usually associated with positive magnetic anomalies whilst the outer alteration zones are much less magnetic. Because the country rocks are usually magnetic, this pattern of alteration produces a central magnetic 'high' surrounded by an annular magnetic 'low'. This paper presents an automatic image analysis system for gridded data that provides an efficient, accurate and non-subjective way to seek the magnetic response of an idealised porphyry mineralising system within magnetic datasets. The method finds circular anomalies that are associated with the central intrusion and inner alteration zone of the porphyry system using a circular feature detection method called the radial symmetry transform. Next, their boundaries are traced using deformable splines that are drawn to the locations of maximum contrast between the amplitudes of the central 'high' and surrounding area of lower magnetisation. Experiments were conducted on magnetic data from Reko Diq, Pakistan; a region known to contain numerous occurrences of porphyry-style mineralisation. The predicted locations of porphyry systems closely match the locations of the known deposits in this region. This system is suitable as an initial screening tool for large geophysical datasets, therefore reducing the time and cost imposed by manual data inspection in the exploration process. The same principles can be applied to the search for circular magnetic responses with different amplitude characteristics.

  7. Automatic Whole-Spectrum Matching Techniques for Identification of Pure and Mixed Minerals using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Carey, C. J.; Breitenfeld, L.; Tague, T.; Wang, P.

    2015-12-01

    In situuse of Raman spectroscopy on Mars is planned for three different instruments in the next decade. Although implementations differ, they share the potential to identify surface minerals and organics and inform Martian geology and geochemistry. Their success depends on the availability of appropriate databases and software for phase identification. For this project, we have consolidated all known publicly-accessible Raman data on minerals for which independent confirmation of phase identity is available, and added hundreds of additional spectra acquired using varying instruments and laser energies. Using these data, we have developed software tools to improve mineral identification accuracy. For pure minerals, whole-spectrum matching algorithms far outperform existing tools based on diagnostic peaks in individual phases. Optimal matching accuracy does depend on subjective end-user choices for data processing (such as baseline removal, intensity normalization, and intensity squashing), as well as specific dataset characteristics. So, to make this tuning process amenable to automated optimization methods, we developed a machine learning-based generalization of these choices within a preprocessing and matching framework. Our novel method dramatically reduces the burden on the user and results in improved matching accuracy. Moving beyond identifying pure phases into quantification of relative abundances is a complex problem because relationships between peak intensity and mineral abundance are obscured by complicating factors: exciting laser frequency, the Raman cross section of the mineral, crystal orientation, and long-range chemical and structural ordering in the crystal lattices. Solving this un-mixing problem requires adaptation of our whole-spectrum algorithms and a large number of test spectra of minerals in known volume proportions, which we are creating for this project. Key to this effort is acquisition of spectra from mixtures of pure minerals paired

  8. Vectorcardiographic identification of myocardial scar: a discriminative study with automatically processed vectorcardiographic information.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, R O; O'Brien, P C; Titus, J L; Smith, R E

    1978-07-01

    A multivariate discriminative procedure for the vectorcardiographic identification of ischemic myocardial scarring was performed utilizing data from 1,162 vectorcardiograms (VCGs) obtained in clinically normal subjects and 90 VCGs obtained from patients proved at autopsy to have ischemic myocardial scars. The VCGs from patients with myocardial scars were divided into two groups, a design group of 50 cases and an evaluation group of 40 cases. The best vectorcardiographic variables to discriminate the clinically normal group from the design group with scars were identified by stepwise linear discrimination. Sixteen vectorcardiographic variables were then used for discriminative analysis. This analysis correctly identified myocardial scars in 45 of the 50 VCGs in the design group (sensitivity 90%); among the 1,162 VCGs from clinically normal subjects, 32 were misidentified as myocardial scar (specificity 97.2). The sensitivity of these defining criteria was then tested in the 40 cases of myocardial scar in the evaluation group and found to be reproducible; 34 of the 40 cases of this group (85.0%) were correctly identified as having a myocardial scar. The multivariate discriminative criteria developed in this study had greater sensitivity and specificity than standard methods usually employed in electrocardiography and vectorcardiography. The criteria defined need to be evaluated in a large series that includes instances of cardiac pathology of nonischemic nature. PMID:357672

  9. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  10. Hybrid EEG—Eye Tracker: Automatic Identification and Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from Electroencephalographic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Malik M. Naeem; Kim, Shinjung; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kamran, M. Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of eye movement and blink artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording makes the analysis of EEG data more difficult and could result in mislead findings. Efficient removal of these artifacts from EEG data is an essential step in improving classification accuracy to develop the brain-computer interface (BCI). In this paper, we proposed an automatic framework based on independent component analysis (ICA) and system identification to identify and remove ocular artifacts from EEG data by using hybrid EEG and eye tracker system. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using experimental and standard EEG datasets. The proposed algorithm not only removes the ocular artifacts from artifactual zone but also preserves the neuronal activity related EEG signals in non-artifactual zone. The comparison with the two state-of-the-art techniques namely ADJUST based ICA and REGICA reveals the significant improved performance of the proposed algorithm for removing eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data. Additionally, results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower relative error and higher mutual information values between corrected EEG and artifact-free EEG data. PMID:26907276

  11. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  12. Hybrid EEG--Eye Tracker: Automatic Identification and Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from Electroencephalographic Signal.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Malik M Naeem; Kim, Shinjung; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kamran, M Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of eye movement and blink artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording makes the analysis of EEG data more difficult and could result in mislead findings. Efficient removal of these artifacts from EEG data is an essential step in improving classification accuracy to develop the brain-computer interface (BCI). In this paper, we proposed an automatic framework based on independent component analysis (ICA) and system identification to identify and remove ocular artifacts from EEG data by using hybrid EEG and eye tracker system. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using experimental and standard EEG datasets. The proposed algorithm not only removes the ocular artifacts from artifactual zone but also preserves the neuronal activity related EEG signals in non-artifactual zone. The comparison with the two state-of-the-art techniques namely ADJUST based ICA and REGICA reveals the significant improved performance of the proposed algorithm for removing eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data. Additionally, results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower relative error and higher mutual information values between corrected EEG and artifact-free EEG data. PMID:26907276

  13. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  14. Multispectral hypercolorimetry and automatic guided pigment identification: some masterpieces case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Marcello; Miccoli, Matteo; Quarta, Donato

    2013-05-01

    A couple of years ago we proposed, in this same session, an extension to the standard colorimetry (CIE '31) that we called Hypercolorimetry. It was based on an even sampling of the 300-1000nm wavelength range, with the definition of 7 hypercolor matching functions optimally shaped to minimize the methamerism. Since then we consolidated the approach through a large number of multispectral analysis and specialized the system to the non invasive diagnosis for paintings and frescos. In this paper we describe the whole process, from the multispectral image acquisition to the final 7 bands computation and we show the results on paintings from Masters of the colour. We describe and propose in this paper a systematic approach to the non invasive diagnosis that is able to change a subjective analysis into a repeatable measure indipendent from the specific lighting conditions and from the specific acquisition system. Along with the Hypercolorimetry and its consolidation in the field of non invasive diagnosis, we developed also a standard spectral reflectance database of pure pigments and pigments painted with different bindings. As we will see, this database could be compared to the reflectances of the painting to help the diagnostician in identifing the proper matter. We used a Nikon D800FR (Full Range) camera. This is a 36megapixel reflex camera modified under a Nikon/Profilocolore common project, to achieve a 300-1000nm range sensitivity. The large amount of data allowed us to perform very accurate pixels comparisions, based on their spectral reflectance. All the original pigments and their binding have been provided by the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Firenze, Italy, while the analyzed masterpieces belong to the collection of the Pinacoteca Nazionale of Bologna, Italy.

  15. Automatic identification and placement of measurement stations for hydrological discharge simulations at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, P. R.; Ceppi, A.; Cancarè, F.; Ravazzani, G.; Mancini, M.; Sciuto, D.

    2012-04-01

    corresponding data is used, and false that it is not used. Using this definition of the solution space it is possible to apply various optimization algorithms such as genetics and simulated annealing. Iterating on a large set of possible configurations these algorithms provide the set of Pareto-optimal solutions, i.e. the number of measuring points is minimized while the forecasting accuracy is maximised. The identified Pareto curve is approximate, since the identification of the complete Pareto curve is practically impossible due to the large amount of possible configurations. From the experimental results, as expected, we notice that a certain set of weather data are essential for hydrological simulations while other are negligible. Combining the outcome of different optimization algorithms is possible to extract a reliable set of rules to place measurement stations for forecasting monitoring.

  16. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  17. Automatic Peak Identification in Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDS) Microanalysis: Can You Always Trust the Results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbury, D.

    2006-05-01

    The degree of sophistication of computer-aided scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) microanalysis has advanced to the point where it is possible with a single command to automatically perform sequential qualitative analysis (peak identification) and quantitative analysis and then create a report of analysis with full statistical support. Often the actual algorithms employed in commercial software for each stage of the analysis are not provided or tested in sufficient detail nor are any inherent limitations in applying such "black box" software described to enable the analyst to estimate the performance. The identification of the elements responsible for the characteristic peaks in the EDS spectrum is obviously the first critical step in performing a robust analysis. Can the software be trusted to always deliver the correct elemental identification for the easiest possible case: peaks with high intensity and high peak-to-background that arise from major constituents (i.e., concentration, C above 0.1 mass fraction = 10 weight percent) and which do not suffer peak interference from another constituent? Unfortunately, testing of automatic peak identification procedures in a series of commercial systems has revealed that serious mistakes occur approximately 3 to 5 percent of the time for this easiest case [1]. Moreover, these mistakes are not random but occur systematically for certain elements. The situation is even worse when minor (C from 0.01 to 0.1) and trace (C less than 0.01) constituents are of interest or when analysis is performed under "low voltage" conditions (beam energy 5 keV or less). The prudent analyst will always use manual peak identification procedures to provide confirmation of automatic peak identification results before proceeding to quantitative analysis [2]. [1] Newbury, D., Microscopy and Microanalysis, 11 (2005) 545. [2] Goldstein, J., Newbury, D., Joy, D., Lyman, C., Echlin, P., Lifshin, E., Sawyer, L

  18. Image segmentation for automatic particle identification in electron micrographs based on hidden Markov random field models and expectation maximization

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek; Marinescu, Dan C.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of large macromolecules like viruses at resolutions below 10 ÅA requires a large set of projection images. Several automatic and semi-automatic particle detection algorithms have been developed along the years. Here we present a general technique designed to automatically identify the projection images of particles. The method is based on Markov random field modelling of the projected images and involves a pre-processing of electron micrographs followed by image segmentation and post-processing. The image is modelled as a coupling of two fields—a Markovian and a non-Markovian. The Markovian field represents the segmented image. The micrograph is the non-Markovian field. The image segmentation step involves an estimation of coupling parameters and the maximum áa posteriori estimate of the realization of the Markovian field i.e, segmented image. Unlike most current methods, no bootstrapping with an initial selection of particles is required. PMID:15065680

  19. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery. PMID:24473345

  20. Genetic fingerprinting proves cross-correlated automatic photo-identification of individuals as highly efficient in large capture-mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Axel; Helling, Tobias; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) approaches are the backbone of many studies in population ecology to gain insight on the life cycle, migration, habitat use, and demography of target species. The reliable and repeatable recognition of an individual throughout its lifetime is the basic requirement of a CMR study. Although invasive techniques are available to mark individuals permanently, noninvasive methods for individual recognition mainly rest on photographic identification of external body markings, which are unique at the individual level. The re-identification of an individual based on comparing shape patterns of photographs by eye is commonly used. Automated processes for photographic re-identification have been recently established, but their performance in large datasets (i.e., > 1000 individuals) has rarely been tested thoroughly. Here, we evaluated the performance of the program AMPHIDENT, an automatic algorithm to identify individuals on the basis of ventral spot patterns in the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) versus the genotypic fingerprint of individuals based on highly polymorphic microsatellite loci using GENECAP. Between 2008 and 2010, we captured, sampled and photographed adult newts and calculated for 1648 samples/photographs recapture rates for both approaches. Recapture rates differed slightly with 8.34% for GENECAP and 9.83% for AMPHIDENT. With an estimated rate of 2% false rejections (FRR) and 0.00% false acceptances (FAR), AMPHIDENT proved to be a highly reliable algorithm for CMR studies of large datasets. We conclude that the application of automatic recognition software of individual photographs can be a rather powerful and reliable tool in noninvasive CMR studies for a large number of individuals. Because the cross-correlation of standardized shape patterns is generally applicable to any pattern that provides enough information, this algorithm is capable of becoming a single application with broad use in CMR studies for many species

  1. Automatic identification of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT scans using multi-atlas organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joanne; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Kim, Lauren; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Station-labeling of mediastinal lymph nodes is typically performed to identify the location of enlarged nodes for cancer staging. Stations are usually assigned in clinical radiology practice manually by qualitative visual assessment on CT scans, which is time consuming and highly variable. In this paper, we developed a method that automatically recognizes the lymph node stations in thoracic CT scans based on the anatomical organs in the mediastinum. First, the trachea, lungs, and spines are automatically segmented to locate the mediastinum region. Then, eight more anatomical organs are simultaneously identified by multi-atlas segmentation. Finally, with the segmentation of those anatomical organs, we convert the text definitions of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map into patient-specific color-coded CT image maps. Thus, a lymph node station is automatically assigned to each lymph node. We applied this system to CT scans of 86 patients with 336 mediastinal lymph nodes measuring equal or greater than 10 mm. 84.8% of mediastinal lymph nodes were correctly mapped to their stations.

  2. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    PubMed

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications. PMID:26189701

  3. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles, sugars, organic acids and aminoacids in Valencia Late orange juice and reliability of the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System for their automatic identification and quantification.

    PubMed

    Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Sendra, José María; Sentandreu, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Neutral volatiles and non-volatile polar compounds (sugars, organics acids and aminoacids) present in Valencia Late orange juice have been analysed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Before analysis, the neutral volatiles have been extracted by Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME), and the non-volatile polar compounds have been transformed to their corresponding volatile trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. From the resulting raw GC-MS data files, the reliability of the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) to perform accurate identification and quantification of the compounds present in the sample has been tested. Hence, both raw GC-MS data files have been processed automatically by using AMDIS and manually by using Xcalibur™, the manufacturer's data processing software for the GC-MS platform used. Results indicate that the reliability of AMDIS for accurate identification and quantification of the compounds present in the sample strongly depends on a number of operational settings, for both the MS and AMDIS, which must be optimized for the particular type of assayed sample. After optimization of these settings, AMDIS and Xcalibur™ yield practically the same results. A total of 85 volatiles and 22 polar compounds have been identified and quantified in Valencia Late orange juice. PMID:22533907

  4. Automatic de-identification of electronic medical records using token-level and character-level conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengjian; Chen, Yangxin; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Li, Haodi; Wang, Jingfeng; Deng, Qiwen; Zhu, Suisong

    2015-12-01

    De-identification, identifying and removing all protected health information (PHI) present in clinical data including electronic medical records (EMRs), is a critical step in making clinical data publicly available. The 2014 i2b2 (Center of Informatics for Integrating Biology and Bedside) clinical natural language processing (NLP) challenge sets up a track for de-identification (track 1). In this study, we propose a hybrid system based on both machine learning and rule approaches for the de-identification track. In our system, PHI instances are first identified by two (token-level and character-level) conditional random fields (CRFs) and a rule-based classifier, and then are merged by some rules. Experiments conducted on the i2b2 corpus show that our system submitted for the challenge achieves the highest micro F-scores of 94.64%, 91.24% and 91.63% under the "token", "strict" and "relaxed" criteria respectively, which is among top-ranked systems of the 2014 i2b2 challenge. After integrating some refined localization dictionaries, our system is further improved with F-scores of 94.83%, 91.57% and 91.95% under the "token", "strict" and "relaxed" criteria respectively. PMID:26122526

  5. Development of a Korotkov sound processor for automatic identification of auscultatory events. I - Specification of preprocessing bandpass filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. P., Jr.; Wolthuis, R. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Gowen, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Frequency bands that best discriminate the Korotkov sounds at systole and at diastole from the sounds immediately preceding these events are defined. Korotkov sound data were recorded from five normotensive subjects during orthostatic stress (lower body negative pressure) and bicycle ergometry. A spectral analysis of the seven Korotkov sounds centered about the systolic and diastolic auscultatory events revealed that a maximum increase in amplitude at the systolic transition occurred in the 18-26-Hz band, while a maximum decrease in amplitude at the diastolic transition occurred in the 40-60-Hz band. These findings were remarkably consistent across subjects and test conditions. These passbands are included in the design specifications for an automatic blood pressure measuring system used in conjuction with medical experiments during NASA's Skylab program.

