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Sample records for enzymogenes strain c3

  1. Influence of Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 on Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Moore, W. H.; Yuen, G. Y.; Kobayashi, D.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Chitinolytic microflora may contribute to biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes by causing decreased egg viability through degradation of egg shells. Here, the influence of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 on Caenorhabditis elegans, Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Aphelenchoides fragariae is described. Exposure of C. elegans to L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar resulted in almost complete elimination of egg production and death of 94% of hatched juveniles after 2 d. Hatch of H. schachtii eggs was about 50% on a lawn of L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar as compared to 80% on a lawn of E. coli. Juveniles that hatched on a lawn of L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar died due to disintegration of the cuticle and body contents. Meloidogyne javanica juveniles died after 4 d exposure to a 7-d-old chitin broth culture of L. enzymogenes strain C3. Immersion of A. fragariae, M. javanica, and P. penetrans juveniles and adults in a nutrient broth culture of L. enzymogenes strain C3 led to rapid death and disintegration of the nematodes. Upon exposure to L. enzymogenes strain C3 cultures in nutrient broth, H. schachtii juveniles were rapidly immobilized and then lysed after three days. The death and disintegration of the tested nematodes suggests that toxins and enzymes produced by this strain are active against a range of nematode species. PMID:19259452

  2. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  3. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-05-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  4. Involvement of both PKS and NRPS in antibacterial activity in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Du, Liangcheng; Liu, Fengquan; Xu, Feifei; Hu, Baishi; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Polyketides and nonribosomal peptides represent two large families of natural products (NPs) with diverse structures and important functions. They are synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), respectively. Lysobacter enzymogenes is emerging as a novel biocontrol agent against pathogens of crop plants and a new source of bioactive NPs, such as antibacterial antibiotic WAP-8294A2 and antifungal antibiotic HSAF. Genome survey of strain OH11, a Chinese L. enzymogenes isolate, detected four novel PKS, NRPS or hybrid gene clusters, designed as cluster A to D. We further individually mutated five genes (PKS or NRPS) located in these four gene clusters, and showed that a PKS gene in cluster A and an NRPS gene in cluster D were involved in the antibacterial activity via a WAP-8294A2 dependent way. The data also showed that none of the five genes was associated with antifungal activity and the regulation of HSAF biosynthesis. Our results reveal the unusual regulatory role of these PKS and NRPS genes that were discovered from genome mining in L. enzymogenes. PMID:24801439

  5. Direct Regulation of Extracellular Chitinase Production by the Transcription Factor LeClp in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiyong; Chen, Hongfu; Shen, Yuemao; Du, Liangcheng; Chou, Shan-Ho; Liu, Hongxia; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a gram-negative bacterial biological control agent that produces abundant extracellular enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of fungal pathogens. In strain OH11, an isolate from China, the global regulator LeClp controls the production of extracellular chitinase by regulating the transcription of the chitinase-encoding gene chiA. Using a combination of bioinformatic, genetic, and biochemical methods, we show that LeClp regulates chiA transcription by directly binding to the chiA promoter region. Although LeClp appears to be important in this role, it is not the sole regulator of chiA transcription. Furthermore, the sequence analysis of putative LeClp binding sites indicated that the LeClp homolog could be involved in the regulation of extracellular chitinase production in diverse Lysobacter spp. by a mechanism similar to that in L. enzymogenes. Our findings present new insights into the molecular mechanism of LeClp in controlling extracellular chitinase activity, providing a fundamental road to elucidate how LeClp regulates the production of other extracellular lytic enzymes in L. enzymogenes. PMID:27385597

  6. Complement Evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: Serum-Resistant Strains Promote C3b Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Alitalo, Antti; Meri, Taru; Rämö, Lasse; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Heikkilä, Tero; Seppälä, Ilkka J. T.; Oksi, Jarmo; Viljanen, Matti; Meri, Seppo

    2001-01-01

    The most characteristic features of the Lyme disease pathogens, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group, are their ability to invade tissues and to circumvent the immune defenses of the host for extended periods of time, despite elevated levels of borrelia-specific antibodies in serum and other body fluids. Our aim in the present study was to determine whether B. burgdorferi is able to interfere with complement (C) at the level of C3 by accelerating C3b inactivation and thus to inhibit the amplification of the C cascade. Strains belonging to different genospecies (Borrelia garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and Borrelia afzelii) were compared for their sensitivities to normal human serum and abilities to promote factor I-mediated C3b degradation. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii strains were found to be serum resistant. When the spirochetes were incubated with radiolabeled C3b, factor I-mediated degradation of C3b was observed in the presence of C-resistant B. afzelii (n = 3) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 1) strains but not in the presence of C-sensitive B. garinii (n = 7) strains or control bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis). Immunoblotting and radioligand binding analyses showed that the C-resistant strains had the capacity to acquire the C inhibitors factor H and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) from growth medium and human serum. A novel surface protein with an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa was found to preferentially bind to the N terminus region of factor H. Thus, the serum-resistant B. burgdorferi s.l. strains can circumvent C attack by binding the C inhibitors factor H and FHL-1 to their surfaces and promoting factor I-mediated C3b degradation. PMID:11349031

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 and Sediminibacterium sp. Strain C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ayarza, Joaquín M.; Figuerola, Eva L. M.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 (NBRC 103935) and Sediminibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation. PMID:24435857

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes Employs Strain-dependent Mechanisms of C3b Inactivation to Inhibit Phagocytosis and Killing of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Glinton, Kristofor; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2016-04-22

    Evasion of complement-mediated opsonophagocytosis enables group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) to establish infection. Different strain-dependent mechanisms are employed by the host to accomplish this goal. In general, GAS inhibits the amplification of the complement cascade on its cell surface by facilitating the degradation of C3b, an opsonin, to an inactive product, inactivated C3b (iC3b), in a step catalyzed by factor I (FI) and its cofactor, factor H (FH), with or without the participation of human host plasmin (hPm). GAS recruits FH to its cell surface via FH receptors, which are transcriptionally controlled by the two-component cluster of virulence responder-sensor system. The manner in which FI-FH and hPm function together on GAS cells is unknown. Using GAS strain AP53, which strongly binds host human plasminogen/plasmin (hPg/hPm) directly via an hPg/hPm surface receptor (PAM), we show that both FI-FH and hPm sequentially cleave C3b. Whereas FI-FH proteolytically cleaves C3b into iC3b, PAM-bound hPm catalyzes cleavage of iC3b into multiple smaller peptides. Unlike AP53, GAS strain M23ND weakly binds FH and recruits hPg/hPm to its cell surface indirectly via fibrinogen bound to M-protein, M23. In this case, FH-FI cleaves C3b into iC3b, with negligible degradation of iC3b by hPm that is bound to fibrinogen on the cells. AP53 and M23ND display similar resistance to human neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis, which results in a corresponding high lethality in mice after injection of these cells. These results suggest that GAS utilizes diverse mechanisms to degrade C3b and thus to protect bacterial cells from the complement response of the host. PMID:26945067

  9. Identification of a Small Molecule Signaling Factor That Regulates the Biosynthesis of the Antifungal Polycyclic Tetramate Macrolactam HSAF in Lysobacter enzymogenes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong; Wang, Yan; Tombosa, Simon; Wright, Stephen; Huffman, Justin; Yuen, Gary; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan; Shen, Yuemao; Du, Liangcheng

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter species are emerging as new sources of antibiotics. The regulation of these antibiotics is not well understood. Here, we identified a small molecule metabolite (LeDSF3) that regulates the biosynthesis of the antifungal antibiotic HSAF (heat-stable antifungal factor), a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam with a structure and mode of action distinct from the existing antifungal drugs. LeDSF3 was isolated from the culture broth of L. enzymogenes, and its chemical structure was established by NMR and MS. The purified compound induced green fluorescence in a reporter strain of Xanthomonas campestris, which contained gfp gene under the control of a DSF (diffusible signaling factor)-inducible promoter. Exogenous addition of LeDSF3 in L. enzymogenes cultures significantly increased the HSAF yield, the transcription of HSAF biosynthetic genes, and the antifungal activity of the organism. The LeDSF3-regulated HSAF production is dependent on the two-component regulatory system RpfC/RpfG. Moreover, LeDSF3 up-regulated the expression of the global regulator Clp (cAMP receptor-like protein). The disruption of clp led to no HSAF production. Together, the results show that LeDSF3 is a fatty acid-derived, diffusible signaling factor positively regulating HSAF biosynthesis and that the signaling is mediated by the RfpC/RpfG-Clp pathway. These findings may facilitate the antibiotic production through applied genetics and molecular biotechnology in Lysobacter, a group of ubiquitous yet underexplored microorganisms. PMID:25301587

  10. Clearance of different strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis from the respiratory tract of C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M K; Davis, J K; Lindsey, J R; Cassell, G H

    1988-01-01

    Pathogen-free C3H/HeN mice were exposed by aerosol to Mycoplasma pulmonis PG34(ASH), UAB 5782C, M1, UAB T, or UAB CT, and clearance of mycoplasmas from the nasal passages, trachea, and lungs was determined during the first 72 h postinoculation (PI). There were differences among strains of mycoplasmas in physical removal of organisms and in killing by nonspecific factors in the nasal passages and trachea. The avirulent strain, PG34(ASH), was quickly removed from the nasal passages and trachea. Physical removal of the other mycoplasmal strains occurred slowly, with 60 to 89% of the radioactive label remaining in the nasal passages and trachea even after 72 h. There were significant differences in killing among mycoplasmal strains by nonspecific host mechanisms in the nasal passages, trachea, and lungs. Strain UAB T was quickly killed at all levels of the respiratory tract. Strains UAB 5782C and M1 were killed at all three sites by 2 to 4 h PI. The most virulent strain, UAB CT, was killed much more slowly than the other strains. However, there was no statistical difference in the relative numbers of mycoplasmas present in the lungs at 72 h PI among strains UAB CT, UAB 5782C, and M1. These studies showed that the different mycoplasmal strains were cleared from the respiratory tract by different mechanisms and suggest that the differences in virulence among the mycoplasma strains can be explained, in part, by the differences in elimination of the organisms from the respiratory tract by nonspecific host defense mechanisms. PMID:3397188

  11. SPG/IND-induced septic shock in a LPS-low responder strain, C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Maki; Nameda, Sachiko; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2008-05-01

    The administration of beta-glucan (sonifilan; SPG) in combination with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (IND), induced lethal septic shock in mice. To demonstrate the influence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in this lethal toxicity, LPS non-responder C3H/HeJ mice were used to compare features of sepsis and physicochemical parameters in the present study. The administration of SPG and IND induced the death of C3H/HeJ mice, lowering rectal temperature, reducing body weight, increasing serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, shortening the gastrointestinal tract, and increasing the GOT/GPT level. Microbial translocation to various organs was also significantly increased. These results strongly suggested that LPS-non-responding strain also induced septic shock in this experimental model, and other pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) may significantly contribute to the septic shock. PMID:18093793

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India

    PubMed Central

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M.; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J.; Kothari, Charmy R.; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K.; Faldu, Priti R.; Shekar, M. Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J.; Patel, Priyank A.; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India.

    PubMed

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J; Kothari, Charmy R; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K; Faldu, Priti R; Shekar, M Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J; Patel, Priyank A; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kothari, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF STEREOCHEMICAL CONFIGURATIONS OF CYCLOPENTA[CD]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG AND C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of Sterochemical Configurations of Cyclopent A[cd]Pyrene DNA Adducts in Strain A/J Mouse Lung and C3H10T1/2CL8 Cells.

    Four major and several minor DNA adducts were resolved by 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA from strain A/J mouse lung and C3H10T1/2CL8 (C3H...

  15. Transcriptomic analysis reveals new regulatory roles of Clp signaling in secondary-metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhao, Yuxin; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Yangyang; Shen, Yan; Su, Zhenhe; Xu, Gaoge; Du, Liangcheng; Huffman, Justin M.; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a bacterial biological-control agent emerging as a new source of antibiotic metabolites, such as HSAF (Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor) and the antibacterial factor WAP-8294A2. The regulatory mechanism(s) for antibiotic-metabolite biosynthesis remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. Clp, a cAMP-receptor-like protein, is shown to function as a global regulator in modulating biocontol-associated traits in L. enzymogenes. However, the genetic basis of Clp signaling remains unclear. Here, we utilized transcriptome/microarray analysis to determine the Clp regulon in L. enzymogenes. We showed that Clp is a global regulator in gene expression, as the transcription of 775 genes belonging to 19 functional groups was differentially controlled by Clp signaling. Analysis of the Clp regulon detected previously characterized Clp-modulated functions as well as novel loci. These include novel loci involved in antibiotic-metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in L. enzymogenes. We further showed experimentally that Clp signaling played a positive role in regulating the biosynthesis of HSAF and WAP-8294A2, as well as surface motility which is a Type-IV-pilus-dependent trait. The regulation by Clp signaling of antibiotic (HSAF and WAP-8294A2) biosynthesis and surface motility was found to be independent. Importantly, we identified a factor Lat (Lysobacter acetyltransferase), a homologue of histone acetyltransferase Hpa2, which was regulated by Clp and involved in HSAF biosynthesis, but not associated with WAP-8294A2 production and surface motility. Overall, our study provided new insights into the regulatory role and molecular mechanism of Clp signaling in L. enzymogenes. PMID:25236801

  16. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the gene for secreted alkaline phosphatase from Lysobacter enzymogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Au, S; Roy, K L; von Tigerstrom, R G

    1991-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes produces an alkaline phosphatase which is secreted into the medium. The gene for the enzyme (phoA) was isolated from a recombinant lambda library. It was identified within a 4.4-kb EcoRI-BamH1 fragment, and its sequence was determined by the chain termination method. The structural gene consists of an open reading frame which encodes a 539-amino-acid protein with a 29-residue signal sequence, followed by a 119-residue propeptide, the 281-residue mature phosphatase, and a 110-residue carboxy-terminal domain. The roles of the propeptide and the carboxy-terminal peptide remain to be determined. A molecular weight of 30,000 was determined for the mature enzyme from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The amino acid sequence was compared with sequences available in the current protein data base, and a region of the sequence was found to show considerable homology with sequences in mammalian type 5 iron-containing purple acid phosphatases. Images PMID:1856159

  17. Slr1293 in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Is the C-3′,4′ Desaturase (CrtD) Involved in Myxoxanthophyll Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hatem E.; Vermaas, Wim

    2004-01-01

    When grown at high light intensity, more than a quarter of the total carotenoids in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis consists of myxoxanthophyll, a polar carotenoid glycoside. The biosynthetic pathway of myxoxanthophyll is unknown but is presumed to involve a number of enzymes, including a C-3′,4′ desaturase required to add one double bond to generate 11 conjugated double bonds in the monocyclic myxoxanthophyll. A candidate for this desaturase is Slr1293, which was identified by genome similarity searching. To determine whether Slr1293 is a desaturase recognizing neurosporene and lycopene, slr1293 was expressed in Escherichia coli strains accumulating neurosporene or lycopene. Confirming such a desaturase function for Slr1293, these E. coli strains accumulated 3′,4′-didehydroneurosporene and 3′,4′-didehydrolycopene, respectively. Indeed, deletion of slr1293 in Synechocystis provides further evidence that Slr1293 is a desaturase recognizing neurosporene: In the slr1293 deletion mutant, neurosporene was found to accumulate and was further processed to produce neurosporene glycoside. Neurosporene hereby becomes a primary candidate to be the branch point molecule between carotene and myxoxanthophyll biosynthesis in this cyanobacterium. The slr1293 gene was concluded to encode a C-3′,4′ desaturase that is essential for myxoxanthophyll biosynthesis, and thus it was designated as crtD. Furthermore, as Slr1293 appears to recognize neurosporene and to catalyze the first committed step on the myxoxanthophyll biosynthesis pathway, Slr1293 plays a pivotal role in directing a portion of the precursor pool for carotenoid biosynthesis toward myxoxanthophyll biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. PMID:15317766

  18. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance study of cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway Strain. Assignment of the heme midpoint redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Guigliarelli, B; Bertrand, P; More, C; Haser, R; Gayda, J P

    1990-11-01

    A single crystal of cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance at low temperature. The orientation of the principal axis corresponding to the largest g value is determined for the 12 heme groups in the crystal unit cell. The comparison of these directions to the normals to the heme planes, determined from the crystallographic data at 2.5 A resolution, gives strong evidence for the following assignment of the midpoint redox potentials to the heme groups H1 to H4, defined in the three-dimensional structure: -150 mV is assigned to H3, -300 mV to H4, -330 mV to H1 and -355 mV to H2. This assignment is in agreement with a partial correspondence previously established from an independent study performed on cytochrome c3 in solution. PMID:2172551

  19. C3 variants in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nishimukai, H; Kitamura, H; Sano, Y; Tamaki, Y

    1985-01-01

    By high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, seven phenotypes of C3 were found in Japanese. The allele frequencies for C3*S, C3*S025, C3*S02, C3*F, C3*F06, C3*F065, and C3*F08 were 0.9943, 0.0003, 0.0003, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.0021, and 0.0021, respectively. CH50, C3/C3c protein concentrations, and C3 hemolytic activities in fresh sera with variant C3 phenotypes were within the normal ranges. PMID:3988301

  20. Occurrence of the vancomycin-resistant genes vanA, vanB, vanCl, vanC2 and vanC3 in Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry and pork.

    PubMed

    Lemcke, R; Bülte, M

    2000-09-25

    It is suspected that the use of avoparcin as a feeding antibiotic for the fat stock contributes to development of cross-resistance against vancomycin and teicoplanin. After isolating enterococci strains from poultry and pork meat by cultivation on citrate azide Tween carbonate agar (CATC) and screening the vancomycin resistance on Columbia colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA, supplemented with 5% sheepblood and 5 mg vancomycin/l) the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the vancomycin resistance genes vanA ('high level'), vanB ('moderate high level'), vanC1, vanC2 and vanC3 ('low level'). Out of 1643 E.-isolates from 115 poultry and 50 pork samples, 420 isolates could be identified as vancomycin resistant, 202 isolates of which carry the vanA, one isolate both the vanA and the vanC1, 38 isolates the vanC1, 14 isolates the vanC2, nine isolates both the vanC1 and the vanC3 gene and 156 isolates carry no gene. The vanB gene was not found in these isolates. Comparing vanA-positive food isolates with those from different human sources by means of the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) it could clearly be demonstrated that they do not show homological fingerprints according to the source of origin. It is therefore unlikely that there is a close genetic relationship between isolates from animal foodstuff and humans. PMID:11016608

  1. C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Matthew C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J; Haas, Mark; Appel, Gerald B; Alpers, Charles E; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bedrosian, Camille; Braun, Michael; Doyle, Mittie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fogo, Agnes B; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Gale, Daniel P; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Griffin, Gene; Harris, Claire L; Holers, V Michael; Johnson, Sally; Lavin, Peter J; Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas; Paul Morgan, B; Nast, Cynthia C; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Peters, D Keith; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Servais, Aude; Sethi, Sanjeev; Song, Wen-Chao; Tamburini, Paul; Thurman, Joshua M; Zavros, Michael; Cook, H Terence

    2013-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group. PMID:24172683

  2. Complement component 3 (C3)

    MedlinePlus

    C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. A complement test may be used to monitor people with an ... normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . Complement activity varies throughout the body. For example, ...

  3. Overview of C3 Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Master Sankar Raj, Vimal; Gordillo, Roberto; Chand, Deepa H.

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is an umbrella term, which includes several rare forms of glomerulonephritis (GN) with underlying defects in the alternate complement cascade. A common histological feature noted in all these GN is dominant C3 deposition in the glomerulus. In this review, we will provide an overview of the complement system as well as mediators, with an introduction to pharmaceutical agents that can alter the pathway. PMID:27200326

  4. Update on C3 glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Thomas D; Ruseva, Marieta M; Pickering, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    C3 glomerulopathy refers to a disease process in which abnormal control of complement activation, degradation or deposition results in predominant C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus and glomerular damage. Recent studies have improved our understanding of its pathogenesis. The key abnormality is uncontrolled C3b amplification in the circulation and/or along the glomerular basement membrane. Family studies in which disease segregates with structurally abnormal complement factor H-related (CFHR) proteins demonstrate that abnormal CFHR proteins are important in some types of C3 glomerulopathy. This is currently thought to be due to the ability of these proteins to antagonize the major negative regulator of C3 activation, complement factor H (CFH), a process termed 'CFH de-regulation'. Recent clinicopathological cohort studies have led to further refinements in case definition, culminating in a 2013 consensus report, which provides recommendations regarding investigation and treatment. Early clinical experience with complement-targeted therapeutics, notably C5 inhibitors, has also now been published. Here, we summarize the latest developments in C3 glomerulopathy. PMID:25326473

  5. Update on C3 glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Thomas D.; Ruseva, Marieta M.; Pickering, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy refers to a disease process in which abnormal control of complement activation, degradation or deposition results in predominant C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus and glomerular damage. Recent studies have improved our understanding of its pathogenesis. The key abnormality is uncontrolled C3b amplification in the circulation and/or along the glomerular basement membrane. Family studies in which disease segregates with structurally abnormal complement factor H-related (CFHR) proteins demonstrate that abnormal CFHR proteins are important in some types of C3 glomerulopathy. This is currently thought to be due to the ability of these proteins to antagonize the major negative regulator of C3 activation, complement factor H (CFH), a process termed ‘CFH de-regulation’. Recent clinicopathological cohort studies have led to further refinements in case definition, culminating in a 2013 consensus report, which provides recommendations regarding investigation and treatment. Early clinical experience with complement-targeted therapeutics, notably C5 inhibitors, has also now been published. Here, we summarize the latest developments in C3 glomerulopathy. PMID:25326473

  6. Tissue C3b receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Schrieber, L; Penny, R

    1979-01-01

    Using fluorescein-labelled S. typhi coated with C3b (FBC) the presence of a receptor for C3b in normal human glomeruli has been confirmed. A quantitative system, counting the number of FBC bound per unit area of glomerulus, has been developed. Experimental variables have been studied to determine optimal conditions for FBC binding. Glomerular FBC binding has been shown to be dependent on FBC concentration, temperature and time of tissue incubation. A standardized procedure has been adopted. Using this technique we have examined a number of target tissues, including synovium, skin, lung, choroid plexus and uveal tract, which are frequently affected in systemic immune complex diseases. No evidence of this receptor has been found in these tissues. These results suggest a mechanism different from the C3b receptor operating to localise immune complexes in these non-renal sites. Images FIG. 2 PMID:527266

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF STEROCHEMICAL CONFIGERATION OF CYCLOPENTA[CD]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG AND C3H10T1/2CL8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The definitive identification of stereochemical configurations of DNA adducts detected by 32P-postlabeling requires co-chromatography of adducts with synthetic chromatographic standards. Four major and several minor DNA adducts are formed by cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) in strain A...

  8. Cleavage of Complement C3b to iC3b on the Surface of Staphylococcus aureus Is Mediated by Serum Complement Factor I

    PubMed Central

    Cunnion, K. M.; Hair, P. S.; Buescher, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    Complement-mediated opsonization of Staphylococcus aureus bearing the dominant capsule serotypes, serotypes 5 and 8, remains incompletely understood. We have previously shown that complement plays a vital role in the efficient phagocytosis of a serotype 5 S. aureus strain and that the opsonic fragments of the central complement protein C3, C3b and iC3b, were present on the bacterial surface after incubation in human serum. In the present studies, C3b and iC3b were found on several serotype 5 and 8 S. aureus strains after incubation in human serum. Using purified classical activation pathway complement proteins and the Western blot assay, we showed that when C3b was generated on the S. aureus surface no iC3b fragments were found, suggesting that other serum proteins may be required for cleaving C3b to iC3b. When C3b-coated S. aureus was incubated with serum factor I, a complement regulatory protein, iC3b was generated. Purified factor H, a serum protein cofactor for factor I, did not enhance factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. These findings suggest that C3b cleavage to iC3b on S. aureus is mediated by serum factor I and does not require factor H. PMID:15102797

  9. Degradation of C3 by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Angel, C S; Ruzek, M; Hostetter, M K

    1994-09-01

    After growth to exponential phase in Todd-Hewitt broth, clinical and laboratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 3, 4, and 14 readily degraded first the beta and then the alpha chains of purified human C3 in the absence of serum or other complement proteins, as assessed by SDS-PAGE. With exponentially growing pneumococci, degradation of native C3 was detectable within 30 min; methylamine-treated C3 and preformed C3b were degraded with equal avidity. Pneumococcal C3-degrading activity was cell associated, abolished by heat killing, and independent of the presence of the polysaccharide capsule. After degradation, 44% of C3 molecules contained a disrupted thiolester bond. Pneumococci treated with 100 micrograms of mutanolysin released 94% of C3-degrading activity from the pneumococcal surface into the supernatant. These studies demonstrate that clinical and laboratory isolates of virulent pneumococci degrade and inactivate soluble C3. PMID:8077717

  10. 42 CFR 52c.3 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility. 52c.3 Section 52c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.3 Eligibility. To be eligible for a grant under this Program, an applicant must...

  11. 42 CFR 52c.3 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility. 52c.3 Section 52c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.3 Eligibility. To be eligible for a grant under this Program, an applicant must...

  12. 42 CFR 52c.3 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility. 52c.3 Section 52c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.3 Eligibility. To be eligible for a grant under this Program, an applicant must...

  13. C(3)-cyclopropyl cephems and carbacephems.

    PubMed

    Spry, D O; Snyder, N J; Kasher, J S

    1989-11-01

    A series of C(3)-cyclopropyl cephems and carbacephems has been prepared by palladium catalyzed addition of diazomethane to the corresponding C(3)-vinyl derivatives. The phenylglycyl cyclopropyl cephem derivatives exhibit better Gram-positive activity than cephalexin or cefaclor, while the aminothiazole oxime cyclopropyl cephem derivatives were not as active as the corresponding C(3)-vinyl cephems. PMID:2584150

  14. The Importance of the C3 Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards will soon be released under the title "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and Lead Writer was NCSS member Kathy…

  15. A Revised Mechanism for the Activation of Complement C3 to C3b

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg102. In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg102-Glu1032 salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg102) and disease-linked C3F (Gly102) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. PMID:25488663

  16. Survey of the nob5 mutation in C3H substrains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A no b-wave (nob) electroretinography (ERG) phenotype arose spontaneously in a colony of C3H mice and was named nob5. A mutation was identified in the Gpr179 gene in homozygous nob5 mice. There is a concern that this mutation is also present in additional C3H sublines and may compromise retinal research performed using these lines. In this report, therefore, we provide a phenotype and genotype survey of nob5 in six C3H substrains present at the Jackson Laboratory. Methods Fundus changes were evaluated in the six C3H substrains with image-guided optical coherence tomography (OCT), and retinal function was assessed with ERG. The substrains were genotyped with PCR using appropriate primers for the nob5 mutation. Additionally, the genomic sequences of C3H/HeJ, available from the Jackson Laboratory, and C3H/HeH, available from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, were examined for the Gpr179nob5 mutation. Results Two C3H congenic strains, C3Sn.BLiA-Pde6b+/DnJ and C3A.BLiA-Pde6b+/J, wild-type for Pde6b, used as the sighted control strains and had normal fundi, OCT, and ERG responses. Four C3H strains C3H/HeJ, C3HeB/FeJ, C3H/HeOuJ, and C3H/HeSnJ bearing the Pde6brd1 allele exhibited a grainy fundus appearance, retinal degeneration on OCT, and no rod and cone ERG responses. The nob5 mutation was not observed in the six C3H strains assessed with PCR genotyping. Further, the genomic sequences of C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeH did not contain the nob5 mutation. Conclusions The Gpr179nob5 allele is not present in C3H substrains at the Jackson Laboratory. Therefore, the usefulness of these C3H strains as commonly used models to study the effects of photoreceptor degeneration is not compromised. PMID:26396487

  17. Vimentin mediates uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Pich, Andreas; Höltje, Markus; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Just, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3) selectively inactivates RhoA/B/C GTPases by ADP-ribosylation. Based on this substrate specificity C3 is a well-established tool in cell biology. C3 is taken up by eukaryotic cells although lacking an uptake and translocation domain. Based on different approaches vimentin was identified as membranous C3-interaction partner by mass spectrometry. Vimentin in fact was partly localized at the outer surface of hippocampal HT22 cells and J744A.1 macrophages. Domain analysis identified the rod domain as binding partner of C3. Vimentin was also involved in uptake of C3 as shown by knock down of vimentin in HT22 and J774A.1 cells. The involvement of vimentin in uptake of C3 was further supported by the findings that the vimentin disruptor acrylamide blocked uptake of C3. Vimentin is not only a major organizing element of the intermediate filament network but is also involved in both binding and uptake of C3 exoenzyme. PMID:24967582

  18. 42 CFR 52c.3 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility. 52c.3 Section 52c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH... institution offering undergraduate, graduate, or health professional degrees, with a traditionally high...

  19. 42 CFR 52c.3 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility. 52c.3 Section 52c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH... institution offering undergraduate, graduate, or health professional degrees, with a traditionally high...

  20. Complement inhibition in C3 glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J H

    2016-06-01

    C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) describes a spectrum of glomerular diseases defined by shared renal biopsy pathology: a predominance of C3 deposition on immunofluorescence with electron microscopy permitting disease sub-classification. Complement dysregulation underlies the observed pathology, a causal relationship that is supported by well described studies of genetic and acquired drivers of disease. In this article, we provide an overview of the features of C3G, including a discussion of disease definition and a review of the causal role of complement. We discuss molecular markers of disease and how biomarkers are informing our evolving understanding of underlying pathology. Research advances are laying the foundation for complement inhibition as a targeted approach to treatment of C3G. PMID:27402056

  1. Analysis of complement C3 deposition and degradation on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Albertí, S; Alvarez, D; Merino, S; Casado, M T; Vivanco, F; Tomás, J M; Benedí, V J

    1996-01-01

    The majority of Klebsiella pneumoniae serum-resistant strains activate complement and bind C3b, the opsonic fragment of C3, without C5b-9 formation and bacterial killing. The mechanisms leading to C3b deposition without cell death were studied, and the results indicate that serum-resistant strains activate principally the alternative pathway and that serum-sensitive strains activate both the alternative and classical pathways. Bacterial molecules implicated in C3b deposition are the outer membrane porin proteins and smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides. Porins activate both complement pathways, and the rough lipopolysaccharide activates the classical pathway, causing deposition of C3b in serum-sensitive strains. The smooth lipopolysaccharide of serum-resistant strains activates only the alternative pathway, impeding the binding of C1q to porins (S. Albertí, G. Marqués, S. Camprubí, S. Merino, J. M. Tomás, F. Vivanco, and V. J. Benedí, Infect. Immun. 61:852-860, 1993; S. Albertí, F. Rodríguez-Quinónes, T. Schirmer, G. Rummel, J. M. Tomás, J. P. Rosenbusch, and V. J. Benedí, Infect. Immun. 63:903-910, 1995) and rough lipopolysaccharide molecules and thereby preventing activation of the classical pathway. After its deposition, C3b is quickly degraded to iC3b on both types of strains, but the higher-level deposition of C3b on serum-sensitive strains, resulting from activation of both the alternative and classical complement pathways, supports further complement activation and killing of serum-sensitive strains. PMID:8890232

  2. Eculizumab and Recurrent C3 Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Gurkan, Sevgi; Fyfe, Billie; Weiss, Lynne; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yuzhou; Smith, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway is the principle defect in the C3 glomerulopathies (C3G). Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, has been shown to be beneficial in some patients with this disease. Design, setting, participants & measurements In this open-label, proof-of-concept efficacy-and-safety study, a patient with the initial diagnosis of Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) and allograft recurrence of C3 (C3GN) glomerulonephritis was treated with eculizumab every-other-week for 1 year. The patient had pathological evidence of C3GN and proteinuria >1 g/d at enrollment. He underwent graft biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at 6 months and 12 months. Results Although no mutations were identified in complement genes, functional studies were positive for C3 nephritic factors and elevated levels of soluble membrane attack complex (sMAC). On therapy, sMAC levels normalized and although proteinuria initially decreased, during therapy it increased reaching pre-treatment levels at 12 months. Although serum creatinine remained stable, repeat allograft biopsies showed progression of disease. Conclusions Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a partial response to eculizumab in this patient. While eculizumab blocked activation of the terminal complement cascade, persistent dysregulation of alternative pathway remained, showing that eculizumab alone cannot control disease in this patient. Additional research is required to identify effective anticomplement therapy for this group of C3G patients. PMID:23689905

  3. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences. PMID:25720829

  4. Interstellar C3 toward HD 210121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roueff, E.; Felenbok, P.; Black, J. H.; Gry, C.

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of the 405 nm band of interstellar C3 in absorption toward HD 210121. The abundance of triatomic carbon is approximately 1/17 of that of diatomic carbon in the same diffuse molecular cloud. Rotational levels of C3 up to J=14 are seen in this cloud. The rotational excitation of C3 in the interstellar medium may reflect a competition between inelastic collisions, formation and destruction of the molecule, and radiative pumping in the far-infrared. The abundance of C3 is compared with chemical models. Attention is called to molecular properties that need to be better determined. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile [ESO VLT-UT2 No 65.I-0526(A)].

  5. C3-class Solar Flare Eruption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Just as sunspot 1105 was turning away from Earth on Sept. 8, the active region erupted, producing a C3-class solar flare (peak @ 2330 UT) and a fantastic prominence. This is a three color closeup o...

  6. Rho GTPase Recognition by C3 Exoenzyme Based on C3-RhoA Complex Structure.

    PubMed

    Toda, Akiyuki; Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Toru; Tsumori, Yayoi; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    C3 exoenzyme is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) that catalyzes transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from NAD(+) to Rho GTPases. C3 has long been used to study the diverse regulatory functions of Rho GTPases. How C3 recognizes its substrate and how ADP-ribosylation proceeds are still poorly understood. Crystal structures of C3-RhoA complex reveal that C3 recognizes RhoA via the switch I, switch II, and interswitch regions. In C3-RhoA(GTP) and C3-RhoA(GDP), switch I and II adopt the GDP and GTP conformations, respectively, which explains why C3 can ADP-ribosylate both nucleotide forms. Based on structural information, we successfully changed Cdc42 to an active substrate with combined mutations in the C3-Rho GTPase interface. Moreover, the structure reflects the close relationship among Gln-183 in the QXE motif (C3), a modified Asn-41 residue (RhoA) and NC1 of NAD(H), which suggests that C3 is the prototype ART. These structures show directly for the first time that the ARTT loop is the key to target protein recognition, and they also serve to bridge the gaps among independent studies of Rho GTPases and C3. PMID:26067270

  7. Complement (C3), nutrition, and infection*

    PubMed Central

    Kielmann, A. A.; Curcio, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Complement (C3) was determined and related to various parameters of nutritional status and past infectious disease experience in a group of 53 rural preschool children in North India. Mean complement level was 25% lower than in an age-matched European reference population. Low complement (C3) levels were associated mainly with children who were both stunted and wasted, as well as with those who had experienced frequent purulent skin infections in the past. PMID:311708

  8. C3 polymorphism in beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A; Kalantzi, M; Karamerou, A; Politi, C; Fertakis, A

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of phenotypes and gene frequencies of the third component of complement (C3) were studied in 106 beta-thalassemic patients and in 112 carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait. A statistically significant association was found between the C3F gene and homozygous beta-thalassemia. It can be suggested that this association may be related with the high incidence of infections encountered in these patients. PMID:6419525

  9. Towards engineering carboxysomes into C3 plants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Maureen R; Lin, Myat T; Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis in C3 plants is limited by features of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, which exhibits a low turnover rate and can react with O2 instead of CO2 , leading to photorespiration. In cyanobacteria, bacterial microcompartments, known as carboxysomes, improve the efficiency of photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 near the enzyme Rubisco. Cyanobacterial Rubisco enzymes are faster than those of C3 plants, though they have lower specificity toward CO2 than the land plant enzyme. Replacement of land plant Rubisco by faster bacterial variants with lower CO2 specificity will improve photosynthesis only if a microcompartment capable of concentrating CO2 can also be installed into the chloroplast. We review current information about cyanobacterial microcompartments and carbon-concentrating mechanisms, plant transformation strategies, replacement of Rubisco in a model C3 plant with cyanobacterial Rubisco and progress toward synthesizing a carboxysome in chloroplasts. PMID:26867858

  10. The Development of the C3 Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Susan Griffin, executive director of NCSS, was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that initiated and guided the development of "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards", which will soon be released. In this interview with "Social Education", Susan explains how the…

  11. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

  12. A simple method for the production of anti-C3d monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Carlos; León, Graciela

    2007-12-01

    Production of monoclonal antibodies to C3d usually involves the purification of protein. Our method does not require C3 purification; it relies on attachment of C3b to mouse erythrocytes by activation of alternative pathways and further conversion in C3d. We prepared human complement-coated mouse red cells and sensitized mice of the same strain with our own schedule of immunization and applied the classical methods to obtain a mouse monoclonal antibody. We obtained a clone called BMS-11 which produces a monoclonal antibody of IgM class, to C3d with a title of 1:500000. The monoclonal antibody obtained has shown that it is suitable for use as an antiglobulin reagent. PMID:18158789

  13. Extinct I-129 in C3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabb, J.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1982-01-01

    Eight C3 chondrites were examined by the I-129 to Xe-129 dating method to determine whether their initial I-129/I-127 ratios, or R(0), correlate with any other properties. The R(0)'s range from 1.60 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 x 10 to the -4th, corresponding to I to Xe ages from 2.0 Myr before to 6.7 Myr after the Murchison magnetite. Three C30's have essentially indistinguishable R(0)'s, while a fourth is undatable. Four C3V's show a distinct spread, ranging from 1.60 + or 0.07 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 + or - 0.10 x 10 to the -4th. These R(0)'s correlate inversely with four other properties: I, Br, and Cd content, olivine composition, both percent mean deviation, and proportion of iron-poor olivine grains. The simplest model that accounts for the correlations with R(0) involves mixing of two iodine components in the solar nebula, associated with gas and grains, respectively. The second, of lower I-129/I-127 ratio, predominated at later times and thus became enriched in late-formed meteorites.

  14. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  15. A Familial C3GN Secondary to Defective C3 Regulation by Complement Receptor 1 and Complement Factor H.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Sophie; Roumenina, Lubka T; Bruneau, Sarah; Marinozzi, Maria Chiara; Rybkine, Tania; Schramm, Elizabeth C; Java, Anuja; Atkinson, John P; Aldigier, Jean Claude; Bridoux, Frank; Touchard, Guy; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2016-06-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently described form of CKD. C3GN is a subtype of C3 glomerulopathy characterized by predominant C3 deposits in the glomeruli and is commonly the result of acquired or genetic abnormalities in the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. We identified and characterized the first mutation of the C3 gene (p. I734T) in two related individuals diagnosed with C3GN. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies showed C3 deposits in the subendothelial space, associated with unusual deposits located near the complement receptor 1 (CR1)-expressing podocytes. In vitro, this C3 mutation exhibited decreased binding to CR1, resulting in less CR1-dependent cleavage of C3b by factor 1. Both patients had normal plasma C3 levels, and the mutant C3 interacted with factor B comparably to wild-type (WT) C3 to form a C3 convertase. Binding of mutant C3 to factor H was normal, but mutant C3 was less efficiently cleaved by factor I in the presence of factor H, leading to enhanced C3 fragment deposition on glomerular cells. In conclusion, our results reveal that a CR1 functional deficiency is a mechanism of intraglomerular AP dysregulation and could influence the localization of the glomerular C3 deposits. PMID:26471127

  16. Molecular basis of complement C3 deficiency in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, H S; Burger, R; Dodds, A; Colten, H R

    1990-01-01

    In experiments to ascertain the biochemical basis of a genetically determined deficiency of the third component of complement (C3) in guinea pigs, we found that C3-deficient liver and peritoneal macrophages contain C3 messenger RNA of normal size (approximately 5 kb) and amounts, that this mRNA programs synthesis of pro-C3 in oocytes primed with liver RNA and in primary macrophage cultures. In each instance, heterodimeric native C3 protein was secreted with normal kinetics but the C3 protein product of the deficient cells failed to undergo autolytic cleavage and was unusually susceptible to proteolysis. These data and a selective failure of C3 in plasma of deficient animals to incorporate [14C]methylamine suggested either a mutation in primary structure of the C3 protein or a selective defect in co- or postsynthetic processing affecting the thiolester bridge, a structure important for C3 function. A mutation in the primary structure of C3 was ruled out by comparison of direct sequence analysis of C3 cDNA generated from two C3 deficient and two C3 sufficient guinea pig liver libraries. Three base pair differences, none resulting in derived amino acid sequence differences were identified. Finally, restriction fragment length polymorphisms were identified in the C3 gene that are independent of the deficiency phenotype. This marker of the C3 gene permits testing of these hypotheses using molecular biological and classical genetic methods. Images PMID:1973176

  17. Complement C3-Deficient Mice Fail to Display Age-Related Hippocampal Decline.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiaoqiao; Colodner, Kenneth J; Matousek, Sarah B; Merry, Katherine; Hong, Soyon; Kenison, Jessica E; Frost, Jeffrey L; Le, Kevin X; Li, Shaomin; Dodart, Jean-Cosme; Caldarone, Barbara J; Stevens, Beth; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2015-09-23

    The complement system is part of the innate immune response responsible for removing pathogens and cellular debris, in addition to helping to refine CNS neuronal connections via microglia-mediated pruning of inappropriate synapses during brain development. However, less is known about the role of complement during normal aging. Here, we studied the role of the central complement component, C3, in synaptic health and aging. We examined behavior as well as electrophysiological, synaptic, and neuronal changes in the brains of C3-deficient male mice (C3 KO) compared with age-, strain-, and gender-matched C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) control mice at postnatal day 30, 4 months, and 16 months of age. We found the following: (1) region-specific and age-dependent synapse loss in aged WT mice that was not observed in C3 KO mice; (2) age-dependent neuron loss in hippocampal CA3 (but not in CA1) that followed synapse loss in aged WT mice, neither of which were observed in aged C3 KO mice; and (3) significantly enhanced LTP and cognition and less anxiety in aged C3 KO mice compared with aged WT mice. Importantly, CA3 synaptic puncta were similar between WT and C3 KO mice at P30. Together, our results suggest a novel and prominent role for complement protein C3 in mediating aged-related and region-specific changes in synaptic function and plasticity in the aging brain. Significance statement: The complement cascade, part of the innate immune response to remove pathogens, also plays a role in synaptic refinement during brain development by the removal of weak synapses. We investigated whether complement C3, a central component, affects synapse loss during aging. Wild-type (WT) and C3 knock-out (C3 KO) mice were examined at different ages. The mice were similar at 1 month of age. However, with aging, WT mice lost synapses in specific brain regions, especially in hippocampus, an area important for memory, whereas C3 KO mice were protected. Aged C3 KO mice also performed better on

  18. Geminivirus C3 Protein: Replication Enhancement and Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Settlage, Sharon B.; See, Renee G.; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Most dicot-infecting geminiviruses encode a replication enhancer protein (C3, AL3, or REn) that is required for optimal replication of their small, single-stranded DNA genomes. C3 interacts with C1, the essential viral replication protein that initiates rolling circle replication. C3 also homo-oligomerizes and interacts with at least two host-encoded proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the retinoblastoma-related protein (pRBR). It has been proposed that protein interactions contribute to C3 function. Using the C3 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, we examined the impact of mutations to amino acids that are conserved across the C3 protein family on replication enhancement and protein interactions. Surprisingly, many of the mutations did not affect replication enhancement activity of C3 in tobacco protoplasts. Other mutations either enhanced or were detrimental to C3 replication activity. Analysis of mutated proteins in yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that mutations that inactivate C3 replication enhancement activity also reduce or inactivate C3 oligomerization and interaction with C1 and PCNA. In contrast, mutated C3 proteins impaired for pRBR binding are fully functional in replication assays. Hydrophobic residues in the middle of the C3 protein were implicated in C3 interaction with itself, C1, and PCNA, while polar resides at both the N and C termini of the protein are important for C3-pRBR interaction. These experiments established the importance of C3-C3, C3-C1, and C3-PCNA interactions in geminivirus replication. While C3-pRBR interaction is not required for viral replication in cycling cells, it may play a role during infection of differentiated cells in intact plants. PMID:16014949

  19. Step 1: C3 Flight Demo Data Analysis Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Data Analysis Plan (DAP) describes the data analysis that the C3 Work Package (WP) will perform in support of the Access 5 Step 1 C3 flight demonstration objectives as well as the processes that will be used by the Flight IPT to gather and distribute the data collected to satisfy those objectives. In addition to C3 requirements, this document will encompass some Human Systems Interface (HSI) requirements in performing the C3 flight demonstrations. The C3 DAP will be used as the primary interface requirements document between the C3 Work Package and Flight Test organizations (Flight IPT and Non-Access 5 Flight Programs). In addition to providing data requirements for Access 5 flight test (piggyback technology demonstration flights, dedicated C3 technology demonstration flights, and Airspace Operations Demonstration flights), the C3 DAP will be used to request flight data from Non- Access 5 flight programs for C3 related data products

  20. Interplay between invertebrate C3a with vertebrate macrophages: functional characterization of immune activities of amphioxus C3a.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the structure and function of C3a comes from the study of vertebrate C3a anaphylatoxins, virtually nothing is known about the structure and function of C3a molecules in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that C3a from the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma japonicum, BjC3a, was similar to vertebrate C3a possessing potential antibacterial activity, as revealed by sequence analysis and computational modeling. The antibacterial activity of BjC3a was definitely confirmed by both antibacterial assay and TEM observation showing that recombinant BjC3a was directly bactericidal. Additionally, recombinant BjC3a, like vertebrate C3a, was capable of inducing sea bass macrophage migration and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and respiratory burst response. Moreover, recombinant BjC3a-desArg (generated by removal of the C-terminal arginine), like mammalian C3a-desArg, retained the immunological activities of BjC3a such as antibacterial and respiratory burst-stimulating activities, indicating that the immunological functions of C3a-desArg were conserved throughout chordate evolution. Altogether, our findings show that invertebrate (amphioxus) BjC3a is able to interact with vertebrate (sea bass) macrophages and mediate immune activities, suggesting the emergence of the inflammatory pathway of the complement system similar to that of vertebrates in the basal chordate amphioxus. PMID:23954696

  1. Glycine decarboxylase in C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Stefanie; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2016-06-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a central role in photorespiration. GDC is localized in the mitochondria and together with serine hydroxymethyltransferase it converts two molecules of glycine to one molecule of serine, CO2 and NH3. Overexpression of GDC subunits in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana can increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway leading to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and consequently to an enhanced biomass production of the transgenic plants. Changing the spatial expression patterns of GDC subunits was an important step during the evolution of C3-C4 intermediate and likely also C4 plants. Restriction of the GDC activity to the bundle sheath cells led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. PMID:27038285

  2. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-3 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employees. 1.1402(c)-3 Section 1.1402(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-3 Employees. (a) General rule. Generally, the performance of service by...

  3. Deciphering the Regulon of Streptomyces coelicolor AbrC3, a Positive Response Regulator of Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Sergio; Santamaría, Ramón I.; Yepes, Ana; Rodríguez, Héctor; Laing, Emma; Bucca, Giselda; Smith, Colin P.

    2014-01-01

    The atypical two-component system (TCS) AbrC1/C2/C3 (encoded by SCO4598, SCO4597, and SCO4596), comprising two histidine kinases (HKs) and a response regulator (RR), is crucial for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor and for morphological differentiation under certain nutritional conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of the RR-encoding gene, abrC3 (SCO4596), results in a dramatic decrease in actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodiginine (RED) production and delays morphological development. In contrast, the overexpression of abrC3 in the parent strain leads to a 33% increase in ACT production in liquid medium. Transcriptomic analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis of the ΔabrC3 mutant and the parent strain revealed that AbrC3 directly controls ACT production by binding to the actII-ORF4 promoter region; this was independently verified by in vitro DNA-binding assays. This binding is dependent on the sequence 5′-GAASGSGRMS-3′. In contrast, the regulation of RED production is not due to direct binding of AbrC3 to either the redZ or redD promoter region. This study also revealed other members of the AbrC3 regulon: AbrC3 is a positive autoregulator which also binds to the promoter regions of SCO0736, bdtA (SCO3328), absR1 (SCO6992), and SCO6809. The direct targets share the 10-base consensus binding sequence and may be responsible for some of the phenotypes of the ΔabrC3 mutant. The identification of the AbrC3 regulon as part of the complex regulatory network governing antibiotic production widens our knowledge regarding TCS involvement in control of antibiotic synthesis and may contribute to the rational design of new hyperproducer host strains through genetic manipulation of such systems. PMID:24509929

  4. On the Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c classification.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2012-10-01

    As there are ambiguities in classification of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c, relatively frequent in populations of Northern Asia, we analyzed all three haplogroup-defining markers M48, M77 and M86 in C3-M217-individuals from Siberia, Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe. We have found that haplogroup C3c is characterized by the derived state at M48, whereas mutations at both M77 and M86 define subhaplogroup C3c1. The branch defined by M48 alone would belong to subhaplogroup C3c*, characteristic for some populations of Central and Eastern Siberia, such as Koryaks, Evens, Evenks and Yukaghirs. Subhaplogroup C3c* individuals could be considered as remnants of the Neolithic population of Siberia, based on the age of C3c*-short tandem repeat variation amounting to 4.5 ± 2.4 thousand years. PMID:22810113

  5. A New Episomic Element Controlling Fermentative Metabolism and Excretion of Amino Acids by Citrobacter intermedium C3

    PubMed Central

    Pares, R.; Guinea, J.; Hernandez, S.; Valoix, Josefina; Jofre, J.