  6. Identification of Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans with novel markers and using a dot blot platform coupled with automatic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M R; Marcal, Andre R S; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L; Mendes, Marta V; Tavares, Fernando

    2011-08-15

    Phytosanitary regulations and the provision of plant health certificates still rely mainly on long and laborious culture-based methods of diagnosis, which are frequently inconclusive. DNA-based methods of detection can circumvent many of the limitations of currently used screening methods, allowing a fast and accurate monitoring of samples. The genus Xanthomonas includes 13 phytopathogenic quarantine organisms for which improved methods of diagnosis are needed. In this work, we propose 21 new Xanthomonas-specific molecular markers, within loci coding for Xanthomonas-specific protein domains, useful for DNA-based methods of identification of xanthomonads. The specificity of these markers was assessed by a dot blot hybridization array using 23 non-Xanthomonas species, mostly soil dwelling and/or phytopathogens for the same host plants. In addition, the validation of these markers on 15 Xanthomonas spp. suggested species-specific hybridization patterns, which allowed discrimination among the different Xanthomonas species. Having in mind that DNA-based methods of diagnosis are particularly hampered for unsequenced species, namely, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, for which comparative genomics tools to search for DNA signatures are not yet applicable, emphasis was given to the selection of informative markers able to identify X. fragariae, X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains. In order to avoid inconsistencies due to operator-dependent interpretation of dot blot data, an image-processing algorithm was developed to analyze automatically the dot blot patterns. Ultimately, the proposed markers and the dot blot platform, coupled with automatic data analyses, have the potential to foster a thorough monitoring of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. PMID:21705524

  7. Automatic identification of intracranial hemorrhage in non-contrast CT with large slice thickness for trauma cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduskar, Pragnya; Acharyya, Mausumi

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for automatic detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and acute intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) in brain Computed Tomography (CT) for trauma cases where no contrast can be applied and the CT has large slice thickness. ICH or AIH comprise of internal bleeding (intra-axial) or external (extra-axial) to the brain substance. Large bleeds like in intra-axial region are easy to diagnose whereas it can be challenging if small bleed occurs in extra-axial region particularly in the absence of contrast. Bleed region needs to be distinguished from bleed-look-alike brain regions which are abnormally bright falx and fresh flowing blood. We propose an algorithm for detection of brain bleed in various anatomical locations. A preprocessing step is performed to segment intracranial contents and enhancement of region of interests(ROIs). A number of bleed and bleed-look-alike candidates are identified from a set of 11 available cases. For each candidate texture based features are extracted from non-separable quincunx wavelet transform along with some other descriptive features. The candidates are randomly divided into a training and test set consisting of both bleed and bleed-look- alike. A supervised classifier is designed based on the training sample features. A performance accuracy of 96% is attained for the independent test candidates.

  8. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  9. Towards falls prevention: a wearable wireless and battery-less sensing and automatic identification tag for real time monitoring of human movements.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Damith C; Shinmoto Torres, Roberto L; Sample, Alanson P; Smith, Joshua R; Hill, Keith; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2012-01-01

    Falls related injuries among elderly patients in hospitals or residents in residential care facilities is a significant problem that causes emotional and physical trauma to those involved while presenting a rising healthcare expense in countries such as Australia where the population is ageing. Novel approaches using low cost and privacy preserving sensor enabled Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to provide a low cost and effective technological intervention to prevent falls in hospitals. We outline the details of a wearable sensor enabled RFID tag that is battery free, low cost, lightweight, maintenance free and can be worn continuously for automatic and unsupervised remote monitoring of activities of frail patients at acute hospitals or residents in residential care. The technological developments outlined in the paper forms part of an overall technological intervention developed to reduce falls at acute hospitals or in residential care facilities. This paper outlines the details of the technology, underlying algorithms and the results (where an accuracy of 94-100% was achieved) of a successful pilot trial. PMID:23367394

  10. Automatic identification of organ/tissue regions in CT image data for the implementation of patient specific phantoms for treatment planning in cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Richard Blaine

    In vivo targeted radiotherapy has the potential to be an effective treatment for many types of cancer. Agents which show preferred uptake by cancerous tissue are labeled with radio-nuclides and administered to the patient. The preferred uptake by the cancerous tissue allows for the delivery of therapeutically effective radiation absorbed doses to tumors, while sparing normal tissue. Accurate absorbed dose estimation for targeted radiotherapy would be of great clinical value in a patient's treatment planning. One of the problems with calculating absorbed dose involves the use of geometric mathematical models of the human body for the simulation of the radiation transport. Since many patients differ markedly from these models, errors in the absorbed dose estimation procedure result from using these models. Patient specific models developed using individual patient's anatomical structure would greatly enhance the accuracy of dosimetry calculations. Patient specific anatomy data is available from CT or MRI images, but the very time consuming process of manual organ and tissue identification limits its practicality for routine clinical use. This study uses a statistical classifier to automatically identify organs and tissues from CT image data. In this study, image ``slices'' from thirty- five different subjects at approximately the same anatomical position are used to ``train'' the statistical classifier. Multi-dimensional probability distributions of image characteristics, such as location and intensity, are generated from the training images. Statistical classification rules are then used to identify organs and tissues in five previously unseen images. A variety of pre-processing and post-processing techniques are then employed to enhance the classification procedure. This study demonstrated the promise of statistical classifiers for solving segmentation problems involving human anatomy where there is an underlying pattern of structure. Despite the poor quality of

  11. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes

  12. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  13. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  14. Automatic warranties.

    PubMed

    Decker, R

    1987-10-01

    In addition to express warranties (those specifically made by the supplier in the contract) and implied warranties (those resulting from circumstances of the sale), there is one other classification of warranties that needs to be understood by hospital materials managers. These are sometimes known as automatic warranties. In the following dialogue, Doctor Decker develops these legal concepts. PMID:10284977

  15. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  16. Automatic identification of the number of food items in a meal using clustering techniques based on the monitoring of swallowing and chewing

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Fontana, Juan M.; Sazonov, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The number of distinct foods consumed in a meal is of significant clinical concern in the study of obesity and other eating disorders. This paper proposes the use of information contained in chewing and swallowing sequences for meal segmentation by food types. Data collected from experiments of 17 volunteers were analyzed using two different clustering techniques. First, an unsupervised clustering technique, Affinity Propagation (AP), was used to automatically identify the number of segments within a meal. Second, performance of the unsupervised AP method was compared to a supervised learning approach based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). While the AP method was able to obtain 90% accuracy in predicting the number of food items, the AHC achieved an accuracy >95%. Experimental results suggest that the proposed models of automatic meal segmentation may be utilized as part of an integral application for objective Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior in free living conditions. PMID:23125872

  17. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  18. RFID: A Revolution in Automatic Data Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna…

  19. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  20. Automatic identification of fault zone head waves and direct P waves and its application in the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) are observed along major strike-slip faults and can provide high-resolution imaging of fault interface properties at seismogenic depth. In this paper, we present a new method to automatically detect FZHWs and pick direct P waves secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The algorithm identifies FZHWs by computing the amplitude ratios between the potential FZHWs and DSWAs. The polarities, polarizations and characteristic periods of FZHWs and DSWAs are then used to refine the picks or evaluate the pick quality. We apply the method to the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault where FZHWs have been identified before by manual picks. We compare results from automatically and manually picked arrivals and find general agreement between them. The obtained velocity contrast at Parkfield is generally 5-10 per cent near Middle Mountain while it decreases below 5 per cent near Gold Hill. We also find many FZHWs recorded by the stations within 1 km of the background seismicity (i.e. the Southwest Fracture Zone) that have not been reported before. These FZHWs could be generated within a relatively wide low velocity zone sandwiched between the fast Salinian block on the southwest side and the slow Franciscan Mélange on the northeast side. Station FROB on the southwest (fast) side also recorded a small portion of weak precursory signals before sharp P waves. However, the polarities of weak signals are consistent with the right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms, suggesting that they are unlikely genuine FZHW signals.

  1. Automatic identification of fault zone head waves and direct P waves and its application in the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) are observed along major strike-slip faults, and can provide high-resolution imaging of fault interface properties at seismogenic depth. In this paper we present a new method to automatically detect FZHWs and pick direct P waves secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The algorithm identifies FZHWs by computing the amplitude ratios between the potential FZHWs and DSWAs. The polarities, polarizations and characteristic periods of FZHWs and DSWAs are then used to refine the picks or evaluate the pick quality. We apply the method to the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault where FZHWs have been identified before by manual picks. We compare results from automatically and manually picked arrivals and find general agreement between them. The obtained velocity contrast at Parkfield is generally 5%-10% near Middle Mountain while it decreases below 5% near Gold Hill. We also find many FZHWs recorded by the stations within 1 km of the background seismicity (i.e., the Southwest Fracture Zone) that have not been reported before. These FZHWs could be generated within a relatively wide low velocity zone sandwiched between the fast Salinian block on the southwest side and the slow Franciscan Mélange on the northeast side. Station FROB on the southwest (fast) side also recorded a small portion of weak precursory signals before sharp P waves. However, the polarities of weak signals are consistent with the right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms, suggesting that they are unlikely genuine FZHW signals.

  2. The First Results of Testing Methods and Algorithms for Automatic Real Time Identification of Waveforms Introduction from Local Earthquakes in Increased Level of Man-induced Noises for the Purposes of Ultra-short-term Warning about an Occurred Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravirov, V. V.; Kislov, K. V.

    2009-12-01

    and to administration by automatic transmission of SMS messages, etc. This recognition technique can also be used to filter the noise, since the noise aggregate characteristic for megacities, since the noise aggregate characteristic for megacities has typical characteristics (traffic, industry-caused vibrations, free oscillations of buildings, and so on). Analysis of the data shows that earthquakes and noise can be dealt with using a finite set of scenarios that characterize a mixture of the data and noise. In this way it becomes possible to develop an automatic system for detection and identification of low-energy earthquake phases in a noise that may even be above the signal level. Comparison of different methods employed for early warning of an occurring earthquake shows that the attainable accuracy of earthquake identification is 97%.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of DBSCAN, K-Means, and Quadratic Variation Algorithms for Automatic Identification of Swallows from Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. Methods In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Results Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differen-tiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. Conclusions In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. PMID:25658505

  4. SU-E-J-182: A Feasibility Study Evaluating Automatic Identification of Gross Tumor Volume for Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R; Palta, M; Chang, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a computerized pharmacokinetic model-free Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) segmentation method based on dynamic contrastenhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data that can improve physician GTV contouring efficiency. Methods: 12 patients with biopsy-proven early stage breast cancer with post-contrast enhanced DCE-MRI images were analyzed in this study. A fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering-based method was applied to segment 3D GTV from pre-operative DCE-MRI data. A region of interest (ROI) is selected by a clinician/physicist, and the normalized signal evolution curves were calculated by dividing the signal intensity enhancement value at each voxel by the pre-contrast signal intensity value at the corresponding voxel. Three semi-quantitative metrics were analyzed based on normalized signal evolution curves: initial Area Under signal evolution Curve (iAUC), Immediate Enhancement Ratio (IER), and Variance of Enhancement Slope (VES). The FCM algorithm wass applied to partition ROI voxels into GTV voxels and non-GTV voxels by using three analyzed metrics. The partition map for the smaller cluster is then generated and binarized with an automatically calculated threshold. To reduce spurious structures resulting from background, a labeling operation was performed to keep the largest three-dimensional connected component as the identified target. Basic morphological operations including hole-filling and spur removal were useutilized to improve the target smoothness. Each segmented GTV was compared to that drawn by experienced radiation oncologists. An agreement index was proposed to quantify the overlap between the GTVs identified using two approaches and a thershold value of 0.4 is regarded as acceptable. Results: The GTVs identified by the proposed method were overlapped with the ones drawn by radiation oncologists in all cases, and in 10 out of 12 cases, the agreement indices were above the threshold of 0.4. Conclusion: The proposed automatic segmentation method was shown to

  5. Identification of Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans with Novel Markers and Using a Dot Blot Platform Coupled with Automatic Data Analysis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M. R.; Marcal, Andre R. S.; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L.; Mendes, Marta V.; Tavares, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Phytosanitary regulations and the provision of plant health certificates still rely mainly on long and laborious culture-based methods of diagnosis, which are frequently inconclusive. DNA-based methods of detection can circumvent many of the limitations of currently used screening methods, allowing a fast and accurate monitoring of samples. The genus Xanthomonas includes 13 phytopathogenic quarantine organisms for which improved methods of diagnosis are needed. In this work, we propose 21 new Xanthomonas-specific molecular markers, within loci coding for Xanthomonas-specific protein domains, useful for DNA-based methods of identification of xanthomonads. The specificity of these markers was assessed by a dot blot hybridization array using 23 non-Xanthomonas species, mostly soil dwelling and/or phytopathogens for the same host plants. In addition, the validation of these markers on 15 Xanthomonas spp. suggested species-specific hybridization patterns, which allowed discrimination among the different Xanthomonas species. Having in mind that DNA-based methods of diagnosis are particularly hampered for unsequenced species, namely, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, for which comparative genomics tools to search for DNA signatures are not yet applicable, emphasis was given to the selection of informative markers able to identify X. fragariae, X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains. In order to avoid inconsistencies due to operator-dependent interpretation of dot blot data, an image-processing algorithm was developed to analyze automatically the dot blot patterns. Ultimately, the proposed markers and the dot blot platform, coupled with automatic data analyses, have the potential to foster a thorough monitoring of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. PMID:21705524

  6. Automatic identification of fault surfaces through Object Based Image Analysis of a Digital Elevation Model in the submarine area of the North Aegean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyropoulou, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    The current study was focused on the seafloor morphology of the North Aegean Basin in Greece, through Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) using a Digital Elevation Model. The goal was the automatic extraction of morphologic and morphotectonic features, resulting into fault surface extraction. An Object Based Image Analysis approach was developed based on the bathymetric data and the extracted features, based on morphological criteria, were compared with the corresponding landforms derived through tectonic analysis. A digital elevation model of 150 meters spatial resolution was used. At first, slope, profile curvature, and percentile were extracted from this bathymetry grid. The OBIA approach was developed within the eCognition environment. Four segmentation levels were created having as a target "level 4". At level 4, the final classes of geomorphological features were classified: discontinuities, fault-like features and fault surfaces. On previous levels, additional landforms were also classified, such as continental platform and continental slope. The results of the developed approach were evaluated by two methods. At first, classification stability measures were computed within eCognition. Then, qualitative and quantitative comparison of the results took place with a reference tectonic map which has been created manually based on the analysis of seismic profiles. The results of this comparison were satisfactory, a fact which determines the correctness of the developed OBIA approach.