    1974-01-01

    Glutamate excretion by colonies of Citrobacter intermedium C3 was detected by using the auxotrophic strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides P-60. A constant ratio of strain C3 colonies did not excrete glutamate. These colonies were subcultured, and colonial analysis of their descendants established that the change from non-excretor to excretor (Sg− → Sg+) is a spontaneous and random process with occurs at a high rate, and that an equilibrium state results from the back-transition Sg+ → Sg− in large populations. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, and shaking have a strong influence on Sg+-to-Sg− interconversion, which suggests that a genetic element like an episome is implicated (S factor). Various auxotrophic mutants of bacterial strain C3 have been cured of the S factor. Strains lacking the S factor (S− strains) do not excrete glutamate and lose their fermentative metabolism completely. Consequently, the S factor is different from other extrachromosomal genetic factors whose elimination does not modify central metabolism. The gain of the S factor by infectious transfer has been shown with different C3 auxotrophic mutant strains. Also, the S factor has been transferred to Paracolobactrum intermedium ATCC 11606. These findings suggest that phenotypic changes observed are a consequence of elimination or infectious gain of the S factor, with its autonomous or integrated multiplication. PMID:4600693

  6. Genome Sequence of Kocuria atrinae C3-8, Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Kocuria is a Gram-positive coccus, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial genus in the family Micrococcaceae. Kocuria atrinae C3-8 was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood. This study describes the first genome sequence of K. atrinae strain C3-8, which has a 3.19-Mbp genome and a G+C content of 63.8%. PMID:23045503

  7. Genome sequence of Kocuria atrinae C3-8, isolated from Jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim

    2012-11-01

    Kocuria is a Gram-positive coccus, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial genus in the family Micrococcaceae. Kocuria atrinae C3-8 was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood. This study describes the first genome sequence of K. atrinae strain C3-8, which has a 3.19-Mbp genome and a G+C content of 63.8%. PMID:23045503

  8. Intracellular sensing of complement C3 activates cell autonomous immunity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jerry C H; Bidgood, Susanna R; McEwan, William A; James, Leo C

    2014-09-01

    Pathogens traverse multiple barriers during infection, including cell membranes. We found that during this transition, pathogens carried covalently attached complement C3 into the cell, triggering immediate signaling and effector responses. Sensing of C3 in the cytosol activated mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS)-dependent signaling cascades and induced proinflammatory cytokine secretion. C3 also flagged viruses for rapid proteasomal degradation, preventing their replication. This system could detect both viral and bacterial pathogens but was antagonized by enteroviruses, such as rhinovirus and poliovirus, which cleave C3 using their 3C protease. The antiviral rupintrivir inhibited 3C protease and prevented C3 cleavage, rendering enteroviruses susceptible to intracellular complement sensing. Thus, complement C3 allows cells to detect and disable pathogens that have invaded the cytosol. PMID:25190799

  9. A study of C3HD in cold interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. B.; Avery, L. W.; Matthews, H. E.; Feldman, P. A.; Watson, J. K. G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1(10)-1(01) transition of C3HD was detected at 19.418 GHz at twelve positions in cold, dark clouds, and the D hyperfine components were resolved in two sources (L1498 and TMC-1C) well enough to derive values for the D quadrupole coupling constants. Simultaneous observations of C3H2 in each source yield relative integrated line intensities in the range 0.10-0.18, from which relative C3HD/C3H2 abundances in the range 0.05-0.15 were derived. These are among the highest deuteration ratios yet observed. Within the limits of the observational and modeling uncertainties, it is possible to explain the derived C3HD/C3H2 ratios by ion-molecule chemistry if e is equal to about 3 x 10 to the -7th.

  10. Intracellular sensing of complement C3 activates cell autonomous immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Jerry C.H.; Bidgood, Susanna R.; McEwan, William A.; James, Leo C.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens traverse multiple barriers during infection including cell membranes. Here we show that during this transition pathogens carry covalently attached complement C3 into the cell, triggering immediate signalling and effector responses. Sensing of C3 in the cytosol activates MAVS-dependent signalling cascades and induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion. C3 also flags viruses for rapid proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing their replication. This system can detect both viral and bacterial pathogens but is antagonized by enteroviruses, such as rhinovirus and poliovirus, which cleave C3 using their 3C protease. The antiviral Rupintrivir inhibits 3C protease and prevents C3 cleavage, rendering enteroviruses susceptible to intracellular complement sensing. Thus, complement C3 allows cells to detect and disable pathogens that have invaded the cytosol. PMID:25190799

  11. Platelet-associated complement C3 in immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Baldini, M.G.

    1982-05-01

    Platelet-associated C3 (PA-C3) was measured with a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. With this assay, PA-C3 levels were determined for 78 normal volunteers, 30 patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), and 20 patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenias. Platelet-associatd IgG (PA-lgG) levels were also measured with our standard quantitative immunofluorescence assay. All patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenias and ITP in remission had normal PA-C3 levels. Twenty-four patients with active ITP wre classified into 3 groups: 9 (38%) with increased PA-IgG and normal PA-C3 levels, 10 (42%) with elevated PA-C3 and PA-IgG levels, and 5 (20%) with increased PA-C3 values only. A direct correlation was found between PA-C3 and PA-IgG levels. PA-IgG levels were higher in the group of patients with elevated PA-C3 levels than in those with normal values. Platelet survival studies showed reduced survival times of 1.5-2.5 days for the 5 patients with elevated PA-C3 levels only. Elevated PA-C3 levels returned to normal in 7 ITP patients whose platelet counts increased in response to corticosteriod therapy or to splenectomy. Therefore, PA-C3 and PA-IgG assays can be used to identify patients with ITP, to follow their response to therapy, and to classify them into immunologic subgroups similar to red cell classifiation by Coombs' testing in immune hemolytic anemia.

  12. Stabilization/solidification on chromium (III) wastes by C(3)A and C(3)A hydrated matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangguo; He, Chao; Bai, Yun; Ma, Baoguo; Wang, Guandong; Tan, Hongbo

    2014-03-15

    Hazardous wastes are usually used in the Portland cement production in order to save energy, costs and/or stabilize toxic substances and heavy metals inside the clinker. This work focus on the stabilization/solidification on chromium (III) wastes by C(3)A and C(3)A hydrated matrix. The immobilization rate of chromium in C(3)A and the leaching characteristics of the C(3)A hydrated matrixes containing chromium were investigated by ICP-AES. The results indicated that C(3)A had a good solidifying effect on chromium using the clinkering process, however, the Cr leaching content of Cr-doped C(3)A was higher than that of hydrated C(3)A matrix in Cr(NO(3))3 solution and was lower than that of the hydrated C(3)A matrix in K(2)CrO(4) solution, no matter the leachant was sulphuric acid & nitric acid or water. To explain this, C(3)A formation, chemical valence states of chromium in C(3)A, hydration products and Cr distribution in the C(3)A-gypsum hydrated matrixes were studied by XRD, XPS and FESEM-EDS. The investigation showed that part of Cr(3+) was oxidized to Cr(6+) in the clinkering process and identified as the chromium compounds Ca(4)Al(6)O(12)CrO(4) (3CaO·Al(20O(3)·CaCrO(4)), which resulted in the higher leaching of hydrated matrix of Cr-doped C(3)A. PMID:24468527

  13. 12 CFR 563c.3 - Qualification of public accountant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Qualification of public accountant. 563c.3 Section 563c.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACCOUNTING... CFR 210.2-01.) The term “qualified public accountant” means a certified public accountant or...

  14. Cardiac dysfunction caused by purified human C3a anaphylatoxin.

    PubMed Central

    del Balzo, U H; Levi, R; Polley, M J

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to define the cardiac effects of complement-derived C3a anaphylatoxin, in view of the possibility that cardiac dysfunction may occur as a result of complement activation. Purified human C3a was administered by intracoronary bolus injections into isolated guinea pig hearts. As a function of dose, C3a caused tachycardia, impairment of atrioventricular conduction, left ventricular contractile failure, coronary vasoconstriction, and histamine release. These effects were abolished by cleavage of the COOH-terminal arginine by carboxypeptidase B. The magnitude of C3a-induced tachycardia correlated with the amount of endogenous cardiac histamine released into the coronary effluent. Whereas the tachycardia was markedly reduced by the histamine H2 antagonist cimetidine, the contractile failure and the coronary vasoconstriction caused by C3a were antagonized by the leukotriene antagonist FPL 55712 and by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, respectively. This suggests that histamine, leukotrienes, and vasoactive prostanoates may mediate the various cardiac effects of C3a. Our findings indicate that C3a anaphylatoxin has marked cardiac effects at concentrations that are likely to be attained with a degree of C3 activation commonly seen in various disease states. Thus, our data are compatible with the hypothesis that generation of anaphylatoxins may induce cardiac dysfunction in clinical conditions. PMID:2579381

  15. 42 CFR 68c.3 - Who is eligible to apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply? 68c.3 Section 68c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACEPTION AND INFERTILITY...

  16. 42 CFR 68c.3 - Who is eligible to apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply? 68c.3 Section 68c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACEPTION AND INFERTILITY...

  17. 42 CFR 68c.3 - Who is eligible to apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply? 68c.3 Section 68c.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACEPTION AND INFERTILITY...

  18. Thermal stability of the polyheme cytochrome c3 superfamily.

    PubMed

    Florens, L; Bianco, P; Haladjian, J; Bruschi, M; Protasevich, I; Makarov, A

    1995-10-16

    The cytochrome c3 superfamily includes Desulfovibrio polyheme cytochromes c. We report the characteristic thermal stability parameters of the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway (D.d.N.) cytochromes c3 (M(r) 13,000 and M(r) 26,000) and the Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (D.v.H.) cytochrome c3 (M(r) 13,000) and high molecular mass cytochrome c (Hmc), as obtained with the help of electronic spectroscopy, voltammetric techniques and differential scanning calorimetry. The polyheme cytochromes are denatured over a wide range of temperatures: the D.v.H. cytochrome c3 is highly thermostable (Td = 121 degrees C) contrary to the D.d.N. protein (Td = 73 degrees C). The thermostability of the polyheme cytochromes is redox state dependent. The results are discussed in the light of the structural and functional relationships within the cytochrome c3 superfamily. PMID:7589483

  19. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3–C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l–1) and glacial (180 μl l–1) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3–C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3–C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3–C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3–C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3–C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

  20. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Widman, P.K.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for U(VI) reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) was investigated. The H2-dependent U(VI) reductase activity in the soluble fraction of the cells was lost when the soluble fraction was passed over a cationic exchange column which extracted cytochrome c3. Addition of cytochrome c3 back to the soluble fraction that had been passed over the cationic exchange column restored the U(VI)-reducing capacity. Reduced cytochrome c3 was oxidized by U(VI), as was a c-type cytochrome(s) in whole-cell suspensions. When cytochrome c3 was combined with hydrogenase, its physiological electron donor, U(VI) was reduced in the presence of H2. Hydrogenase alone could not reduce U(VI). Rapid U(VI) reduction was followed by a subsequent slow precipitation of the U(IV) mineral uraninite. Cytochrome c3 reduced U(VI) in a uranium-contaminated surface water and groundwater. Cytochrome c3 provides the first enzyme model for the reduction and biomineralization of uranium in sedimentary environments. Furthermore, the finding that cytochrome c3 can catalyze the reductive precipitation of uranium may aid in the development of fixed-enzyme reactors and/or organisms with enhanced U(VI)-reducing capacity for the bioremediation of uranium- contaminated waters and waste streams.

  1. Electrostatic Steering Accelerates C3d:CR2 Association.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rohith R; Huber, Gary A; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-25

    Electrostatic effects are ubiquitous in protein interactions and are found to be pervasive in the complement system as well. The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2) has evolved to become a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Electrostatic interactions have been suggested to be the driving factor for the association of the C3d:CR2 complex. In this study, we investigate the effects of ionic strength and mutagenesis on the association of C3d:CR2 through Brownian dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that the formation of the C3d:CR2 complex is ionic strength-dependent, suggesting the presence of long-range electrostatic steering that accelerates the complex formation. Electrostatic steering occurs through the interaction of an acidic surface patch in C3d and the positively charged CR2 and is supported by the effects of mutations within the acidic patch of C3d that slow or diminish association. Our data are in agreement with previous experimental mutagenesis and binding studies and computational studies. Although the C3d acidic patch may be locally destabilizing because of unfavorable Coulombic interactions of like charges, it contributes to the acceleration of association. Therefore, acceleration of function through electrostatic steering takes precedence to stability. The site of interaction between C3d and CR2 has been the target for delivery of CR2-bound nanoparticle, antibody, and small molecule biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutics. A detailed knowledge of the physicochemical basis of C3d:CR2 association may be necessary to accelerate biomarker and drug discovery efforts. PMID:27092816

  2. Degradation of C3a anaphylatoxins by rat mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    Incubation of /sup 125/I-human C3a with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC) causes extensive degradation of the ligand. Both cell-bound and free /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) was degraded by RMC, even at 0/sup 0/C, based on SDS-PAGE analysis. The authors examined several protease inhibitors for their ability to prevent degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a (hu). Degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) by RMC was not inhibited by leupeptin, antipain, elastatinal, pepstatin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin or EDTA. TPCK and TLCK were only partially effective. PMSF, chymostatin and SBTI were most effective in preventing /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) degradation. These latter compounds are effective inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like enzyme chymase extracted from RMC, as is TPCK, based on hydrolysis of the substrate BTEE. Degradation of cell-bound ligand is totally prevented only by PMSF (or DFP). Therefore, /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) bound to the RMC appears to be degraded predominantly by chymase; however the cell-bound ligand is attacked by other surface proteases. Degradation of rat C3a by RMC was examined. After incubation with RMC, cell-bound and free /sup 125/I-C3a (rat) showed no evidence of degradation with or without inhibitors present. From these results, the authors conclude that chymase may not play a significant role in regulating anaphylatoxin activity. Furthermore, the authors propose that rat C3a is a preferred ligand for identifying receptors on mast cells because of its resistance to proteolysis.

  3. C3d adjuvant effects are mediated through the activation of C3d-specific autoreactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    De Groot, Anne S.; Ross, Ted M.; Levitz, Lauren; Messitt, Timothy J.; Tassone, Ryan; Boyle, Christine M.; Vincelli, Amber J.; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William; Knopf, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Complement fragment C3d covalently attached to antigens enhances immune responses, particularly for antigens lacking T cell epitopes. Enhancement has been attributed to receptor cross-linking between complement receptor CR2 (CD21) and polysaccharide antigen to surface IgM on naïve B cells. Paradoxically, C3d has still been shown to increase immune responses in CD21 KO mice, suggesting that an auxiliary activation pathway exists. In prior studies, we demonstrated the CD21-independent C3d adjuvant effect might be due to T cell recognition of C3d T helper epitopes processed and presented by MHC class II on the B cell surface. C3d peptide sequences containing concentrated clusters of putative human C3 T cell epitopes were identified using the epitope-mapping algorithm, EpiMatrix. These peptide sequences were synthesized and shown in vitro to bind multiple HLA-DR alleles with high affinity, and induce IFNγ responses in healthy donor PBMCs. In the present studies, we establish further correlations between HLA binding and HLA-specific lymphocyte reactions with select epitope clusters. Additionally, we show that the T cell phenotype of C3d-specific reactive T cells is CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells. Finally, mutation of a single T cell epitope residing within the P28 peptide segment of C3d resulted in significantly diminished adjuvant activity in BALB/c mice. Collectively, these studies support the hypothesis that the paradoxical enhancement of immune responses by C3d in the absence of CD21 is due to internalization and processing of C3d into peptides that activate autoreactive CD4+ T helper cells in the context of HLA class II. PMID:25385064

  4. New thermodynamic functions for the C3 molecule.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, W. E.; Davy, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    When graphite is used as ablation material in heat shields, very often a prominent carbon species vaporized into the stream is C3. The thermodynamic properties of the C3 molecule are, therefore, important in calculating transport phenomena in the ablation flow field. The nature of the C3 thermodynamic functions has been in doubt because of the uncertain contribution of the bending mode vibrations to the total internal energy of the molecule. An approach for overcoming these difficulties is considered. The results of the computations are presented in the form of graphs and approximating functions.

  5. Immune evasion of Enterococcus faecalis by an extracellular gelatinase that cleaves C3 and iC3b.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Yong; Shin, Yong Pyo; Kim, Chong Han; Park, Ho Jin; Seong, Yeon Sun; Kim, Byung Sam; Seo, Sook Jae; Lee, In Hee

    2008-11-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (Ef) accounts for most cases of enterococcal bacteremia, which is one of the principal causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI). Among several virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of Ef, an extracellular gelatinase (GelE) has been known to be the most common factor, although its virulence mechanisms, especially in association with human BSI, have yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we describe the complement resistance mechanism of Ef mediated by GelE. Using purified GelE, we determined that it cleaved the C3 occurring in human serum into a C3b-like molecule, which was inactivated rapidly via reaction with water. This C3 convertase-like activity of GelE was shown to result in a consumption of C3 and thus inhibited the activation of the complement system. Also, GelE was confirmed to degrade an iC3b that was deposited on the Ag surfaces without affecting the bound C3b. This proteolytic effect of GelE against the major complement opsonin resulted in a substantial reduction in Ef phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In addition, we verified that the action of GelE against C3, which is a central component of the complement cascade, was human specific. Taken together, it was suggested that GelE may represent a promising molecule for targeting human BSI associated with Ef. PMID:18941224

  6. Photorespiration connects C3 and C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-05-01

    C4 plants evolved independently more than 60 times from C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait and its evolution from the ancestral C3 photosynthetic pathway involved the modification of the leaf anatomy and the leaf physiology accompanied by changes in the expression of thousands of genes. Under high temperature, high light, and the current CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, the C4 pathway is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis because it increases the CO2 concentration around the major CO2 fixating enzyme Rubisco. The oxygenase reaction and, accordingly, photorespiration are largely suppressed. In the present review we describe a scenario for C4 evolution that not only includes the avoidance of photorespiration as the major driving force for C4 evolution but also highlights the relevance of changes in the expression of photorespiratory genes in inducing and establishing important phases on the path from C3 to C4. PMID:26912798

  7. Development of a C3 generic workstation: System overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A command, control, and communications (C3) environment is described which will be applied to the evaluation of performance of aircrews, particularly in situations in which they are subjected to chemical defense protection drugs and antihistamines.

  8. Transcription Factor SP2 Enhanced the Expression of Cd14 in Colitis-Susceptible C3H/HeJBir

    PubMed Central

    Zschemisch, Nils-Holger; Brüsch, Inga; Hambusch, Anne-Sophie; Bleich, André

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analysis in the IL10-deficient mouse model revealed a modifier locus of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on chromosome 18, with the allele of the strain C3H/HeJBir (C3Bir) conferring resistance and the allele of C57BL/6J (B6) conferring susceptibility. Differential Cd14 expression was associated with this background specific susceptibility to intestinal inflammation. Polymorphisms of the Cd14 promoter were found to be likely causative for strain specific expression, and Cd14-knockout mice revealed a protective role of this gene-product in experimental IBD. In this study, luciferase reporter assays confirmed an increased activity of the C3Bir derived Cd14 promoter compared to the one of B6. Promoter truncation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis in both strains resulted in reduced Cd14 promoter activity and confirmed that a central AP1 and the proximal SP1 transcription factor binding sites mediated the basal activity of the Cd14 promoter in the mouse. Moreover, a T to C exchange at position -259 replaced putative STAT1 and CDX1 sites in the Cd14 promoter from B6 by a SP2 site in C3Bir. Ablation of the Sp2 site through truncation was associated with a decreased promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis also demonstrated that the inactivation of SP2 led to a substantial loss of promoter activity in C3Bir. Performing electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays demonstrated interaction of SP2 with its potential binding site. In addition, retroviral—mediated overexpression of the SP2 transcription factor in primary bone marrow macrophages derived from C3Bir mice caused a significant increase in Cd14 transcription. These data characterized SP2 as important factor responsible for higher Cd14 expression and reduced IBD susceptibility mediated by the C3Bir allele. PMID:27191968

  9. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel

    2016-03-01

    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects.

  10. Oxindoles and Spirocyclic Variations: Strategies for C3 Functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russel, Jonathon S.

    This chapter provides an overview of emerging strategies for the selective introduction of functionality at oxindole C3. Specific emphasis has been devoted toward asymmetric methods for the introduction of C3 quaternary centers and spirocyclic ring systems. The chapter has been divided into two sections on general methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of oxindoles and spirooxindoles, respectively. A third section is devoted toward efforts in natural product total synthesis involving oxindole or spirocyclic variants as targets or key intermediates.

  11. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers

    PubMed Central

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects. PMID:27013768

  12. Observations of C3 in Translucent Sight Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Thorburn, Julie A.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Friedman, Scott D.; Hobbs, Lewis M.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Welty, Daniel E.; York, Donald G.

    2003-01-01

    The A1Πu<-- X1Σ+g transition of the simplest polyatomic carbon chain molecule, C3, at 4051.6 Å has been searched for toward reddened stars where abundant C2 had been reported and toward other stars with high color excess. Absorption from C3 has been detected toward 15 stars with color excess E(B-V) from 0.33 to 1.12. The observed C3 column densities, ranging from 1012 to 1013 cm-2, are well correlated with the corresponding C2 column densities, with N(C2)/N(C3)~40, indicating their close chemical relation. The carbon-rich sight line toward HD 204827 (for which no previous C2 observation had been reported) has by far the highest C3 and C2 column densities. The chemistry of formation of C3 from C2 is discussed. A search for the next strongest 020-000 vibronic band was unsuccessful as a result of the low Franck-Condon factor and interference with a stellar line. Searches for C4 and C5 were negative.

  13. De novo C3 glomerulonephritis in a renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yu Seun; Cheong, Hae-Il; Lim, Beom Jin; Kim, Beom Seok; Jeong, Hyeon Joo

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) is a recently described, rare glomerular disease characterized by predominant or sole glomerular C3 deposits. Morphologic features of C3GN are similar to those of dense deposit disease (DDD); however, ribbon-like intramembranous electron-dense deposits are absent in the former. We report a case of de novo C3GN in a renal allograft with morphologic transformation to DDD. A 6-year-old boy presented with congenital left renal agenesis and right ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The patient underwent pyeloplasty but experienced recurrent urinary tract infections. At the age of 22 years, he received a renal allograft from a living related donor. C3GN was diagnosed after 1 year of transplantation; initial histology showed minimal mesangiopathy and this progressed to mesangial proliferation and membranoproliferative features over the next 7 years. Serum creatinine levels were stabilized with anti-rejection treatments for combating repeated episodes of acute rejection; however, glomerular and tubular band-like electron-dense deposits became evident. PMID:26986539

  14. Functional expression of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cytochrome c3 in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G200 after conjugational gene transfer from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, G; Pollock, W B; Bruschi, M; Guerlesquin, F; Rapp-Giles, B J; Wall, J D

    1990-01-01

    Plasmid pJRDC800-1, containing the cyc gene encoding cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough, was transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli DH5 alpha to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G200. The G200 strain produced an acidic cytochrome c3 (pI = 5.8), which could be readily separated from the Hildenborough cytochrome c3 (pI = 10.5). The latter was indistinguishable from cytochrome c3 produced by D. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough with respect to a number of chemical and physical criteria. Images PMID:2170341

  15. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy and Semi-Experimental Structures of Si2C3 and Ge2C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutter, Volker; Giesen, Thomas; Gauss, Jürgen; Thorwirth, Sven

    2014-06-01

    Molecular species of group 14 elements e.g. carbon, silicon, and germanium are well suited to study cumulenic bond properties and to compare experimental results with high level quantum chemical calculations. In our recent investigation of SiC_3Si and GeC_3Ge, a high resolution laser spectrometer has been used to record rotationally resolved spectra of selected isotopologues at 5 μm. We derived semi-empirical values for Si-C and Ge-C bond distances based on spectroscopic data and corresponding zero-point vibrational corrections calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVXZ level of theory (with X = T and Q). Comparison of semi-empirical structural parameters with those from quantum chemical calculations reveals very good agreement for both molecules. Relativistic effects are found negligible for SiC_3Si and small for GeC_3Ge.

  16. Comparative Characterization of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in C3, C4, and C3-C4 Intermediate Panicum Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Holaday, A. Scott; Black, Clanton C.

    1981-01-01

    Various properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases were compared in leaf preparations from C3-C4 intermediate, C3, and C4Panicum species. Values of Vmax in micromoles per milligram chlorophyll per hour at pH 8.3 were 57 to 75 for the enzyme from Panicum milioides, Panicum schenckii, and Panicum decipiens (all C3-C4). The values for Panicum laxum (C3) and Panicum prionitis (C4) were 20 to 40 and 952 to 1374, respectively. The Vmax values did not change at pH 7.3 except for the C4 value, which increased about 24%. At pH 8.3, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases from C3 and C3-C4 species had slightly higher Km HCO3− and lower K′ phosphoenolpyruvate values than did the C4 enzyme. With each species at pH 7.3, all K′ phosphoenolpyruvate values were 2- to 4-fold greater. The enzyme from all species was inhibited 85 to 90% by 1 millimolar malate at rate-limiting phosphoenolpyruvate and Mg2+ levels. With low levels of malate, 0.2 millimolar, the rate curve with respect to phosphoenolpyruvate was distinctly sigmoidal, and the inhibition was not eliminated at 5 millimolar phosphoenolpyruvate. Malate at 10 millimolar protected all phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases from inactivation at 55 C at pH 5.5, but not at pH 8.3. Aspartate did not protect well. When incubated at 37 C at pH 8.3 without phosphoenolpyruvate, but with HCO3−, the enzyme from several C4 grasses lost 92 to 98% of the initial activity after 4 minutes, whereas the enzymes from C3 and C3-C4Panicum species retained 60 to 70% of their activities. In contrast, 5 millimolar phosphoenolpyruvate stabilized the enzyme at 37 C in all plant extracts. The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from C3-C4 intermediate Panicum species has properties most similar to the enzyme from C3Panicum species. The higher leaf activity of the enzyme from the intermediate plants than from C3 species is not due to any unusual property assayed other than a higher Vmax. PMID:16661669

  17. The Role of the Tetraheme Cytochrome c3 in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Semkiw, Elizabeth; Zane, Grant; Wall, Judy

    2010-05-17

    The role of tetraheme cytochrome c3 (CycA) in the metabolism of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) was investigated by deletion of the cycA gene using a marker-exchange deletion strategy. A highly abundant periplasmic cytochrome, CycA has the important function of transferring electrons from periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd, Hyn, Hys) to transmembrane complexes which transport the electrons to the cytoplasm where sulfate is reduced. Previous studies have indicated that during its interaction with periplasmic hydrogenases, CycA is also involved in the reduction of toxic metals. Growth of the cycA mutant strain on lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor showed that, despite its abundance, CycA is not essential for DvH growth. However, the rate of growth of the mutant strain was significantly lower, and the extent of growth less, than rates and extents of growth of the wild type and complement strains on lactate/sulfate medium. This indicates that a portion of the electrons generated from cytoplasmic lactate oxidation are transported by CycA for energy production, possibly in a hydrogen cycling mechanism employed to generate ATP. Failure of the mutant strain to grow on either formate or H2, with sulfate or sulfite as electron acceptors, further indicated that CycA may be the only redox partner of periplasmic hydrogenases. The cycA mutant strain also did not grow as well as either the wild type or complement strains on medium supplemented with pyruvate/sulfate. Final growth on pyruvate/sulfate was comparable, but the mutant grew more slowly than the wild type and complement strains. Interestingly, the mutant grew better than the wild type or complement strains on pyruvate alone, possibly due to the release of H2 and/or CO2 in concentrations which may be somewhat inhibitory to wild type growth.

  18. High Tibetan Plateau: a Nature Reserve of C3 Flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, G.; Pagani, M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and associated climate changes leading to enhanced seasonality in precipitation and drying, are argued to have induced a global ecological shift from C3-frorest to C4-grassland between 8 and 5 million years ago. However, both tectonic and climatic changes predate the timing of the C3-C4 transition, with paleoaltimetry studies pointing to a high Tibetan Plateau no later than 10 Ma and the existence of an intense monsoon since ca. 11 Ma. To better understand the role of the Tibetan Plateau, we present results of a paleoecology study based on the carbon isotope compositions of leaf-wax n-alkanes (δ13Calk) from Qaidam basin, an intermontane basin on the youngest and the northernmost portion of Tibetan Plateau. Samples were collected from a 5-km thick, fluvial-lacustrine sequence dated 15 Ma to 1.8 Ma. Organic geochemical indices and detrital thermochronological studies preclude post-depositional thermal alteration of the studied materials. Our results, which show persistently low δ13Calk values, are consistent with the dominance of C3 flora on the Tibetan Plateau, in contrast to the prominent C4 rise surrounding the Tibetan Plateau and around the globe. We argue that a high Tibetan Plateau, established prior to the global ecological C3-C4 shift, served as a shelter of C3 flora since the Miocene. High-elevation and cold environments provided a competitive advantage for C3 by damping/counteracting the physiological advantage of C4 which outperforms C3 plants under warm, high-irradiance, water-stress and low pCO2 conditions.

  19. Herschel observation of C3 in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, B.; Giesen, T.; Stutzki, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Black, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    We present spectrally resolved observations of triatomic carbon (C3) in several ro-vibrational transitions between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy ν2 bending mode at frequencies above 1.6 THz using HIFI onboard Herschel, towards several Galactic star forming regions including W31C, W49N, DR21(OH), W33A and W51. These observations have been performed as part of the Herschel key programme PRISMAS. C3 lines arising from the warm envelopes surrounding the hot cores associated with these star forming regions are detected in absorption. We shall present results of detailed radiative transfer models in which the C3 lines are excited by FIR pumping by the dust continuum.

  20. Observations of Rotationally Resolved C3 in Translucent Sight Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Blake, Geoffrey A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2003-09-01

    The rotationally resolved spectrum of the A1Πu<--X1Σ+g 000-000 transition of C3, centered at 4051.6 Å, has been observed along 10 translucent lines of sight. To interpret these spectra, a new method for the determination of column densities and analysis of excitation profiles involving the simulation and fitting of observed spectra has been developed. The populations of lower rotational levels (J<=14) in C3 are best fitted by thermal distributions that are consistent with the kinetic temperatures determined from the excitation profile of C2. Just as in the case of C2, higher rotational levels (J>14) of C3 show increased nonthermal population distributions in clouds that have been determined to have total gas densities below ~500 cm-3.

  1. The 4051 Å Comet Band of 13C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, M. A.; Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.; Ubachs, W.

    2014-02-01

    The tricarbon C3 molecule has been detected in a number of translucent interstellar clouds via its $A^1\\Piu-X^1\\Sigmag+$ (000-000) electronic `comet' band around 4051 Å. So far, it is the largest molecule unambiguously identified in the diffuse interstellar medium. In this work, rotationally resolved laboratory spectra are presented for the corresponding transition of the 13C3 isotopologue. The spectra are recorded in direct absorption using cavity ring-down spectroscopy in combination with a supersonic plasma jet. A rotational analysis yields accurate spectroscopic parameters. In contrast to 12C3, no significant perturbations are found for (e- or f-parity) levels up to J' = 18 in the A 1Π upper electronic state.

  2. C3 glomerulopathy: A new complement-based entity.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, A; Tallón, S; Hernández-Sevillano, B; de Arriba, G

    2014-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a new, recently described entity that has changed the perspective, treatment and classification of a number of glomerular diseases. It encompasses 2 similar but clearly differentiated pathologies -the dense-deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis itself. The alternative complement pathway plays a fundamental role in its pathogenesis and, specifically, the mutations and defects in its regulatory factors (mainly factor H and factor I), as well as the presence of acquired autoantibodies (C3 nephritic factor), which generates an unbridled activation of the system, and ultimately, a deposit of its products at the glomerular level. Its poor prognosis and onset in young populations makes the detailed study of new therapeutic alternatives for this disease essential. Recently eculizumab, an anti-C5 antibody, has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of these patients. PMID:24576419

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1d - Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1d Section 240.15c3-1d Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-1d Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a... (D). (2) Certain Definitions. For purposes of 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 and this Appendix (D): (i)...

  4. Calibration of the LASCO C3 Coronal Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J.; Biesecker, D.; Esfandiari, A.; Korendyke, C.; Moses, D.; Rich, N.; Vourlidas, A.; Wang, D.; Howard, R. A.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.; Thernisien, A.

    2002-05-01

    The LASCO C3 coronagraph has provided coronal observations since May, 1996. Preliminary calibrations have been available during most of this time period. However, some aspects of the calibration have required re-evaluation and we are just completing a complete review of the calibration procedure for these images. In this presentation we will discuss the steps required to correct LASCO C3 images. This includes corrections required by both optical and electrical characteristics of the instrument as well as timimg and spacecraft pointing driven correctons.

  5. Kidney transplant outcomes in familial C3 glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Limy; Moran, Sarah; Lavin, Peter J.; Dorman, Anthony M.; Conlon, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy, a newly designated entity, is characterized by glomerular disease associated with dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway and is a rare cause of end-stage kidney disease. Overall disease characteristics that include clinical presentation, laboratory assessment, histopathology and genetic background have only been unravelled in recent years and have led to the development of anti-complement therapies targeting different levels of the alternative pathway. We describe the long-term outcomes following kidney transplantation in an Irish family with familial C3 glomerulopathy due to a hybrid CFHR3-1 gene. PMID:27274824

  6. Stimulated emission pumping spectroscopy of jet-cooled C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohlfing, Eric A.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.

    1989-06-01

    We report a dispersed fluorescence spectrum obtained for excitation of a ∑+u-∑+g vibronic band of C3 at 33 588 cm-1, part of a newly discovered electronic system. Rotationally resolved stimulated-emission-pumping spectra of jet-cooled C3 using this ∑+u intermediate state are presented for dumping to the 0v121 (1≤v2≤13) and 6v121 (1≤v2≤5) levels in the 1Σ+g ground state. Vibrational term energies, rotational constants, and l-type doubling parameters are determined for each level.

  7. Tolerance is dependent on complement C3 fragment iC3b binding to antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Bora, Puran S.; Suk, Hye-Jung; Molina, Hector; Kaplan, Henry J.; Bora, Nalini S.

    2007-01-01

    Systemic tolerance can be induced by the introduction of antigen into an immune-privileged site. Here we investigated the role of complement in the induction of tolerance after intraocular injection. We found that the development of antigen-specific tolerance is dependent on a complement activation product. The ligation of the complement C3 activation product iC3b to complement receptor type 3 (the iC3b receptor) on antigen-presenting cells resulted in the sequential production of transforming growth factor-β2 and interleukin-10, which is essential for the induction of tolerance. These observations may extend to the development of both neonatal tolerance and other forms of acquired tolerance. PMID:12514742

  8. Mechanical properties and chemical bonding characteristics of Cr7C3 type multicomponent carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, B.; Feng, J.; Zhou, C. T.; Jiang, Y. H.; Zhou, R.

    2011-01-01

    The first principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to investigate the mechanical properties and chemical bonding features of several Cr7C3 type multicomponent carbides (Fe16Cr12C12, Fe12Cr12W4C12, Fe12Cr12Mo4C12, Fe12Cr12W4C8B4, and Fe12Cr12Mo4C8B4). The full set elastic constants are calculated using stress-strain method. The Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation is used to evaluate the mechanical moduli. The mechanical anisotropy is characterized by calculating several different anisotropic indexes and factors, such as universal anisotropic index (AU), shear anisotropic factors (A1, A2, and A3), and percent anisotropy (AB and AG). The surface constructions of bulk and Young's moduli are illustrated to indicate the mechanical anisotropy. The obtained results indicate that the presence of B could deteriorate the mechanical moduli of (Fe,Cr)7C3 phase in Cr cast iron slightly. On the other hand, the chemical stability of (Fe,Cr)7C3 carbides is improved due to chemical bonding modifications through doping with B. These conclusions are in agreement with experimental results.

  9. A fluorescence model of the C3 radical in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, P.; Arpigny, C.; Rauer, H.; Cochran, A. L.; Gredel, R.; Cochran, W. D.; Manfroid, J.; Fitzsimmons, A.

    2001-03-01

    Theoretical resonance fluorescence calculations are presented of the triatomic C3 radical and are compared with observations of the C3 emission in comets Hale-Bopp and de Vico. A theoretical model of the C3 vibration-rotational structure in the A1Piu - X1Sigmag + electronic system is introduced. The model takes into account the detailed structure of the bending mode nu2 which is responsible for the emission of the 4050 Å group. A total of 1959 levels are considered, with 515 levels in the ground state. The main effort is to model high-resolution spectra of the 4050 Å emission in comets C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp and 122P/1995 S1 de Vico. The agreement between observed and theoretical spectra is good for a value of the dipole moment derivative of dmu/dr ~ 2.5 Debye Å-1. The modeled C3 emission exhibits a pronounced Swings effect. Based on observations made with William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and on observations made at the McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin, USA.

  10. The C3 Experience: Counseling, Computers, and Creative Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne, Ed.

    This document contains six major presentations from the 1984 summer workshop, "The C3 Experience: Counseling, Computers, and Creative Change," sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services. The first presentation, "Exponential Counseling: Computers as a Multiplier" by JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey, reviews the role that…

  11. Modelling C3 photosynthesis from the chloroplast to the ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, photosynthesis accounts for the largest flux of CO2 from the atmosphere into ecosystems and is the driving process for terrestrial ecosystem function. The importance of accurate predictions of photosynthesis over a range of plant growth conditions led to the development of a C3 photosynthe...

  12. IAFAL-C3, Medicago sativa subsp. falcata germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, in cooperation with Iowa State University announces the release of 'IAFAL-C3' a yellow flowered alfalfa germplasm. This population was developed cooperatively by US Dairy Forage Research Center (USDA-ARS) research geneticis...

  13. Hydrology of C-3 Watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposed changes to watershed management practices near C-3 Pool at Seney National Wildlife Refuge will affect surface-water flow patterns, ground-water levels, and possibly local plant communities. Data were collected between fall 1998 and spring 2000 to document existing conditions and to assess potential changes in hydrology that might occur as a consequence of modifications to water management practices in C-3 watershed. Minimum and maximum measured inflows and outflows for the study period are presented in light of proposed management changes to C-3 watershed. Streamflows ranged from 0 to 8.61 cubic meters per second. Low or zero flow was generally measured in late summer and early fall, and highest flows were measured during spring runoff and winter rain events. Ground-water levels varied by about a half meter, with levels closest to or above the land surface during spring runoff into the early summer, and with levels generally below land surface during late fall into early winter. A series of optional management practices that could conserve and restore habitat of the C-3 watershed is described. Modifications to the existing system of a drainage ditch and control structures are examined, as are the possibilities of reconnecting streams to their historical channels and the construction of additional or larger control structures to further manage the distribution of water in the watershed. The options considered could reduce erosion, restore presettlement streamflow conditions, and modify the ground-water gradient.

  14. Implementing the C3 Framework: Monitoring the Instructional Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herczog, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards calls upon social studies teachers to enhance the rigor of civics, economics, geography, history and the other social studies disciplines while building the critical thinking, problem solving, and participatory skills of students to help them become actively…

  15. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction in C3, C3-C4, and C4 Species of Flaveria1

    PubMed Central

    Koprivova, Anna; Melzer, Michael; von Ballmoos, Peter; Mandel, Therese; Brunold, Christian; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2001-01-01

    The activity of the enzymes catalyzing the first two steps of sulfate assimilation, ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), are confined to bundle sheath cells in several C4 monocot species. With the aim to analyze the molecular basis of this distribution and to determine whether it was a prerequisite or a consequence of the C4 photosynthetic mechanism, we compared the intercellular distribution of the activity and the mRNA of APR in C3, C3-C4, C4-like, and C4 species of the dicot genus Flaveria. Measurements of APR activity, mRNA level, and protein accumulation in six Flaveria species revealed that APR activity, cysteine, and glutathione levels were significantly higher in C4-like and C4 species than in C3 and C3-C4 species. ATP sulfurylase and APR mRNA were present at comparable levels in both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of C4 species Flaveria trinervia. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of APR protein in chloroplasts of both cell types. These findings, taken together with results from the literature, show that the localization of assimilatory sulfate reduction in the bundle sheath cells is not ubiquitous among C4 plants and therefore is neither a prerequisite nor a consequence of C4 photosynthesis. PMID:11598228

  16. Pressure Effects on Product Channels of the Allyl Radical Reactions; C3H5+C3H5 and C3H5+CH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.; N'Doumi, M.; Fahr, A.

    2011-12-01

    Relatively large hydrocarbon molecules (C4, C6 and larger) have been detected in several planetary environments. The mechanism for the formation of such large molecular species and detailed mechanism for their potential destruction are not well understood and are of considerable current interest. Previously we have studied the kinetics and product channels of small unsaturated hydrocarbon radical (C2 and C3s) reactions relevant to planetary atmospheric modeling. Reactions of C2 radicals (such as vinyl, H2CCH and ethynyl C2H) and C3 radicals (such as propargyl, HCCCH2) can affect the abundances of a large number of stable observable C3, C4, C5, C6 and larger molecules, including linear, aromatic and even poly aromatic molecules. Pressure-dependent product yields have been determined experimentally for the self- and cross-radical reactions performed at 298 K and at pressures between ~4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Final reaction products were quantitatively determined using a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID). In some cases complementary computational studies extended the pressure and temperature range of the experiments and provided valuable information on the complex reaction mechanisms. Theses studies provide a systematic framework so that important energetic and structural parameters for radical-radical reactions can be assessed. Here we report recent results for the allyl radical reactions H2CCCH3+ H2CCCH3 and H2CCCH3+CH3. For the allyl radical self-reaction, at high pressures the "head -to-head", combination channel forming 1,5-hexadiene is dominant with a combination/disproportionation = 1,5-hexadiene/propyne ratio of about 24 at 500 Torr (67 kPa, T=298K). At low pressures the ratio is substantially reduced to about 1.2 (at 0.3 kPa) and other major products are observed including allene, propene, 1-butene and propyne.

  17. Pregnancy rates, prenatal and postnatal survival of offspring, and litter sizes after reciprocal embryo transfer in DBA/2JHd, C3H/HeNCrl and NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Rose, C; Schwegler, H; Hanke, J; Yilmazer-Hanke, D M

    2012-06-01

    Success of embryo transfer is often a limiting factor in transgenic procedures and rederivation efforts, and depends on the genetic background of the donor and recipient strains used. Here we show that embryo transfer to DBA/2J females is possible, and present data on pre- and postnatal success rates after reciprocal embryo transfer using the inbred DBA/2J and C3H/HeN, and outbred NMRI strains. The highest embryo yield was achieved in outbred NMRI females, but embryo yields were similar in DBA/2J and C3H/HeN mice following superovulation despite poor estrus cycle synchronization in DBA/2J females. In-strain transfer of DBA/2J blastocysts (transfer of embryos to recipients from the same strain) resulted in pregnancy rates (57.1%) similar to those obtained following in-strain transfer of C3H/HeN (60.0%) and NMRI mice (83.3%), although the prenatal survival rate of blastocysts was low. Moreover, from the pups born only half survived the postnatal period after transfer of DBA/2J and C3H/HeN blastocysts to DBA/2J recipients. These problems were not observed when transferring NMRI-blastocysts to C3H/HeN and DBA/2J mothers. The number of blastocysts transferred also had a positive effect on the success of embryo transfer. In conclusion, C3H/HeN and DBA/2J females can be used as recipients for embryo transfer procedures for certain donor strains like NMRI, as one major determinant seems to be the genetic background of the embryos transferred. We also recommend to increase the number of DBA/2J blastocysts transferred, and to foster the DBA/2J pups to other DBA/2J mothers postnatally for in-strain transfer of DBA/2J mice. PMID:22401828

  18. Trabecular and Cortical Bone of Growing C3H Mice Is Highly Responsive to the Removal of Weightbearing

    PubMed Central

    Judex, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic make-up strongly influences the skeleton’s susceptibility to the loss of weight bearing with some inbred mouse strains experiencing great amounts of bone loss while others lose bone at much smaller rates. At young adulthood, female inbred C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice are largely resistant to catabolic pressure induced by unloading. Here, we tested whether the depressed responsivity to unloading is inherent to the C3H genetic make-up or whether a younger age facilitates a robust skeletal response to unloading. Nine-week-old, skeletally immature, female C3H mice were subjected to 3wk of hindlimb unloading (HLU, n = 12) or served as normal baseline controls (BC, n = 10) or age-matched controls (AC, n = 12). In all mice, cortical and trabecular architecture of the femur, as well as levels of bone formation and resorption, were assessed with μCT, histomorphometry, and histology. Changes in bone marrow progenitor cell populations were determined with flow cytometry. Following 21d of unloading, HLU mice had 52% less trabecular bone in the distal femur than normal age-matched controls. Reflecting a loss of trabecular tissue compared to baseline controls, trabecular bone formation rates (BFR/BS) in HLU mice were 40% lower than in age-matched controls. Surfaces undergoing osteoclastic resorption were not significantly different between groups. In the mid-diaphysis, HLU inhibited cortical bone growth leading to 14% less bone area compared to age-matched controls. Compared to AC, BFR/BS of HLU mice were 53% lower at the endo-cortical surface and 49% lower at the periosteal surface of the mid-diaphysis. The enriched osteoprogenitor cell population (OPC) comprised 2% of the bone marrow stem cells in HLU mice, significantly different from 3% OPC in the AC group. These data show that bone tissue in actively growing C3H mice is lost rapidly, or fails to grow, during the removal of functional weight bearing—in contrast to the insignificant response previously demonstrated in

  19. Trabecular and Cortical Bone of Growing C3H Mice Is Highly Responsive to the Removal of Weightbearing.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Sankaran, Jeyantt Srinivas; Judex, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic make-up strongly influences the skeleton's susceptibility to the loss of weight bearing with some inbred mouse strains experiencing great amounts of bone loss while others lose bone at much smaller rates. At young adulthood, female inbred C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice are largely resistant to catabolic pressure induced by unloading. Here, we tested whether the depressed responsivity to unloading is inherent to the C3H genetic make-up or whether a younger age facilitates a robust skeletal response to unloading. Nine-week-old, skeletally immature, female C3H mice were subjected to 3wk of hindlimb unloading (HLU, n = 12) or served as normal baseline controls (BC, n = 10) or age-matched controls (AC, n = 12). In all mice, cortical and trabecular architecture of the femur, as well as levels of bone formation and resorption, were assessed with μCT, histomorphometry, and histology. Changes in bone marrow progenitor cell populations were determined with flow cytometry. Following 21d of unloading, HLU mice had 52% less trabecular bone in the distal femur than normal age-matched controls. Reflecting a loss of trabecular tissue compared to baseline controls, trabecular bone formation rates (BFR/BS) in HLU mice were 40% lower than in age-matched controls. Surfaces undergoing osteoclastic resorption were not significantly different between groups. In the mid-diaphysis, HLU inhibited cortical bone growth leading to 14% less bone area compared to age-matched controls. Compared to AC, BFR/BS of HLU mice were 53% lower at the endo-cortical surface and 49% lower at the periosteal surface of the mid-diaphysis. The enriched osteoprogenitor cell population (OPC) comprised 2% of the bone marrow stem cells in HLU mice, significantly different from 3% OPC in the AC group. These data show that bone tissue in actively growing C3H mice is lost rapidly, or fails to grow, during the removal of functional weight bearing-in contrast to the insignificant response previously demonstrated in female

  20. Construction of a BALB/c congenic mouse, C.C3H-Lpsd, that expresses the Lpsd allele: analysis of chromosome 4 markers surrounding the Lps gene.

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, S N; Wax, J S; Perera, P Y; Padlan, C; Potter, M; Mock, B A

    1994-01-01

    Development of a congenic BALB/c mouse strain that contains a segment of chromosome 4 including the Lpsd allele of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ strain is presented. On the basis of LPS-induced spleen cell mitogenesis, macrophage tumor necrosis factor secretion, and tyrosine phosphorylation in vitro and lethality in galactosamine-sensitized mice in vivo, the C.C3H-Lpsd strain provides a model of LPS hyporesponsiveness that is comparable to that of the parental C3H/HeJ strain. Analysis of markers in this region indicates that length of the donor fragment is approximately 5.5 centimorgans. Thus, the C.C3H-Lpsd strain provides an important genetic tool for analysis of markers in this region and for examining functional effects of Lpsd expression on the BALB/c background. Images PMID:7927709

  1. Detection of C3 in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, John P.; Lakin, Nicholas M.; Walker, Gordon A. H.; Bohlender, David A.

    2001-05-01

    The smallest polyatomic carbon chain, C3, has been identified in interstellar clouds (Av~1 mag) toward ζ Ophiuchi, 20 Aquilae, and ζ Persei by detection of the origin band in its A1Πu- X1Σ+g electronic transition, near 4052 Å. Individual rotational lines were resolved up to J=30, allowing the rotational-level column densities and temperature distributions to be determined. The inferred limits for the total column densities (~1-2×1012 cm-2) offer a strong incentive to laboratory and astrophysical searches for the longer carbon chains. Concurrent searches for C+2, C-2, and C-3 were negative, but provide sensitive estimates for their maximum column densities.

  2. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C3F8) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C3F8. Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases.

  3. Preface: Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, 2D layered materials including graphene and g-C3N4 have attracted more and more attention in the field of photocatalysis and have become the research hotspots due to their broad applications in energy and environment-related areas. A critical appraisal of recent developments related to these important materials was the main theme of the 1st International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on June 5-8, 2015. This workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University and Changsha University, China. More than 140 scientists from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, the agenda of which included 8 plenary lectures, 17 keynote lectures, 11 invited lectures, 6 oral presentations and 61 posters.

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1d - Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... scheduled; (B) Failure to pay when due other money obligations of a specified material amount; (C) Discovery... Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1d Section 240.15c3-1d Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-1d Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1)....

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1d - Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... scheduled; (B) Failure to pay when due other money obligations of a specified material amount; (C) Discovery... Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1d Section 240.15c3-1d Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-1d Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1)....

  6. Deuterium hyperfine structure in interstellar C3HD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. B.; Watson, J. K.; Feldman, P. A.; Matthews, H. E.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterium nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of the transition 1(10)-1(01) of the ring molecule cyclopropenylidene-d1 (C3HD) has been observed in emission from interstellar molecular clouds. The narrowest linewidths (approximately 7 kHz) so far observed are in the cloud L1498. The derived D coupling constants Xzz = 186.9(1.4) kHz, eta=0.063(18) agree well with correlations based on other molecules.

  7. The interstellar C3 chain molecule in different interstellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G.; Pětlewski, A.; Musaev, F.; Moutou, C.; Lo Curto, G.; Krelowski, J.

    2002-12-01

    We present an analysis of spectra of six stars taken with high resolution (R=220 000). The stars are reddened by molecular clouds that differ by the relative strength of the 5797 and 5780 diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The high signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra (S/N ~ 700-1000) shows that the abundance of the linear molecule C3 with respect to EB-V varies considerably from one star to an other. There is no correlation with EB-V. The strong variations in the abundance of C3 must therefore be caused by another circumstance. We point out that this may be the case: from an analysis of the interstellar potassium lines in the same spectra we conclude large differences in the state of ionization produced by interstellar photons with energies below the ionization potential of hydrogen. The ratio of the abundances of C3 and C2 varies considerably in different directions, even when the ratio between the strengths of various DIBs remains approximately constant. Based on data collected at the ESO 3.6 m telescope operated on La Silla Observatory, Chile.

  8. Astronomical identification of the C3H radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Hjalmarson, A.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Linke, R. A.

    1985-07-01

    The C3H radical has been identified in the millimeter-wave spectra of IRC +10216 and TMC-1. In IRC +10216, four rotational transitions have been observed, three in the lower fine-structure ladder (2Pi1/2) and one in the upper (2Pi3/2), each a resolved or partially resolved lambda-doublet. In TMC-1, both lambda components of the lowest lying 3/2-1/2 transition of the 2Pi1/2 ladder have been observed, each with well-resolved hfs. In IRC +10216, the excitation of C3H is similar to that of SiCC: the rotational temperature Trot within the 2Pi1/2 ladder is low (8.5 K), because of rapid radiative decay, while Trot across the ladders is high (about 52 K), because interconnecting far-IR radiative transitions are only weakly permitted. The column density of C3H in IRC +10216 averaged over the estimated source diameter of 84 arcsec is 2.8 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm, an order of magnitude less than that of C2H and C4H.