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  8. Automatic identification of origins of left and right coronary arteries in CT angiography for coronary arterial tree tracking and plaque detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chightai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic tracking and segmentation of the coronary arterial tree is the basic step for computer-aided analysis of coronary disease. The goal of this study is to develop an automated method to identify the origins of the left coronary artery (LCA) and right coronary artery (RCA) as the seed points for the tracking of the coronary arterial trees. The heart region and the contrast-filled structures in the heart region are first extracted using morphological operations and EM estimation. To identify the ascending aorta, we developed a new multiscale aorta search method (MAS) method in which the aorta is identified based on a-priori knowledge of its circular shape. Because the shape of the ascending aorta in the cCTA axial view is roughly a circle but its size can vary over a wide range for different patients, multiscale circularshape priors are used to search for the best matching circular object in each CT slice, guided by the Hausdorff distance (HD) as the matching indicator. The location of the aorta is identified by finding the minimum HD in the heart region over the set of multiscale circular priors. An adaptive region growing method is then used to extend the above initially identified aorta down to the aortic valves. The origins at the aortic sinus are finally identified by a morphological gray level top-hat operation applied to the region-grown aorta with morphological structuring element designed for coronary arteries. For the 40 test cases, the aorta was correctly identified in 38 cases (95%). The aorta can be grown to the aortic root in 36 cases, and 36 LCA origins and 34 RCA origins can be identified within 10 mm of the locations marked by radiologists.

  9. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence-Based Identification of Bacteria in Automatically Incubated Blood Culture Materials from Tropical Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hahn, Andreas; Boahen, Kennedy; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Halbgewachs, Eva; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Poppert, Sven; Loderstaedt, Ulrike; May, Jürgen; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background The quality of microbiological diagnostic procedures depends on pre-analytic conditions. We compared the results of 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing from automatically incubated blood culture materials from tropical Ghana with the results of cultural growth after automated incubation. Methods Real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and subsequent sequencing were applied to 1500 retained blood culture samples of Ghanaian patients admitted to a hospital with an unknown febrile illness after enrichment by automated culture. Results Out of all 1500 samples, 191 were culture-positive and 98 isolates were considered etiologically relevant. Out of the 191 culture-positive samples, 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing led to concordant results in 65 cases at species level and an additional 62 cases at genus level. PCR was positive in further 360 out of 1309 culture-negative samples, sequencing results of which suggested etiologically relevant pathogen detections in 62 instances, detections of uncertain relevance in 50 instances, and DNA contamination due to sample preparation in 248 instances. In two instances, PCR failed to detect contaminants from the skin flora that were culturally detectable. Pre-analytical errors caused many Enterobacteriaceae to be missed by culture. Conclusions Potentially correctable pre-analytical conditions and not the fastidious nature of the bacteria caused most of the discrepancies. Although 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing in addition to culture led to an increase in detections of presumably etiologically relevant blood culture pathogens, the application of this procedure to samples from the tropics was hampered by a high contamination rate. Careful interpretation of diagnostic results is required. PMID:26270631

  10. On the Importance of Transition Regions for Automatic Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Jung, Chi-Sang; Choi, Jeung-Yoon; Kang, Hong-Goo

    This letter describes the importance of transition regions, e.g. at phoneme boundaries, for automatic speaker recognition compared with using steady-state regions. Experimental results of automatic speaker identification tasks confirm that transition regions include the most speaker distinctive features. A possible reason for obtaining such results is described in view of articulation, in particular, the degree of freedom of articulators. These results are expected to provide useful information in designing an efficient automatic speaker recognition system.

  11. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents...

  12. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents...

  13. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents...

  14. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents...

  15. 21 CFR 870.5925 - Automatic rotating tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic rotating tourniquet. 870.5925 Section 870.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... rotating tourniquet. (a) Identification. An automatic rotating tourniquet is a device that prevents...

  16. Features and Methods for Automatic Dialect Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    Systematic differences among regional U.S. English speech are recognizable to native speakers to varying degrees. This has been demonstrated by researchers in perceptual dialectology who ask listeners to match a speaker to his or her dialect region. Machines have also been able to identify the regional origin of a speaker to some degree, although…

  17. Bayesian Automatic Classification Of HMI Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, John G.

    2011-05-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system known as "AutoClass" finds a set of class definitions based on a set of observed data and assigns data to classes without human supervision. It has been applied to Mt Wilson data to improve modeling of total solar irradiance variations (Ulrich, et al, 2010). We apply AutoClass to HMI observables to automatically identify regions of the solar surface. To prevent small instrument artifacts from interfering with class identification, we apply a flat-field correction and a rotationally shifted temporal average to the HMI images prior to processing with AutoClass. Additionally, the sensitivity of AutoClass to instrumental artifacts is investigated.

  18. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  19. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  20. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  1. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  2. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  3. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  4. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  5. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  6. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  7. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  8. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  9. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  10. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  12. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  13. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  14. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  15. Principles of Automatic Lemmatisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hann, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Introduces some algorithmic methods, for which no pre-editing is necessary, for automatically "lemmatising" raw text (changing raw text to an equivalent version in which all inflected words are artificially transformed to their dictionary look-up form). The results of a study of these methods, which used a German Text, are also given. (KM)

  16. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  18. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  19. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  20. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  1. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  2. Automatic Dryers--Components and Operations; Appliance Repair--Intermediate: 9025.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic gas and electric dryers, this course outlines the principles of drying and how they relate to the automatic dryer. Instruction centers upon the functions and operations of dryer components and the recognition and identification of various component malfunctions,…

  3. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  4. Automatic comparison of striation information on firearm bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Leon, Fernando; Beyerer, Juergen

    1999-08-01

    This paper deals with an important task within forensic science - the automatic comparison of bullets for the purpose of firearm identification. Bullets bear groove- shaped marks that can be though of as a kind of 'fingerprint' of the firearm on their circumferential surface. To accomplish the comparison task, mainly the fine grooves on the bullet surface are of interests.

  5. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yochai; Knoll, James L.

    2015-01-01

    School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various characteristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by 6 school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters’ texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/prioritization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology. PMID:26089804

  6. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yochai; Knoll, James L

    2015-01-01

    School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various characteristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by 6 school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters' texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/prioritization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology. PMID:26089804

  7. Clinical application of a novel automatic algorithm for actigraphy-based activity and rest period identification to accurately determine awake and asleep ambulatory blood pressure parameters and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Cristina; Fernández, José R; Aboy, Mateo; Mojón, Artemio

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a study designed to determine whether there are statistically significant differences between the values of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters obtained using different methods-fixed schedule, diary, and automatic algorithm based on actigraphy-of defining the main activity and rest periods, and to determine the clinical relevance of such differences. We studied 233 patients (98 men/135 women), 61.29 ± .83 yrs of age (mean ± SD). Statistical methods were used to measure agreement in the diagnosis and classification of subjects within the context of ABPM and cardiovascular disease risk assessment. The results show that there are statistically significant differences both at the group and individual levels. Those at the individual level have clinically significant implications, as they can result in a different classification, and, therefore, different diagnosis and treatment for individual subjects. The use of an automatic algorithm based on actigraphy can lead to better individual treatment by correcting the accuracy problems associated with the fixed schedule on patients whose actual activity/rest routine differs from the fixed schedule assumed, and it also overcomes the limitations and reliability issues associated with the use of diaries. PMID:23130607

  8. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  9. Automatic cytometric device using multiple wavelength excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Ledroit, Sylvain; Chauvet, Laurence; Cremien, Didier; Urankar, Alexandra; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Precise identification of eosinophils, basophils, and specific subpopulations of blood cells (B lymphocytes) in an unconventional automatic hematology analyzer is demonstrated. Our specific apparatus mixes two excitation radiations by means of an acousto-optics tunable filter to properly control fluorescence emission of phycoerythrin cyanin 5 (PC5) conjugated to antibodies (anti-CD20 or anti-CRTH2) and Thiazole Orange. This way our analyzer combining techniques of hematology analysis and flow cytometry based on multiple fluorescence detection, drastically improves the signal to noise ratio and decreases the spectral overlaps impact coming from multiple fluorescence emissions.

  10. Automatic contact in DYNA3D for vehicle crashworthiness

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-07-15

    This paper presents a new formulation for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit nonlinear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. This paper discusses in detail a new four-step automatic contact algorithm. Key aspects of the proposed method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a smoothly varying surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad-hoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  11. Automatic inspection of road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughooputh, Harry C. S.; Rughooputh, Soonil D. D. V.; Kinser, Jason M.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional inspections of road surfaces for the condition assessment and for locating cracks are time-consuming, expensive and can prove to be dangerous. What is ideally required would be a fully equipped automated inspecting vehicle capable of high precision location and characterization of road surface cracks over the width of the road (single pass). We propose an automatic crack monitoring system (akin to HARRIS - UK) with the video-based subsystem substituted by Global Positioning Systems for more accurate positioning. Besides, our technique avoids the storage of large volumes of scanned images of 'acceptable' road surface conditions. A pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is used as a preprocessor for each scanned image to detect cracks while another PCNN segments this image to characterize identified defects. The latter image is then stored as binary image along with the GPS data. The type of cracks is later identified (offline) from the recorded binary images. This mode of data collection leads to a more accurate, less costly and faster automated system. Our results for road surface (concrete and bituminous) images reveal the suitability of this novel technique for a fully automated road inspection system for crack identification and characterization.

  12. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  13. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  14. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  15. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  16. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  17. Automatic digital image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  18. Fully automatic fiber optic polarization analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marć, P.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Stasiewicz, K.

    2008-04-01

    Since many years one of the topic our research team are multi-parametric fiber optic polarization sensors. In the paper is presented a new version of the Fiber-Optic Interferometric Polarization Analyzer (FOIPA). This system is based on modified Sagnac interferometer and it was equipped with automatic current driven polarization controllers driven by special analog output card and detection system based on data acquisition card and LabVIEW software. This system was called full automatic fiber optic interferometric polarization analyzer. Used in the system automatic, temperature driven polarization controllers allow working in feedback electronic loop with data acquisition system and they function as calibration and stabilization subsystem. Specially developed detection system allow measuring amplitudes of first three tones of the AC parts of two electric signals as well as they DC voltages. That advantages have given possibility replaced an expensive lock-in amplifier and make data performance and polarization parameters calculation more faster and easier. It was necessary to implement special procedure to proper SOP identification In the paper are presented theoretical and experimental analyzes of the uncertainties, also. Finally a comparison with commercially available polarization analyzer is shown.

  19. Research into automatic recognition of joints in human symmetrical movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu

    2008-03-01

    High speed photography is a major means of collecting data from human body movement. It enables the automatic identification of joints, which brings great significance to the research, treatment and recovery of injuries, the analysis to the diagnosis of sport techniques and the ergonomics. According to the features that when the adjacent joints of human body are in planetary motion, their distance remains the same, and according to the human body joint movement laws (such as the territory of the articular anatomy and the kinematic features), a new approach is introduced to process the image thresholding of joints filmed by the high speed camera, to automatically identify the joints and to automatically trace the joint points (by labeling markers at the joints). Based upon the closure of marking points, automatic identification can be achieved through thresholding treatment. Due to the screening frequency and the laws of human segment movement, when the marking points have been initialized, their automatic tracking can be achieved with the progressive sequential images.Then the testing results, the data from three-dimensional force platform and the characteristics that human body segment will only rotate around the closer ending segment when the segment has no boding force and only valid to the conservative force all tell that after being analyzed kinematically, the approach is approved to be valid.

  20. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  1. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  2. Automatic clutch control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, H.; Ogawa, N.; Hattori, T.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an automatic clutch control system, comprising: a clutch having a full clutch engagement point and a clutch contact point; a clutch actuator for controlling a clutch stroke; a plurality of solenoid valves for controlling the clutch actuator; clutch stroke sensor means for measuring the clutch stroke and for detecting the full clutch engagement point and the clutch contact point in the clutch stroke; control means, for feeding back a stroke signal detected by the clutch stroke sensor and for controlling the solenoid valves to control clutch engagement and disengagement.

  3. Automatic speaker recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Naylor, Joe

    1984-07-01

    The Defense Communications Division of ITT (ITTDCD) has developed an automatic speaker recognition (ASR) system that meets the functional requirements defined in NRL's Statement of Work. This report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a short history of the development of the ASR system, both the algorithm and the implementation. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of system testing, and Chapter 4 summarizes test results. In Chapter 5, some additional testing performed using GFM test material is discussed. Conclusions derived from the contract work are given in Chapter 6.

  4. Management of natural resources through automatic cartographic inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, P.; Gourinard, Y.; Cambou, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the ARNICA program from August 1972 - January 1973 have been: (1) establishment of image to object correspondence codes for all types of soil use and forestry in northern Spain; (2) establishment of a transfer procedure between qualitative (remote identification and remote interpretation) and quantitative (numerization, storage, automatic statistical cartography) use of images; (3) organization of microdensitometric data processing and automatic cartography software; and (4) development of a system for measuring reflectance simultaneous with imagery.

  5. Automatic readout micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.

    1982-03-23

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  6. Automatic engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

  7. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  8. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  9. Identification of Relevant Phytochemical Constituents for Characterization and Authentication of Tomatoes by General Linear Model Linked to Automatic Interaction Detection (GLM-AID) and Artificial Neural Network Models (ANNs)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Astray Dopazo, Gonzalo; Larios López, Dina; Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    There are a large number of tomato cultivars with a wide range of morphological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Many factors are known to affect the nutrient content of tomato cultivars. A complete understanding of the effect of these factors would require an exhaustive experimental design, multidisciplinary scientific approach and a suitable statistical method. Some multivariate analytical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis (FA) have been widely applied in order to search for patterns in the behaviour and reduce the dimensionality of a data set by a new set of uncorrelated latent variables. However, in some cases it is not useful to replace the original variables with these latent variables. In this study, Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) algorithm and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were applied as alternative to the PCA, AF and other multivariate analytical techniques in order to identify the relevant phytochemical constituents for characterization and authentication of tomatoes. To prove the feasibility of AID algorithm and ANN models to achieve the purpose of this study, both methods were applied on a data set with twenty five chemical parameters analysed on 167 tomato samples from Tenerife (Spain). Each tomato sample was defined by three factors: cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date. General Linear Model linked to AID (GLM-AID) tree-structured was organized into 3 levels according to the number of factors. p-Coumaric acid was the compound the allowed to distinguish the tomato samples according to the day of harvest. More than one chemical parameter was necessary to distinguish among different agricultural practices and among the tomato cultivars. Several ANN models, with 25 and 10 input variables, for the prediction of cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date, were developed. Finally, the models with 10 input variables were chosen with fit’s goodness between 44 and

  10. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  11. Automatic beamline calibration procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Zambre, Y.

    1992-03-01

    Recent experience with the SLC and SPEAR accelerators have led to a well-defined set of procedures for calibration of the beamline model using the orbit fitting program, RESOLVE. Difference orbit analysis is used to calibrate quadrupole strengths, BPM sensitivities, corrector strengths, focusing effects from insertion devices, and to determine the source of dispersion and coupling errors. Absolute orbit analysis is used to locate quadrupole misalignments, BPM offsets, or beam loss. For light source applications, the photon beam source coordinates can be found. The result is an accurate model of the accelerator which can be used for machine control. In this paper, automatable beamline calibration procedures are outlined and illustrated with recent examples. 5 refs.

  12. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  13. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  14. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  15. Automatic flowmeter calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating the accuracy of a flowmeter is described. The system includes a calculator capable of performing mathematical functions responsive to receiving data signals and function command signals. A prover cylinder is provided for measuring the temperature, pressure, and time required for accumulating a predetermined volume of fluid. Along with these signals, signals representing the temperature and pressure of the fluid going into the meter are fed to a plurality of data registers. Under control of a progress controller, the data registers are read out and the information is fed through a data select circuit to the calculator. Command signals are also produced by a function select circuit and are fed to the calculator set indicating the desired function to be performed. The reading is then compared with the reading produced by the flowmeter.

  16. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanims, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  17. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  18. Semi-automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morscheck, T.J.; Davis, A.R.; Huggins, M.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system of the type comprising: a mechanical change gear transmission of the type comprising a transmission housing, an input shaft rotatably supported in the housing and driven by an engine through a nonpositive coupling, an output shaft rotatably supported in the housing and a plurality of selectable ratio gears selectively engageable one at a time to a first transmission element by means of positive, nonsynchronized jaw clutch assemblies for providing a plurality of manually selectable drive ratios between the input and output shafts, each of the jaw clutch assemblies comprising a first jaw clutch member rotatably associated with the first transmission element and a second jaw clutch member rotatably associated with a second transmission element, each of the first jaw clutch members axially moveable relative to the first transmission element; manually operated means for engaging and disengaging the nonpositive coupling; manually operated shifting means for engaging selected ratio gears to and disengaging selected ratio gears from the first transmission element; selection for sensing the identity of the particular ratio gear selected for manual engagement or disengagement from the first transmission element and for providing a signal; first and second rotational speed sensors for sensing the rotational speed of the first and second transmission elements and providing signals; a power synchronizer assembly selectively actuable for selectively varying the rotational speed of the second transmission element and the second jaw clutch members rotatably associated therewith; and a central processing unit semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system.