  9. The Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, K. R.; Reis, J.; Hall, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    In response to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of climate change research, the Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) was formed in 2009 by the Welsh universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Initially funded by Welsh Government, through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Countryside Council for Wales and the universities, C3W aims to bring together climate change researchers from a wide range of disciplines to explore scientific and sociological drivers, impacts and implications at local, national and international scale. The specific aims are to i) improve our fundamental understanding of the causes, nature, timing and consequences of climate change on Planet Earth's environment and on humanity, and ii) to reconfigure climate research in Wales as a recognisable centre of excellence on the world stage. In addition to improving the infrastructure for climate change research, we aim to improve communication, networking, collaborative research, and multidisciplinary data assimilation within and between the Welsh universities, and other UK and international institutions. Furthermore, C3W aims to apply its research by actively contributing towards national policy development, business development and formal and informal education activities within and beyond Wales.

  10. Visual display principles for C3I system tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, William C.; Lane, David M.; Laux, Lila F.; Anderson, Loy A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1993-06-01

    Modern C3I systems are best described as semi-automated data management and decision systems over which human operators exercise supervisory control. The effectiveness of such systems is heavily dependent on the design for human-computer interaction (HCI), an important aspect of which is the visual display interface. Current Department of Defense policy mandates consideration of such human factors issues at an early stage in the design process. Comprehensive guidelines are available for display design applications after the general system parameters have been specified. Some recommendations are general, others are specific. This report offers a set of design principles at an intermediate (conceptual) level of abstraction as a complement to existing guidelines. The purpose is to synthesize current knowledge of human cognition into a form that will be applicable to the earliest stages of display design ('cognitive' functions being the most salient and critical of those remaining for the operator in advanced C3I systems). The principles are derived from a review of the literatures on human cognition, HCI, and display design, some original research, and liberal interpretation by the authors. They are organized according to operations performed on specific categories of information in possible C3I task configurations.

  11. Application of the C3-Binding Motif of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B to Protect Mice from Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chih-Feng; Tsao, Nina; Cheng, Miao-Hui; Yang, Hsiu-Chen; Wang, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Ying-Pin; Lin, Kai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that produces several extracellular exotoxins to facilitate invasion and infection. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) has been demonstrated to be an important virulence factor of GAS. Our previous studies indicate that SPE B cleaves complement 3 (C3) and inhibits the activation of complement pathways. In this study, we constructed and expressed recombinant fragments of SPE B to examine the C3-binding site of SPE B. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and pull-down assays, we found that the C-terminal domain, containing amino-acid residues 345–398, of SPE B was the major binding site of human serum C3. We further identified a major, Ala376-Pro398, and a minor C3-binding motif, Gly346-Gly360, that both mediated the binding of C3 complement. Immunization with the C3-binding motifs protected mice against challenge with a lethal dose of non-invasive M49 strain GAS but not invasive M1 strains. To achieve higher efficiency against invasive M1 GAS infection, a combination of synthetic peptides derived from C-terminal epitope of streptolysin S (SLSpp) and from the major C3-binding motif of SPE B (PP6, Ala376-Pro398) was used to elicit specific immune response to those two important streptococcal exotoxins. Death rates and the severity of skin lesions decreased significantly in PP6/SLSpp-immunized mice that were infected with invasive M1 strains of GAS. These results indicate a combination of the C3-binding motif of SPE B and the protective epitope of SLS could be used as a subunit vaccine against invasive M1 strains group A streptococcal infection. PMID:25629609

  12. The role of complement in C3 glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine; Chen, Qian; Wiech, Thorsten; Goodship, Tim; Johnson, Sally; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Nester, Clara; de Córdoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Noris, Marina; Pickering, Matthew; Smith, Richard

    2015-09-01

    C3 glomerulopathy describes a spectrum of disorders with glomerular pathology associated with C3 cleavage product deposition and with defective complement action and regulation (Fakhouri et al., 2010; Sethi et al., 2012b). Kidney biopsies from these patients show glomerular accumulation or deposition of C3 cleavage fragments, but no or minor deposition of immunoglobulins (Appel et al., 2005; D'Agati and Bomback, 2012; Servais et al., 2007; Sethi and Fervenza, 2011). At present the current situation asks for a better definition of the underlining disease mechanisms, for precise biomarkers, and for a treatment for this disease. The complement system is a self activating and propelling enzymatic cascade type system in which inactive, soluble plasma components are activated spontaneously and lead into an amplification loop (Zipfel and Skerka, 2009). Activation of the alternative pathway is spontaneous, occurs by default, and cascade progression leads to amplification by complement activators. The system however is self-controlled by multiple regulators and inhibitors, like Factor H that control cascade progression in fluid phase and on surfaces. The activated complement system generates a series of potent effector components and activation products, which damage foreign-, as well as modified self cells, recruit innate immune cells to the site of action, coordinate inflammation and the response of the adaptive immune system in form of B cells and T lymphocytes (Kohl, 2006; Medzhitov and Janeway, 2002; Ogden and Elkon, 2006; Carroll, 2004; Kemper and Atkinson, 2007; Morgan, 1999; Muller-Eberhard, 1986; Ricklin et al., 2010). Complement controls homeostasis and multiple reactions in the vertebrate organism including defense against microbial infections (Diaz-Guillen et al., 1999; Mastellos and Lambris, 2002; Nordahl et al., 2004; Ricklin et al., 2010). In consequence defective control of the spontaneous self amplifying cascade or regulation is associated with numerous

  13. Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimoldi, M.T.; Sher, A.; Heiny, A.; Lituchy, A.; Hammer, C.H.; Joiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors recently showed that culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (CMT), but not epimastigotes (Epi), of the Miranda 99 strain of Trypanosoma cruzi evade lysis by the human alternative complement pathway because of inefficient binding of factor B to complement component C3b on the parasite surface. These results suggested that CMT and tissue-culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), which also activate the alternative pathway poorly, might produce a molecule capable of interfering with factor B binding to C3b. They now demonstrate that CMT and TCT lysates, as well as molecules spontaneously shed from CMT and TCT but not Epi, accelerate decay of /sup 125/I-labeled factor Bb from the alternative-pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb) assembled on zymosan or Epi and also accelerate decay of the classical-pathway C3 convertase (C4b2a) on sheep erythrocytes. Parasites metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine spontaneously shed a limited number of radioactive components, ranging in molecular mass from 86 to 155 kDa for trypomastigotes and 25 to 80 kDa for Epi. Decay-accelerating activity within supernatants is inactivated by papain and is coeluted with /sup 35/S-containing polypeptides on FPLC anion-exchange chromatography, suggesting that the active constituents are protein molecules. Molecules with decay-accelerating activity may explain the developmentally regulated resistance to complement-mediated lysis in infective and vertebrate stages for T. cruzi life cycle.

  14. Vibrational Level Structures of the Ground Electronic States of the C_3-Ar and C_3-Ne Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ren; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2014-06-01

    The Heidelberg multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree package was used. to calculate the vibrational level structures of the ground electronic states of the C_3-Ar and C_3-Ne complexes. The previously reported 4-D ab initio potentials were converted to 6-D potentials by adding the potential energies of the C-C symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations of C_3. They were subsequently transformed from internal coordinates to Jacobi coordinates. The kinetic-energy operators were taken from Yang and Kühn. Preliminary results show that large amplitude motions occur in five coordinates: C-C-C bond angle, out-of-plane tilt angle, van der Waals stretch, van der Waals bend and one of the C-C bonds. G.A. Worth, M.H. Beck, A. Jäckle, H.-D. Meyer, F. Otto, M. Brill, and O. Vendrell, The MCTDH package, version 8.4, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 2011. Y. Yang and O. Kühn, Mol. Phys., 106, 2445 (2008)

  15. C-3 benzoic acid derivatives of C-3 deoxybetulinic acid and deoxybetulin as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Swidorski, Jacob J; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Protack, Tricia; Lin, Zeyu; Samanta, Himadri; Zhang, Sharon; Li, Zhufang; Parker, Dawn D; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Jenkins, Susan; Beno, Brett R; Krystal, Mark; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Dicker, Ira B; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2016-04-15

    A series of C-3 phenyl- and heterocycle-substituted derivatives of C-3 deoxybetulinic acid and C-3 deoxybetulin was designed and synthesized as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) and evaluated for their antiviral activity and cytotoxicity in cell culture. A 4-subsituted benzoic acid moiety was identified as an advantageous replacement for the 3'3'-dimethylsuccinate moiety present in previously disclosed MIs that illuminates new aspects of the topography of the pharmacophore. The new analogs exhibit excellent in vitro antiviral activity against wild-type (wt) virus and a lower serum shift when compared with the prototypical HIV-1 MI bevirimat (1, BVM), the first MI to be evaluated in clinical studies. Compound 9a exhibits comparable cell culture potency toward wt virus as 1 (WT EC50=16nM for 9a compared to 10nM for 1). However, the potency of 9a is less affected by the presence of human serum, while the compound displays a similar pharmacokinetic profile in rats to 1. Hence 9a, the 4-benzoic acid derivative of deoxybetulinic acid, represents a new starting point from which to explore the design of a 2nd generation MI. PMID:26968652

  16. Formation of C3 and C2 in Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Comets are remnants from the Solar System formation. They reside at large distances from the Sun and are believed to store deep freeze imprints of the chemical and physical conditions at the time the Solar System formed. The main ice component of a comet is H2O followed by CO and CO2 with additional small amounts of molecules with varying complexity. Comets also contain large amounts of dust. If a comet approaches the Sun the ices begin to sublimate giving rise to the cometary coma. The molecules producing the coma can be observed in the infrared, the radio wavelength range and at optical wavelengths. To constrain the formation of the Solar System, models require knowledge of the composition for a statistically significant number of comets. This favors optical observations of e.g. C3 (tricarbon) and C2 (dicarbon) since these species allow observations even of relatively faint comets and do not require space missions (infrared observations). However, one has to link these observed photodissociation product species (daughter species) to the molecules that originally sublimated from the comet nucleus surface, i.e. the so-called parent molecules, as e.g. C2H2 (acetylene) for C2. However, for C3 no parent molecules have been identified so far. This thesis investigates the formation of C3 and C2 radicals in cometary comae due to photodissociation of observed and in the literature proposed hydrocarbon parent molecules. For this purpose a one-dimensional multi-fluid coma chemistry model has been improved and applied. This work added new photo reactions to the model, updated the hydrocarbon photo rate coefficients and quantified their uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out to determine the reactions whose uncertainty most affect the model output uncertainty. Special attention should be paid to these so-called key reactions in future laboratory experiments and quantum chemical computations to reduce the model output uncertainty more effectively. This will

  17. The C3E Women in Clean Energy Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Saylors-Laster, Kim; Kirsch, Emily; Brown, Sandra; Jordan, Rhonda; Mukherjee, Anuradha; Martin, Cheryl; Madden, Alice; Araujo, Kathy

    2013-09-30

    The Clean Energy Education & Empowerment initiative (C3E), provides a forum for thought leaders across the clean energy sector to devise innovative solutions to the nation's most pressing energy challenges. This year, the symposium was held at MIT's Media Lab in Cambridge, MA, on September 19-20, 2013. What sets the annual conference apart is its focus on building a strong community of professionals dedicated to advancing more women leaders in clean energy fields. By working to leverage the skills, talents and perspectives of women, the symposium helps to better position the U.S. to lead the global clean energy revolution.

  18. Compositions of isolated forsterites in Ornans (C3O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. M.

    1989-08-01

    The Ornans (C3O) carbonaceous chondrite shows many examples of isolated olivine grains which are Mg-rich and show cathodoluminescence (CL). Using backscattered electron imaging to scan and select Mg-rich isolated olivine grains, and a CL detector, the chemical zoning within these grains was investigated together with its relation to CL and to chemical zoning of grains within a Fe-rich chondrule. Composition profiles from the core to the rim of five isolated forsterites showed details of Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe zoning with respet ot position and CL color.

  19. MCCx C3I Control Center Interface Emulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the project to develop and demonstrate alternate Information Technologies and systems for new Mission Control Centers that will reduce the cost of facility development, maintenance and operational costs and will enable more efficient cost and effective operations concepts for ground support operations. The development of a emulator for the Control Center capability will enable the facilities to conduct the simulation requiring interactivity with the Control Center when it is off line or unavailable, and it will support testing of C3I interfaces for both command and telemetry data exchange messages (DEMs).

  20. The C3E Women in Clean Energy Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Saylors-Laster, Kim; Kirsch, Emily; Brown, Sandra; Jordan, Rhonda; Mukherjee, Anuradha; Martin, Cheryl; Madden, Alice; Araujo, Kathy

    2014-01-10

    The Clean Energy Education & Empowerment initiative (C3E), provides a forum for thought leaders across the clean energy sector to devise innovative solutions to the nation's most pressing energy challenges. This year, the symposium was held at MIT's Media Lab in Cambridge, MA, on September 19-20, 2013. What sets the annual conference apart is its focus on building a strong community of professionals dedicated to advancing more women leaders in clean energy fields. By working to leverage the skills, talents and perspectives of women, the symposium helps to better position the U.S. to lead the global clean energy revolution.

  1. A Search for Interstellar Oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Arrhenius, G.; Bauder, A.; Mueller, F.; Eschenmoser, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen Of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(exp -10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  2. A search for interstellar oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Arrhenius, G; Pitsch, S; Bauder, A; Muller, F; Eschenmoser, A

    1996-04-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(-10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign. PMID:11536752

  3. Receptors for C3b and C3bi promote phagocytosis but not the release of toxic oxygen from human phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the release of H2O2 from granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages during spreading on ligand-coated culture surfaces. While IgG-coated surfaces stimulate vigorous release of H2O2, neither C3b- nor C3bi-coated surfaces promoted appreciable release of H2O2 despite full ligation of C3b and C3bi receptors. We also measured release of H2O2 from cultured monocytes spreading on surfaces coated with both fibronectin and C3. Under such circumstances, the C3 receptors elicit a strong phagocytic response, but no H2O2 release was recorded. We conclude that the C3b and C3bi receptors of monocytes and granulocytes do not signal the generation of toxic oxygen intermediates from these cells. PMID:6227677

  4. Receptors for C3b and C3bi promote phagocytosis but not the release of toxic oxygen from human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wright, S D; Silverstein, S C

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the release of H2O2 from granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages during spreading on ligand-coated culture surfaces. While IgG-coated surfaces stimulate vigorous release of H2O2, neither C3b- nor C3bi-coated surfaces promoted appreciable release of H2O2 despite full ligation of C3b and C3bi receptors. We also measured release of H2O2 from cultured monocytes spreading on surfaces coated with both fibronectin and C3. Under such circumstances, the C3 receptors elicit a strong phagocytic response, but no H2O2 release was recorded. We conclude that the C3b and C3bi receptors of monocytes and granulocytes do not signal the generation of toxic oxygen intermediates from these cells. PMID:6227677

  5. Third component of complement (C3): structural properties in relation to functions.

    PubMed Central

    Bokisch, V A; Dierich, M P; Mūller-Eberhard, H J

    1975-01-01

    The third component of complement (C3) fulfills a pivotal role in the functions of the complement system. We have investigated the topological relationships among its polypeptide chains, physiologic fragments, enzyme attack regions, and functional sites. C3 consists of two chains (alpha and beta) which are linked by disulfide bonds and noncovalent forces and which have molecular weights of, respectively, 120,000 and 75,000. C3 is activated by action of C3 convertase on the alpha-chain. With hydrolysis of one polypeptide bonds, C3a, the 9000 dalton activation peptide is dislocated from the NH2-terminal portion of the alpha-chain. A previously concealed binding region is thereby transiently revealed in the C3b-fragment (181,000 dalton) which displays affinity for apparently nonspecific acceptors present on biological membranes. Binding of nascent C3b membranes occurs through the C3d portion of the fragment because subsequent action of the C3b-inactivator or trypsin on bound C3b causes release of C3c, but not of C3d. Bound C3b and C3d possess stable sites that are capable of binding to specific receptors present on a limited variety of cells. We propose that all known physiologically occurring fragments of C3 arise by enzymatic cleavage of the alpha-chain: C3a, C3b, C3c, and C3d. Whereas C3a (alpha1) and C3e (alpha2) consist of a single chain and C3b consists of two chains (alpha' and beta), C3c is composed of the entire beta-chain and multiple fragments of the alpha-chain, each of which is linked by disulfide bonds to the beta-chain. Images PMID:1056006

  6. A fluorescence model of the C3 radical in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, P.; Arpigny, C.; Rauer, H.; Gredel, R.; Manfroid, J.; Fitzsimmons, A.

    2000-10-01

    The fluorescence spectrum of the C3 radical in comets is investigated. A theoretical model which takes into account the rotational structure and the different vibrational levels of the bending mode ν 2 involved in the emision of the 4050 Å \\ group, is elaborated. This model is used to interpret high-resolution spectra of some recent comets. The agreement between observed and theoretical spectra is satisfactory with some realistic assumptions on the electronic oscillator strength and the dipole moment derivative, which determine the relative importance of the rotation-vibration transitions. Different synthetic spectra which show the influence of the Swings effect and the consequences of the change in the heliocentric distance are also calculated and are presented.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage for Klebsiella pneumoniae C3.

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J M; Jofre, J T

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriophage FC3-1 is one of several specific bacteriophages of Klebsiella pneumoniae C3 isolated in our laboratory. Unlike receptors for other Klebsiella phages, the bacteriophage FC3-1 receptor was shown to be lipopolysaccharide, specifically the polysaccharide fraction (O-antigen and core region). We concluded that capsular polysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, and lipid A were not involved in phage binding. Mutants resistant to this phage were isolated and were found to be devoid of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen by several criteria but to contain capsular material serologically identical to that of the wild type. The polysaccharide fraction was concluded to be the primary phage receptor, indicating that it is available to the phage. Images PMID:3888963

  8. C3 generic workstation: Performance metrics and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1988-01-01

    The large number of integrated dependent measures available on a command, control, and communications (C3) generic workstation under development are described. In this system, embedded communications tasks will manipulate workload to assess the effects of performance-enhancing drugs (sleep aids and decongestants), work/rest cycles, biocybernetics, and decision support systems on performance. Task performance accuracy and latency will be event coded for correlation with other measures of voice stress and physiological functioning. Sessions will be videotaped to score non-verbal communications. Physiological recordings include spectral analysis of EEG, ECG, vagal tone, and EOG. Subjective measurements include SWAT, fatigue, POMS and specialized self-report scales. The system will be used primarily to evaluate the effects on performance of drugs, work/rest cycles, and biocybernetic concepts. Performance assessment algorithms will also be developed, including those used with small teams. This system provides a tool for integrating and synchronizing behavioral and psychophysiological measures in a complex decision-making environment.

  9. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Lenaerts, Anne J; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-06-01

    Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB). Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF), rifapentine (RPT), pyrazinamide (PZA), linezolid (LZD), sutezolid (PNU) or metronidazole (MTZ) for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU) counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes. PMID:26035868

  10. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Nuermberger, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB). Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF), rifapentine (RPT), pyrazinamide (PZA), linezolid (LZD), sutezolid (PNU) or metronidazole (MTZ) for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU) counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes. PMID:26035868

  11. A complement receptor locus: genes encoding C3b/C4b receptor and C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor map to 1q32.

    PubMed

    Weis, J H; Morton, C C; Bruns, G A; Weis, J J; Klickstein, L B; Wong, W W; Fearon, D T

    1987-01-01

    The alternative or classical pathways for complement system component C3 may be triggered by microorganisms and antigen-antibody complexes. In particular, an activated fragment of C3, C3b, covalently attaches to microorganisms or antigen-antibody complexes, which in turn bind to the C3b receptor, also known as complement receptor 1. The genes encoding the proteins that constitute the C3-activating enzymes have been cloned and mapped to a "complement activation" locus in the major histocompatibility complex, and we demonstrate in this study such a locus on the long arm of chromosome 1 at band 1q32. PMID:3782802

  12. The full expression of the ity phenotype in ityr mice requires C3 activation by Salmonella lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, F; Yoshikawa, S; Harada, H; Kita, M; Kita, E

    1998-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that the rapid and sufficient activation of complement by Salmonella lipopolysaccharide occurs in genetically resistant (Ityr) A/J mice. To assess whether the level of complement activation by a virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium regulates the level of murine natural resistance, we compared levels of serum complement activation by S. typhimurium and kinetics of serum-opsonized S. typhimurium grown in macrophages using several strains of resistant (Ityr) and susceptible (Itys) mice. Itys macrophages killed intracellular S. typhimurium to the same extent as did Ityr macrophages when the pathogen was opsonized with Ityr serum. Opsonization of S. typhimurium with Itys serum reduced intracellular killing activity in Ityr macrophages to the same level as seen with Itys macrophages. Incubation of S. typhimurium with 25% Mg2+ EGTA (5 mm MgCl2-3 mm ethylene glycol-bis (beta-aminotheyl either)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid)-chelated Ityr serum resulted in higher levels of C3 deposition onto the surface of this bacteria, C3b generation and also C3 consumption, compared with that with Mg2+ EGTA-chelated Itys serum. Opsonization of S. typhimurium with A/J serum prior to infection increased early resistance in Itys mice. Infection with a virulent strain of S. typhimurium induced the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA at higher levels in C57BL/6 mice than in A/J mice. However, opsonization of S. typhimurium with A/J serum decreased bacterial growth in the spleen of C57BL/6 mice to the same level as observed for A/J mice in association with decreased expression levels of IL-10 mRNA. Moreover, administration of anti-C3 antibodies reduced the resistance of A/J mice in association with a decrease in serum levels of C3. These results indicate that the high level of complement activation via the alternative pathway in Ityr serum by a virulent strain of S. typhimurium reduces the virulence of this pathogen, which may contribute to the full

  13. Transcriptional activation of c3 and hsp70 as part of the immune response of Acropora millepora to bacterial challenges.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya; Bourne, David; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks on coral physiology represents an increasing concern for the fitness and resilience of reef ecosystems. Predicting the tolerance of corals to disease relies on an understanding of the coral immune response to pathogenic interactions. This study explored the transcriptional response of two putative immune genes (c3 and c-type lectin) and one stress response gene (hsp70) in the reef building coral, Acropora millepora challenged for 48 hours with bacterial strains, Vibrio coralliilyticus and Alteromonas sp. at concentrations of 10(6) cells ml(-1). Coral fragments challenged with V. coralliilyticus appeared healthy while fragments challenged with Alteromonas sp. showed signs of tissue lesions after 48 hr. Coral-associated bacterial community profiles assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis changed after challenge by both bacterial strains with the Alteromonas sp. treatment demonstrating the greatest community shift. Transcriptional profiles of c3 and hsp70 increased at 24 hours and correlated with disease signs in the Alteromonas sp. treatment. The expression of hsp70 also showed a significant increase in V. coralliilyticus inoculated corals at 24 h suggesting that even in the absence of disease signs, the microbial inoculum activated a stress response in the coral. C-type lectin did not show a response to any of the bacterial treatments. Increase in gene expression of c3 and hsp70 in corals showing signs of disease indicates their potential involvement in immune and stress response to microbial challenges. PMID:23861754

  14. Transcriptional Activation of c3 and hsp70 as Part of the Immune Response of Acropora millepora to Bacterial Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tanya; Bourne, David; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks on coral physiology represents an increasing concern for the fitness and resilience of reef ecosystems. Predicting the tolerance of corals to disease relies on an understanding of the coral immune response to pathogenic interactions. This study explored the transcriptional response of two putative immune genes (c3 and c-type lectin) and one stress response gene (hsp70) in the reef building coral, Acropora millepora challenged for 48 hours with bacterial strains, Vibrio coralliilyticus and Alteromonas sp. at concentrations of 106 cells ml-1. Coral fragments challenged with V. coralliilyticus appeared healthy while fragments challenged with Alteromonas sp. showed signs of tissue lesions after 48 hr. Coral-associated bacterial community profiles assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis changed after challenge by both bacterial strains with the Alteromonas sp. treatment demonstrating the greatest community shift. Transcriptional profiles of c3 and hsp70 increased at 24 hours and correlated with disease signs in the Alteromonas sp. treatment. The expression of hsp70 also showed a significant increase in V. coralliilyticus inoculated corals at 24 h suggesting that even in the absence of disease signs, the microbial inoculum activated a stress response in the coral. C-type lectin did not show a response to any of the bacterial treatments. Increase in gene expression of c3 and hsp70 in corals showing signs of disease indicates their potential involvement in immune and stress response to microbial challenges. PMID:23861754

  15. Investigation of dielectric properties of cold C3F8 mixtures and hot C3F8 gas as Substitutes for SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhong, Linlin; Yan, Jing; Yang, Aijun; Han, Guohui; Han, Guiquan; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe

    2015-10-01

    In order to reduce the global warming potential resulting from SF6 widely used as an insulating and arc quenching medium, the substitutes need to be found. This paper focuses on different cold C3F8 mixtures (at room temperature) as an insulating gas and hot C3F8 gas (at temperatures of 300-3500 K) as an arc quenching medium, which seem to be a good replacement of SF6. Firstly, the dielectric properties, including the reduced ionization coefficient α / N, reduced electron attachment coefficient η / N and reduced critical electric field strength ( E / N)cr, of the cold C3F8-CF4, C3F8-CO2, C3F8-N2, C3F8-O2 and C3F8-Ar mixtures are calculated numerically using the two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation. The dependence of such dielectric properties on the buffer gas proportion is investigated. Among the various C3F8 mixtures, the C3F8-N2 mixture has the lowest α / N and the C3F8-CF4 mixture has the largest η / N, and moreover, the C3F8-N2 mixture is the best insulator in terms of breakdown strength because it has the largest ( E / N)cr. Secondly, the ( E / N)cr of hot C3F8 at temperatures up to 3500 K and various pressures is determined and compared with that of hot SF6 gas. It is found that the hot C3F8 gas has much poorer dielectric performance than hot SF6 because the ( E / N)cr of C3F8 decreases significantly above room temperature.

  16. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  17. Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Leaves of C3 Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Gleixner, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition is regarded as a powerful tool in understanding carbon cycling, both as a tracer and as a process recorder. However, accurate predictions of, for example, partitioning the net carbon flux into its components or obtaining climate information from tree rings, requires a good understanding of plant metabolism and related isotopic fractionations. Mechanistic models have concentrated largely on photosynthetic pathways and their isotopic composition. This cannot be said for respiratory processes. The mechanistic models of leaf isotope discrimination hence do not describe dawn, dusk and night very realistically or not at all. A new steady-state approach of the carbon isotope distribution in glucose potentially addresses the time of twilight and night (Tcherkez et al. 2004). Here, a new model of 13C discrimination in leaves of C3 plants is presented. The model is based on the steady-state approach of Tcherkez et al. (2004) but with much reduced complexity while retaining its general characteristics. In addition, the model introduces some new concepts such as a day-length dependent starch synthesis, night-length dependent starch degradation, energy-driven biosynthesis rates, and continuous leaf discrimination calculation for the whole diel cycle. It is therefore well adapted for biosphere-atmosphere exchange studies. The model predicts enriched sucrose and starch pools in the leaf compared to assimilated CO2. Biosynthesis on the other hand acts as the sink of the remaining, depleted carbon. The model calculates slightly different absolute starch compositions from the Tcherkez et al. (2004) model but this depends on chosen fractionation factors. The greatest difference between the two models is during dawn, dusk and night. For example, while Tcherkez et al. has changing phloem sucrose isotope composition during night, the model here predicts constant sucrose export composition. Observations seem to support rather constant phloem isotope composition

  18. C3b inactivator in the rheumatic diseases. Measurement by radial immunodiffusion and by inhibition of formation of properdin pathway C3 convertase.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, K; Schur, P H; Ruddy, S

    1976-01-01

    C3b inactivator (C3bINA) has been measured in biologic fluids by radial immunodiffusion using a monospecific antiserum prepared in rabbits, and by a hemolytic assay which measures the reduction in the capacity of EAC43 cells bearing limited C3b sites to form C3B, the alternative pathway C3 convertase. The radial immunodiffusion and hemolytic assays show a good correlation (r = 0.86 P less than 0.001). Measurement of C3bINA concentrations in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus showed that during exacerbations of disease activity C3bINA concentrations tended to be lower, usually in association with reductions in C4, C3, factor B, and properdin, and sometimes with reductions of the alternative pathway proteins, factor B, and properdin alone. Supranormal values for C3bINA were found in the sera of 14 of 20 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and 3 of 9 seronegative patients, but none of 7 patients with degenerative joint disease. Synovial fluid concentrations of C3bINA, after correction for total synovial fluid protein and serum concentration of the enzyme, were significantly reduced in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to patients with degenerative joint disease (P less than 0.05). In both serum and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, there was a good correlation between the concentrations of C3bINA and those of C3, factor B, and properdin, but not that of C4, suggesting that levels of C3bINA may serve to modulate recruitment of the properdin amplification loop in this disease. PMID:819459

  19. Molecular Basis for Complement Recognition and Inhibition Determined by Crystallographic Studies of the Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN) Bound to C3c and C3b

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Brandon L.; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Tzekou, Apostolia; Ricklin, Daniel; McWhorter, William J.; Lambris, John D.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2010-10-22

    The human complement system plays an essential role in innate and adaptive immunity by marking and eliminating microbial intruders. Activation of complement on foreign surfaces results in proteolytic cleavage of complement component 3 (C3) into the potent opsonin C3b, which triggers a variety of immune responses and participates in a self-amplification loop mediated by a multi-protein assembly known as the C3 convertase. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved a sophisticated and potent complement evasion strategy, which is predicated upon an arsenal of potent inhibitory proteins. One of these, the staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), acts at the level of the C3 convertase (C3bBb) and impairs downstream complement function by trapping the convertase in a stable but inactive state. Previously, we have shown that SCIN binds C3b directly and competitively inhibits binding of human factor H and, to a lesser degree, that of factor B to C3b. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of SCIN bound to C3b and C3c at 7.5 and 3.5 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively, and show that SCIN binds a critical functional area on C3b. Most significantly, the SCIN binding site sterically occludes the binding sites of both factor H and factor B. Our results give insight into SCIN binding to activated derivatives of C3, explain how SCIN can recognize C3b in the absence of other complement components, and provide a structural basis for the competitive C3b-binding properties of SCIN. In the future, this may suggest templates for the design of novel complement inhibitors based upon the SCIN structure.

  20. Infection of Interleukin 17 Receptor A-Deficient C3H Mice with Borrelia burgdorferi Does Not Affect Their Development of Lyme Arthritis and Carditis

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Carrie E.; Jamison, Kara E.; Sidelinger, Darcie R.; Pratt, Carmela L.; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a number of studies have reported the presence of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in patients with Lyme disease, and several murine studies have suggested a role for this cytokine in the development of Lyme arthritis. However, the role of IL-17 has not been studied using the experimental Lyme borreliosis model of infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. In the current study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in the development of experimental Lyme borreliosis by infecting C3H mice devoid of the common IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL-17RA) and thus deficient in most IL-17 signaling. Infection of both C3H and C3H IL-17RA−/− mice led to the production of high levels of IL-17 in the serum, low levels in the heart tissue, and no detectable IL-17 in the joint tissue. The development and severity of arthritis and carditis in the C3H IL-17RA−/− mice were similar to what was seen in wild-type C3H mice. In addition, development of antiborrelia antibodies and clearance of spirochetes from tissues were similar for the two mouse strains. These results demonstrate a limited role for IL-17 signaling through IL-17RA in the development of disease following infection of C3H mice with B. burgdorferi. PMID:25939508

  1. C3: A Collaborative Web Framework for NASA Earth Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foughty, E.; Fattarsi, C.; Hardoyo, C.; Kluck, D.; Wang, L.; Matthews, B.; Das, K.; Srivastava, A.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a new collaboration platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing. NEX combines NASA advanced supercomputing resources, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data archives, and a collaborative communication platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. NEX is designed primarily for use by the NASA Earth science community to address scientific grand challenges. The NEX web portal component provides an on-line collaborative environment for sharing of Eearth science models, data, analysis tools and scientific results by researchers. In addition, the NEX portal also serves as a knowledge network that allows researchers to connect and collaborate based on the research they are involved in, specific geographic area of interest, field of study, etc. Features of the NEX web portal include: Member profiles, resource sharing (data sets, algorithms, models, publications), communication tools (commenting, messaging, social tagging), project tools (wikis, blogs) and more. The NEX web portal is built on the proven technologies and policies of DASHlink.arc.nasa.gov, (one of NASA's first science social media websites). The core component of the web portal is a C3 framework, which was built using Django and which is being deployed as a common framework for a number of collaborative sites throughout NASA.

  2. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  3. Vaccine-Induced Human Antibodies to PspA Augment Complement C3 Deposition on Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Martina M.; Bartlett, William; Briles, David E.; Hicks, Bryony; Jurkuvenas, Audra; Lau, Peggy; Ren, Bing; Millar, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein (PspA) is a virulence factor expressed by all clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. PspAs are variable in structure and have been grouped into clades and cross-reacting families based on sequence similarities and immunologic cross-reactivity. At least 98 percent of PspAs are found in PspA families 1 or 2. PspA has been shown to interfere with complement deposition on pneumococci, thus reducing opsonization and clearance of bacteria by the host immune system. Prior studies using pooled human sera have shown that PspA interferes with C3 deposition on a single strain of S. pneumoniae, WU2, and that mouse antibody to PspA can enhance the deposition of C3 on WU2. The present studies have demonstrated that these previous findings are representative of most normal human sera and each of 7 different strains of S. pneumoniae. It was observed that PspAs of PspA families 1 and 2 could inhibit C3 deposition in the presence of immunoglobulin present in all but 3 of 22 normal human sera. These studies have also demonstrated that rabbit and human antibody to PspA can enhance the deposition of C3 on pneumococci expressing either family 1 or 2 PspAs and either capsular types 2, 3, or 11. A vaccine candidate that can elicit immunity that neutralizes or compensates for S. pneumoniae’s ability to thwart host immunity would be of value. PMID:18006268

  4. Comparative study of global warming effects during silicon nitride etching using C3F6O/O2 and C3F6/O2 gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ka Youn; Moon, Hock Key; Lee, Nae-Eung; Hong, Bo Han; Oh, Soo Ho

    2015-01-01

    C3F6 and C3F6 gases were investigated as replacement gases for SF6 used in display industry due to their low global warming potential and short lifetime. In the C3F6/O2 and C3F6/O2 capacitively coupled plasmas, Si3N4 etch conditions were varied by controlling process parameters. The global warming effects were quantified as million metric ton carbon equivalents (MMTCEs) obtained from the volumetric emission of by-product and etch gases. A lower MMTCE value and higher etch rate process with combination of high and low source frequencies, f HF (27.12 MHz)/ f LF (2 MHz), were observed for the C3F6/O2 chemistry than for the C3F6/O2 chemistry.

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1a - Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1a Section 240.15c3-1a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act...

  6. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  7. Climate Change Communicators: The C3E3 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. More than 60 students participated in guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Several departments are involved in the educational program.

  8. Structure-function discrepancy in Clostridium botulinum C3 toxin for its rational prioritization as a subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Prathiviraj, R; Prisilla, A; Chellapandi, P

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum is anaerobic pathogenic bacterium causing food-born botulism in human and animals by producing botulinum neurotoxins A-H, C2, and C3 cytotoxins. Physiological group III strains (type C and D) of this bacterium are capable of producing C2 and C3 toxins in cattle and avian. Herein, we have revealed the structure-function disparity of C3 toxins from two different C. botulinum type C phage (CboC) and type D phage (CboD) to design avirulent toxins rationally. Structure-function discrepancy of the both toxins was computationally evaluated from their homology models based on the conservation in sequence-structure-function relationships upon covariation and point mutations. It has shown that 8 avirulent mutants were generated from CboC of 34 mutants while 27 avirulent mutants resulted from CboD mutants. No major changes were found in tertiary structure of these toxins; however, some structural variations appeared in the coiled and loop regions. Correlated mutation on the first residue would disorder or revolutionize the hydrogen bonding pattern of the coevolved pairs. It suggested that the residues coupling in the local structural environments were compensated with coevolved pairs so as to preserve a pseudocatalytic function in the avirulent mutants. Avirulent mutants of C3 toxins have shown a stable structure with a common blue print of folding process and also attained a near-native backrub ensemble. Thus, we concluded that selecting the site-directed mutagenesis sites are very important criteria for designing avirulent toxins, in development of rational subunit vaccines, to cattle and avian, but the vaccine specificity can be determined by the C3 toxins of C. botulinum harboring phages. PMID:26239365

  9. Comparative pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled beryllium A/J and C3H/HeJ mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Belinsky, S.A.; Hoover, M.D.; Finch, G.L.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to compare the pulomonary carcinogenicity of beryllium (Be) metal in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice, strains which are sensitive and resistant, respectively, to pulmonary neoplasia. Lesions in these mice will be used to study the molecular mechanisms of Be-induced carcinogenesis. Be, a metal that is generally negative in short-term genotoxicity assays, is a potent pulmonary carcinogen in F344/N rats. Although the epidemiological evidence is weak, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen.

  10. Clumping Factor A Interaction with Complement Factor I Increases C3b Cleavage on the Bacterial Surface of Staphylococcus aureus and Decreases Complement-Mediated Phagocytosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Pamela S.; Echague, Charlene G.; Sholl, Amber M.; Watkins, Justin A.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Foster, Timothy J.; Cunnion, Kenji M.

    2010-01-01

    The human complement system is important in the immunological control of Staphylococcus aureus infection. We showed previously that S. aureus surface protein clumping factor A (ClfA), when expressed in recombinant form, bound complement control protein factor I and increased factor I cleavage of C3b to iC3b. In the present study, we show that, compared to the results for the wild type, when isogenic ClfA-deficient S. aureus mutants were incubated in serum, they bound less factor I, generated less iC3b on the bacterial surface, and bound fewer C3 fragments. It has been shown previously that two amino acids in ClfA (P336 and Y338) are essential for fibrinogen binding. However, S. aureus expressing ClfA(P336A Y338S) was less virulent than ClfA-deficient strains in animal models. This suggested that ClfA contributed to S. aureus virulence by a mechanism different than fibrinogen binding. In the present study, we showed that S. aureus expressing ClfA(P336A Y338S) was more susceptible to complement-mediated phagocytosis than a ClfA-null mutant or the wild type. Unlike ClfA, ClfA(P336A Y338S) did not enhance factor I cleavage of C3b to iC3b and inhibited the cofactor function of factor H. Fibrinogen enhanced factor I binding to ClfA and the S. aureus surface. Twenty clinical S. aureus strains all expressed ClfA and bound factor I. High levels of factor I binding by clinical strains correlated with poor phagocytosis. In summary, our results suggest that the interaction of ClfA with factor I contributes to S. aureus virulence by a complement-mediated mechanism. PMID:20100856

  11. Bedaquiline and Pyrazinamide Treatment Responses Are Affected by Pulmonary Lesion Heterogeneity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected C3HeB/FeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BALB/c and Swiss mice are routinely used to validate the effectiveness of tuberculosis drug regimens, although these mouse strains fail to develop human-like pulmonary granulomas exhibiting caseous necrosis. Microenvironmental conditions within human granulomas may negatively impact drug efficacy, and this may not be reflected in non-necrotizing lesions found within conventional mouse models. The C3HeB/FeJ mouse model has been increasingly utilized as it develops hypoxic, caseous necrotic granulomas which may more closely mimic the pathophysiological conditions found within human pulmonary granulomas. Here, we examined the treatment response of BALB/c and C3HeB/FeJ mice to bedaquiline (BDQ) and pyrazinamide (PZA) administered singly and in combination. BALB/c mice consistently displayed a highly uniform treatment response to both drugs, while C3HeB/FeJ mice displayed a bimodal response composed of responsive and less-responsive mice. Plasma pharmacokinetic analysis of dissected lesions from BALB/c and C3HeB/FeJ mice revealed that PZA penetrated lesion types from both mouse strains with similar efficiency. However, the pH of the necrotic caseum of C3HeB/FeJ granulomas was determined to be 7.5, which is in the range where PZA is essentially ineffective under standard laboratory in vitro growth conditions. BDQ preferentially accumulated within the highly cellular regions in the lungs of both mouse strains, although it was present at reduced but still biologically relevant concentrations within the central caseum when dosed at 25 mg/kg. The differential treatment response which resulted from the heterogeneous pulmonary pathology in the C3HeB/FeJ mouse model revealed several factors which may impact treatment efficacy, and could be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:27227164

  12. Technology For Command, Control, Communications And Intelligence (C3I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, John S.

    1980-02-01

    I am happy to be here this morning with this distinguished technical audience of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. You have recognized a very important problem area and I think that through this conference or seminar, you will address many technical aspects of the problems associated with Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C³I). C³I is a term that is gaining more and more visibility and acceptance in all areas of military operations. In the past, the transfer of technology into military operations has been concentrated on force effectiveness. Our leaders now recognize more fully that force effectiveness depends to a very high degree on the command and control functions which in turn need to know the status of enemy as well as friendly forces. Perhaps the best way to start this discussion of C³I is to arrive at a definition. Unfortunately, I'm sure that if I ask each of you to give me a definition of C³I, I would have just as many definitions as there are people in the audience. The situation is similar to the old story about the three blind men trying to describe an elephant. I would like to paraphrase a few remarks of Julian Lake in a recent editorial in Military Electronics/Countermeasures Magazine. As he points out, C3 is many things to many people. To the intelligence specialist who is so wrapped up in his intelligence community activity, C³I is simply an extension of the modern applications of intelligence. In fact, the intelligence officer feels that he is the actual center of the C³I structure. On the other hand, the communications specialist thinks that communications is the actual heartbeat of C³I activity, and this is right to a point because communications is a fundamental building block of the C3 function. The computer specialist will point out that C³I is merely a product of the computer age. One reason there was very little done about C³I in the past was the nonavailability of computer techniques and

  13. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  18. Reduction of Heavy Metals by Cytochrome c(3)

    SciTech Connect

    ABDELOUAS,A.; GONG,W.L.; LUTZE,W.; NUTTALL,E.H.; SPRAGUE,F.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; STRIETELMEIER,B.A.; FRANCO,R.; MOURA,I.; MOURA,J.J.G.

    2000-01-18

    We report on reduction and precipitation of Se(VI), Pb(II), CU(II), U(VI), Mo(VI), and Cr(VI) in water by cytochrome c{sub 3} isolated from Desulfomicrobium baczdatum [strain 9974]. The tetraheme protein cytochrome c{sub 3} was reduced by sodium dithionite. Redox reactions were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy of cytochrome c{sub 3}. Analytical electron microscopy work showed that Se(VI), Pb(II), and CU(II) were reduced to the metallic state, U(W) and Mo(W) to U(IV) and Mo(IV), respectively, and Cr(VI) probably to Cr(III). U(IV) and Mo(W) precipitated as oxides and Cr(III) as an amorphous hydroxide. Cytochrome c{sub 3} was used repeatedly in the same solution without loosing its effectiveness. The results suggest usage of cytochrome c{sub 3} to develop innovative and environmentally benign methods to remove heavy metals from waste- and groundwater.

  19. Effects of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain Background on Complement Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Catherine; Opel, Sophia; Hanage, William; Yuste, Jose; Bax, Katie; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Spratt, Brian G.; Brown, Jeremy S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Immunity to infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is dependent on complement. There are wide variations in sensitivity to complement between S. pneumoniae strains that could affect their ability to cause invasive infections. Although capsular serotype is one important factor causing differences in complement resistance between strains, there is also considerable other genetic variation between S. pneumoniae strains that may affect complement-mediated immunity. We have therefore investigated whether genetically distinct S. pneumoniae strains with the same capsular serotype vary in their sensitivity to complement mediated immunity. Methodology and Principal Findings C3b/iC3b deposition and neutrophil association were measured using flow cytometry assays for S. pneumoniae strains with different genetic backgrounds for each of eight capsular serotypes. For some capsular serotypes there was marked variation in C3b/iC3b deposition between different strains that was independent of capsule thickness and correlated closely to susceptibility to neutrophil association. C3b/iC3b deposition results also correlated weakly with the degree of IgG binding to each strain. However, the binding of C1q (the first component of the classical pathway) correlated more closely with C3b/iC3b deposition, and large differences remained in complement sensitivity between strains with the same capsular serotype in sera in which IgG had been cleaved with IdeS. Conclusions These data demonstrate that bacterial factors independent of the capsule and recognition by IgG have strong effects on the susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to complement, and could therefore potentially account for some of the differences in virulence between strains. PMID:22022358

  20. Human complement C3 deficiency: Th1 induction requires T cell-derived complement C3a and CD46 activation.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Arije; Fauquert, Jean-Luc; Thomas, Caroline; Kemper, Claudia; Drouet, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Human T helper type 1 (Th1) responses are essential in defense. Although T cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulator engagement are indispensable for T cell activation, stimulation of additional receptor pathways are also necessary for effector induction. For example, engagement of the complement regulator CD46 by its ligand C3b generated upon TCR activation is required for IFN-γ production as CD46-deficient patients lack Th1 responses. Utilizing T cells from two C3-deficient patients we demonstrate here that normal Th1 responses also depend on signals mediated by the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR). Importantly, and like in CD46-deficient patients, whilst Th1 induction are impaired in C3-deficient patients in vitro, their Th2 responses are unaffected. Furthermore, C3-deficient CD4(+) T cells present with reduced expression of CD25 and CD122, further substantiating the growing notion that complement fragments regulate interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) assembly and that disturbance of complement-guided IL-2R assembly contributes to aberrant Th1 effector responses. Lastly, sustained intrinsic production of complement fragments may participate in the Th1 contraction phase as both C3a and CD46 engagement regulate IL-10 co-expression in Th1 cells. These data suggest that C3aR and CD46 activation via intrinsic generation of their respective ligands is an integral part of human Th1 (but not Th2) immunity. PMID:24321396

  1. Reaction channels and spectroscopic constants of astrophysical relevant Silicon bearing molecules SiC3H,+ and SiC3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inostroza Pino, N.; Cardenas, C.; Fuentealba, P.

    2014-10-01

    Reaction channels and spectroscopic properties of a series of silicon-carbon-bearing isomers of SiC3H+ and SiC3H, which are suitable species for astrophysical detection in carbon-rich sources, are calculated with correlated ab initio CCSD(T) and density functional theory methods. We present four isomers of SiC3H+ for which the electronic ground states have closed-shell configurations. For SiC3H, we considered the same structures in order to present a complete study. The global minimum among the SiC3H+ isomers corresponds to the rhomboidal structure with a transannular bond in a 1A1 electronic state (rb3-SiC3H+ C2v X1A1). The next minima correspond to a second rhomboid 1A1 isomer and a linear isomer (X1Σ+) with relative energies 0.86 and 0.93 eV, respectively at the CCSD(T)/cc-pvTZ level of theory. The most stable mono-hydrogenated silicon carbon isomer is linear, followed by two rhomboidal isomers, rb2-SiC3H and rb3-SiC3H (0.23 and 0.31 eV). For each structure, a set of spectroscopic parameters including their equilibrium structures, rotational constants, harmonic frequencies and dipole moment is presented. Furthermore, we discuss plausible formation pathways of SiC3H+ isomers which are classified as charge-exchange, ion-neutral and dissociative recombination reactions. These results show one favourable pathway to produce rb3-SiC3H+ from rb-SiC3-3s. The formation energy of the cation's isomers coming from neutral isomers as linear l1-SiC3H, rb3-SiC3H and rb2-SiC3H plus H+ as reactants (charge-exchange reaction) are 203.8 kcal mol-1 (8.84eV), 175.4 kcal mol-1 (7.60 eV) and 195.2 kcal mol-1 (8.46 eV), which provides us with evidence of the endergonic character of these reactions. As a consequence, it does not seem to be feasible to produce a cation from neutral reactant plus H+ by a charge-exchange reaction that was proposed by UMIST.

  2. Comparative hemostatic parameters in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Mariana; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Gil, Amparo; Salazar, Ana M; Taylor, Peter; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-07-01

    This study describes micro-methods to determine biological parameters in plasma of three strains of mice. Platelet count was significantly different among strains. C57BL/6 mice showed the highest values (988 x 10(3)/microL) and BALB/c the lowest (782 x 10(3)/microL). Fibrinogen levels were 2.55 (C57BL/6), 2.37 (BALB/c) and 2.28 g/L (C3H/He). Some inter-strain differences were observed in factor XIII (94, 118 and 114%) and plasminogen levels (142, 80 and 135%) in C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H/He, respectively. Additionally, we observed individual mice factor XIII and plasminogen levels between 80 to 200% and 65 to 180%, respectively, in relation to pooled human plasma; and between 70 to 185% and 70 to 155%, respectively, against pooled mice plasma. To our knowledge, this is first report in the literature in diverse mice strains regarding hemostasis, mainly on factor XIII, plasminogen levels, and a very simple test that allows measurement of endogenous fibrinolytic activity present in the plasma. The different results are discussed in relationship with existing literature regarding if the animals in some studies were maintained under strict pathogen-free conditions, the collection of blood was from the heart or eye and if the analysis method was tested by counting manually or automatically. This work could contribute useful knowledge to the field of investigations regarding hemostatic disorders using mouse models, especially for laboratories that are not well equipped. PMID:19101712

  3. 26 CFR 301.6323(c)-3 - Protection for obligatory disbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agreements. 301.6323(c)-3 Section 301.6323(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Provisions § 301.6323(c)-3 Protection for obligatory disbursement agreements. (a) In general. Even though a... endorser who assumes his obligation other than in the course of his trade or business. (c)...

  4. Hypomorphic variant of the slow allele of C3 associated with hypocomplementemia and hematuria.

    PubMed

    McLean, R H; Bryan, R K; Winkelstein, J

    1985-05-01

    This report describes the first instance of a hypomorphic variant (C3*s) of the most common C3 allele, C3 Slow, which was detected in a four-year-old Caucasian boy with hematuria. Analysis of C3 phenotypes, as determined by agarose electrophoresis, showed a hypomorphic C3 Slow in the patient and a maternal aunt. Serum C3 concentration was significantly reduced in the patient and his mother (610 and 750 micrograms/ml; normal +/- 1 SD = 1,240 +/- 240 micrograms/ml) and was at the lower limits of normal in the affected aunt (770 micrograms/ml). The mother's phenotype was C3 S (? Ss) and she was the presumed carrier, since the father (C3 FS) had neither an abnormal C3 S band nor a low C3 concentration (980 micrograms/ml). Total hemolytic complement was significantly reduced only in the patient (19 units/ml; normal = 38 +/- 16). Hypomorphic C3 variants should be considered in the evaluation of decreased serum C3 levels. PMID:3993666

  5. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) § 240.14c-3 Annual report to be furnished security holders. (a) If the information...