  19. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  20. 47 CFR 64.1602 - Restrictions on use and sale of telephone subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 64.1200 and 64.1504(c). ... subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic number identification or charge number services. 64... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Calling Party Telephone...

  1. A new automatic contact formulation in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in DYNA3D. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but must maintain high reliability and acceptable computational costs. The major features of the proposed new method include automatic identification of potentially contacting surfaces during the initialization phase, a new high-performance contact search procedure, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad-hoc rules. Three examples are presented which illustrate the performance of newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  2. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  3. Application of automatic differentiation to groundwater transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.; Ross, A.A.; Whiffen, G.J.; Shoemaker, C.A.; Carle, A.

    1994-06-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is a technique for generating efficient and reliable derivative codes from computer programs with a minimum of human effort. Derivatives of model output with respect to input are obtained exactly. No intrinsic limits to program length or complexity exist for this procedure. Calculation of derivatives of complex numerical models is required in systems optimization, parameter identification, and systems identification. We report on our experiences with the ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation of Fortran) tool on a two-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport finite-element model, ISOQUAD, and a three-dimensional contaminant transport finite-element model, TLS3D. Derivative values and computational times for the automatic differentiation procedure axe compared with values obtained from the divided differences and handwritten analytic approaches. We found that the derivative codes generated by ADIFOR provided accurate derivatives and ran significantly faster than divided-differences approximations, typically in a tenth of the CPU time required for the imprecise divided-differences method for both codes. We also comment on the impact of automatic differentiation technology with respect to accelerating the transfer of general techniques developed for using water resource computer models, such as optimal design, sensitivity analysis, and inverse modeling problems to field problems.

  4. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  5. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  6. An Automatic Editing Algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-03-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires (1) the use of P code pseudorange data and (2) a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. The latter requirement can be relaxed if the analysis software incorporates ambiguity resolution techniques to estimate unresolved cycle slip parameters. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips. Analyst intervention was required on 1% of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  7. An automatic editing algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification, and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires the use of P code pseudorange data and a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips.Analyst intervention was required on 1 percent of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  8. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  9. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  10. Automatic battery analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.J.; Frailing, C.E.

    1980-03-11

    Apparatus for automatically testing automotive-type, lead acid storage batteries is disclosed in which three separate tests are made and the results thereof compared to predetermined standards in a specified order to maximize the information obtained about the battery. The three tests measure (1) whether the battery meets its cold cranking rating by drawing a predetermined load current therefrom for a predetermined period of time and determining whether the battery terminal voltage is above a specified level at the end of that period, (2) whether the battery terminal voltage is above another specified level at the end of a predetermined period of time following the completion of the first test, and (3) whether the internal resistance is acceptably low. If the battery passes the first test, it is known to be acceptable. If the battery fails the first test and passes the second test, it is known to be unacceptable. If the battery fails the first and second tests, the third test is performed. If the battery then passes the third test, it is known to be acceptable but to require a recharge, whereas if the battery then fails the third test the acceptability of the battery is then not yet determined and it must be recharged and retested.

  11. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  12. Automatic brain tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1998-06-01

    A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

  13. Semi-automatic analysis of fire debris

    PubMed

    Touron; Malaquin; Gardebas; Nicolai

    2000-05-01

    Automated analysis of fire residues involves a strategy which deals with the wide variety of received criminalistic samples. Because of unknown concentration of accelerant in a sample and the wide range of flammable products, full attention from the analyst is required. Primary detection with a photoionisator resolves the first problem, determining the right method to use: the less responsive classical head-space determination or absorption on active charcoal tube, a better fitted method more adapted to low concentrations can thus be chosen. The latter method is suitable for automatic thermal desorption (ATD400), to avoid any risk of cross contamination. A PONA column (50 mx0.2 mm i.d.) allows the separation of volatile hydrocarbons from C(1) to C(15) and the update of a database. A specific second column is used for heavy hydrocarbons. Heavy products (C(13) to C(40)) were extracted from residues using a very small amount of pentane, concentrated to 1 ml at 50 degrees C and then placed on an automatic carousel. Comparison of flammables with referenced chromatograms provided expected identification, possibly using mass spectrometry. This analytical strategy belongs to the IRCGN quality program, resulting in analysis of 1500 samples per year by two technicians. PMID:10802196

  14. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  15. Design and implementation for satellite remote sensing forest fire-points automatic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunhui; Chen, Huailiang; Yin, Qing

    2009-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing monitoring of forest fire-points is a routine operation of weather service. By taking advantage of remote sensing information's characteristics such as relatively fixed resolution, little geometric distortion and quite stable data quality, the thesis establishes Henan Satellite Remote Sensing Forest Fire-points Automatic Monitoring System in the way of automatic geography registration based on gray correlation and control point database, which can realize automation of the whole process including automatic monitoring,automatic geography registration,automatic fire-points monitoring,automatic production releasing and cell phone short-message notice of fire-points warning information. The system could greatly improve service efficiency. Automatic registration of remote sensing information based on gray correlation and control point database features simpleness and quickness. Through automatic geography registration testing of sunny EOS/MODIS data (at daytime and nightime) during 18 periods from February 2008 to May 2008 in Henan Province with average error of registration is 0.637 pixels at daytime and 0.319 at nighttime, it can fully meet ordinary operation requirements. Fire-point identification and fire-point area estimate method in the system can be applied to monitoring different fires at daytime and at nighttime. Besides, it can automatically screen effective fire-points according to background geographic information, and thus it can improve monitoring accuracy.

  16. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  17. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  18. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  19. Operating safety of automatic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich

    Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.

  20. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  1. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  2. Semi-Automatic Digital Landform Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Martin; Klein, Reinhard

    In this paper a framework for landform mapping on digital aerial photos and elevation models is presented. The developed mapping tools are integrated in a real-time terrain visualization engine in order to improve the visual recovery and identification of objects. Moreover, semi-automatic image segmentation techniques are built into the mapping tools to make object specification faster and easier without reducing accuracy. Thus, the high level cognitive task of object identification is left to the user whereas the segmentation algorithm performs the low level task of capturing the fine details of the object boundary. In addition to that, the user is able to supply additional photos of regions of interest and to match them with the textured DEM. The matched photos do not only drastically increase the visual information content of the data set but also contribute to the mapping process. Using this additional information precise landform mapping becomes even possible at steep slopes although they are only insufficiently represented in aerial imagery. As proof of concept we mapped several geomorphological structures in a high alpine valley.

  3. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  4. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  5. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  6. Automatic detection of marine mammals using information entropy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; King, Andrew R

    2008-11-01

    This article describes an automatic detector for marine mammal vocalizations. Even though there has been previous research on optimizing automatic detectors for specific calls or specific species, the detection of any type of call by a diversity of marine mammal species still poses quite a challenge--and one that is faced more frequently as the scope of passive acoustic monitoring studies and the amount of data collected increase. Information (Shannon) entropy measures the amount of information in a signal. A detector based on spectral entropy surpassed two commonly used detectors based on peak-energy detection. Receiver operating characteristic curves were computed for performance comparison. The entropy detector performed considerably faster than real time. It can be used as a first step in an automatic signal analysis yielding potential signals. It should be followed by automatic classification, recognition, and identification algorithms to group and identify signals. Examples are shown from underwater recordings in the Western Canadian Arctic. Calls of a variety of cetacean and pinniped species were detected. PMID:19045771

  7. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. PMID:25313026

  8. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening. PMID:19964971

  9. Towards automatic identification of mismatched image pairs through loop constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elibol, Armagan; Kim, Jinwhan; Gracias, Nuno; Garcia, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining image sequences has become easier and easier thanks to the rapid progress on optical sensors and robotic platforms. Processing of image sequences (e.g., mapping, 3D reconstruction, Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM)) usually requires 2D image registration. Recently, image registration is accomplished by detecting salient points in two images and nextmatching their descriptors. To eliminate outliers and to compute a planar transformation (homography) between the coordinate frames of images, robust methods (such as Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) and Least Median of Squares (LMedS)) are employed. However, image registration pipeline can sometimes provide sufficient number of inliers within the error bounds even when images do not overlap. Such mismatches occur especially when the scene has repetitive texture and shows structural similarity. In this study, we present a method to identify the mismatches using closed-loop (cycle) constraints. The method exploits the fact that images forming a cycle should have identity mapping when all the homographies between images in the cycle multiplied. Cycles appear when the camera revisits an area that was imaged before, which is a common practice especially for mapping purposes. Our proposal extracts several cycles to obtain error statistics for each matched image pair. Then, it searches for image pairs that have extreme error histogram comparing to the other pairs. We present experimental results with artificially added mismatched image pairs on real underwater image sequences.

  10. Automatic identification of gait events using an instrumented sock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Textile-based transducers are an emerging technology in which piezo-resistive properties of materials are used to measure an applied strain. By incorporating these sensors into a sock, this technology offers the potential to detect critical events during the stance phase of the gait cycle. This could prove useful in several applications, such as functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems to assist gait. Methods We investigated the output of a knitted resistive strain sensor during walking and sought to determine the degree of similarity between the sensor output and the ankle angle in the sagittal plane. In addition, we investigated whether it would be possible to predict three key gait events, heel strike, heel lift and toe off, with a relatively straight-forward algorithm. This worked by predicting gait events to occur at fixed time offsets from specific peaks in the sensor signal. Results Our results showed that, for all subjects, the sensor output exhibited the same general characteristics as the ankle joint angle. However, there were large between-subjects differences in the degree of similarity between the two curves. Despite this variability, it was possible to accurately predict gait events using a simple algorithm. This algorithm displayed high levels of trial-to-trial repeatability. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using textile-based transducers in future devices that provide active gait assistance. PMID:21619570

  11. Automatic identification of vessel crossovers in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L.; Barreira, N.; Penedo, M. G.; Cancela, B.

    2015-02-01

    Crossovers and bifurcations are interest points of the retinal vascular tree useful to diagnose diseases. Specifically, detecting these interest points and identifying which of them are crossings will give us the opportunity to search for arteriovenous nicking, this is, an alteration of the vessel tree where an artery is crossed by a vein and the former compresses the later. These formations are a clear indicative of hypertension, among other medical problems. There are several studies that have attempted to define an accurate and reliable method to detect and classify these relevant points. In this article, we propose a new method to identify crossovers. Our approach is based on segmenting the vascular tree and analyzing the surrounding area of each interest point. The minimal path between vessel points in this area is computed in order to identify the connected vessel segments and, as a result, to distinguish between bifurcations and crossovers. Our method was tested using retinographies from public databases DRIVE and VICAVR, obtaining an accuracy of 90%.

  12. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  13. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  14. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  15. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  16. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for a Universal Shipborne AIS, as amended; (2) International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R Recommendation M.1371-1: 2000, Technical Characteristics For A Universal Shipborne AIS Using Time Division... A Shipborne Equipment of the Universal AIS—Operational and Performance Requirements, Methods of...

  17. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS); the... “effective operating condition” used in § 26.06 of this chapter includes accurate input and upkeep of...

  18. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS); the... “effective operating condition” used in § 26.06 of this chapter includes accurate input and upkeep of...

  19. Intelligent system for automatic feature detection and selection or identification

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Jang, Jyh-Shing; Fu, Chi-Yung

    1997-01-01

    A neural network uses a fuzzy membership function, the parameters of which are adaptive during the training process, to parameterize the interconnection weights between an (n-1)'th layer and an n'th layer of the network. Each j'th node in each k'th layer of the network except the input layer produces its output value y.sub.k,j according to the function ##EQU1## where N.sub.k-1 is the number of nodes in layer k-1, i indexes the nodes of layer k-1 and all the w.sub.k,i,j are interconnection weights. The interconnection weights to all nodes j in the n'th layer are given by w.sub.n,i,j =w.sub.n,j (i, p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,p.sbsb.n). The apparatus is trained by setting values for at least one of the parameters p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn. Preferably the number of parameters P.sub.n is less than the number of nodes N.sub.n-1 in layer n-1. w.sub.n,j (i,p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn) can be convex in i, and it can be bell-shaped. Sample functions for w.sub.n,j (i, p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn) include ##EQU2##

  20. Intelligent system for automatic feature detection and selection or identification

    DOEpatents

    Sun, C.T.; Shiang, P.S.; Jang, J.S.; Fu, C.Y.

    1997-09-02

    A neural network uses a fuzzy membership function, the parameters of which are adaptive during the training process, to parameterize the interconnection weights between an (n{minus}1)`th layer and an n`th layer of the network. Each j`th node in each k`th layer of the network except the input layer produces its output value y{sub k,j} according to the function shown in Equation 1 where N{sub k{minus}1} is the number of nodes in layer k{minus}1, i indexes the nodes of layer k{minus}1 and all the w{sub k,i,j} are interconnection weights. The interconnection weights to all nodes j in the n`th layer are given by w{sub n,i,j}=w{sub n,j} (i, p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},p{sub n}). The apparatus is trained by setting values for at least one of the parameters p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn. Preferably the number of parameters P{sub n} is less than the number of nodes N{sub n{minus}1} in layer n{minus}1. W{sub n,j} (i,p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn) can be convex in i, and it can be bell-shaped. Sample functions for w{sub n,j} (i, p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn) include Equation 2, shown in the patent. 8 figs.

  1. FAMA: Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella

    2014-02-01

    FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis), written in Perl, computes the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) automatically and independently of any subjective approach. Based on the widely-used MOOG code, it simultaneously searches for three equilibria, excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between logn(FeI) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but instead are based on the quality of the spectra.

  2. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  3. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-02-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. PMID:6338826

  4. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  5. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  6. Alcohol-related Cues Promote Automatic Racial Bias.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott; Friedman, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase the expression of race bias by impairing control-related processes. The current study tested whether simple exposure to alcohol-related images can also increase bias, but via a different mechanism. Participants viewed magazine ads for either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to completing Payne's (2001) Weapons Identification Task (WIT). As predicted, participants primed with alcohol ads exhibited greater race bias in the WIT than participants primed with neutral beverages. Process dissociation analyses indicated that these effects were due to automatic (relative to controlled) processes having a larger influence on behavior among alcohol-primed relative to neutral-primed participants. Structural equation modeling further showed that the alcohol-priming effect was mediated by increases in the influence of automatic associations on behavior. These data suggest an additional pathway by which alcohol can potentially harm inter-racial interactions, even when no beverage is consumed. PMID:22798699

  7. Cernuc: A program for automatic high-resolution radioelemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, V.; Terrasi, F.; Moro, R.; Sorrentino, G.

    1981-04-01

    A computer program capable of qualitative and quantitative radioelemental analysis with high accuracy, a high degree of automatism and great ease in utilization, is presented. It has been produced to be used for Ge(Li) gammay-ray spectroscopy and can be used for X-ray spectroscopy as well. This program provides automatic searching and fitting of peaks, energy and intensity determination, identification and calculation of activities of the radioisotopes present in the sample. The last step is carried out by using a radionuclides library. The problem of a gamma line being assigned to more than one nuclide, is solved by searching the least-squares solution of a set of equations for the activities of the isotopes. Two versions of this program have been written to be run batchwise on a medium sized computer (UNIVAC 1106) and interactively on a small computer (HP 2100A).