  6. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) § 240.14c-3 Annual report to be furnished security holders. (a) If the information...

  7. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) § 240.14c-3 Annual report to be furnished security holders. (a) If the information...

  8. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) § 240.14c-3 Annual report to be furnished security holders. (a) If the information...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-3 - Qualifying over-the-counter options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualifying over-the-counter options. 1.1092(c)-3 Section 1.1092(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-3 Qualifying...

  10. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  11. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of (/sup 14/C)methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little (/sup 14/C)methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(3)-1 - Capital loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capital loss carryovers. 1.381(c)(3)-1 Section 1.381(c)(3)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(3)-1 Capital loss carryovers. (a) Carryover requirement. (1) Section...

  13. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. (a) Employees shall, in fulfilling the obligation of 5 CFR 2635.101(b)(11), report fraud, waste..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of...

  14. Aldo-keto Reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) is overexpressed in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and affects SCC growth via prostaglandin metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Alon; Carpenter-Mendini, Amanda; VanBuskirk, JoAnne; Pentland, Alice P.

    2014-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) is an enzyme involved in metabolizing prostaglandins (PGs) and sex hormones. It metabolizes PGD2 to 9α11β-PGF2, diverting the spontaneous conversion of PGD2 to the PPARγ agonist, 15-Deoxy-Delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). AKR1C3 is overexpressed in various malignancies, suggesting a tumor promoting function. This work investigates AKR1C3 expression in human non-melanoma skin cancers, revealing overexpression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Effects of AKR1C3 overexpression were then evaluated using 3 SCC cell lines. AKR1C3 was detected in all SCC cell lines and its expression was upregulated in response to its substrate, PGD2. Although attenuating AKR1C3 expression in SCC cells by siRNA did not affect growth, treatment with PGD2 and its dehydration metabolite, 15d-PGJ2, decreased SCC proliferation in a PPARγ-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone profoundly inhibited SCC proliferation. Finally, we generated an SCC cell line that stably overexpressed AKR1C3 (SCC-AKR1C3). SCC-AKR1C3 metabolized PGD2 to 9α11β-PGF2 12 fold faster than the parent cell line and was protected from the anti-proliferative effect mediated by PGD2. This work suggests that PGD2 and its metabolite 15d-PGJ2 attenuate SCC proliferation in a PPARγ-dependent manner, therefore activation of PPARγ by agonists such as Pioglitazone may benefit those at high risk of SCC. PMID:24917395

  15. The C3-bending vibrational levels of the C3-Kr and C3-Xe van der Waals complexes studied by their {tilde A}-{tilde X} electronic transitions and by ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Jun-Mei; Tham, Keng Seng; Zhang, Guiqiu; Merer, Anthony J.; Hsu, Yen-Chu; Hu, Wei-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectra and wavelength-resolved emission spectra of the C3-Kr and C3-Xe van der Waals (vdW) complexes have been recorded near the 22 -0, 22 +0, 24 -0, and 110 bands of the {tilde A} ^1Π _u - {tilde X} ^1Σ _g^ + system of the C3 molecule. In the excitation spectra, the spectral features of the two complexes are red-shifted relative to those of free C3 by 21.9-38.2 and 34.3-36.1 cm-1, respectively. The emission spectra from the {tilde A} state of the Kr complex consist of progressions in the two C3-bending vibrations (ν2, ν4), the vdW stretching (ν3), and bending vibrations (ν6), suggesting that the equilibrium geometry in the {tilde X} state is nonlinear. As in the Ar complex [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3189 (2004)], the C3-bending vibrational levels of the Kr complex shift progressively to lower energy with respect to those of free C3 as the bending quantum number increases. Their vibrational structures could be modeled as perturbed harmonic oscillators, with the dipole-induced dipole terms of the Ar and Kr complexes scaled roughly by the polarizabilities of the Ar and Kr atoms. Emission spectra of the Xe complex, excited near the {tilde A}, 22- level of free C3, consist only of progressions in even quanta of the C3-bending and vdW modes, implying that the geometry in the higher vibrational levels (υbend ≥ 4, Evib ≥ 328 cm-1) of the {tilde X} state is (vibrationally averaged) linear. In this structure the Xe atom bonds to one of the terminal carbons nearly along the inertial a-axis of bent C3. Our ab initio calculations of the Xe complex at the level of CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ (C) and aug-cc-pVTZ-PP (Xe) predict that its equilibrium geometry is T-shaped (as in the Ar and Kr complexes), and also support the assignment of a stable linear isomer when the amplitude of the C3 bending vibration is large (υ4 ≥ 4).

  16. In situ construction of g-C3N4/g-C3N4 metal-free heterojunction for enhanced visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fan; Zhao, Zaiwang; Xiong, Ting; Ni, Zilin; Zhang, Wendong; Sun, Yanjuan; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2013-11-13

    The photocatalytic performance of the star photocatalyst g-C3N4 was restricted by the low efficiency because of the fast charge recombination. The present work developed a facile in situ method to construct g-C3N4/g-C3N4 metal-free isotype heterojunction with molecular composite precursors with the aim to greatly promote the charge separation. Considering the fact that g-C3N4 samples prepared from urea and thiourea separately have different band structure, the molecular composite precursors of urea and thiourea were treated simultaneously under the same thermal conditions, in situ creating a novel layered g-C3N4/g-C3N4 metal-free heterojunction (g-g CN heterojunction). This synthesis method is facile, economic, and environmentally benign using easily available earth-abundant green precursors. The confirmation of isotype g-g CN heterojunction was based on XRD, HRTEM, valence band XPS, ns-level PL, photocurrent, and EIS measurement. Upon visible-light irradiation, the photogenerated electrons transfer from g-C3N4 (thiourea) to g-C3N4 (urea) driven by the conduction band offset of 0.10 eV, whereas the photogenerated holes transfer from g-C3N4 (urea) to g-C3N4 (thiourea) driven by the valence band offset of 0.40 eV. The potential difference between the two g-C3N4 components in the heterojunction is the main driving force for efficient charge separation and transfer. For the removal of NO in air, the g-g CN heterojunction exhibited significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity over g-C3N4 alone and physical mixture of g-C3N4 samples. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of g-g CN isotype heterojunction can be directly ascribed to efficient charge separation and transfer across the heterojunction interface as well as prolonged lifetime of charge carriers. This work demonstrated that rational design and construction of isotype heterojunction could open up a new avenue for the development of new efficient visible-light photocatalysts. PMID:24144400

  17. A circulating inhibitor of fluid-phase amplification. C3 convertase formation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, F B; Forristal, J; Beischel, L; West, C D

    1985-01-01

    C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF) was used to assess the formation of the fluid-phase amplification convertase, C3b,Bb, in 37 serum specimens from 24 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). C3b,Bb formation was measured by the concentration of Ba, released when C3b,B is activated. Incubation of normal human serum (NHS) with C3NeF accelerates C3b amplification loop turnover with the formation of large quantities of C3b,Bb. In contrast, sera from 22 of 24 patients with SLE formed little or no convertase when incubated with C3NeF. C3 conversion to C3b was commensurately reduced. The inhibition could not be attributed to depressed serum concentrations of C3, factor B, or classical pathway components. Inhibitor present in excess could be demonstrated in 23 of 34 specimens of SLE serum by mixing experiments. The spontaneous convertase formation that occurs when a portion of the serum H is inactivated with F(ab')2 anti-H was also shown to be inhibited in SLE serum. The inhibition was found, however, to be H dependent in that convertase formation was normal in SLE serum depleted of H. It is concluded that the C3b in most SLE sera is unusually susceptible to inactivation by H, but a functional abnormality was not demonstrable in either C3 or H isolated from SLE serum. The inhibition could be simulated in NHS by addition of heparin, 100 micrograms/ml. In vivo, inhibition of convertase formation could interfere with the solubilization and disposal of immune complexes by reducing the deposition of C3b on the immune complex lattice. PMID:3159752

  18. Rap1p telomere association is not required for mitotic stability of a C3TA2 telomere in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Mary Kate; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2003-01-01

    Telomeric DNA usually consists of a repetitive sequence: C1–3A/TG1–3 in yeast, and C3TA2/T2AG3 in vertebrates. In yeast, the sequence-specific DNA- binding protein Rap1p is thought to be essential for telomere function. In a tlc1h mutant, the templating region of the telomerase RNA gene is altered so that telomerase adds the vertebrate telomere sequence instead of the yeast sequence to the chromosome end. A tlc1h strain has short but stable telomeres and no growth defect. We show here that Rap1p and the Rap1p-associated Rif2p did not bind to a telomere that contains purely vertebrate repeats, while the TG1–3 single-stranded DNA binding protein Cdc13p and the normally non-telomeric protein Tbf1p did bind this telomere. A chromosome with one entirely vertebrate-sequence telomere had a wild-type loss rate, and the telomere was maintained at a short but stable length. However, this telomere was unable to silence a telomere-adjacent URA3 gene, and the strain carrying this telomere had a severe defect in meiosis. We conclude that Rap1p localization to a C3TA2 telomere is not required for its essential mitotic functions. PMID:12660174

  19. Complement C3 is expressed by mast cells in cutaneous vasculitis and is degraded by chymase.

    PubMed

    Lipitsä, Tiina; Naukkarinen, Anita; Laitala, Joel; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2016-10-01

    The complement factor C3 and chymase released from tryptase(+), chymase(+) mast cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. To study whether mast cells contain C3 in vasculitis and whether chymase interacts with C3, cryosections from vasculitis biopsies were double-stained histochemically for C3c in tryptase(+) mast cells, as well as for chymase and vessel wall C3c, or they were treated with 5 µg/ml rh-chymase for 24 h followed by immunofluorescence (IF) analysis of C3c, IgG, IgM and IgA. The effect of rh-chymase on purified human C3, C3a and IgG was studied using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and LAD2 mast cell cultures. The results show that 34.2 ± 17.9, 37.4 ± 15.5 and 43.4 ± 18.6 % (mean ± SD) of the mast cells express C3c immunoreactivity in the healthy skin, initial petechial (IP) and palpable purpura (PP) lesions, respectively. About 9.4-12.1 % of the chymase(+) mast cells were in apparent contact with C3c(+) vessels in IP and PP. The treatment of cryosections with rh-chymase decreased the IF staining of C3c, but not that of immunoglobulins. In SDS-PAGE, 1-10 µg/ml rh-chymase degraded the alpha- and beta-chains of C3, but did not degrade IgG. Unexpectedly, the rh-chymase treatment of C3 produced fragments that resulted in the release of tryptase and histamine from LAD2 cells. However, rh-chymase degraded C3a and consequently inhibited C3a activity on LAD2. In conclusion, mast cells can be one source for C3 in the early and late phases of vasculitis pathogenesis. However, rh-chymase degraded native C3, vessel wall C3c, and biologically active C3a. Therefore, chymase may control C3-related pathology. PMID:27465068

  20. Origins of enigmatic C-3 methyl and C-3 H porphyrins in ancient sediments revealed from formation of pyrophaeophorbide d in simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Matthew D.; Keely, Brendan J.

    2013-03-01

    The reaction of methyl pyrophaeophorbide a with hydrogen sulfide and oxygen under mild conditions (low temperature, moderate pH), which resemble those in certain natural environments, leads to its near quantitative conversion into methyl pyrophaeophorbide d (82-89%). The transformation, via oxidative cleavage of the C-3 vinyl substituent of pyrophaeophorbide a to afford an aldehyde at C-3, results from co-oxidation of the vinyl group and hydrogen sulfide by molecular oxygen. The co-oxidation transformation pathway operating on vinyl substituted chlorophyll derivatives can explain the origins of C-3 methyl and C-3 H porphyrins in ancient sediments and oils, structures for which the origins were previously unresolved. Evaluation of previous reports of C-3 methyl and C-3 H porphyrins in ancient sediments and oils reveals that their distributions are consistent with insights provided from analysis of the reaction mechanisms revealed by the laboratory studies. Thus, the sedimentary distributions reveal key features of the depositional settings, in particular the presence of a deep or a shallow chemocline. The oxidative cleavage of the C-3 vinyl group also provides insight into the biosynthesis of chlorophyll d by the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina, and offers a mild alternative to classical methods for the synthetic manipulation of the vinyl substituents of tetrapyrroles.

  1. [Demonstration of C3-binding circulating immune complexes using Raji, conglutinin and anti-C3 assays--a critical review].

    PubMed

    Arndt, R

    1984-02-01

    There remains no doubt at the present time, that the appearance of circulating immune complexes in illness accompanying vasculitis and for glomerulonephritis correlates with the severity of disease. Moreover, immune complexes are of diagnostic importance where infections with a chronic development or neoplastic diseases are concerned. The choice of IC test system should incorporate their essential biological functions and identify those IC that activate the complement cascade both by the classical and the alternative route. The detection of IC bound C3 cleavage products (C3b, C3bi, C3d) represents the key to identification of a wide range of IC. Of the presently available methods Raji cell test, conglutinin- and anti C3-IC assay, on critical appraisal, the anti C3-IC assay represents the most applicable way of defining complement binding IC. The advantage of this system is that appreciable disturbances and limitations that influence other systems do not affect the antigen-antibody reaction which is the core of the anti C3 assay. PMID:6241918

  2. Improvement of g-C3N4 photocatalytic properties using the Hummers method.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Chen, Tingting; Liu, Shenna; Zhou, Qihang; Ren, Yueming; Lv, Yanzhuo; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2016-10-01

    In this study, graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) with high photocatalytic properties to methylene blue (MB) was synthesized by treating the bulk g-C3N4 using the Hummers method. The bulk g-C3N4 was obtained by calcining dicyandiamide. The g-C3N4 treated by the Hummers method (E-g-C3N4) was characterized and utilized for the photocatalytic removal of MB. The results showed that the Hummers treatment exfoliated the nanosheets bulk g-C3N4 into nanorods and improved the dispersion of E-g-C3N4 in an aqueous solution. It also distinctly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 to MB, i.e., the removal efficiency increased from 38.45% for the bulk g-C3N4 to 96.61% for the E-g-C3N4. PMID:27343763

  3. Complement C3 gene: Expression characterization and innate immune response in razor clam Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Peng, Maoxiao; Niu, Donghong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Zhiyi; Li, Jiale

    2016-08-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) is central to the complement system, playing an important role in immune defense, immune regulation and immune pathology. Several C3 genes have been characterized in invertebrates but very few in shellfish. The C3 gene was identified from the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta, referred to here as Sc-C3. It was found to be highly homologous with the C3 gene of Ruditapes decussatus. All eight model motifs of the C3 gene were found to be included in the thiolester bond and the C345C region. Sc-C3 was widely expressed in all healthy tissues with expression being highest in hemolymph. A significant difference in expression was revealed at the umbo larvae development stage. The expression of Sc-C3 was highly regulated in the hemolymph and liver, with a distinct response pattern being noted after a challenge with Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. It is therefore suggested that a complicated and unique response pathway may be present in S. constricta. Further, serum of S. constricta containing Sc-C3 was extracted. This was activated by LPS or bacterium for verification for function. The more obvious immune function of Sc-C3 was described as an effective membrane rupture in hemocyte cells of rabbit, V. parahemolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Thus, Sc-C3 plays an essential role in the immune defense of S. constricta. PMID:27231190

  4. Compensation Point and Isotopic Characteristics of C3/C4 Intermediates and Hybrids in Panicum1

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Leonel Da S. L.; Deniro, Michael J.; Sloan, Margaret E.; Black, Clanton C.

    1986-01-01

    Leaf CO2 compensation points and stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were determined for Panicum species including C3/C4 intermediate photosynthesis plants, hybrids between C3/C4 intermediates and C3 plants, C3 and C4 plants in the Panicum genus as well as several other C3 and C4 plants. C3 plants had the highest compensation points, followed by hybrids, C3/C4 intermediates, and C4 plants. δ13C values of cellulose nitrate and saponifiable lipids from C4 plants were about 10‰ higher than those observed for cellulose nitrate and saponifiable lipids of C3/C4 intermediates, hybrids, and C3 plants. Oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose as well as those of leaf water were similar for all plants. There was substantial variability in the δD values of cellulose nitrate among the plants studied. In contrast, such variability was not observed in δD values of water distilled from the leaves, nor in the δD values of the saponifiable lipids. Variability in δD values of cellulose nitrate from C3/C4 intermediates, hybrids, C3, and C4 plants is due to fractionations occurring during biochemical reactions specific to leaf carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:16664590

  5. Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boshra, Hani; Wang, Tiehui; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Hansen, John D.; Li, Jun; Matlapudi, Anjun; Secombes, Christopher J.; Tort, Lluis; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the structure, function, and evolutionary origins of the C3aR in nonmammalian species. Because C3aR and C5aR are thought to have arisen from the same common ancestor, the recent characterization of a C5aR in teleost fish implied the presence of a C3aR in this animal group. In this study we report the cloning of a trout cDNA encoding a 364-aa molecule (TC3aR) that shows a high degree of sequence homology and a strong phylogenetic relationship with mammalian C3aRs. Northern blotting demonstrated that TC3aR was expressed primarily in blood leukocytes. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Abs raised against TC3aR stained to a high degree all blood B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, all granulocytes. More importantly, these Abs inhibited trout C3a-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in trout leukocytes. A fascinating structural feature of TC3aR is the lack of a significant portion of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). In all C3aR molecules characterized to date, the ECL2 is exceptionally large when compared with the same region of C5aR. However, the exact function of the extra portion of ECL2 is unknown. The lack of this segment in TC3aR suggests that the extra piece of ECL2 was not necessary for the interaction of the ancestral C3aR with its ligand. Our findings represent the first C3aR characterized in nonmammalian species and support the hypothesis that if C3aR and C5aR diverged from a common ancestor, this event occurred before the emergence of teleost fish.

  6. Metal-free melem/g-C3N4 hybrid photocatalysts for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Sun, Hongqi; O'Donnell, Kane; Ang, H M; Tade, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, graphitic carbon nitride was engineered to produce metal-free melem/g-C3N4 hybrid photocatalysts through a hydrothermal technique. It was revealed that the hydrothermal treatment of g-C3N4 could produce a hybrid structure of "thorn ball" liked melem on g-C3N4 layer at a high temperature, and was able to modify the photoelectronic properties of g-C3N4. The spectroscopic measurements implied that a melem/g-C3N4 hybrid has better light absorption and lower electron/hole recombination than pristine g-C3N4. Therefore, the melem/g-C3N4 photocatalysts can decompose methylene blue solution under artificial sunlight with a higher rate and also present good stability. PMID:26606376

  7. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3, were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty‐six isotopologues. The results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au+, and Pt atoms. PMID:26879473

  8. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3, were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty‐six isotopologues. The results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au+, and Pt atoms.

  9. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David P.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C.

    2016-02-16

    Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3 , were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and abinitio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty-six isotopologues. In conclusion, the results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au+ , and Ptatoms.

  10. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Dror M; Zaleski, Daniel P; Tew, David P; Walker, Nicholas R; Legon, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3 , were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty-six isotopologues. The results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au(+) , and Pt atoms. PMID:26879473

  11. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  12. Deficiencies in extrusion of the second polar body due to high calcium concentrations during in vitro fertilization in inbred C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Nagao, Yoshikazu; Minami, Naojiro; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kito, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) of all inbred strains of laboratory mice has not yet been accomplished. We have previously shown that a high calcium concentration improved IVF in various inbred mice. However, we also found that in cumulus-free ova of C3H/He mice such IVF conditions significantly increased the deficiency of extrusion of the second polar body (PBII) in a dose-dependent manner (2% at 1.71 mM and 29% at 6.84 mM, P < 0.05) and that PBII extrusion was affected by high calcium levels at 2-3 h post-insemination. While developmental competence of ova without PBII extrusion to blastocysts after 96 h culture was not affected, a significant reduction in the nuclear number of the inner cell mass was observed in blastocyst fertilized under high calcium condition. We also examined how high calcium concentration during IVF affects PBII extrusion in C3H/He mice. Cumulus cells cultured under high calcium conditions showed a significantly alleviated deficient PBII extrusion. This phenomenon is likely to be specific to C3H/He ova because deficient PBII extrusion in reciprocal fertilization between C3H and BDF1 gametes was observed only in C3H/He ova. Sperm factor(s) was still involved in deficient PBII extrusion due to high calcium concentrations, as this phenomenon was not observed in ova activated by ethanol. The cytoskeletal organization of ova without PBII extrusion showed disturbed spindle rotation, incomplete formation of contractile ring and disturbed localization of actin, suggesting that high calcium levels affect the anchoring machinery of the meiotic spindle. These results indicate that in C3H/He mice high calcium levels induce abnormal fertilization, i.e. deficient PBII extrusion by affecting the cytoskeletal organization, resulting in disturbed cytokinesis during the second meiotic division. Thus, use of high calcium media for IVF should be avoided for this strain. PMID:26503636

  13. Revisiting post-infectious glomerulonephritis in the emerging era of C3 glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khalighi, Mazdak A.; Wang, Shihtien; Henriksen, Kammi J.; Bock, Margret; Keswani, Mahima; Meehan, Shane M.; Chang, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is an immune complex-mediated glomerular injury that typically resolves. Dominant C3 deposition is characteristic of PIGN, but with the emergence of C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) as a distinct entity, it is unclear how the pathologic similarities between PIGN and C3GN should be reconciled. Therefore, nephrologists and nephropathologists need additional guidance at the time of biopsy. Methods We studied 23 pediatric and young adult patients diagnosed with PIGN. Patients were divided into two groups, one with co-dominance between C3 and immunoglobulins and the other meeting proposed diagnostic criteria for C3GN. Clinical and pathological features were compared. Results No clinical and/or pathological features could distinguish between those with C3-co-dominant deposits and those with C3 dominance. Nearly all patients in both groups regained their baseline renal function without clinical intervention. Conclusions Although the identification of abnormalities of the alternative pathway of complement is characteristic of C3GN, testing is not widely available and the turnaround time often exceeds 1 month. Our study found that PIGN with either co-dominant or dominant C3 deposition in a cohort of young patients has excellent short-term outcomes. Close clinical observation for persistent abnormalities, such as hypocomplementemia, prolonged hematuria or proteinuria, is recommended to single out patients that may harbor intrinsic complement abnormalities. PMID:27274823

  14. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Min Sub; Wang, David T.; Zane, Grant M.; Wall, Judy D.; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling between carbon and sulfur metabolisms to the overall magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect, this study compared sulfur isotope fractionations by mutants of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. We tested mutant strains lacking one or two periplasmic (Hyd, Hyn-1, Hyn-2, and Hys) or cytoplasmic hydrogenases (Ech and CooL), and a mutant lacking type I tetraheme cytochrome (TpI-c3). In batch culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and its hydrogenase mutants had comparable growth kinetics and produced the same sulfur isotope effects. This is consistent with the reported redundancy of hydrogenases in D. vulgaris. However, the TpI-c3 mutant (ΔcycA) exhibited slower growth and sulfate reduction rates in batch culture, and produced more H2 and an approximately 50% larger sulfur isotope effect, compared to the wild type. The magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation in the CycA deletion strain, thus, increased due to the disrupted coupling of the carbon oxidation and sulfate reduction pathways. In continuous culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and the CycA mutant produced similar sulfur isotope effects, underscoring the influence of environmental conditions on the relative contribution of hydrogen cycling to the electron transport. The large sulfur isotope effects associated with the non-ideal stoichiometry of sulfate reduction in this study imply that simultaneous fermentation and sulfate reduction may be responsible for some of the large naturally-occurring sulfur isotope effects. Overall, mutant strains provide a powerful tool to test the effect of specific redox proteins and pathways on sulfur isotope fractionation. PMID:23805134

  15. Autoantibody stabilization of the classical pathway C3 convertase leading to C3 deficiency and Neisserial sepsis: C4 nephritic factor revisited

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elizabeth C.; Chase, Nicole M.; Densen, Peter; Hintermeyer, Mary K.; Casper, James T.; Atkinson, John P.

    2012-01-01

    C3 deficiency is a rare disorder that leads to recurrent pyogenic infections. Here we describe a previously healthy 18 y/o Caucasian male with severe meningococcal disease. Total hemolytic activity was zero secondary to an undetectable C3. The C3 gene was normal by sequencing. Mixing the patient’s serum with normal human serum led to C3 consumption. An IgG autoantibody in the patient’s serum was identified that stabilized the classical pathway C3 and C5 convertases, thus preventing decay of these enzyme complexes. This autoantibody is an example of a C4 nephritic factor, with an additional feature of stabilizing the C5 convertase. Previous patients with C4 nephritic factor had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Two years after presentation, this patient’s C3 remains undetectable with no evidence of renal disease. We revisit the role of autoantibodies to classical pathway convertases in disease, reviews the literature on C4-NeF and we comment on its detection in the clinical laboratory. PMID:23117396

  16. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1988-05-15

    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin.