  8. Automatic generation of fuzzy inference systems via unsupervised learning.

    PubMed

    Er, Meng Joo; Zhou, Yi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a novel approach termed Enhanced Dynamic Self-Generated Fuzzy Q-Learning (EDSGFQL) for automatically generating Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs) is presented. In the EDSGFQL approach, structure identification and parameter estimations of FISs are achieved via Unsupervised Learning (UL) (including Reinforcement Learning (RL)). Instead of using Supervised Learning (SL), UL clustering methods are adopted for input space clustering when generating FISs. At the same time, structure and preconditioning parts of a FIS are generated in a RL manner in that fuzzy rules are adjusted and deleted according to reinforcement signals. The proposed EDSGFQL methodologies can automatically create, delete and adjust fuzzy rules dynamically. Simulation studies on wall-following and obstacle avoidance tasks by a mobile robot show that the proposed approach is superior in generating efficient FISs. PMID:18653313

  9. Automatic classification of blank substrate defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettiger, Tom; Buck, Peter; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Ronald, Rob; Rost, Dan; Samir, Bhamidipati

    2014-10-01

    Mask preparation stages are crucial in mask manufacturing, since this mask is to later act as a template for considerable number of dies on wafer. Defects on the initial blank substrate, and subsequent cleaned and coated substrates, can have a profound impact on the usability of the finished mask. This emphasizes the need for early and accurate identification of blank substrate defects and the risk they pose to the patterned reticle. While Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) is a well-developed technology for inspection and analysis of defects on patterned wafers and masks in the semiconductors industry, ADC for mask blanks is still in the early stages of adoption and development. Calibre ADC is a powerful analysis tool for fast, accurate, consistent and automatic classification of defects on mask blanks. Accurate, automated classification of mask blanks leads to better usability of blanks by enabling defect avoidance technologies during mask writing. Detailed information on blank defects can help to select appropriate job-decks to be written on the mask by defect avoidance tools [1][4][5]. Smart algorithms separate critical defects from the potentially large number of non-critical defects or false defects detected at various stages during mask blank preparation. Mechanisms used by Calibre ADC to identify and characterize defects include defect location and size, signal polarity (dark, bright) in both transmitted and reflected review images, distinguishing defect signals from background noise in defect images. The Calibre ADC engine then uses a decision tree to translate this information into a defect classification code. Using this automated process improves classification accuracy, repeatability and speed, while avoiding the subjectivity of human judgment compared to the alternative of manual defect classification by trained personnel [2]. This paper focuses on the results from the evaluation of Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) product at MP Mask

  10. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Ge, Wei-Long

    2011-11-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  11. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  12. Automatic 35 mm slide duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, H. F.; Texler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic duplicator is readily assembled from conventional, inexpensive equipment and parts. Series of slides can be exposed without operator attention, eliminating considerable manual handling and processing ordinarily required. At end of programmed exposure sequence, unit shuts off and audible alarm signals completion of process.

  13. Automatic Association of News Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  14. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  15. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  16. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  17. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  18. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  19. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  20. Automatically Extracting Information Needs from Complex Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yong-gang; Cimino, James J; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective Clinicians pose complex clinical questions when seeing patients, and identifying the answers to those questions in a timely manner helps improve the quality of patient care. We report here on two natural language processing models, namely, automatic topic assignment and keyword identification, that together automatically and effectively extract information needs from ad hoc clinical questions. Our study is motivated in the context of developing the larger clinical question answering system AskHERMES (Help clinicians to Extract and aRrticulate Multimedia information for answering clinical quEstionS). Design and Measurements We developed supervised machine-learning systems to automatically assign predefined general categories (e.g., etiology, procedure, and diagnosis) to a question. We also explored both supervised and unsupervised systems to automatically identify keywords that capture the main content of the question. Results We evaluated our systems on 4,654 annotated clinical questions that were collected in practice. We achieved an F1 score of 76.0% for the task of general topic classification and 58.0% for keyword extraction. Our systems have been implemented into the larger question answering system AskHERMES. Our error analyses suggested that inconsistent annotation in our training data have hurt both question analysis tasks. Conclusion Our systems, available at http://www.askhermes.org, can automatically extract information needs from both short (the number of word tokens <20) and long questions (the number of word tokens >20), and from both well-structured and ill-formed questions. We speculate that the performance of general topic classification and keyword extraction can be further improved if consistently annotated data are made available. PMID:20670693

  1. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  2. Technologies on the Horizon for Product Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry Fred, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Configuration management. Component/system to report. Unique item identifier (UID). Aftemarket undocumented configuration change. Revolutionary new brake system. Traceability of critical parts. Automatic identification used at many levels. Product ID problems that inhibited traceability. Direct part marking enables life cycle tracking.

  3. Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, J.; Ferencz, C.; BodnáR, L.; Hamar, D.; Steinbach, P.

    2008-12-01

    A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results obtained by the automatic detector segment. The detector algorithm is based on image correlation where the target image is a preprocessed spectrogram of raw VLF signals and the pattern is a model whistler. The first AWDA system has been working in Tihany, Hungary (L = 1.8), and has collected 100,000 whistler traces per year. The overall detection efficiency using a parameter set optimized for purpose 2 is 90% for misdetection and 50-80% for false detection. The statistical analysis over the period February 2002 to February 2008 including 600,000 whistler traces shows high diurnal variations; whistler were mainly, but not only, detected when both the source and receiver regions were unlit. The seasonal occurrence is high during austral summer and low during austral winter. Comparison with Tarcsai et al.'s (1988) statistical study on Tihany whistlers shows differences in both diurnal and seasonal variations, but the latter study was made on 1388 manually identified whistlers only. The L value distributions of both data sets are similar. A global network of AWDA systems (AWDAnet) has been set up to overcome the time and space limitations of a single station; the network consists of 13 nodes, and another 6 are envisaged for the near future.

  4. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  5. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  6. Automatically Determining Scale Within Unstructured Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadamen, Jayren; Sithole, George

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional models obtained from imagery have an arbitrary scale and therefore have to be scaled. Automatically scaling these models requires the detection of objects in these models which can be computationally intensive. Real-time object detection may pose problems for applications such as indoor navigation. This investigation poses the idea that relational cues, specifically height ratios, within indoor environments may offer an easier means to obtain scales for models created using imagery. The investigation aimed to show two things, (a) that the size of objects, especially the height off ground is consistent within an environment, and (b) that based on this consistency, objects can be identified and their general size used to scale a model. To test the idea a hypothesis is first tested on a terrestrial lidar scan of an indoor environment. Later as a proof of concept the same test is applied to a model created using imagery. The most notable finding was that the detection of objects can be more readily done by studying the ratio between the dimensions of objects that have their dimensions defined by human physiology. For example the dimensions of desks and chairs are related to the height of an average person. In the test, the difference between generalised and actual dimensions of objects were assessed. A maximum difference of 3.96% (2.93cm) was observed from automated scaling. By analysing the ratio between the heights (distance from the floor) of the tops of objects in a room, identification was also achieved.

  7. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

  8. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  9. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  10. AUTO: Automatic script generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granacki, John; Hom, Ivan; Kazi, Tauseef

    1993-11-01

    This technical manual describes an automatic script generation system (Auto) for guiding the physical design of a printed circuit board. Auto accepts a printed circuit board design as specified in a netlist and partslist and returns a script to automatically provide all the necessary commands and file specifications required by Harris EDA's Finesse CAD system for placing and routing the printed circuit board. Auto insulates the designer from learning the details of commercial CAD systems, allows designers to modify the script for customized design entry, and performs format and completeness checking of the design files. This technical manual contains a complete tutorial/design example describing how to use the Auto system and also contains appendices describing the format of files required by the Finesse CAD system.

  11. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  12. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  13. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  14. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  15. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  16. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  17. Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

  18. Automatic Synthesis Imaging with Difmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Shepherd, M. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Myers, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    Difmap is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, self-calibration, imaging, deconvolution, and model-fitting. The program can handle continuum, spectral-line, and polarization data from connected-element and very-long-baseline interferometer arrays. The program is written in ANSI C and runs on UNIX workstations. We describe the operation of the program with example data sets from the Very Large Array, the global VLBI network, and the Owens Valley Millimeter Array. We have developed Difmap scripts for automatic mapping and self-calibration of both VLA and VLBI data. We describe the strategies adopted for choosing the imaging, deconvolution, and self-calibration parameters, and show how these automatic scripts have made possible the rapid imaging of several hundred sources in the Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys (CJ1 and CJ2) and several thousand sources in a VLA search for gravitational lenses (CLASS). Other images made with automatic mapping in Difmap are presented at this meeting by Fassnacht et al., Myers et al., and Taylor et al.

  19. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  20. Automatic hypermnesia and impaired recollection in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Linscott, R J; Knight, R G

    2001-10-01

    Evidence from studies of nonmnemonic automatic cognitive processes provides reason to expect that schizophrenia is associated with exaggerated automatic memory (implicit memory), or automatic hypermnesia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 22) and control participants (n = 26) were compared on word stem completion (WSC) and list discrimination (LD) tasks administered using the process dissociation procedure. Unadjusted, extended measurement model and dual-process signal-detection methods were used to estimate recollection and automatic memory indices. Schizophrenia was associated with automatic hypermnesia on the WSC task and impaired recollection on both tasks. Thought disorder was associated with even greater automatic hypermnesia. The absence of automatic hypermnesia on the LD task was interpreted with reference to the neuropsychological bases of context and content memory. PMID:11761047

  1. Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lowery, B S; Hardin, C D; Sinclair, S

    2001-11-01

    Although most research on the control of automatic prejudice has focused on the efficacy of deliberate attempts to suppress or correct for stereotyping, the reported experiments tested the hypothesis that automatic racial prejudice is subject to common social influence. In experiments involving actual interethnic contact, both tacit and expressed social influence reduced the expression of automatic prejudice, as assessed by two different measures of automatic attitudes. Moreover, the automatic social tuning effect depended on participant ethnicity. European Americans (but not Asian Americans) exhibited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to avoid prejudice (Experiment 3). Results are consistent with shared reality theory, which postulates that social regulation is central to social cognition. PMID:11708561

  2. A Review on Automatic Mammographic Density and Parenchymal Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenda; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R. E.; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. However, the exact cause(s) of breast cancer still remains unknown. Early detection, precise identification of women at risk, and application of appropriate disease prevention measures are by far the most effective way to tackle breast cancer. There are more than 70 common genetic susceptibility factors included in the current non-image-based risk prediction models (e.g., the Gail and the Tyrer-Cuzick models). Image-based risk factors, such as mammographic densities and parenchymal patterns, have been established as biomarkers but have not been fully incorporated in the risk prediction models used for risk stratification in screening and/or measuring responsiveness to preventive approaches. Within computer aided mammography, automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methods have been developed for estimation of breast tissue composition to facilitate mammographic risk assessment. This paper presents a comprehensive review of automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methodologies developed over the past two decades and the evidence for risk assessment/density classification using segmentation. The aim of this review is to analyse how engineering advances have progressed and the impact automatic mammographic tissue segmentation has in a clinical environment, as well as to understand the current research gaps with respect to the incorporation of image-based risk factors in non-image-based risk prediction models. PMID:26171249

  3. Neural networks: Alternatives to conventional techniques for automatic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Bradley L.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic docking of orbiting spacecraft is a crucial operation involving the identification of vehicle orientation as well as complex approach dynamics. The chaser spacecraft must be able to recognize the target spacecraft within a scene and achieve accurate closing maneuvers. In a video-based system, a target scene must be captured and transformed into a pattern of pixels. Successful recognition lies in the interpretation of this pattern. Due to their powerful pattern recognition capabilities, artificial neural networks offer a potential role in interpretation and automatic docking processes. Neural networks can reduce the computational time required by existing image processing and control software. In addition, neural networks are capable of recognizing and adapting to changes in their dynamic environment, enabling enhanced performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance. Most neural networks are robust to failure, capable of continued operation with a slight degradation in performance after minor failures. This paper discusses the particular automatic docking tasks neural networks can perform as viable alternatives to conventional techniques.

  4. Automatic registration and mosaicking system for remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Dmitry V.; Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Kenney, Charles; Manjunath, Bangalore S.

    2003-03-01

    Image registration is an important operation in remote sensing applications that basically involves the identification of many control points in the images. As the manual identification of control points may be time-consuming and tedious several automatic techniques have been developed. This paper describes a system for automatic registration and mosaic of remote sensing images under development at the Division of Image Processing (National Institute for Space Research - INPE) and the Vision Lab (Electrical & Computer Engineering department, UCSB). Three registration algorithms, which showed potential for multisensor or temporal image registration, have been implemented. The system is designed to accept different types of data and information provided by the user which speed up the processing or avoid mismatched control points. Based on a statistical procedure used to characterize good and bad registration, the user can stop or modify the parameters and continue the processing. Extensive algorithm tests have been performed by registering optical, radar, multi-sensor, high-resolution images and video sequences. Furthermore, the system has been tested by remote sensing experts at INPE using full scene Landsat, JERS-1, CBERS-1 and aerial images. An online demo system, which contains several examples that can be carried out using web browser, is available.

  5. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  6. Automatic assembly of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    A problem in the automatic assembly of space stations is the determination of guidance laws for the terminal rendezvous and docking of two structural components or modules. The problem involves the feedback control of both the relative attitude and translational motion of the modules. A suitable mathematical model based on rigid body dynamics was used. The basic requirements, physical constraints and difficulties associated with the control problem are discussed. An approach which bypasses some of the difficulties is proposed. A nonlinear guidance law satisfying the basic requirements is derived. The implementation requirements is discussed. The performance of the resulting feedback control system with rigid and flexible structural components is studied by computer simulation.

  7. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  8. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  9. An automatic assembly planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lee, C. S. G.

    An automatic assembly planning system which takes the CAD description of a product as input and automatically generates an assembly plan subject to the resource constraint of a given assembly cell is presented. The system improves the flexibility and productivity of flexible manufacturing systems and is composed of five modules: world database, simulated world model, knowledge acquisition mechanism, planning knowledge base, and assembly planner. The acquired knowledge forms the planning knowledge base. The simulated world model keeps track of the current state of the assembly world. In the initial state, all the components are separated, while in the final state, all the components are assembled. The assembly planner is made up of a set of production rules which models the effects of real assembly tasks. By repeatedly applying these production rules to the simulated world state, the planner transforms the initial state into the final state. The set of rules applied during this transformation process forms the assembly plan to actually assemble the product in the given assembly cell. Examples are given to illustrate the concepts in these five modules.

  10. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  11. Automatic control of visual selection.

    PubMed

    Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks out to reduce the role of the homunculus, the 'little man in the head' that is still prominent in most psychological theories regarding the control our behaviour. We argue that once engaged in a task (which is a volitional act), visual selection run off more or less in an automatic fashion. We argue that the salience map that drives automatic selection is not only determined by raw physical salience of the objects in the environment but also by the way these objects appear to the person. We provide evidence that priming (feature priming, priming by working memory and reward priming) sharpens the cortical representation of these objects such that these objects appear to be more salient above and beyond their physical salience. We demonstrate that this type of priming is not under volitional control: it occurs even if observers try to volitionally prepare for something else. In other words, looking at red prepares our brain for things that are red even if we volitionally try to prepare for green. PMID:23437629

  12. Development of an automatic follicle isolation tool for ovarian ultrasonographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarty, Gordon E.; Sonka, Milan; Liang, Weidong; Pierson, Roger A.

    1997-04-01

    PURPOSE: To develop an automatic computer algorithm for isolating the follicles in ovarian ultrasonographic images. METHODS: A semi-automatic algorithm has been developed as the first step in the development of a totally automatic follicle isolation tool for use with ovarian ultrasonographic imaging. The algorithm is knowledge-based and depends upon the use of a priori information about the structure of the follicle. Graph searching techniques are used along with a method of assigning graph node costs that represent edge information combined with the a priori knowledge.Interactive identification of the follicle of interest is followed by, in some cases, a manual editing of an automatically defined interior boundary. After the interior boundary has been defined, the outer follicle wall border is found without further human intervention. RESULTS: Based on a test with 31 ultrasonographic images of women's ovaries made in vivo, the algorithm is able to locate the outer follicle wall to an rms accuracy of 0.59 mm +/- 0.28 mm in comparison with human expert manual boundary tracing. BREAKTHROUGHS: The isolation of ovarian follicles in ultrasonographic imaging has heretofore only been accomplished by manual tracing. Our semi-automated follicle border finding algorithm is, to the best of our knowledge, the first computerized method capable of finding the outer wall boundary of the follicle. CONCLUSIONS: The success of our semi-automatic follicle isolation algorithm clearly demonstrates the feasibility of a totally automatic tool that should have wide application in ultrasonographic studies of ovarian follicular dynamics.

  13. Emphasis: Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Roger

    A potential program for dealing with the identification of kindergarteners with potential learning disabilities is discussed. The subject is dealt with on the level of prediction. It is pointed out that as children learn in different ways, different methods of educating them must be devised. Early identification of disabilities lessens the chances…

  14. Method for Automated Monitoring of Hand Hygiene Adherence without Radio-Frequency Identification

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Philip M.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Severson, Monica A.; Segre, Alberto M.; Herman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts to automatically measure hand hygiene activity depend on radio-frequency identification equipment or similar technology that can be expensive to install. We have developed a method for automatically tracking the use of hand hygiene dispensers before healthcare workers enter (or after they exit) patient rooms that is easily and quickly deployed without permanent hardware. PMID:20973724

  15. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  16. Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

  17. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  18. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  19. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  20. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  1. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  2. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  3. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  4. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  5. Automatic tools for system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    As spacecraft control and other space-related ground systems become increasingly complex, the effort required in testing and validation also increases. Implementation of a spacecraft control system normally involves a number of incremental deliveries. In addition kernel or general purpose software may also be involved, which must itself be considered in the integration and testing program. Tools can be used to assist this testing. These can reduce the effort required or alternatively they can ensure that for a given level of effort, a better job is done. Great benefit could be derived by automating certain types of testing (interactive software) which up to now has been performed manually at a terminal. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study examines means of automating spacecraft control system testing, evaluates relevant commercial tools and aims to prototype basic automatic testing functions.

  6. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  7. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  8. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  9. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  10. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  11. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  12. Automatic AVHRR image navigation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Dan; Emery, William

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report describing the work done on the project entitled Automatic AVHRR Image Navigation Software funded through NASA-Washington, award NAGW-3224, Account 153-7529. At the onset of this project, we had developed image navigation software capable of producing geo-registered images from AVHRR data. The registrations were highly accurate but required a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's axes alignment deviations, commonly known as attitude. The three angles needed to describe the attitude are called roll, pitch, and yaw, and are the components of the deviations in the along scan, along track and about center directions. The inclusion of the attitude corrections in the navigation software results in highly accurate georegistrations, however, the computation of the angles is very tedious and involves human interpretation for several steps. The technique also requires easily identifiable ground features which may not be available due to cloud cover or for ocean data. The current project was motivated by the need for a navigation system which was automatic and did not require human intervention or ground control points. The first step in creating such a system must be the ability to parameterize the spacecraft's attitude. The immediate goal of this project was to study the attitude fluctuations and determine if they displayed any systematic behavior which could be modeled or parameterized. We chose a period in 1991-1992 to study the attitude of the NOAA 11 spacecraft using data from the Tiros receiving station at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamic Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado.

  13. Feature identification and location experiment.

    PubMed

    Sivertson, W E; Wilson, R G; Bullock, G F; Schappell, R T

    1982-12-01

    The feature identification and location experiment (FILE) senses radiation from the earth in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 micrometers and compares ratios of the reflected solar radiation in the two wavelengths to make real-time classification decisions about four primary features: water, vegetation, bare land, and a cloud-snow-ice class. The radiance ratio classification algorithm successfully made automatic data-selection decisions. The classification image obtained on the mission is providing information needed to evaluate the FILE algorithm and system performance. PMID:17790593

  14. Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

  15. An automatic contact algorithm in DYNA3D for impact problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-07-23

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit nonlinear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. Key aspects of the proposed new method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without a ad-hoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  16. A magnetic resonance image based atlas of the rabbit brain for automatic parcellation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batalle, Dafnis; Soria, Guadalupe; Illa, Miriam; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit brain has been used in several works for the analysis of neurodevelopment. However, there are not specific digital rabbit brain atlases that allow an automatic identification of brain regions, which is a crucial step for various neuroimage analyses, and, instead, manual delineation of areas of interest must be performed in order to evaluate a specific structure. For this reason, we propose an atlas of the rabbit brain based on magnetic resonance imaging, including both structural and diffusion weighted, that can be used for the automatic parcellation of the rabbit brain. Ten individual atlases, as well as an average template and probabilistic maps of the anatomical regions were built. In addition, an example of automatic segmentation based on this atlas is described. PMID:23844007

  17. Automatic Keyword Identification by Artificial Neural Networks Compared to Manual Identification by Users of Filtering Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Zvi; Kuflik, Tsvi; Shoval, Peretz; Shapira, Bracha

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information filtering (IF) and information retrieval focuses on the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as an alternative method for both IF and term selection and compares its effectiveness to that of traditional methods. Results show that the ANN relevance prediction out-performs the prediction of an IF system. (Author/LRW)

  18. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  19. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  20. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  1. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  2. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification....

  3. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification....

  4. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  5. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  6. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  7. The Automaticity of Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Junge, Justin; Scholl, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time, and recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have suggested that this information can be automatically extracted by the visual system. The experiments reported in this article explore the automaticity of VSL in…

  8. Towards an intelligent system for the automatic assignment of domains in globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, M J; Hegyi, H; Islam, S A; Luo, J; Russell, R B

    1995-01-01

    The automatic identification of protein domains from coordinates is the first step in the classification of protein folds and hence is required for databases to guide structure prediction. Most algorithms encode a single concept based and sometimes do not yield assignments that are consistent with the generally accepted perception. Our development of an automatic approach to identify reliably domains from protein coordinates is described. The algorithm is benchmarked against a manual identification of the domains in 284 representative protein chains. The first step is the domain assignment by distance (DAD) algorithm that considers the density of inter-residue contacts represented in a contact matrix. The algorithm yields 85% agreement with the manual assignment. The paper then considers how the reliability of these assignments could be evaluated. Finally the use of structural comparisons using the STAMP algorithm to validate domain assignment is reported on a test case. PMID:7584461

  9. 75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The Coast... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic Identification System AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy and request for...

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON, TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960 AND 6060 (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL SPECIFICATION DATA, (2) OPTIONS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS, (3) ROAD TEST INSTRUCTIONS, (4) IDENTIFICATION AND SPECIFICATION DATA, (5) ALLISON…

  11. Automated Drug Identification for Urban Hospitals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, Donna L.

    1971-01-01

    Many urban hospitals are becoming overloaded with drug abuse cases requiring chemical analysis for identification of drugs. In this paper, the requirements for chemical analysis of body fluids for drugs are determined and a system model for automated drug analysis is selected. The system as modeled, would perform chemical preparation of samples, gas-liquid chromatographic separation of drugs in the chemically prepared samples, infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the drugs, and would utilize automatic data processing and control for drug identification. Requirements of cost, maintainability, reliability, flexibility, and operability are considered.

  12. Automatic Structures — Recent Results and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Regular languages are languages recognised by finite automata; automatic structures are a generalisation of regular languages where one also uses automatic relations (which are relations recognised by synchronous finite automata) and automatic functions (which are functions whose graph is an automatic relation). Functions and relations first-order definable from other automatic functions and relations are again automatic. Automatic functions coincide with the functions computed by position-faithful one-tape Turing machines in linear time. This survey addresses recent results and open questions on topics related to automatic structures: How difficult is the isomorphism problem for various types of automatic structures? Which groups are automatic? When are automatic groups Abelian or orderable? How can one overcome some of the limitations to represent rings and fields by weakening the automaticity requirements of a structure?

  13. Automatic method of pause measurement for normal and dysarthric speech.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-02-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of approximately 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the intensity contour and fit with bimodal lognormal distributions using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm in Matlab. In the speakers with FRDA, both modes in the pause distributions had significantly larger means, with disproportionately fewer pauses associated with the first mode. From this preliminary study, it is concluded that distributional analysis of pause duration holds promise as a useful method of measuring the effects of FRDA on functional speech. PMID:20100043

  14. Evolutionary synthesis of automatic classification on astroinformatic big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojecky, Lumir; Zelinka, Ivan; Saloun, Petr

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the initial experiments using a new approach to automatic identification of Be and B[e] stars spectra in large archives. With enormous amount of these data it is no longer feasible to analyze it using classical approaches. We introduce an evolutionary synthesis of the classification by means of analytic programming, one of methods of symbolic regression. By this method, we synthesize the most suitable mathematical formulas that approximate chosen samples of the stellar spectra. As a result is then selected the category whose formula has the lowest difference compared to the particular spectrum. The results show us that classification of stellar spectra by means of analytic programming is able to identify different shapes of the spectra.

  15. Automatic detection of spermatozoa for laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Hoofstat, David; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2009-03-01

    In sexual assault crimes, differential extraction of spermatozoa from vaginal swab smears is often ineffective, especially when only a few spermatozoa are present in an overwhelming amount of epithelial cells. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables the precise separation of spermatozoa and epithelial cells. However, standard sperm-staining techniques are non-specific and rely on sperm morphology for identification. Moreover, manual screening of the microscope slides is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we describe an automated screening method to detect spermatozoa stained with Sperm HY-LITER. Different ratios of spermatozoa and epithelial cells were used to assess the automatic detection method. In addition, real postcoital samples were also screened. Detected spermatozoa were isolated using LCM and DNA analysis was performed. Robust DNA profiles without allelic dropout could be obtained from as little as 30 spermatozoa recovered from postcoital samples, showing that the staining had no significant influence on DNA recovery. PMID:18661142

  16. Standardisation of temperature observed by automatic weather stations.

    PubMed

    Joyce, A; Adamson, J; Huntley, B; Parr, T; Baxter, R

    2001-05-01

    Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface air temperature data were gathered from a network of automatic weather stations (AWS) within the Moor House National Nature Reserve in northern England. Five AWS were installed next to the official Environmental Change Network weather station at Moor House. Data were compared graphically and correction constants were calculated to adjust data from each AWS to the standard of the official station by optimising the concordance correlation coefficient. Each corrected station was re-located next to one of five in-situ stations in and around the reserve, allowing correction of all temperature sensors to a common standard. The mean error associated with measured daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature for each sensor does not exceed +/- 0.2 K. The procedure quantifies a source of systematic measurement error, improving the identification of spatial temperature differences between stations. PMID:11411140

  17. Automatic generation of warehouse mediators using an ontology engine

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Data warehouses created for dynamic scientific environments, such as genetics, face significant challenges to their long-term feasibility One of the most significant of these is the high frequency of schema evolution resulting from both technological advances and scientific insight Failure to quickly incorporate these modifications will quickly render the warehouse obsolete, yet each evolution requires significant effort to ensure the changes are correctly propagated DataFoundry utilizes a mediated warehouse architecture with an ontology infrastructure to reduce the maintenance acquirements of a warehouse. Among the things, the ontology is used as an information source for automatically generating mediators, the methods that transfer data between the data sources and the warehouse The identification, definition and representation of the metadata required to perform this task is a primary contribution of this work.

  18. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  19. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

  20. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  1. Towards accurate and automatic morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Sharkey, Paul M.

    2005-10-01

    Image morphing has proved to be a powerful tool for generating compelling and pleasing visual effects and has been widely used in entertainment industry. However, traditional image morphing methods suffer from a number of drawbacks: feature specification between images is tedious and the reliance on 2D information ignores the possible advantages to be gained from 3D knowledge. In this paper, we utilize recent advantages of computer vision technologies to diminish these drawbacks. By analyzing multi view geometry theories, we propose a processing pipeline based on three reference images. We first seek a few seed correspondences using robust methods and then recover multi view geometries using the seeds, through bundle adjustment. Guided by the recovered two and three view geometries, a novel line matching algorithm across three views is then deduced, through edge growth, line fitting and two and three view geometry constraints. Corresponding lines on a novel image is then obtained by an image transfer method and finally matched lines are fed into the traditional morphing methods and novel images are generated. Novel images generated by this pipeline have advantages over traditional morphing methods: they have an inherent 3D foundation and are therefore physically close to real scenes; not only images located between the baseline connecting two reference image centers, but also extrapolated images away from the baseline are possible; and the whole processing can be either wholly automatic, or at least the tedious task of feature specification in traditional morphing methods can be greatly relieved.

  2. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  3. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  4. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    PubMed

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25671503

  5. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  6. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  7. Automatic alignment of infrared video frames for equipment leak detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Yousheng

    2007-02-12

    Petroleum refining and petrochemical industries start using infrared (IR) cameras to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) leaking out of process equipment. However, further quantitative processing of these video image data or automatic recognition of VOC plumes are hindered by unaligned video frames owing to the slight vibrations of the camera. An automatic method is developed to align the IR video frames as a preprocessing procedure for other possible video processing methods. The alignment method is based on a two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform. The accuracy can reach fractional pixels in estimation of translational shift and 1-2 degrees for rotational shift. Temporal Fourier transform of actual industrial tests of IR videos is performed with both unaligned and aligned video frames. The results indicate that only after the alignment of the video frames, the camera motion interferences on VOC plume identification can be eliminated or minimized, and the VOC plume can be identified through investigating the characteristic flickering frequency power in the temporal Fourier transform. This alignment method provides a useful tool for IR or other optical video image data preprocessing purposes. PMID:17386608

  8. Automatic molecular structure perception for the universal force field.

    PubMed

    Artemova, Svetlana; Jaillet, Léonard; Redon, Stephane

    2016-05-15

    The Universal Force Field (UFF) is a classical force field applicable to almost all atom types of the periodic table. Such a flexibility makes this force field a potential good candidate for simulations involving a large spectrum of systems and, indeed, UFF has been applied to various families of molecules. Unfortunately, initializing UFF, that is, performing molecular structure perception to determine which parameters should be used to compute the UFF energy and forces, appears to be a difficult problem. Although many perception methods exist, they mostly focus on organic molecules, and are thus not well-adapted to the diversity of systems potentially considered with UFF. In this article, we propose an automatic perception method for initializing UFF that includes the identification of the system's connectivity, the assignment of bond orders as well as UFF atom types. This perception scheme is proposed as a self-contained UFF implementation integrated in a new module for the SAMSON software platform for computational nanoscience (http://www.samson-connect.net). We validate both the automatic perception method and the UFF implementation on a series of benchmarks. PMID:26927616

  9. An automatic and effective tooth isolation method for dental radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.-L.; Huang, P.-W.; Cho, Y. S.; Kuo, C.-H.

    2013-03-01

    Tooth isolation is a very important step for both computer-aided dental diagnosis and automatic dental identification systems, because it will directly affect the accuracy of feature extraction and, thereby, the final results of both types of systems. This paper presents an effective and fully automatic tooth isolation method for dental X-ray images, which contains up-per-lower jaw separation, single tooth isolation, over-segmentation verification, and under-segmentation detection. The upper-lower jaw separation mechanism is based on a gray-scale integral projection to avoid possible information loss and incorporates with the angle adjustment to handle skewed images. In a single tooth isolation, an adaptive windowing scheme for locating gap valleys is proposed to improve the accuracy. In over-segmentation, an isolation-curve verification scheme is proposed to remove excessive curves; and in under-segmentation, a missing-teeth detection scheme is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves the accuracy rates of 95.63% and 98.71% for the upper and lower jaw images, respectively, from the test database of 60 bitewing dental radiographs, and performs better for images with severe teeth occlusion, excessive dental works, and uneven illumination than that of Nomir and Abdel-Mottaleb's method. The method without upper-lower jaw separation step also works well for panoramic and periapical images.

  10. Automatic polar ice thickness estimation from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Yari, Masoud; Fox, Geoffrey C.