  17. Antibody Production, Anaphylactic Signs, and T-Cell Responses Induced by Oral Sensitization With Ovalbumin in BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Tanarro, Alba; López-Expósito, Ivan; Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Two mouse strains, BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ, broadly used in the field of food allergy, were compared for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of ovalbumin (OVA). Methods Sensitization was made by administering 2 different OVA doses (1 and 5 mg), with cholera toxin as Th2-polarizing adjuvant. Antibody levels, severity of anaphylaxis, and Th1 and Th2 responses induced by the allergen were assessed. In addition, because the mice selected had functional toll-like receptor 4, the influence of contamination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the immunostimulating capacity of OVA on spleen cells was also evaluated. Results Both strains exhibited similar susceptibility to OVA sensitization. The 2 protein doses generated similar OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in both strains, whereas C3H/HeOuJ mice produced significantly more IgG2a. Oral challenge provoked more severe manifestations in C3H/HeOuJ mice as indicated by the drop in body temperature and the severity of the anaphylactic scores. Stimulation of splenocytes with OVA led to significantly higher levels of Th2 and Th1 cytokines in BALB/c, and these were less affected by protein contamination with LPS. Conclusions The antibody and cytokine levels induced by OVA in BALB/c mice and the observation that BALB/c spleen cell cultures were more resistant than those of C3H/HeOuJ mice to the stimulus of LPS make this strain prone to exhibit Th2-mediated food allergic reactions and very adequate for the study of the features of OVA that make it allergenic. PMID:26922934

  18. C3 nephritic factor and hypocomplementaemia in a clinically healthy individual.

    PubMed Central

    Gewurz, A T; Imherr, S M; Strauss, S; Gewurz, H; Mold, C

    1983-01-01

    Nephritic factor was detected in an individual whose serum showed a selective decrease in the third component of complement (C3) during and subsequent to an illness resembling disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). As is characteristic of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF), its activity was heat stable, was associated with IgG, and enhanced cleavage of normal human serum C3 via the alternative pathway. However, unlike previously reported cases of C3NeF detection in association with glomerulonephritis and/or lipodystrophy, this patient has had no significant disease before or more than 2 years after the apparent DGI. The significance of C3NeF in a healthy individual is unexplained, but this study suggests its occurrence may be more ubiquitous than previously suspected. PMID:6616970

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of Luminescent g-C3N4 Photocatalyst in Darkroom.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-12-01

    Graphitic-C3N4(g-C3N4), a low-cost visible-light-driven photocatalyst, was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous methylene blue (MB) in the dark with Sr4Al14O25:(Eu,Dy) assistance. The Sr4Al14O25:(Eu,Dy)/g-C3N4 photocatalysts were fabricated through the ultrasonic dispersion method. The commercial Sr4Al14O25:(Eu,Dy) phosphor was used as a long afterglow supplier for exciting g-C3N4 in the dark. The results demonstrated that the metal-free g-C3N4 photocatalyst could use the eye-visible long afterglow to photocatalytically decompose MB dyes in the dark. This work may expand the appealing application of g-C3N4 for the environmental cleanup. PMID:26880728

  20. Deuterated C3H2 as a clue to deuterium chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerin, M.; Combes, F.; Wootten, H. A.; Boulanger, F.; Peters, W. L., III; Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterated cyclopropenylidene ring molecule, C3HD, has been detected toward several sources in four rotational lines, at 19, 79, 104, and 107 GHz. The relative integrated intensities of the 2-sub-12 - 1-sub-01 lines of C3HD and C3H2 are found in the ratio 1:5, indicating a high deuterium fractionation ratio for cyclopropenylidene. The detection of the C-13 isotope of C3H2 at the same position allows a determination of the optical thickness (about 3) of the line. The detection of such a large enhancement in the deuterated form of C3H2 very strongly suggests that a molecular ion is the chemical precursor of the molecules. Consideration of the amount of the enhancement relative to that in other molecules suggests that the precursor ion is C3H3+.

  1. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of Luminescent g-C3N4 Photocatalyst in Darkroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihui; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-02-01

    Graphitic-C3N4(g-C3N4), a low-cost visible-light-driven photocatalyst, was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous methylene blue (MB) in the dark with Sr4Al14O25:(Eu,Dy) assistance. The Sr4Al14O25:(Eu,Dy)/g-C3N4 photocatalysts were fabricated through the ultrasonic dispersion method. The commercial Sr4Al14O25:(Eu,Dy) phosphor was used as a long afterglow supplier for exciting g-C3N4 in the dark. The results demonstrated that the metal-free g-C3N4 photocatalyst could use the eye-visible long afterglow to photocatalytically decompose MB dyes in the dark. This work may expand the appealing application of g-C3N4 for the environmental cleanup.

  2. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin securities... the Exclusive Benefit of Customers” pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of...) (17 CFR 240.15c3-1d)) by non-customers of the broker or dealer prior to such subordination,...

  3. Characterization of the structure and redox behaviour of cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio baculatus by 1H-nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, I B; Turner, D L; LeGall, J; Xavier, A V

    1993-01-01

    Complete assignment of the aromatic and haem proton resonances in the cytochromes c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio baculatus strains (Norway 4, DSM 1741) and (DSM 1743) was achieved using one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. Nuclear Overhauser enhancements observed between haem and aromatic resonances and between resonances due to different haems, together with the ring-current contributions to the chemical shifts of haem resonances, support the argument that the haem core architecture is conserved in the various cytochromes c3, and that the X-ray structure of the D. baculatus cytochrome c3 is erroneous. The relative orientation of the haems for both cytochromes was determined directly from n.m.r. data. The n.m.r. structures have a resolution of approximately 0.25 nm and are found to be in close agreement with the X-ray structure from D. vulgaris cytochrome c3. The proton assignments were used to relate the highest potential to a specific haem in the three-dimensional structure by monitoring the chemical-shift variation of several haem resonances throughout redox titrations followed by 1H n.m.r. The haem with highest redox potential is not the same as that in other cytochromes c3. PMID:8397513

  4. A New Role of the Complement System: C3 Provides Protection in a Mouse Model of Lung Infection with Intracellular Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Sommer, Kirsten; Janik, Katrin; Glage, Silke; Tümmler, Burkhard; Munder, Antje; Laudeley, Robert; Sachse, Konrad W.; Klos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ∼100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3−/− mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3−/− mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3−/− mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed) as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci. PMID:23189195

  5. Lymphoblastoid cell supernatants increase expression of C3b receptors on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: direct binding studies with 125I-C3b.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Cross, A S

    1984-01-01

    Human PMN incubated in culture supernatants of the Raji long-term human lymphoblastoid cell line showed increased rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3b (EIgM C4b3b) but no change in rosette formation with IgG-coated erythrocytes. This suggested a specific increase in cell surface C3b receptors, which was further investigated using 125I-C3b for direct binding studies. The results confirmed that specific binding of 125I-C3b to PMN incubated in culture supernatants increased up to three- to four-fold over binding to PMN incubated in control media alone. Scatchard analysis revealed that the apparent Ka for supernatant-treated cells, 3.36 +/- 0.89 X 10(7) L/M did not differ from the Ka for cells incubated in control media, 3.76 +/- 0.75 X 10(7) L/M, suggesting an increase in a single class of C3b receptors. Kinetic studies revealed that the active factor was present within 24 hr of culture of the Raji cells, and that neutrophils incubated in culture supernatants increased their C3b receptors continuously for up to 4 hr, the longest interval tested. The effect of the culture supernatant was lost with dilution beyond eight- to 10-fold. The results suggest that culture supernatants of this long-term lymphoblastoid cell line contain soluble factors that induce increased expression of C3b receptors on PMN and may thus serve as a model for study of important physiologic effects of lymphocyte products on PMN in vivo. PMID:6230308

  6. Regulation by retinoic acid of acylation-stimulating protein and complement C3 in human adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, T; Sniderman, A D; Cianflone, K

    2001-01-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), a product of complement C3, stimulates triacylglycerol synthesis in adipocytes. Previous studies have identified transthyretin, associated with chylomicrons, as a stimulator of C3 and ASP production. Since both transthyretin and chylomicrons transport retinyl ester/retinol, our goal was to investigate whether retinoic acid (RA) could be a potential hormonal mediator of the effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and protein secretion eliminated the stimulatory effects of chylomicrons on both C3 and ASP production in human differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis and secretion are both required. Incubation with chylomicrons increased C3 mRNA levels (37+/-1.5%). RA alone or with chylomicrons had a stimulatory effect on C3 production (29-fold at 16.6 nM RA) and ASP production. An RA receptor antagonist blocked stimulation of C3 mRNA and C3 secretion by both RA and chylomicrons. Finally, RA and chylomicrons activated a 1.8 kb C3-promoter-luciferase construct transfected into 3T3-F442 and 3T3-L1 cells (by 41+/-0.2% and 69+/-0.3% respectively), possibly via RA receptor half-sites identified by sequence analysis. This is the first evidence documenting stimulation by RA of the C3 gene. Thus we propose RA as a novel cellular trigger in chylomicrons that subsequently results in increased ASP production by adipocytes after a meal. PMID:11368771

  7. Structural and friction characteristics of g-C3N4/PVDF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Wang, Ya; Hu, Fang; Song, Haojie

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduced the preparation, structural, and friction characteristics of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) composites. The g-C3N4/PVDF composites with different g-C3N4 contents were prepared via wet mixing and hot press molding technique. The structure, morphology, thermal properties, and friction characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and universal micro-tribotester under dry sliding conditions. The XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the incorporation of g-C3N4 into the PVDF matrix. The SEM results showed good dispersion of g-C3N4 in PVDF matrix. The "onset" temperature To of the composites increased with increasing the content of g-C3N4 filler, which confirmed the enhancement of thermal stability of the composites. The friction characteristics results indicated that small amount of g-C3N4 filler was not beneficial to reduce friction coefficient of the composite while large amount of filler had little effect on it. In addition, the g-C3N4 filler was beneficial to reduce wear loss of the composite, and the wear loss decreased with increasing the content of g-C3N4 filler.

  8. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process. PMID:27596718

  9. Understanding the C3H2 cyclic-to-linear ratio in L1544

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, O.; Spezzano, S.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We aim to understand the high cyclic-to-linear C3H2 ratio (32 ± 4) that has been observed toward L1544. Methods: We combined a gas-grain chemical model with a physical model for L1544 to simulate the column densities of cyclic and linear C3H2 observed toward L1544. The most important reactions for the formation and destruction of both forms of C3H2 were identified, and their relative rate coefficients were varied to find the best match to the observations. Results: We find that the ratio of the rate coefficients of C3H3+ + e- ➝ C3H2 + H for cyclic and linear C3H2 must be ~ 20 to reproduce the observations, depending on the branching ratios assumed for the C3H3+ + e- ➝ C3H + H2 reaction. In current astrochemical networks it is assumed that cyclic and linear C3H2 are formed in a 1:1 ratio in the aforementioned reactions. Laboratory studies and/or theoretical calculations are needed to confirm the results of our chemical modeling, which is based on observational constraints.

  10. Complement Peptide C3a Promotes Astrocyte Survival in Response to Ischemic Stress.

    PubMed

    Shinjyo, Noriko; de Pablo, Yolanda; Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are the most numerous cells in the central nervous system with a range of homeostatic and regulatory functions. Under normal conditions as well as after ischemia, astrocytes promote neuronal survival. We have previously reported that the complement-derived peptide C3a stimulates neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells and protects the immature brain tissue against hypoxic-ischemic injury. Here, we studied the effects of C3a on the response of mouse cortical astrocytes to ischemia. We have found that chemical ischemia, induced by combined inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, upregulates the expression of C3a receptor in cultured primary astrocytes. C3a treatment protected wild-type but not C3a receptor-deficient astrocytes from cell death induced by chemical ischemia or oxygen-glucose deprivation by reducing ERK signaling and caspase-3 activation. C3a attenuated ischemia-induced upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein; however, the protective effects of C3a were not dependent on the presence of the astrocyte intermediate filament system. Pre-treatment of astrocytes with C3a during recovery abrogated the ischemia-induced neuroprotective phenotype of astrocytes. Jointly, these results provide the first evidence that the complement peptide C3a modulates the response of astrocytes to ischemia and increases their ability to cope with ischemic stress. PMID:25972241

  11. C3larvin Toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae*

    PubMed Central

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Lugo, Miguel R.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2015-01-01

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD+ (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. PMID:25477523

  12. C3larvin toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-01-16

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD(+) (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. PMID:25477523

  13. Proteome Alterations of Hippocampal Cells Caused by Clostridium botulinum C3 Exoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Anke; Rohrbeck, Astrid; Just, Ingo; Pich, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    C3bot from Clostridium botulinum is a bacterial mono-ADP-ribosylating enzyme, which transfers an ADP-ribose moiety onto the small GTPases Rho A/B/C. C3bot and the catalytic inactive mutant (C3E174Q) cause axonal and dendritic growth as well as branching in primary hippocampal neurons. In cultured murine hippocampal HT22 cells, protein abundances were analyzed in response to C3bot or C3E174Q treatment using a shotgun proteomics approach. Proteome analyses were performed at four time points over 6 days. More than 4000 protein groups were identified at each time point and quantified in triplicate analyses. On day one, 46 proteins showed an altered abundance, and after 6 days, more than 700 proteins responded to C3bot with an up- or down-regulation. In contrast, C3E174Q had no provable impact on protein abundance. Protein quantification was verified for several proteins by multiple reaction monitoring. Data analysis of altered proteins revealed different cellular processes that were affected by C3bot. They are particularly involved in mitochondrial and lysosomal processes, adhesion, carbohydrate and glucose metabolism, signal transduction, and nuclear proteins of translation and ribosome biogenesis. The results of this study gain novel insights into the function of C3bot in hippocampal cells. PMID:26393427

  14. Cyclopropenone (c-H2C3O): A New Interstellar Ring Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Remijan, A. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.

    2005-12-01

    The 3-carbon keto-ring cyclopropenone (c-H2C3O) has been detected largely in absorption with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of a number of rotational transitions between energy levels that have energies less than 10 K. Previous negative results from searches for interstellar c-H2C3O by other investigators attempting to detect rotational transitions that have energy levels ˜10 K or greater indicate no significant hot core component. Thus, we conclude that only the low energy levels of c-H2C3O are populated because the molecule state temperature is low, suggesting that c-H2C3O resides in a star-forming core halo region that has a widespread arcminute spatial scale. Toward Sagittarius B2(N), the GBT was also used to observe the previously-reported, spatially-ubiquitous, 3-carbon ring cyclopropenylidene (c-C3H2) which has a divalent carbon that makes it highly reactive in the laboratory. The presence of both c-C3H2 and c-H2C3O toward Sagittarius B2(N) suggests that gas-phase oxygen addition may account for the synthesis of c-H2C3O from c-C3H2. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO) .

  15. Cyclopropenone (c-H2C3O): A New Interstellar Ring Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.

    2006-05-01

    The three-carbon keto ring cyclopropenone (c-H2C 3O) has been detected largely in absorption with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of a number of rotational transitions between energy levels that have energies less than 10 K. Previous negative results from searches for interstellar c-H2C3O by other investigators attempting to detect rotational transitions that have energy levels ~10 K or greater indicate no significant hot core component. Thus, we conclude that only the low-energy levels of c-H2C3O are populated because the molecule state temperature is low, suggesting that c-H2C3O resides in a star-forming core halo region that has a widespread arcminute spatial scale. Toward Sagittarius B2(N), the GBT was also used to observe the previously reported, spatially ubiquitous, three-carbon ring cyclopropenylidene (c-C3H2 ), which has a divalent carbon that makes it highly reactive in the laboratory. The presence of both c-C3H2 and c-H2C3O toward Sagittarius B2(N) suggests that gas-phase oxygen addition may account for the synthesis of c-H 2C3O from c-C3H2. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO).

  16. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process. PMID:27596718

  17. Epstein Barr virus/complement C3d receptor is an interferon alpha receptor.

    PubMed

    Delcayre, A X; Salas, F; Mathur, S; Kovats, K; Lotz, M; Lernhardt, W

    1991-04-01

    Interferon alpha contains a sequence motif similar to the complement receptor type two (CR2/CD21) binding site on complement fragment C3d. Antibodies against a peptide with the CR2 binding sequence on C3d react with a peptide carrying the IFN alpha CR2 binding motif (residues 92-99) and with recombinant IFN alpha. The IFN alpha-derived peptide, as well as recombinant IFN alpha, inhibits C3bi/C3d interaction with CR2 on the Burkitt lymphoma Raji. The direct interaction of IFN alpha and CR2 is inhibited by polyclonal anti-IFN alpha, anti-CR2 and anti-C3d peptide antibodies as well as by C3bi/C3d, EBV coat protein gp350/220 and IFN but not by IFN gamma. [125I]IFN alpha binding to Raji cells is inhibited by polyclonal anti-IFN alpha and anti-CR2 antibodies, by peptides with the CR2 binding motif and partially by C3bi/C3d. Monoclonal anti-CR2 antibody HB5, but not OKB-7, blocks IFN alpha binding to Raji cells. CR2 or CR2-like molecules may therefore be the major IFN alpha receptors on B lymphocytes. PMID:1849076

  18. Functional analysis of Cobra Venom Factor/human C3 chimeras transiently expressed in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kölln, Johanna; Matzas, Mark; Jänner, Nathalie; Mix, Thorsten; Klensang, Katrin; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Spillner, Edzard

    2004-05-01

    The complement activating venom component Cobra Venom Factor (CVF), a functional and structural homologue of the human complement component C3, forms a stable CVF-dependent C3 convertase complex, which, in contrast to C3-dependent convertase effects continuous activation of the complement and, thereby, decomplementation. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the enhanced activity of CVF compared to human C3, we generated two CVF/C3 chimeras and established different affinity-based assay systems for functional analysis of these constructs. To allow for convenient expression and subsequent functional characterisation, the CVF/C3 chimeras as well as CVF and C3 were transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Problems due to the low concentration of the recombinant proteins in the supernatants of transient expressions were circumvented by fusion to peptide tags enabling their efficient immobilisation onto suitable surfaces and subsequent characterisation. In an alternative approach monoclonal antibody fragments generated from a semisynthetic phage display scFv library were employed for concentrating the recombinant proteins by immunoprecipitation. Utilising both approaches all transiently expressed proteins could be characterised for their complement consumption activity. The data obtained with the CVF/C3 chimeras demonstrate that the increased stability of the CVFBb complex is independent of the domains in CVF corresponding to binding sites of factor B and H and the cleavage sites of factor I in the human C3 molecule. PMID:15140572

  19. Synthesis of C3' modified nucleosides for selective generation of the C3'-deoxy-3'-thymidinyl radical: a proposed intermediate in LEE induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Audat, Suaad A S; Love, CherylAnn Trzasko; Al-Oudat, Buthina A S; Bryant-Friedrich, Amanda C

    2012-04-20

    DNA damage pathways induced by low-energy electrons (LEEs) are believed to involve the formation of 2-deoxyribose radicals. These radicals, formed at the C3' and C5' positions of nucleotides, are the result of cleavage of the C-O phosphodiester bond through transfer of LEEs to the phosphate group of DNA oligomers from the nucleobases. A considerable amount of information has been obtained to illuminate the identity of the unmodified oligonucleotide products formed through this process. There exists, however, a paucity of information as to the nature of the modified lesions formed from degradation of these sugar radicals. To determine the identity of the damage products formed via the 2',3'-dideoxy-C3'-thymidinyl radical (C3'(dephos) sugar radical), phenyl selenide and acyl modified sugar and nucleoside derivatives have been synthesized, and their suitability as photochemical precursors of the radical of interest has been evaluated. Upon photochemical activation of C3'-derivatized nucleosides in the presence of the hydrogen atom donor tributyltin hydride, 2',3'-dideoxythymidine is formed indicating the selective generation of the C3'(dephos) sugar radical. These precursors will make the identification and quantification of products of DNA damage derived from radicals generated by LEEs possible. PMID:22468713

  20. Chemical destruction of CH3I, C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, and 2-C3H7I in saltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charlotte E.; Carpenter, Lucy J.

    2007-07-01

    Destruction of volatile iodocarbons in the oceans can potentially play an important role in determining the predominant chemical forms of iodine emitted to the atmosphere. Here we report chlorination and hydrolysis removal rates for CH3I, C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, and 2-C3H7I relevant to oceanic conditions. We have used these rates to calculate oceanic lifetimes for each iodocarbon with respect to total chemical destruction, as a function of seawater temperature. The resulting lifetimes are compared to typical iodocarbon oceanic residence times with respect to volatilization to the MBL. The rate of destruction of 2-C3H7I is much more rapid than chemical removal of the primary alkyl iodides, potentially explaining previous observations of lower 2-C3H7I concentrations in seawater compared to 1-C3H7I. Finally, in light of these results, we briefly discuss the potential impact of rising global seawater temperatures on oceanic iodocarbon concentrations.

  1. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological control of S. aureus. Mass

  2. C3 functionalization of indolizines via In(iii)-catalyzed three-component reaction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngeun; Kim, Ikyon

    2015-12-01

    Post-functionalization at the C3 position of indolizines via In(iii)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction with amines and aldehydes allowed rapid access to a new class of indolizines with diverse functional groups at the C3 position in good to excellent yields. PMID:26380932

  3. Evolutionary implications of C3 -C4 intermediates in the grass Alloteropsis semialata.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Marjorie R; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Escobar, Emmanuel Gonzalez; Ripley, Brad S; Besnard, Guillaume; Long, Christine M; Hattersley, Paul W; Ellis, Roger P; Leegood, Richard C; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-09-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait resulting from a series of anatomical and biochemical modifications to the ancestral C3 pathway. It is thought to evolve in a stepwise manner, creating intermediates with different combinations of C4 -like components. Determining the adaptive value of these components is key to understanding how C4 photosynthesis can gradually assemble through natural selection. Here, we decompose the photosynthetic phenotypes of numerous individuals of the grass Alloteropsis semialata, the only species known to include both C3 and C4 genotypes. Analyses of δ(13) C, physiology and leaf anatomy demonstrate for the first time the existence of physiological C3 -C4 intermediate individuals in the species. Based on previous phylogenetic analyses, the C3 -C4 individuals are not hybrids between the C3 and C4 genotypes analysed, but instead belong to a distinct genetic lineage, and might have given rise to C4 descendants. C3 A. semialata, present in colder climates, likely represents a reversal from a C3 -C4 intermediate state, indicating that, unlike C4 photosynthesis, evolution of the C3 -C4 phenotype is not irreversible. PMID:26524631

  4. Modulation of human B cell immunoglobulin secretion by the C3b component of complement.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, G C; Berger, M; Balow, J E

    1984-02-01

    The human C3b component of complement was found to inhibit the differentiation of human B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells in vitro. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses were inhibited by C3-coated zymosan particles and by purified human C3b. C3b inhibited the PWM-driven responses in a dose-dependent fashion, and it was necessary for C3b to be present in the early phases of the cultures. C3b acted directly on B cells rather than on helper T cells because it inhibited the PFC responses of MNC depleted of T cells and subsequently stimulated with a T cell-independent Epstein Barr virus mitogen. Furthermore, C3b failed to stimulate the generation of suppressor lymphocytes and/or monocytes that might have been responsible for the inhibition of B cell responses. Our results indicate that C3b or its fragments exert negative modulatory effects on human B lymphocyte responses. PMID:6228593

  5. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  6. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-3 - Deposits under chapter 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deposits under chapter 33. 40.6302(c)-3 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-3 Deposits under chapter 33. (a... collected. (ii) Separate account. The account required under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section...

  7. C3 glomerulopathy–associated CFHR1 mutation alters FHR oligomerization and complement regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tortajada, Agustín; Yébenes, Hugo; Abarrategui-Garrido, Cynthia; Anter, Jaouad; García-Fernández, Jesús M.; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Alba-Domínguez, María; Malik, Talat H.; Bedoya, Rafael; Pérez, Rocío Cabrera; Trascasa, Margarita López; Pickering, Matthew C.; Harris, Claire L.; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Llorca, Oscar; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathies (C3G) are a group of severe renal diseases with distinct patterns of glomerular inflammation and C3 deposition caused by complement dysregulation. Here we report the identification of a familial C3G-associated genomic mutation in the gene complement factor H–related 1 (CFHR1), which encodes FHR1. The mutation resulted in the duplication of the N-terminal short consensus repeats (SCRs) that are conserved in FHR2 and FHR5. We determined that native FHR1, FHR2, and FHR5 circulate in plasma as homo- and hetero-oligomeric complexes, the formation of which is likely mediated by the conserved N-terminal domain. In mutant FHR1, duplication of the N-terminal domain resulted in the formation of unusually large multimeric FHR complexes that exhibited increased avidity for the FHR1 ligands C3b, iC3b, and C3dg and enhanced competition with complement factor H (FH) in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies and hemolytic assays. These data revealed that FHR1, FHR2, and FHR5 organize a combinatorial repertoire of oligomeric complexes and demonstrated that changes in FHR oligomerization influence the regulation of complement activation. In summary, our identification and characterization of a unique CFHR1 mutation provides insights into the biology of the FHRs and contributes to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying C3G. PMID:23728178

  8. Establishing a Research Center: The Minority Male Community College Collaborative (M2C3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Urias, Marissa Vasquez; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the establishment of the Minority Male Community College Collaborative (M2C3), a research and practice center at San Diego State University. M2C3 partners with community colleges across the United States to enhance access, achievement, and success among men of color. This chapter begins with a description of the national…

  9. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  10. Electronic and rovibrational quantum chemical analysis of C3P-: the next interstellar anion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lukemire, Joseph A.

    2015-11-01

    C3P- is analogous to the known interstellar anion C3N- with phosphorus replacing nitrogen in a simple step down the periodic table. In this work, it is shown that C3P- is likely to possess a dipole-bound excited state. It has been hypothesized and observationally supported that dipole-bound excited states are an avenue through which anions could be formed in the interstellar medium. Additionally, C3P- has a valence excited state that may lead to further stabilization of this molecule, and C3P- has a larger dipole moment than neutral C3P (˜6 D versus ˜4 D). As such, C3P- is probably a more detectable astromolecule than even its corresponding neutral radical. Highly accurate quantum chemical quartic force fields are also applied to C3P- and its singly 13C substituted isotopologues in order to provide structures, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants that may aid in its detection.