    2016-05-01

    Global warming has caused serious damage to our environment in recent years. Accelerated loss of ice from Greenland and Antarctica has been observed in recent decades. The melting of polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers has a considerable influence on sea level rise and altering ocean currents, potentially leading to the flooding of the coastal regions and putting millions of people around the world at risk. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are able to provide relevant information about subsurface structure of polar ice sheets. Manual layer identification is prohibitively tedious and expensive and is not practical for regular, longterm ice-sheet monitoring. Automatic layer finding in noisy radar images is quite challenging due to huge amount of noise, limited resolution and variations in ice layers and bedrock. Here we propose an approach which automatically detects ice surface and bedrock boundaries using distance regularized level set evolution. In this approach the complex topology of ice and bedrock boundary layers can be detected simultaneously by evolving an initial curve in radar imagery. Using a distance regularized term, the regularity of the level set function is intrinsically maintained that solves the reinitialization issues arising from conventional level set approaches. The results are evaluated on a large dataset of airborne radar imagery collected during IceBridge mission over Antarctica and Greenland and show promising results in respect to hand-labeled ground truth.

  11. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  12. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  13. Automatic evaluation of progression angle and fetal head station through intrapartum echographic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Soloperto, Giulia; Perrone, Emanuele; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Perrone, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Labor progression is routinely assessed through transvaginal digital inspections, meaning that the clinical decisions taken during the most delicate phase of pregnancy are subjective and scarcely supported by technological devices. In response to such inadequacies, we combined intrapartum echographic acquisitions with advanced tracking algorithms in a new method for noninvasive, quantitative, and automatic monitoring of labor. Aim of this work is the preliminary clinical validation and accuracy evaluation of our automatic algorithm in assessing progression angle (PA) and fetal head station (FHS). A cohort of 10 parturients underwent conventional labor management, with additional translabial echographic examinations after each uterine contraction. PA and FHS were evaluated by our automatic algorithm on the acquired images. Additionally, an experienced clinical sonographer, blinded regarding the algorithm results, quantified on the same acquisitions of the two parameters through manual contouring, which were considered as the standard reference in the evaluation of automatic algorithm and routine method accuracies. The automatic algorithm (mean error ± 2SD) provided a global accuracy of 0.9 ± 4.0 mm for FHS and 4° ± 9° for PA, which is far above the diagnostic ability shown by the routine method, and therefore it resulted in a reliable method for earlier identification of abnormal labor patterns in support of clinical decisions. PMID:24106524

  14. Automatic Evaluation of Progression Angle and Fetal Head Station through Intrapartum Echographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Perrone, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Labor progression is routinely assessed through transvaginal digital inspections, meaning that the clinical decisions taken during the most delicate phase of pregnancy are subjective and scarcely supported by technological devices. In response to such inadequacies, we combined intrapartum echographic acquisitions with advanced tracking algorithms in a new method for noninvasive, quantitative, and automatic monitoring of labor. Aim of this work is the preliminary clinical validation and accuracy evaluation of our automatic algorithm in assessing progression angle (PA) and fetal head station (FHS). A cohort of 10 parturients underwent conventional labor management, with additional translabial echographic examinations after each uterine contraction. PA and FHS were evaluated by our automatic algorithm on the acquired images. Additionally, an experienced clinical sonographer, blinded regarding the algorithm results, quantified on the same acquisitions of the two parameters through manual contouring, which were considered as the standard reference in the evaluation of automatic algorithm and routine method accuracies. The automatic algorithm (mean error ± 2SD) provided a global accuracy of 0.9 ± 4.0 mm for FHS and 4° ± 9° for PA, which is far above the diagnostic ability shown by the routine method, and therefore it resulted in a reliable method for earlier identification of abnormal labor patterns in support of clinical decisions. PMID:24106524

  15. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  16. On the implementation of automatic differentiation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C. H.; Hovland, P. D.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Aachen Univ. of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Automatic differentiation is a semantic transformation that applies the rules of differential calculus to source code. It thus transforms a computer program that computes a mathematical function into a program that computes the function and its derivatives. Derivatives play an important role in a wide variety of scientific computing applications, including numerical optimization, solution of nonlinear equations, sensitivity analysis, and nonlinear inverse problems. We describe the forward and reverse modes of automatic differentiation and provide a survey of implementation strategies. We describe some of the challenges in the implementation of automatic differentiation tools, with a focus on tools based on source transformation. We conclude with an overview of current research and future opportunities.

  17. Automatic Behavior Pattern Classification for Social Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Abraham; Bellas, Francisco; Caamaño, Pilar; Duro, Richard J.

    In this paper, we focus our attention on providing robots with a system that allows them to automatically detect behavior patterns in other robots, as a first step to introducing social responsive robots. The system is called ANPAC (Automatic Neural-based Pattern Classification). Its main feature is that ANPAC automatically adjusts the optimal processing window size and obtains the appropriate features through a dimensional transformation process that allow for the classification of behavioral patterns of large groups of entities from perception datasets. Here we present the basic elements and operation of ANPAC, and illustrate its applicability through the detection of behavior patterns in the motion of flocks.

  18. Laser Scanner For Automatic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Correia, Bento A.; Rebordao, Jose M.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    The automated magazines are beeing used at industry more and more. One of the problems related with the automation of a Store House is the identification of the products envolved. Already used for stock management, the Bar Codes allows an easy way to identify one product. Applied to automated magazines, the bar codes allows a great variety of items in a small code. In order to be used by the national producers of automated magazines, a devoted laser scanner has been develloped. The Prototype uses an He-Ne laser whose beam scans a field angle of 75 degrees at 16 Hz. The scene reflectivity is transduced by a photodiode into an electrical signal, which is then binarized. This digital signal is the input of the decodifying program. The machine is able to see barcodes and to decode the information. A parallel interface allows the comunication with the central unit, which is responsible for the management of automated magazine.

  19. Automatic tuning of myoelectric prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bonivento, C; Davalli, A; Fantuzzi, C; Sacchetti, R; Terenzi, S

    1998-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a software package for the automatic tuning of myoelectric prostheses. The package core consists of Fuzzy Logic Expert Systems (FLES) that embody skilled operator heuristics in the tuning of prosthesis control parameters. The prosthesis system is an artificial arm-hand system developed at the National Institute of Accidents at Work (INAIL) laboratories. The prosthesis is powered by an electric motor that is controlled by a microprocessor using myoelectric signals acquired from skin-surface electrodes placed on a muscle in the residual limb of the subject. The software package, Microprocessor Controlled Arm (MCA) Auto Tuning, is a tool for aiding both INAIL expert operators and unskilled persons in the controller parameter tuning procedure. Prosthesis control parameter setup and subsequent recurrent adjustments are fundamental for the correct working of the prosthesis, especially when we consider that myoelectric parameters may vary greatly with environmental modifications. The parameter adjustment requires the end-user to go to the manufacturer's laboratory for the control parameters setup because, generally, he/she does not have the necessary knowledge and instruments to do this at home. However, this procedure is not very practical and involves a waste of time for the technicians and uneasiness for the clients. The idea behind the MCA Auto Tuning package consists in translating technician expertise into an FLES knowledge database. The software interacts through a user-friendly graphic interface with an unskilled user, who is guided through a step-by-step procedure in the prosthesis parameter tuning that emulates the traditional expert-aided procedure. The adoption of this program on a large scale may yield considerable economic benefits and improve the service quality supplied to the users of prostheses. In fact, the time required to set the prosthesis parameters are remarkably reduced, as is the technician

  20. Automatic Recognition of Road Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

  1. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  2. System identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    Major issues in system identification are summarized and recent advances are reviewed. Modal testing and system identification used in control theory are examined, and the mathematical relationships and conversions of the models appropriate to modal testing and those appropriate to modern control design methods are discussed. The importance of obtaining input and output matrices in modal testing is emphasized, and the changes that may be needed in modal testing procedures to meet the needs of the control system designer are addressed. Directions for future research are considered.

  3. Automatic program timing profiles with FTN4

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.

    1980-09-01

    Design of a scheme for producing execution timing profiles of FORTRAN programs automatically is proposed with a recommendation to implement it as an option to the compiler. An experimental implementation on the LBL 7600 is also described. 1 figure.

  4. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  5. Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.

  6. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  7. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  8. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  9. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

  10. LIMESTONE SCRUBBER SLURRY AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report utilizes current understanding of limestone scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to develop an effort into the optimization of automatic control for the recirculating slurry processes. The acknowledged methods of mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and ...

  11. Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group Security Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Suzanne

    1987-09-01

    The ATRWG Security Committee participates in the development of Automatic Target Recognizers (ATRs) and image processing guidelines as related to TEMPEST requirements and policies set forth by the Department of Defense (DoD).

  12. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  13. Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.

  14. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  15. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2010-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the most important elements in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, an automatic design process using a genetic algorithm is presented. Some practical considerations are introduced in the optimization of the layout design of the module. This paper presents a process for automatic layout design for high power density modules. Detailed GA implementations are introduced both for outer loop and inner loop. As verified by a design example, the results of the automatic design process presented here are better than those from manual design and also better than the results from a popular design software. This automatic design procedure could be a major step toward improving the overall performance of future layout design.

  16. Automatic calibration system for pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Fifty-channel automatic pressure transducer calibration system increases quantity and accuracy for test evaluation calibration. The pressure transducers are installed in an environmental tests chamber and manifolded to connect them to a pressure balance which is uniform.

  17. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  18. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  19. On the automatic differentiation of computer programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is a methodology for developing sensitivity-enhanced versions of arbitrary computer programs. In this paper, we provide some background information on AD and address some frequently asked questions. We introduce the ADIFOR and ADIC tools for the automatic differentiation of Fortran 77 and ANSI-C programs, respectively, and give an example of applying ADIFOR in the context of the optimization of multibody systems.

  20. Identification of Polygonal Patterns on Venus Using Mathematical Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreels, P.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a detection and recognition model to fully automatize the identification of polygonal faults present in many of the Magellan SAR images. Our segmentation model is based on a modified watershed algorithm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supply, as defined in DoD 4140.1-R, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Regulation, AP1.1.11: (A... immediate, automatic, and accurate identification of any item in the supply chain of any company, in any..., organizational tool kits, hand tools, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. (C) Class...

  2. Genotypic Identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In comparison with traditional, phenotype-based procedures for detection and identification of foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, molecular techniques are superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and speed. This chapter provides a comprehensive review on the use of molecular methods for...

  3. Automatic detection of coronary stent struts in intravascular OCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Kai Pin; Shi, Wen Zhe; Pizarro, Luis; Tsujioka, Hiroto; Wang, Hai-Yan; Guerrero, Ricardo; De Silva, Ranil; Edwards, Philip E.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based, high resolution imaging technique to guide stent deployment procedure for stenosis. OCT can accurately differentiate the most superficial layers of the vessel wall as well as stent struts and the vascular tissue surrounding them. In this paper, we automatically detect the struts of coronary stents present in OCT sequences. We propose a novel method to detect the strut shadow zone and accurately segment and reconstruct the strut in 3D. The estimation of the position of the strut shadow zone is the key requirement which enables the strut segmentation. After identification of the shadow zone we use probability map to estimate stent strut positions. This method can be applied to cross-sectional OCT images to detect the struts. Validation is performed using simulated data as well as in four in-vivo OCT sequences and the accuracy of strut detection is over 90%. The comparison against manual expert segmentation demonstrates that the proposed strut identification is robust and accurate.

  4. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  5. Automatic defect classification using topography map from SEM photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serulnik, Sergio D.; Cohen, Jacob; Sherman, Boris; Ben-Porath, Ariel

    2004-04-01

    As the industry moves to smaller design rules, shrinking process windows and shorter product lifecycles, the need for enhanced yield management methodology is increasing. Defect classification is required for identification and isolation of yield loss sources. Practice demonstrates that an operator relies on 3D information heavily while classifying defects. Therefore, Defect Topographic Map (DTM) information can enhance Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) capabilities dramatically. In the present article, we describe the manner in which reliable and rapid SEM measurements of defect topography characteristics increase the classifier ability to achieve fast identification of the exact process step at which a given defect was introduced. Special multiple perspective SEM imaging allows efficient application of the photometric stereo methods. Physical properties of a defect can be derived from the 3D by using straightforward computer vision algorithms. We will show several examples, from both production fabs and R&D lines, of instances where the depth map is essential in correctly partitioning the defects, thus reducing time to source and overall fab expenses due to defect excursions.

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  15. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  16. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  17. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  18. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  19. Development of Identification System of cans And Bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yani, Irsyadi; Budiman, Ihsan

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this research was developed an integrated simulation model of an intelligent sorting system based on machine vision, which is focused on object detection, identification and automatic sorting system of cans and bottle. In this research we used 60 cans and 40 bottles for database with five direction of each sample (upper, bottom, diagonal left and right side). Performance of the identification system for correct cans and bottles are 91.33% with estimated amount of 21,600 items per hour. The success of the identification depends on the size and type of the objects.

  20. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function. PMID:24925772

  1. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE`s NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, {sup 131m}Xe(11.9 d), {sup 133m}Xe(2.19 d), {sup 133}Xe (5.24 d), and {sup 135}Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m{sup 3}/h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers.

  2. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  3. Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.

    PubMed

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

  4. Automatic query formulations in information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Salton, G; Buckley, C; Fox, E A

    1983-07-01

    Modern information retrieval systems are designed to supply relevant information in response to requests received from the user population. In most retrieval environments the search requests consist of keywords, or index terms, interrelated by appropriate Boolean operators. Since it is difficult for untrained users to generate effective Boolean search requests, trained search intermediaries are normally used to translate original statements of user need into useful Boolean search formulations. Methods are introduced in this study which reduce the role of the search intermediaries by making it possible to generate Boolean search formulations completely automatically from natural language statements provided by the system patrons. Frequency considerations are used automatically to generate appropriate term combinations as well as Boolean connectives relating the terms. Methods are covered to produce automatic query formulations both in a standard Boolean logic system, as well as in an extended Boolean system in which the strict interpretation of the connectives is relaxed. Experimental results are supplied to evaluate the effectiveness of the automatic query formulation process, and methods are described for applying the automatic query formulation process in practice. PMID:10299297

  5. On the malleability of automatic attitudes: combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, N; Greenwald, A G

    2001-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether exposure to pictures of admired and disliked exemplars can reduce automatic preference for White over Black Americans and younger over older people. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to either admired Black and disliked White individuals, disliked Black and admired White individuals, or nonracial exemplars. Immediately after exemplar exposure and 24 hr later, they completed an Implicit Association Test that assessed automatic racial attitudes and 2 explicit attitude measures. Results revealed that exposure to admired Black and disliked White exemplars significantly weakened automatic pro-White attitudes for 24 hr beyond the treatment but did not affect explicit racial attitudes. Experiment 2 provided a replication using automatic age-related attitudes. Together, these studies provide a strategy that attempts to change the social context and, through it, to reduce automatic prejudice and preference. PMID:11708558

  6. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  7. Identification of biomolecules by terahertz spectroscopy and fuzzy pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Mo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    An approach for automatic identification of terahertz (THz) spectra of biomolecules is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper, and THz transmittance spectra of some typical amino acid and saccharide biomolecular samples are investigated to prove its feasibility. Firstly, PCA is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the original spectrum data and extract features of the data. Secondly, instead of the original spectrum variables, the selected principal component scores matrix is fed into the model of fuzzy pattern recognition, where a principle of fuzzy closeness based optimization is employed to identify those samples. Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with PCA and fuzzy pattern recognition can be efficiently utilized for automatic identification of biomolecules. The proposed approach provides a new effective method in the detection and identification of biomolecules using THz spectroscopy.

  8. Identification of biomolecules by terahertz spectroscopy and fuzzy pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Mo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    An approach for automatic identification of terahertz (THz) spectra of biomolecules is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper, and THz transmittance spectra of some typical amino acid and saccharide biomolecular samples are investigated to prove its feasibility. Firstly, PCA is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the original spectrum data and extract features of the data. Secondly, instead of the original spectrum variables, the selected principal component scores matrix is fed into the model of fuzzy pattern recognition, where a principle of fuzzy closeness based optimization is employed to identify those samples. Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with PCA and fuzzy pattern recognition can be efficiently utilized for automatic identification of biomolecules. The proposed approach provides a new effective method in the detection and identification of biomolecules using THz spectroscopy. PMID:23357678

  9. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  10. Unsupervised Identification of Isotope-Labeled Peptides.

    PubMed

    Goldford, Joshua E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2016-06-01

    In vivo isotopic labeling coupled with high-resolution proteomics is used to investigate primary metabolism in techniques such as stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) and peptide-based metabolic flux analysis (PMFA). Isotopic enrichment of carbon substrates and intracellular metabolism determine the distribution of isotopes within amino acids. The resulting amino acid mass distributions (AMDs) are convoluted into peptide mass distributions (PMDs) during protein synthesis. With no a priori knowledge on metabolic fluxes, the PMDs are therefore unknown. This complicates labeled peptide identification because prior knowledge on PMDs is used in all available peptide identification software. An automated framework for the identification and quantification of PMDs for nonuniformly labeled samples is therefore lacking. To unlock the potential of peptide labeling experiments for high-throughput flux analysis and other complex labeling experiments, an unsupervised peptide identification and quantification method was developed that uses discrete deconvolution of mass distributions of identified peptides to inform on the mass distributions of otherwise unidentifiable peptides. Uniformly (13)C-labeled Escherichia coli protein was used to test the developed feature reconstruction and deconvolution algorithms. The peptide identification was validated by comparing MS(2)-identified peptides to peptides identified from PMDs using unlabeled E. coli protein. Nonuniformly labeled Glycine max protein was used to demonstrate the technology on a representative sample suitable for flux analysis. Overall, automatic peptide identification and quantification were comparable or superior to manual extraction, enabling proteomics-based technology for high-throughput flux analysis studies. PMID:27145348

  11. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  12. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  13. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  14. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  15. Automatic morphological classification of galaxy images

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior

    2009-01-01

    We describe an image analysis supervised learning algorithm that can automatically classify galaxy images. The algorithm is first trained using a manually classified images of elliptical, spiral, and edge-on galaxies. A large set of image features is extracted from each image, and the most informative features are selected using Fisher scores. Test images can then be classified using a simple Weighted Nearest Neighbor rule such that the Fisher scores are used as the feature weights. Experimental results show that galaxy images from Galaxy Zoo can be classified automatically to spiral, elliptical and edge-on galaxies with accuracy of ~90% compared to classifications carried out by the author. Full compilable source code of the algorithm is available for free download, and its general-purpose nature makes it suitable for other uses that involve automatic image analysis of celestial objects. PMID:20161594

  16. Automatic exposure control for space sequential camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcatee, G. E., Jr.; Stoap, L. J.; Solheim, C. D.; Sharpsteen, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The final report for the automatic exposure control study for space sequential cameras, for the NASA Johnson Space Center is presented. The material is shown in the same sequence that the work was performed. The purpose of the automatic exposure control is to automatically control the lens iris as well as the camera shutter so that the subject is properly exposed on the film. A study of design approaches is presented. Analysis of the light range of the spectrum covered indicates that the practical range would be from approximately 20 to 6,000 foot-lamberts, or about nine f-stops. Observation of film available from space flights shows that optimum scene illumination is apparently not present in vehicle interior photography as well as in vehicle-to-vehicle situations. The evaluation test procedure for a breadboard, and the results, which provided information for the design of a brassboard are given.

  17. Automatic CME Detection from Coronagraph Image Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Dejong, E. M.; Hall, J. R.; Lorre, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a technique for the automatic detection of coronal mass ejections using two sequential coronagraph images. The technique is based on tracking arc-like features from one image to the next; the feature's velocity is also determined. The method has been developed and tested using LASCO C2 and C3 data. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic CME detection algorithm that can be used on board the STEREO spacecraft to preferentially downlink data containing CMEs from an onboard "rotating" data buffer. Results for this detection technique compare very favorably with CMEs identified in the LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov/CME_list/). For the periods when results were compared, no time periods with significant CMEs were missed using the automatic technique.

  18. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  19. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  20. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  1. Accuracy analysis of automatic distortion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, Jakub; Rzonca, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the automatic distortion removal from images acquired with non-metric SLR camera equipped with prime lenses. From the photogrammetric point of view the following question arises: is the accuracy of distortion control data provided by the manufacturer for a certain lens model (not item) sufficient in order to achieve demanded accuracy? In order to obtain the reliable answer to the aforementioned problem the two kinds of tests were carried out for three lens models. Firstly the multi-variant camera calibration was conducted using the software providing full accuracy analysis. Secondly the accuracy analysis using check points took place. The check points were measured in the images resampled based on estimated distortion model or in distortion-free images simply acquired in the automatic distortion removal mode. The extensive conclusions regarding application of each calibration approach in practice are given. Finally the rules of applying automatic distortion removal in photogrammetric measurements are suggested.

  2. Automatic Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if the use of automatic welding would allow reduction of the radiographic inspection requirement, and thereby reduce fabrication costs, a series of welding tests were performed. In these tests an automatic welder was used on stainless steel tubing of 1/2, 3/4, and 1/2 inch diameter size. The optimum parameters were investigated to determine how much variation from optimum in machine settings could be tolerate and still result in a good quality weld. The process variables studied were the welding amperes, the revolutions per minute as a function of the circumferential weld travel speed, and the shielding gas flow. The investigation showed that the close control of process variables in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection of welds can be relied upon as an acceptable quality assurance procedure, thus permitting the radiographic inspection to be reduced by a large percentage when using the automatic process.

  3. Automatic Gain Control in Compact Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Protopopov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    An image intensifier installed in the optical path of a compact spectrometer may act not only as a fast gating unit, which is widely used for time-resolved measurements, but also as a variable attenuator-amplifier in a continuous wave mode. This opens the possibility of an automatic gain control, a new feature in spectroscopy. With it, the user is relieved from the necessity to manually adjust signal level at a certain value that it is done automatically by means of an electronic feedback loop. It is even more important that automatic gain control is done without changing exposure time, which is an additional benefit in time-resolved experiments. The concept, algorithm, design considerations, and experimental results are presented. PMID:26810181

  4. Testing and Troubleshooting Automatically Generated Source Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joel

    1998-01-01

    Tools allowing engineers to model the real-time behavior of systems that control many types of NASA systems have become widespread. These tools automatically generate source code that is compiled, linked, then downloaded into computers controlling everything from wind tunnels to space flight systems. These tools save hundreds of hours of software development time and allow engineers with thorough application area knowledge but little software development experience to generate software to control the systems they use daily. These systems are verified and validated by simulating the real-time models, and by other techniques that focus on the model or the hardware. The automatically generated source code is typically not subjected to rigorous testing using conventional software testing techniques. Given the criticality and safety issues surrounding these systems, the application of conventional and new software testing and troubleshooting techniques to the automatically generated will improve the reliability of the resulting systems.

  5. Automatic gisting systems for voice communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, A. T.

    It is pointed out that the detection of a limited number of key words in voice communications, combined with nonlinguistic cues and situation knowledge, holds out the promise for automatic extraction of the general content or gist of the transmitted messages. A systems-level description of an end-to-end automatic gisting system for screening voice communications is presented. The emphasis is on identifying information which can usefully supplement the detected key words in the gisting process. Principal subsystems are identified, and their functions are discussed in the context of an overall system architecture. The example of automatic determination of aircraft takeoffs and landings at an airport, based on monitoring conversations between pilots and air traffic controllers, is used for illustrative purposes.

  6. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  7. An efficient multimodal 2D-3D hybrid approach to automatic face recognition.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ajmal S; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Owens, Robyn

    2007-11-01

    We present a fully automatic face recognition algorithm and demonstrate its performance on the FRGC v2.0 data. Our algorithm is multimodal (2D and 3D) and performs hybrid (feature-based and holistic) matching in order to achieve efficiency and robustness to facial expressions. The pose of a 3D face along with its texture is automatically corrected using a novel approach based on a single automatically detected point and the Hotelling transform. A novel 3D Spherical Face Representation (SFR) is used in conjunction with the SIFT descriptor to form a rejection classifier which quickly eliminates a large number of candidate faces at an early stage for efficient recognition in case of large galleries. The remaining faces are then verified using a novel region-based matching approach which is robust to facial expressions. This approach automatically segments the eyes-forehead and the nose regions, which are relatively less sensitive to expressions, and matches them separately using a modified ICP algorithm. The results of all the matching engines are fused at the metric level to achieve higher accuracy. We use the FRGC benchmark to compare our results to other algorithms which used the same database. Our multimodal hybrid algorithm performed better than others by achieving 99.74% and 98.31% verification rates at 0.001 FAR and identification rates of 99.02% and 95.37% for probes with neutral and non-neutral expression respectively. PMID:17848775

  8. Research on the multi-criteria combination in automatic recognition of marking points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yan; Dong, Keyan

    2014-11-01

    Objective: In the field of computer vision, the technology for the automatic recognition of coded pattern plays an important basic role in the camera calibration process of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, the binocular image matching process and the three-dimensional reconstruction process. Therefore, in the measurement processing, the successive rate for the automatic recognition of coded pattern must be guaranteed. Method: According to analyzing the geometric information of the coded pattern (the mixed type) and basing on the existing recognition method, a new automatic recognition method is proposed, which is the effective method to solve the multi-points recognition in single image by taking the multi-feature information of the coded pattern as the recognition criteria. Result: Both the new recognition method and the old recognition method are used in identifying the one hundred coded pattern which have been actually collected. The experimental result shows that, not only the new recognition method can achieve accurate identification of coded pattern with the recognition accuracy rate of 100%, but also its processing speed is 2.38 times faster than that in the old recognition method. Conclusion: It is obvious that there are many advantages in the new automatic recognition method, including the high effective recognition, the faster executive speed and independent on the auxiliary decoding process information. The new recognition method of multi-criteria combination can provide a strong guarantee for the realization of every aspect in the work of photogrammetry.

  9. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  10. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  11. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  12. Study on Reactive Automatic Compensation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Sun; Qingyang, Liang; Peiqing, Luo; Chenfei, Zhang

    At present, low-voltage side of transformer is public in urban distribution network, as inductive load of household appliances is increasing, the power factor decreased, this lead to a large loss of public transformer low voltage side, the supply voltage indicators can not meet user's requirements. Therefore, the design of reactive power compensation system has become another popular research. This paper introduces the principle of reactive power compensation, analyzes key technologies of reactive power compensation, design an overall program of reactive power automatic compensation system to conquer various deficiencies of reactive power automatic compensation equipment.

  13. Electrical single probe with an automatic positioner

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.; Melendez, L.; Sanchez, A.M.; Gaytan, E.; Chavez, E.; Valencia, R.; Cruz, G.; Olayo, M.G.; Flores, A.

    1996-01-01

    An easy to assemble and inexpensive plasma diagnostic system is presented. An electrical single probe and its vacuum and electrical isolation arrangement, integrated to an automatic positioner device, has been constructed and tested in plasma environments. This system provides a more precise estimation of the probe electrode position than others previously proposed in the literature. To control the probe electrode position an electronic circuit based in a microcontroller device is used. This automatic positioner avoids the troubles related to a manual operation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  15. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  16. Automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance.

    PubMed

    Arsikere, Harish; Lulich, Steven M; Alwan, Abeer

    2011-05-01

    This letter focuses on the automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance (Sg1). A database comprising speech and subglottal data of native American English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers was used for the analysis. Data from 11 speakers (five males and six females) were used to derive an empirical relation among the first formant frequency, fundamental frequency, and Sg1. Using the derived relation, Sg1 was automatically estimated from voiced sounds in English and Spanish sentences spoken by 22 different speakers (11 males and 11 females). The error in estimating Sg1 was less than 50 Hz, on average. PMID:21568375

  17. Automatic segmentation of maxillofacial cysts in cone beam CT images.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, Fatemeh; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaeizadeh; Otake, Yoshito; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    Accurate segmentation of cysts and tumors is an essential step for diagnosis, monitoring and planning therapeutic intervention. This task is usually done manually, however manual identification and segmentation is tedious. In this paper, an automatic method based on asymmetry analysis is proposed which is general enough to segment various types of jaw cysts. The key observation underlying this approach is that normal head and face structure is roughly symmetric with respect to midsagittal plane: the left part and the right part can be divided equally by an axis of symmetry. Cysts and tumors typically disturb this symmetry. The proposed approach consists of three main steps as follows: At first, diffusion filtering is used for preprocessing and symmetric axis is detected. Then, each image is divided into two parts. In the second stage, free form deformation (FFD) is used to correct slight displacement of corresponding pixels of the left part and a reflected copy of the right part. In the final stage, intensity differences are analyzed and a number of constraints are enforced to remove false positive regions. The proposed method has been validated on 97 Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) sets containing various jaw cysts which were collected from various image acquisition centers. Validation is performed using three similarity indicators (Jaccard index, Dice's coefficient and Hausdorff distance). The mean Dice's coefficient of 0.83, 0.87 and 0.80 is achieved for Radicular, Dentigerous and KCOT classes, respectively. For most of the experiments done, we achieved high true positive (TP). This means that a large number of cyst pixels are correctly classified. Quantitative results of automatic segmentation show that the proposed method is more effective than one of the recent methods in the literature. PMID:27035862

  18. Yuma proving grounds automatic UXO detection using biomorphic robots

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1996-07-01

    The current variety and dispersion of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) is a daunting technological problem for current sensory and extraction techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a live UXO has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals, farmers, or Yuma field personnel, this paper details a non-biological approach to developing inexpensive, automatic machines that will find, tag, and may eventually remove UXO from a variety of terrains by several proposed methods. The Yuma proving grounds (Arizona) has been pelted with bombs, mines, missiles, and shells since the 1940s. The idea of automatic machines that can clean up after such testing is an old one but as yet unrealized because of the daunting cost, power and complexity requirements of capable robot mechanisms. A researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory has invented and developed a new variety of living robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Networks (Nv), allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as Biomorphic robots, or Biomechs for short) that rather than work from task principles use instead a survival-based design philosophy. This allows Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs and sensors have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation (fighting to proceed, as it were). They are not programmed, and indeed, the twelve transistor Nv controller keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that advanced forms of these machines in huge numbers may be an interesting, capable solution to the problem of general and specific UXO identification, tagging, and removal.

  19. Semi-automatic parcellation of the corpus striatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Nain, Delphine; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2007-03-01

    The striatum is the input component of the basal ganglia from the cerebral cortex. It includes the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Thus, the striatum is an important component in limbic frontal-subcortical circuitry and is believed to be relevant both for reward-guided behaviors and for the expression of psychosis. The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate and putamen, both of which are further subdivided into pre- and post-commissural components. The ventral striatum (VS) is primarily composed of the nucleus accumbens. The striatum can be functionally divided into three broad regions: 1) a limbic; 2) a cognitive and 3) a sensor-motor region. The approximate corresponding anatomic subregions for these 3 functional regions are: 1) the VS; 2) the pre/post-commissural caudate and the pre-commissural putamen and 3) the post-commissural putamen. We believe assessing these subregions, separately, in disorders with limbic and cognitive impairment such as schizophrenia may yield more informative group differences in comparison with normal controls than prior parcellation strategies of the striatum such as assessing the caudate and putamen. The manual parcellation of the striatum into these subregions is currently defined using certain landmark points and geometric rules. Since identification of these areas is important to clinical research, a reliable and fast parcellation technique is required. Currently, only full manual parcellation using editing software is available; however, this technique is extremely time intensive. Previous work has shown successful application of heuristic rules into a semi-automatic platform1. We present here a semi-automatic algorithm which implements the rules currently used for manual parcellation of the striatum, but requires minimal user input and significantly reduces the time required for parcellation.

  20. Whale Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    R:BASE for DOS, a computer program developed under NASA contract, has been adapted by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory and the College of the Atlantic to provide and advanced computerized photo matching technique for identification of humpback whales. The program compares photos with stored digitized descriptions, enabling researchers to track and determine distribution and migration patterns. R:BASE is a spinoff of RIM (Relational Information Manager), which was used to store data for analyzing heat shielding tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. It is now the world's second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software.